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About this book

This book contains papers presented in the 6th International Conference on Civil, Offshore & Environmental Engineering (ICCOEE2020) under the banner of World Engineering, Science & Technology Congress (ESTCON2020) will be held from 13th to 15th July 2021 at Borneo Convention Centre, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. This proceeding contains papers presented by academics and industrial practitioners showcasing the latest advancements and findings in civil engineering areas with an emphasis on sustainability and the Industrial Revolution 4.0. The papers are categorized under the following tracks and topics of research:
1. Resilient Structures and Smart Materials
2. Advanced Construction and Building Information Modelling
3. Smart and Sustainable Infrastructure
4. Advanced Coastal and Offshore Engineering
5. Green Environment and Smart Water Resource Management Systems

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Green Environment and Smart Water Resource Management Systems 

Frontmatter

Study on Monthly Rainfall Trend Impact on Reservoir Simulation in Greater Bandung

Greater Bandung lies on the heart of upstream part of biggest water catchment in West Java with abundant of water resources. However, it is facing an imbalance in supplying its water demand, due to population growth concentrated mostly in urban center. Consequently, it forces to provide the water supply from its outskirts using reservoir which additionally should be able to cope with climate variability. This study is aimed to understand the trend of water availability in greater Bandung and applying such trend towards a hypothetical reservoir. The performance of the hypothetical reservoir will be evaluated using reservoir simulation. The result shows that there is a downward trend of monthly rainfall trend in greater Bandung. The annual down rates for dry and wet season are 16% and 10%, respectively. Consequently, the utilization of reservoir in the upper area of the study demonstrates only 82% of success rate to supply the water in urban region, which is lower than recommended rate.

S. Sanjaya, D. Yudianto, Willy Aulia

Study of Saturation Flow at Signalized Intersection on Sunny Weather and Rainy Weather

Intersection settings are important in traffic engineering. One of the variables considered in managing traffic at signalized intersections is saturation flow. So far many junction studies have been carried out in clear weather conditions, but are rarely explored during rainy weather. This research is intended to examine how saturation flow in sunny weather and compare it with saturation flow when it rains. Monjali Intersection in Yogyakarta Indonesia was chosen as the study location. Retrieval of traffic volume data using camcorders, while the amount of rainfall is obtained from simple rain intensity gauges. The recorded traffic volume data is played back to obtain the amount of saturation flow. From the calculation results, it can be concluded that saturation flow in light rain conditions is greater than the saturation flow when the weather is sunny.

Risdiyanto, Syaripin

Deep Learning Neural Network for Time Series Water Level Forecasting

Reliable forecasting of water level is essential for flood prevention, future planning and warning. This study proposed to forecast daily time series water level for Malaysia’s rivers based on deep learning technique namely long short-term memory (LSTM). The deep learning neural network is based on artificial neural network (ANN) and part of broader machine learning. In this study, forecasting models are developed for 1-h ahead of time at multiple lag time which are 1-h, 2-h and 3-h lag time denoted as LSTMt-1, LSTMt-2 and LSTMt-3, respectively. Forecasted water level is significant for determination of effected area, future planning and warning. Root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) are utilized to evaluate the performance of proposed forecasting models. An analysis of error in term of RMSE and R2 show that the proposed LSTMt-3 model outperformed other models for water level forecasting during training and testing phase.

Nuratiah Zaini, Marlinda Abdul Malek, Shuhairy Norhisham, Nurul Hani Mardi

Optimization Study of n-ZVI Oxidation for Organic Pollutants Removal from Wastewater

The wastewater obtained during the exploration of oil and gas is known as produced water (PW). It contains organic and inorganic pollutants that are generating problems for aquatic life and humans. For degradation of hazardous organic pollutants in PW, Fenton like oxidation experiments were conducted using nanoscale zerovalent iron (n-ZVI). For this study laboratory-scale batch reactor was performed. Experiments were carried out at room temperature and 200 rpm magnetic stirrer speed. Design-Expert software was used for the optimization of Fenton like oxidation process to obtain the maximum removal of COD under optimal values of independent variable such as n-ZVI dosage, pH and contact time. To obtain suitable experimental design, Box-Behnken design (BBD) based on response surface modelling (RSM) was applied. n-ZVI concentration, pH, and contact time were coded factors as A, B and C, respectively. At optimal values of variables such as; n-ZVI concentration 5.17 g/L, pH 2.80 and contact time 98.3 min., the maximum removal of COD was predicted as 61.7%.

Muhammad Raza Ul Mustafa, Tahir Haneef, Brenda Tan Pei Jian, Khamaruzaman Wan Yusof, Hifsa Khurshid

The Effectiveness of Cascaded Bioretention System in Treating Urban Stormwater Runoff

Bioretention is one of best management practices (BMPs) for stormwater quantity and quality control. To date, there has been a great deal of research on bioretention system. Many studies have been conducted on the performance of single bioretention in terms of water quality improvement. The aim of this paper to evaluate WQI of the treated stormwater through column investigation in cascaded bioretention arrangement. Three set of models for Set A, Set B and Set C as a control column have been set up with identical column configuration. The WQI parameters including pH, DO, BOD, COD, NH3-N, and TSS, have been evaluated. The pH for Set A, Set B and Set C ranged between 6.92 to 6.98, 6.80 to 6.93 and 6.69 to 6.99 respectively. The DO increment varied from 6 to 21%. All cascaded bioretention columns performed well for removal of BOD, NH3-N and TSS which were more than 80% except for COD was with the range of 66–72%. Cascaded bioretention system performed significant removal of pollutants. The overall performance of the system for WQI was above 70.

