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2016 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

15. Hydrothermale Verfahren

Author: Prof. Dr. Frédéric Vogel

Published in: Energie aus Biomasse

Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

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Der Begriff „hydrothermal“ entstammt der Geochemie und Mineralogie und bezeichnet heiße, flüssige Wasservorkommen in der tiefen Erdkruste oder am Grund des Ozeans. In der Technik wird „hydrothermal“ synonym verwendet für heißes, flüssiges Wasser unter Druck. Andere diesbezügliche Begriffe sind „heißes Druckwasser“ (engl. „hot compressed water“). In reiner Form wird heißes Druckwasser in der Kraftwerkstechnik in überkritischen Dampfkreisläufen eingesetzt, um höhere Wirkungsgrade im Vergleich zu dem bis dato eingesetzten Wasserdampf zu erreichen. Der thermodynamische Zustand des Fluids „Wasser“ befindet sich dabei jenseits des kritischen Drucks p c und der kritischen Temperatur T c . Es handelt sich somit genau genommen um überkritisches Wasser und nicht um Dampf. Dabei sind die folgenden Definitionen üblich:
  • hydrothermal: flüssiges Wasser mit einem Druck über 0,1 MPa und einer Temperatur über 373 K;
  • unterkritisches Wasser: flüssiges Wasser mit einem Druck über dem Sättigungsdruck und einer Temperatur unter 647 K (d. h. kritische Temperatur);
  • überkritisches Wasser: Wasser mit einem Druck über 22,1 MPa (d. h. kritischer Druck) und einer Temperatur über 647 K (d. h. kritische Temperatur);
  • nahekritisches Wasser: Wasser in der Nähe (aber meist unterhalb) des kritischen Punktes (kritische Temperatur T c  = 647 K, kritischer Druck p c  = 22,1 MPa).

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Metadata
Title
Hydrothermale Verfahren
Author
Prof. Dr. Frédéric Vogel
Copyright Year
2016
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-47438-9_15