Husna Takaijudin, Manal Osman, Khamaruzaman Wan Yusof, Aminuddin Ab Ghani, Goh Hui Weng

An Evaluation of Hydrological Simulation of Extensive Green Roof

Green roof application provided sustainable actions to mitigate the impact of urbanization and climate changes. Conventional and green roof simulations were conducted by EPA SWMM software to obtain the rainfall infiltration and flow rates. The study also looks into the effect of roof gradient on the rainfall-runoff. The results show that the runoff of rainfall on the green roof is less than that of the conventional roof and has higher infiltration than the conventional roof. Green roofs use Bermuda grass Manning values, n = 0.41 yielding better results than other grass roofs and conventional roofs in terms of lower flow rate of rainfall-runoff.

Siti Fatin Mohd Razali, Hasrul Hazman Hasan, Siti Aminah Osman, Melisa Ismail, Mohd Reza Azmi, Muhamad Nazri Borhan, Azman Mohd Jais, Rohaya Abdullah, Suhayya Rofik

Assessment of SRTM, ASTER and IFSAR Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in Oil Palm Plantation River Derivation and Basin Delineation

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is one of the key hydrological response units (HRU) for flood modelling especially in deriving river network and basin delineation. Three types of DEM were assessed to derive those two parameters; Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR). As for validation process, UAV orthophoto was used to validate the river network and Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) catchment data was used to validate the basin. Results revealed that IFSAR DEM provide the most accurate result for deriving river network even without the stream burn-in method. However, due to limited coverage of IFSAR DEM, the basin area is best delineated using SRTM DEM.

Siti Hajar Md Nor Azam, Wardah Tahir, Jazuri Abdullah

Features and Geomorphic Response of Mountainous River by Reach Scale

Many activities such as hard engineering control measures have made the river out of natural rivers. The loss of physical and biological function in altered river have induced large scale adverse response by the public throughout Malaysia. Therefore, an understanding of river’s equilibrium characteristics is important for managing the quality of river in mountainous catchment area. The aim of this study is to investigate the features and geomorphic response of mountainous river. The method of data collection is by extensive fieldwork including measuring the river geometry, hydraulics properties, sediment load characteristics, and size of bed materials at reach scale. This research is significant for managing the quality of water resources in Malaysia where most of it is located at mountainous area. The criteria presented by morphology and the geomorphic response that occurs along the river reach has proven that the river is in equilibrium condition.

Nor Azidawati Haron, Badronnisa Yusuf, Siti Nurhidayu, Mohd Sofiyan Sulaiman, Mohd Shahrizal Ab Razak

Water Infiltration in Salt Land in Nagekeo Flores, Indonesia

Salt is commodity for consumption need and a raw material for the chemical industry. In the preparation of salt land, the land used must be able to hold sea water to not seep quickly into the soil, so permeability greatly affects the infiltration of a soil at the salt land.To find out seepage that will occur in salt lands, a double ring infiltrate meter test is used to determine the infiltration rate and sample taking to determine basic soil characteristics such as water content, specific gravity, filter analysis, compacting.The results of this study shown that the soil characteristic can be concluded that for salt ponds in Nagekeo Flores, Indonesia, an area of practically impermeable soil type with a permeability value of k < 10−7 cm/s which can be achieved on clay soil types (clay).

Trihono Kadri

Application of Inhibition Model to Prevent Nitrification Upset in Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Plant

An industrial wastewater treatment plant at a petrochemical facility in Terengganu, Malaysia was modeled using a wastewater treatment plant simulation software. The simulation was commissioned in order to develop control and operational strategies to ensure robustness of the treatment facility against plant upsets due to ingress of high concentrations of nitrification-inhibiting substances, namely benzene and monoethanolamine (MEA). To model the inhibitory effects of the compounds to the nitrification activity, a non-competitive inhibition model was incorporated in the activated sludge model. Based on the simulation results, it was found that benzene concentration of 220 mg/L in the wastewater treatment plant feed significantly inhibited nitrification. The results also indicated that increasing MEA concentration will lead to excessive carbonaceous and nitrogenous load before significant nitrification inhibition is observed. Based on the findings, a set of wastewater influent parameter limits for specific wastewater influent sources were proposed to prevent nitrification upsets due to excessive ingress of these inhibitory compounds.

Idzham Fauzi M. Ariff

Design Expert Application for Optimization of Ag/AgBr/TiO2 Visible Light Photocatalyst Preparation

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was activated under visible light after modification by doping with silver/silver bromide (Ag/AgBr) through simple impregnation-precipitation-photoreduction process. The use of central composite design tool of design expert in order to optimize the preparation parameters namely silver dopant, precipitation time and photoreduction time for the degradation of pesticide chloropyrifos was feasible. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most influential factors affecting the experimental process and interaction was identified. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increased with increasing the amount of Ag dopant and photoreduction time while precipitation time was not a significant factor. Optimized condition for preparation of the Ag/AgBr/TiO2 was mass ratio of Ag to TiO2: 1:1, precipitation time: 60 min, and photoreduction time: 90 min. Experimental COD removal efficiency was 77% while the predicted value was 77.4%. The percentage error was 0.51%. The close agreement between both predicted and actual COD removal shows good model.

Augustine Chioma Affam, Wong Chee Chung, Poh Lin Lau, Olufemi Adebayo Johnson, Khor Cheng Seong, Lavania Baloo, Bryan Wong Lee Peng, Fung Xınru

Hydrodynamics of Flow over Axonopus Compressus (Cow Grass) as a Flexible Vegetation

In this experimental work, laboratory channel was constructed to evaluate the hydrodynamics of flow through cow grass. Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) was used in determining the magnitude of velocity across various segments of the channel due to flow vegetation– interaction. The effect of vegetative roughness on flow velocity, Manning’s resistance, and velocity profiles were investigated. Results revealed the changes in the normal parabolic velocity profile to nearly flat in the streamwise direction. İt was also observed that the Manning’s coefficient generally decreases with rise in velocity of flow, and it increases with increase in the fractional flow depths, as the grass was completely submerged. Thus, the relationships and n–V curve obtained could be use in proper design of grassed channels.

Muhammad Mujahid Muhammad, Khamaruzaman Wan Yusof, Muhammad Raza Ul Mustafa, Aminuddin Ab. Ghani, Abdurrasheed Said Abdurrasheed, Abdulkadir Taofeeq Sholagberu, Abdullahi Sule Argungu, Umar Alfa Abubakar

Greenhouse Gas Emission from Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Discharge in East Java Province – Indonesia

The sewer system for collecting municipal wastewater, wastewater treatment and the discharge of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) contribute to the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in direct emissions. The potential of global warming of GHGs emission were represented by carbon dioxide (CO2) and expressed as equivalent carbon dioxide (CO2-eq). The GHG emissions in cities of developing countries, such as Indonesia, were predicted increase in the future. However, developing countries still have problems in quantifying of GHG emission. The aim of this paper is estimating GHG emissions by calculating methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from domestics wastewater treatment and discharge in East Java Province, Indonesia. The result show that from domestic wastewater in East Java Province contribute GHG emissions 3,417,655 ton CO2-eq in 2017. This emission will increase 6.08% up to 3,625,692 ton CO2-eq in 2026.

Yatnanta Padma Devia, Dian Tristi Agustini

Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous Solution by Optimized Magnetic Biochar Using Response Surface Methodology

Rice husk, whether in the form of raw materials ash or char is one of the best potential materials for the production of a variety of value-added products. This study intends to optimize biochar from Malaysian rice husk, as a friendly low-cost adsorbent for removing cadmium from aqueous solution. Biochar production has been done using a tube furnace with different input parameters which are heating temperature, residence time, and impregnation ratio. The effect of pyrolysis process parameters was examined by using response surface methodology (RSM). Responses parameters, biochar yield, and removal efficiency were investigated. Depend on the Central Composite Design (CCD), three 2FI models were developed to compare three independent response variables. The optimum production condition for magnetic biochar was found as follows: a heating temperature of 395 °C, the residence time 120 min, and 0.5 g/g impregnation ratio. The optimum magnetic biochar showed 44.5% of biochar yield and 94.25% removal efficiency which was in agreement with the predicted values.

Anwar Ameen Hezam Saeed, Noorfidza Yub Harun, Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef, Haruna Kolawole Afolabi, Aiban Abdulhakim Saeed Ghaleb

Usage of Seaweed as a Biocomposite Material in Green Construction

The need for finding sustainable and environmentally friendly materials in the modern building industry is increasing. This research aimed to determine the compressive strength of mortar cube based on a replacement ratio of 15% by seaweed (Gracilaria species). The sample was washed until the pH value is neutral, oven-dried at 105 °C for 24-h and was burnt at 600 °C for 3-h. The seaweed granules and seaweed ashes were characterized via Brunauer Emmett and Teller (BET), Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sample was then incorporated into the mortar and the compressive strength was determined at 3,7,14 and 28 days respectively. After 28 days, the compressive strength test showed that a 15% burnt sample has the highest compressive strength surpassing the control mix design. Therefore, eco-friendly seaweed ash could be a substitute as a green construction material.

Lavania Baloo, Mubarak Usman Kankia, Oh Jia Wei

Performance of Permeable Pavement with Subsurface Micro Detention Storage as Rainwater Harvesting Device

In this paper, permeable pavement, which is a sustainable infrastructure, is designed with subsurface micro detention pond storage, called, StormPav. The product is designed with a cylindrical hollow space of 70% void volume and occupied about 0.19 m3/m2 pavement area for rainwater harvesting device. The experimental investigations for application asa rainwater harvesting were conducted in the laboratory. The hydrology parameter variables examined included volume capacity at various rainfall intensities, volume parameters (water depth and applicable area) and system properties. A modelling simulation using Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) to verify laboratory results. A further simulation of a case study for various sizes of rain barrels was performed. The results showed that the product proved advantageous on a bigger space and volume of void content to provide for a rainwater harvesting system with a connected underground storage tank.

Norazlina Bateni, Lai Sai Hin, Md Abdul Mannan, Jethro Henry Adam, Kuryati Kipli, Rosmina Ahmad Bustami

A Proposed Framework of Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Plants

Stringent regulations has made it mandatory for petrochemical industries to have wastewater treatment plants for the discharge of safe and environment friendly water. Lack of comprehensive and easy to use framework for life cycle cost analysis hinders the economic evaluation of wastewater treatment plants. This paper presents a comprehensive and easy to use framework for life cycle cost analysis of wastewater treatment plants. The framework includes the purpose of analysis, cost categories, LCC methodology, data collection, calculation of LCC and analysis to select the best alternative process. A brief overview of existing frameworks, need analysis and wastewater process flow is also presented. The proposed framework will provide the foundation through which the life cycle cost of different alternatives can be estimated for effective decision making.

Muhammad Ilyas, Freselam Mulubrhan Kassa, Mohd Ridzuan Darun

A Concise Review of Major Desalination Techniques: Features and Limitations

This paper provides a succinct and simplified account of desalination techniques. The techniques are categorized as membrane-based, thermal-based, combined membrane/thermal-based and miscellaneous techniques. Essential features of membrane-based, thermal-based and combined membrane/thermal-based techniques are presented, while their associated limitations are equally highlighted. Reverse Osmosis (RO) remains the state-of-the-art technology in seawater desalination with the highest installed capacity of 65% globally. Whereas, solar desalination potentially shows as a cost and energy-effective means of ensuring steady supply of potable water in off-grid arid-coastal environments, where freshwater reserves are non-existing. In general, if the world is to aim for global freshwater sustainability, seawater desalination must be considered crucial, and a good understanding of its techniques will further drive the vision closer to reality.

Tijani Oladoyin Abimbola, Khamaruzaman Wan Yusof, Husna Takaijudin, Abdurrasheed Said Abdurrasheed, Ebrahim Hamid Hussein Al-Qadami, Samiat Abike Ishola, Tunji Adetayo Owoseni, Suleiman Akilu

Impact of Treating Ammonia-Nitrogen Contamination from Chemical Fertilizer Plant Using Extended Aeration Activated Sludge System

A chemical fertilizer plant in Kedah, Malaysia produced high Ammonia-nitrogen content in the discharge outlet, exceeding the allowable standard limit (Standard B). The standard is based on Environment Quality Act (EQA) 1974, to ensure the integrity of water is maintained. At the plant, current wastewater treatment used is reed bed system, which is incapable to treat the excessive amount of Ammonia-nitrogen. Feasibility of extended aeration activated sludge process (ASP) was then discovered in this study. Objective of this study is to determine the impact of treating wastewater generated from the chemical fertilizer plant using bench scale extended aeration activated sludge system at 20% of contamination, diluted with domestic wastewater of an average of 500 mg/L chemical oxygen demand concentration. Bench scale ASP was set up using 5000 mg/L initial biomass, a 20 L’ influent tank with a heavy-duty mixer, connected to a pump via 10 mm tube at 0.1 rpm which is equivalent to 5 L of water infused into the aeration tank for 24 h consistently, and finally discharged into an effluent tank. Influent and effluent samples were monitored for Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Nitrate (NO3–1), Ammonia (NH3), and Total Phosphorus (PO43−) while the mixed liquor sample was monitored for Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) and Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids (MLVSS).

Mohammad Fakhuma Ubaidillah Bin Md Hafiz, Shamsul Rahman Bin Mohamed Kutty, Shekhah Norafizah Binti Shekh Imaduddin Hakmi

Study Effectiveness Sabo Dam on Reducing Flood in Way Leman River

Flooding is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to overflowing river water that spreads towards the mainland or settlement. Way Leman River is one of the rivers located in Maluku Province which often overflows when the rainy season arrives, this has impacted such as damage to infrastructure, damage to public facilities, in this study simulating the flow of 2 conditions namely the condition without sabo dam buildings and conditions with sabo dam building. Simulation results show that there is a significant reduction in flood discharge with unsteady flow. This is shown in the simulation results with the condition of the sabo dam-building water level profile at the point of view has decreased the original height of the existing water level without sabo dam building +26, 75 m after the existence of the sabo dam building to +25.16 m or about 70.67% reduction of the water level profile.

Reja Putra Jaya

The Effectiveness of the Use of Tripikon-S in Tofu İndustry Wastewater Treatment

Increasing soybean processing industry into tofu causes the amount of waste produced is increasing. Tofu liquid waste contains high enough organic pollutants and if it is discharged into water bodies it can cause a decrease in water quality and the carrying capacity of the aquatic environment around the tofu industry.Tofu industry liquid waste in general has the characteristics of pH, COD, BOD, which still exceeds the quality standard of wastewater. The research objective was to analyze the effectiveness of Tripikon-S for processing tofu wastewater around the Winongo River in Yogyakarta. After processing tofu wastewater using Tripikon-S, it can be concluded that the COD parameter decreased from 6,955.0 mg/L to 2057.5 mg/L, with an efficiency of 70.41%, the BOD parameter dropped from 2,730.0 mg/L to 687, 0 mg/L, with efficiency of 74.83%, and the pH parameters increase in quality from 3.3 to 4.8 mg/L with an efficiency of 31.25%. Over the course of the process there is a significant increase in efficiency.

Sardi, Edy Sriyono, Tania Edna Bhakty, Ganang Azas Hayininda

Emerging Coagulant in Water Treatment: A Review and a Preliminary Study

Coagulation-flocculation is the key process of water treatment in water turbidity removal. However, the usage of inorganic coagulants has raised awareness of researchers due to the threat possess on human health and environment. Therefore, studies in natural coagulant and modification of natural coagulant have raised various interest of researchers. Natural coagulants are widely available and non-toxic that can be obtained from animal, fungi, bacteria, and plant. Preliminary studies of plant-based natural coagulant aid, Hylocereus undatus in synthetic turbid water was also conducted. Remarkably, the usage of H. undatus with the mixture of ferric chloride has achieved a turbidity removal of 93.03%.

Jia-Shen Lau, Wei-Jing Lee, Hoe-Guan Beh, Wawan Sujarwo, Krishnan Hariharan, Balamurugan Panneerselvam, Yeek-Chia Ho

Eco-composite Porous Concrete Drainage Systems: An Alternative Mitigation for Urban Flood Management

Nowadays, there are several problems cause by excessive of stormwater runoff, such as problem on drainage systems, flash floods, polluted water increase, and the environmental issue. Thus, this paper presents on eco-composite porous concrete using rice husk ash (RHA) and effective microorganisms (EM) as a cement replacement, as green technology and sustainable development in urban drainage systems. For example, drainage cover, EM drain, and EM-CSD (Effective Microorganisms Composite Scupper Drain). This new technology of drain covers have been implemented in several areas in Shah Alam, Selangor. It’s able to reduce flash floods, and also reducing the drainage vandalism. Eco- composites, which are obtained from recyclable waste materials, such as RHA, egg shells, and many more; combination with EM in porous concrete are designed, for ecological sustainability development purposes, mainly as part of urban stormwater managements. Thus, the eco-composites porous concrete quality is good in terms of concrete strength, workability, porosity and so on.

Feroz Hanif Mohamed Ahmad, Mohamad Hidayat Jamal, Abdul Rahman Mohd. Sam, Nuryazmeen Farhan Haron

Advanced Coastal and Offshore Engineering

Frontmatter

Tapping the Potential of Shallow Water Model for Wave Simulations

Recent advances in shallow water modeling make accurate water-wave simulations possible, especially in the scope of Boussinesq-type models that take high-order (spatially and temporally) horizontal velocity fields into account. Unlike such models, wave propagations are simulated in this work using a simple one-layer nonhydrostatic model by including the nonhydrostatic terms into the original shallow water equations. The Godunov-type model proposed is called NUFSAW2D, tested to carry out a simulation of wave propagations with complex flow phenomena such as wet-dry problems, wave-wave, and wave-structure interactions, and able to achieve accurate results. This approach is simple and quite competitive with the Boussinesq-type model. The simplicity also poses enormous possibilities for more advanced engineering applications in the future.

Bobby Minola Ginting, Doddi Yudianto, Albert Wicaksono

Impact of Coastal Development on Hydrodynamic Change of the Mangrove Coastline in Tanjung Piai, Malaysia

Coastal erosion was reported since 2000 in Tanjung Piai, a tourist destination at Peninsular Malaysia’s southernmost tip. Attempts to overcome the erosion neither offered a permanent solution nor were able to preserve the mangroves. Detached breakwaters were constructed to reduce wave energy and sustain the mangroves. A man-made island near the breakwaters was subsequently reclaimed. Problems arise when coastal structures are built without a full understanding of dynamic spatial, temporal and principles underlying sediment dynamics. The hydrodynamic impact of currents due to the breakwaters and island interaction was investigated via numerical modelling. The reclamation induces faster currents between the southernmost breakwater and the island with faster currents near the relatively deeper seabed fronting the breakwaters affecting navigation and sediment transport. Having less breakwaters and shifting the island further seaward from the breakwaters causes less hydrodynamic impact.

Iwan Tan Sofian Tan, Nik Mohd. Kamel Nik Hassan, Teh Hee Min

ZEEPod Reshaping the Future of Oil & Gas Marginal Field Development in Malaysia

ZEEPod is a Malaysian invention, patented by ZEE Engineering Sdn Bhd. It is a Minimum Facility Well Head Platform (MFWHP). The modular nature of the ZEEPod substructure makes it easy to fabricate and to be installed using a low capacity crane barge. ZEEPod offers a functional and an economical solution to the development of Marginal Fields in Malaysia which lie in 65 m to 85 m water depths with a typical Top-Side operational load of 850 Tons. The first ZEEPod was installed in July 2019, 65 km off Terengganu Malaysia. The name of the platform is TNAG (Tembikai Non Associated Gas) situated in 70.4 m water depth with a Top-Side operating weight of 750 Tons. The operator is Vestigo Petroleum (subsidiary of Petronas). This was the commencement of the development of the field. The paper describes the unique technical features of the ZEEPod, installation methodology and the contracting strategy adopted, making it possible to be installed within a 9 months schedule.

Herman Perera, Mohd Izzuan Zaharudin

Effect of Underwater Sill Height Against Flow Patterns in Order to Reduce Sedimentation in Navigation Channel and Basins

Port development contributes to economic development when the ports are smoothly operated on schedule. Most of ports have sedimentation problem, especially berth that have a jetty type where the navigation channel and basins located in the surf zone. A method to check sedimentation of navigation channel and basins by installing Underwater Sill (UWS). The aim of this study is to identify the effect of UWS height on horizontal direction of vertical velocity profile. Research results indicate that the effect of UWS structures with height variations that cause changes in velocity distribution, such as a significant increase of speed in upstream and top of the structure. The three tested models showed that UWS with a certain height indicated larger capacity in deflecting the flow to the side of the structure. This was indicated by the small percentage of flow passing through the top of the structure.

Tania Edna Bhakty, Nur Yuwono, Bambang Triatmodjo, Ahmad Faramarz Ghalizhan

Numerical Investigation of an Efficient Blade Design for a Flow Driven Horizontal Axis Marine Current Turbine

The power generation efficiency of a flow driven Marine Current Turbine (MCT) depends upon the Torque (Q) induced by the flow on the turbine and the Angular velocity (ω) achieved. The greater the mass of turbine blade, the more will be the Q induced but subsequently will result in lower ω. However, on the contrary, lower mass will result in higher ω and lower Q. It is therefore necessary for any flow driven MCT to achieve the optimum balance of Q and ω so that a turbine model with maximum efficiency can be designed. In this paper, a similar study has been discussed where three different profiles by varying the radius of a horizontal axis turbine blade have been studied using numerical simulations. Emphasis has been given to obtain a blade profile which can attain an optimal combination of Q and ω to maximize the power output. The simulations have been carried out for flow velocity of 1 m/s and the average values have been reported in results.

Nauman Maldar, Cheng Yee Ng, Ahmad Fitriadhy, Hooi Siang Kang

Numerical Studies on the Stability of Offshore Wind Turbine (OC5)

It is vital to gradually shift our focus to the sustainable resources of renewable energy due to the issues pertaining climatic changes. Offshore wind turbines are the most renewable resources that could accommodate world energy demand in near future. Although Malaysia is surrounded fully by sea, there are limited studies pertaining offshore wind turbines in the country’s waters. This study aims to assess the stability of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT) in Malaysian waters environment. The numerical simulation of the a Semi-Submersible FOWT is based on the Offshore Code Comparison, Collaboration, Continued, with Correlation (OC5) project initiated by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Research Task 30. The OC5 system with the generic of a 5-MW wind turbine is connected by three mooring lines to the seabed. The responses of the OC5 FOWT based on the six degrees of freedom were obtained in terms of frequency domain, time domain as well as the response amplitude operator (RAO) under four different load cases of Malaysian waters environment.

Nur Shahira Fazira Binti Shamsul Ariffin, Montasir Osman Ahmed Ali

Numerical Simulation to Assess Floating Instability of Small Passenger Vehicle Under Sub-critical Flow

Parked vehicles can be directly affected by the floods and at a certain flow velocity and depth, vehicles can be easily swept away. Therefore, studying flooded vehicles stability limits is required. Herein, an attempt has been done to assess numerically the floating instability mode of a small passenger car with a scaled-down ratio of 1:10 using FLOW-3D. The 3D car model was placed inside a closed box and the six degrees of freedom numerical simulation was conducted. Later, numerical results validated experimentally and analytically. Results showed that buoyancy depths were 3.6 and 3.8 cm numerically and experimentally, respectively with a percentage difference of 5.4%. Further, the buoyancy forces were 8.95 N and 8.97 N numerically and analytically, respectively with a percentage difference of 0.2%. With this small difference, it can be concluded that the numerical modeling for such cases using FLOW-3D software can give an acceptable prediction on the vehicle stability limits.

Ebrahim Hamid Hussein Al-Qadami, Zahiraniza Mustaffa, Eduardo Martínez-Gomariz, Khamaruzaman Wan Yusof, Abdurrasheed S. Abdurrasheed, Syed Muzzamil Hussain Shah

Interaction of Wave-Induced Motion and Bioelectricity Generation for Floating Microalgal Biophotovoltaic System

Biophotovoltaic (BPV) system is a developing photo-bio-electrochemical technology that harnesses solar light for power generation. However, a large scale BPV farm is needed for megawatts application, which may not be economically viable as an onshore facility. Therefore, a floating BPV can be an alternative option whereby the spacious offshore area can be utilized; nonetheless, the liquid inside a floating BPV is inevitable to be affected by the ocean wave motions. Hence, the interaction effects of wave motions and power generation of floating BPV device is a crucial decision-making factor to migrate BPV from onshore to offshore area. In this study, a scaled model experiment was conducted to compare the difference in power output between static and floating BPV devices. The findings are expected to provide better understanding on the correlation of these parameters in the implementation of a floating solution for BPV.

Jia-Chun Chin, William Chong Woei Fong, Kee-Quen Lee, Cheng-Yee Ng, Kiat Moon Lee, Wah Yen Tey, Hooi-Siang Kang

Managing a HTHP Pipeline: Detailed Integrity Assessment of Deepwater Oil Line Displacement Near Continental Shelf

A routine underwater ROV inspection discovered an oil pipeline had moved away up to 3 m distance from its free span rectification supports. This location is at rocky continental shelf irregular seabed, the pipeline had displaced arriving with span exceeding allowable span length. Rectification was undertaken to correct the free span and stop the lateral movement. Since this location was only 20 km away from the hot end, it was noted that pressure and thermal expansion may also significantly contributed to the movement. A later underwater ROV inspection executed when the pipeline was in shutdown condition, some movement in vertical plane and a few support damages was observed. This galvanized the needs to further investigate how the pipeline had responded to pressure and thermal expansion. Subsequent assessment of the survey data and lateral buckling screening identified 12 numbers of uncontrolled buckle formation. Detailed FEA analysis confirmed that the pipeline still comply with the relevant international standard.

Ir. Hayati Hussien, Azam Syah Jaafar, Md Anuar Desa, Mohd Faisal Aziz

Investigation on Motion Responses of a Floating Wave Barrier in a Wave Flume Subjected to Regular Wave Action

Motion responses is a primary factor affecting the wave attenuation of floating breakwaters. This study aims at investigating the motion responses of a floating wave barrier (or known as H-Float) subjected to regular waves and a slack mooring using physical modelling. The motion reactions of the H-Float, which are empirically quantified by the response amplitude operators, RAOs for heave, surge and pitch, are related with the relative width and draft of the floating barrier as well as the wave steepness. The motion responses, particularly the surge and pitch, have been proven to significantly affect the wave attenuation of the breakwater. When subjected to slack mooring, the H-Float attains an optimum wave attenuation performance at a draft-to-water depth ratio of 0.13 regardless of the wave conditions.

Hee Min Teh, Thinagran Silavaraj, Syed Shuja Ul Hassan, Eric Joseph Pereira

Numerical Assessment of Flow Around Circular Cylinder

This study presents the two-dimensional numerical simulations of a flow around a rotating cylinder at Re = 3900 using standard k-ε turbulence model. The two-dimensional incompressible Navier-stokes equations are solved using OpenFoam. Hydrodynamic coefficients and vortex shedding patterns for flow around cylinder are studied. The predicted responses are in good agreement with the published literature. The transverse, streamwise, grid size and time steps have significant effect on the wake formation and hydrodynamic coefficients. These investigations are helpful for better understanding the flow around the circular cylinders and improve the structural designs.

Malakonda Reddy Lekkala, Mohamed Latheef, Do Kyun Kim, Mubarak Bin A. Wahab

Corrosion Resistant Alloy Pipeline Installation for High Pressure High Temperature Requirement

This paper discusses on the methods of the installation of Corrosion Resistant Alloy pipeline for High Pressure High Temperature including its challenges and the subsequent mitigations. The experience is based on the successful installation of Anjung Gas Development Project which consists of 18” diameter X 8 km length of CRA Full Well Stream pipeline installed utilizing the DP-2 pipelay vessel. The methodology applied in the installation is via typical S-lay utilizing automatic welding system (for the pipelaying) and stalk-on (for the risers at both sides of the platforms). Additionally, Zero Radius Lay method was utilized at buckle triggers. On the existing KAKG-A platform, the riser installation is via suck-in method to avoid removal and reinstatement of the existing riser guard. Two numbers of anode sleds were utilized for cathodic protection. The scope for pre-commissioning performed was flooding the pipeline with fresh water, cleaning, gauging, hydrotesting, air drying, nitrogen purging and packing.

Khairan Syuhada Kassim

A Short Review on Numerical Simulation of Floating Debris Migration

An increase in floating debris especially in coastal region has been a great concern as its presence affects marine structures and increase morbidity of marine life. Eulerian and Lagragian method has been widely used to predict the transport of traces or particles especially in particle-tracking of debris. These particle-tracking models were applied to large scale oceanic models to understand the migration pattern of floating debris. The numerical modelling of floating debris is challenging and is still an active area of research. This paper provides a brief review of works that have been done on floating debris migration using state of the art numerical model.

Lavine Wong, Mohamad Hidayat bin Jamal, Erwan Hafizi bin Kasiman

Response of Corroded Offshore Structural Plate at Topsides Due to Blast Loading

Corrosion damage has been identified as the most degrading mechanism in steel structure especially in offshore topside plated structure. Meanwhile, blast load is an extreme loading condition prevail in an offshore environment that able to generate severe impact to offshore topside structure. Though statistics shows that accidental explosion events only occur at low frequency, but the damage involve major fatalities to personnel, asset and environment. Blast load response of corroded offshore plated topside structure has not been well studied. Therefore, in this work, parametric study is carried out on a corroded offshore structural plate. Degree of pitting (DOP) is the influenced parameter, used variably on a plate to study the response subjected to blast load. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used where simulation is done based on the influence parameter. Deflection of plate increases with increasing DOP. Interestingly, plate with DOP of 0.35%–12.6% has lower deflection as compared to non-corroded plate when subjected to blast loads.

Mohamed Mubarak Abdul Wahab, Nurfadhilah Ali Anwar, Bashar Mohammed, Ahmad Rizal Abdul Rahman, Zahari Razak

Hybrid Floating Structures Case Study: Marisco’s Floating Dry Dock

Over 70% area of the world is ocean, which represents a huge opportunity for floating structure. Existing floating structures were made mostly out of steel or timber while reinforced concrete was preferred for constructing structures on land. Along with high strength concrete- technology innovation, reinforced concrete with mild steel and grouted prestressing steel tendons was also used in the construction of floating structures; typically with honeycombed interior consisting of precast silos interconnected with fin walls in both directions sandwiched between the top deck and the bottom slab. This structural system is highly redundant, robust and lightweight.This paper describes the state-of-practice in the design of floating concrete structures. The structural design of a concrete pontoon (138 m × 42 m × 4.2 m) for a floating dry dock with a lifting capacity of approximately 9,000 long tonnes was used as a case study. It was built in Indonesia and transported to Hawaii.

Sugeng Wijanto, Vivian Sabas, Takim Andriono

Platform Conductor Integrity Management in Life Extension of Ageing Offshore Wells

The increase in ageing offshore wells in most of the oilfields in the South China Sea, with their assets exceeding their design life is a challenge faced by operators worldwide. Severe corrosions on the metallic structures of oil wells consisting of the conductor and casings can result in catastrophic events leading to structural collapse. This paper describes the engineering methodology involved in the integrity assessments for platform conductor evaluation using analytical methods to assess the present condition of the conductor/casing assembly based on corrosion inspection data and existing cement elevations. In cases where a physical repair is not possible, recommendations would be made for inspecting the anomaly for signs of worsening, conductor buckling and material degradation. A rehabilitation flow-chart is developed in the repair or replace the decision-making process, hence prolonging the well operating life. It is mainly to provide understanding and guideline for conductor integrity management.

Loganathan Radzakrishnan, Mohd Khairi Abu Husain, Roslina Mohammad, Astuty Amrin, Mohd Akmal

Resilient Structures and Smart Materials

Frontmatter

Soil Improvement Using Xanthan Gum Biopolymer for Loose Sand: Experimental Study

In construction, cement is widely used as soil improvement material. It aims to increase the shear strength of soft/loose soil which in natural conditions has poor shear strength. However, the use of cement could threaten the environment because of the greenhouse effect. Nowadays, eco-friendly and sustainable materials are being introduced in the construction field. Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide commonly used as a rheology modifier. In this study, experimental tests were conducted with mixing uniformly graded loose sand and Xanthan gum powder. The shear strength of soils was tested using the Direct Shear apparatus. The results show that the shear strength of treated soil increased significantly. Moreover, the mechanism of Xanthan gum in binding the soil particles was observed by making use of a Scanning Electron Microscope.

Aswin Lim, Yohanes Albrecht Montol, Siska Rustiani

The Effect of Sky Bridge Modeling on Structural Behavior

Nowadays, high-rise buildings begin to be integrated between one building with another building by making a connection between buildings, one of which is by adding a sky-bridge. In modeling a sky-bridge, several possible variations can occur, such as diaphragm characteristics and support variations. Moreover, inconsistencies often occur between the field and design. In this study, those effects on buildings’ behaviors will be investigated. The buildings analyzed were two 12-story reinforced concrete buildings that were connected to a 3-story semi cantilever steel bridge with cantilever spans of 6 m. The study results show that differences in sky-bridge modeling have huge impacts on structural behaviors and safety. If the sky-bridge makes its own diaphragm separate from the existing structure, torque becomes dominant and the buildings will need to be strengthened. Moreover, different support conditions can lead to failure in members.

Wivia Octarena Nugroho, Lidya Fransisca Tjong, Aditya

Effect of Slag on Chloride Resistance of Concrete

The aim of this research work was to evaluate the performance of slag-mixed concrete, the resistance it would offer to chloride attack, and generally on the compressive strength of concrete. The cement was replaced with slag in different proportions. Concrete samples were prepared to have a slump between 90–120 mm with a constant water-binder ratio of 0.35. The material used for the replacement of cement was ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS), it was replaced with Portland cement ranging from 10% to 50%. A control mix with no slag was made in order to compare the results. The physical properties of the different samples were assessed through compressive strength tests whilst the durability characteristics were investigated in terms of chloride migration. The compressive strength tests confirmed that the compressive strength decreases with the increase in amount of slag in concrete. But the decrease in 28 days compressive strength varied from 18.72 MPa to 17.01 MPa for 50% replacement of cement with slag. The chloride migration tests confirmed that with the increase in replacement level of slag with Portland cement, there was an increase in chloride resistance. The penetration depth of chloride ions decreases from 27 mm to 3 mm. Migration coefficient decreases from 11.6 × 10−12 m2/s to 1.1 × 10−12 m2/s. Therefore, slag offered more resistance to chloride attack at higher replacement levels and negligible effect on compressive strength.

Saeed Ahmad, Nasir Shafiq, Hafiz Waheed Iqbal, Raja Zaheer Ahmad, Zulqurnain Abbas, Anees-ur Rehman, Muhammad Ali

Anomaly Phenomena on the New Indonesian Seismic Code SNI 1726:2019 Design Response Spectra

So far, structural and geotechnical engineers believe that the design response spectra of the site class SC (Hard Soil), SD (Medium Soil) and SE (Soft Soil) increase in succession. But in fact, the design response spectra in several regions of Indonesia according to the new Indonesian Seismic Code, SNI 1726:2019 have anomalies, where the design response spectra of the site class SE (Soft Soil) can be lower than that of the site class SD (Medium Soil), and even lower than that of the site class SC (Hard Soil) in earthquake prone areas. This paper will present the design response spectra of 17 selected major cities in Indonesia, and show their anomaly characteristics.

Suradjin Sutjipto, Indrawati Sumeru

Experimental Study on Blast Furnace Nickel Slag Powder and Fly Ash as a Binder for Geopolymer Concrete

This paper investigates the characteristics of concrete made from blast furnace nickel slag powder (BFNSP) and fly ash (FA) to use an alternative binder to conventional Portland cement (PC) by making a geopolymer concrete using an alkali activator. Samples for testing were made using 100% of BFNSP, and 50% BFNSP + 50% FA combination binder, as a direct replacement for the PC in concrete. These test samples were evaluated by compression and slump tests, also using the Le Chatelier’ method, XRF, and SEM analysis of microstructure properties. The samples with BFNSP were activated with alkaline activators with molarities of 12M and 6M with a ratio of Na2SiO3 to NaOH of 2.5. The test samples with 100% BFNSP and 12M activator showed the most slump and workability. However, the 50% BFNSP + 50% FA mix and 12M activator had the highest compressive strength at 55.97Mpa at 28 days. These results compare very favorably with the control Portland cement sample.

Lisa Oksri Nelfia, Mutia Rahmawati, Sotya Astutiningsih

Application of Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Mix Design Concrete Using Coal Bottom Ash as Cement Replacement Material

In Malaysia, seven coal-fired power plants under Tenaga Nasional Malaysia continuously produce around 790 tons of solid residue namely coal bottom ash (CBA) per day. The aim of this research was to optimize concrete mix design containing CBA as cement replacement via statistical modelling, response surface methodology (RSM). The fineness, water cement ratio and percentage inclusion of ground coal bottom ash (GCBA) were analyzed followed by RSM resulted on compressive strength at 28 days. Coal bottom ash was ground to three different sizes; 45 μm, 75 μm and 100 μm, water cement ratio was set to three different value; 0.40, 0.45 and 0.50 and percentage of GCBA inclusion was set up to three different percentages; 5%, 10% and 15%. Results indicate that GCBA increase compressive strength at 28 days regardless of different values of each variables. It is found that with the increasing percentage of inclusion of GCBA with lower water cement ratio will lower the compressive strength due to its characteristic of water absorbance. In conclusion, with adequate water cement ratio, and optimum percentage of GCBA, complete hydration process will be achieved, and the development of compressive strength is significantly increase.

Nur Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nasir Shafiq, Wesam Sallah Alaloul, Salmia Beddu, Teh Sabariah Binti Abd Manan

Performance of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete Incorporated with Bamboo Fiber

Oil palm shell (OPS) as lightweight aggregate is a viable method in fabricating lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). However, low mechanical properties are the major drawbacks for LWAC confining its structural applications. Inclusion of bamboo fibre is found effective and an economical method for strengthening the LWAC. This paper studied the effects of bamboo fibre on the workability, density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength of OPS lightweight concrete. Volume fractions of bamboo fibre, 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were added in the concrete. Results showed that ratio percentages of splitting tensile strength to compressive strength of bamboo fibre reinforced OPS concretes were in the range of 9.3–11.1% which were comparable with normal weight concrete (NWC). The OPS concretes incorporating bamboo fibre had flexural strength to compressive strength ratios greater than the conventional LWAC. This signifies that bamboo fibre can improve significantly the flexural strength of OPS concrete.

Siew Choo Chin, Qi Hao Roger Wong, Kar Sing Lim, Shu Ing Doh

Experimental Study on Structural Behaviour of Corbels with Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete (HyFRC)

Corbel are structural members or block projecting from a wall, commonly used in industrial building to support a ceiling, beam, or the roof overhang itself. To improve the mechanical properties and flexibility of the conventional concrete, High Performance Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Composite (HPFRCC) has been introduced. This study experimentally investigates behaviour of corbels with Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete (HyFRC) with the combination of steel and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibres. Experimental tests are conducted to investigate the mechanical properties of HyFRC. Moreover, a total of 4 corbels are tested under three-point bending. The primary variables of the investigation were the presence of secondary reinforcement (stirrup) and shear span to depth ratio (a/d) of 1.0 and 0.75. All the corbels failed in a stable and ductile manner. The behaviour of the corbels during testing and the analysis of the results indicate that the presence of secondary reinforcement and different a/d ratio are affecting the shear strength of the corbels, i.e. the corbel with secondary reinforcement and a/d = 0.75 showed higher displacement and load capacity than the corbel with and without secondary reinforcement of a/d = 1.0.

Muhammad Aswin, Ehsan Nikbakht, Nazihah Shahirah Bt Nazir, Noor Syamimi Bt Tajuddin, Nor Amirah Bt Ahmad

Impact of Elevated Temperature on Rubberized Concrete: A Review

Excessive production of non-biodegradable scrap tyres will bring a negative impact to the environment, thus recycling crumb rubber as partial replacement of construction material such as concrete can effectively reduce the bulking of solid waste in the dumping area. However, the partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete with crumb rubber reflected a decrease in mechanical properties of rubberized concrete compared to the ordinary concrete mix. Concrete is sensitive to the elevated temperature and when it comes to the rubberized concrete, the changes are more significant as compared to normal concrete. With high temperature rubber starts melting which impact in the reduction of mechanical properties of rubberized concrete, thus failure in the specimen occurs. Therefore, in this study, the impact of elevated temperature on the compressive strength and the tensile strength of rubberized concrete has been reviewed.

Wesam Salah Alaloul, Muhammad Ali Musarat, Chan Jia Hui

A Numerical and Experimental Study on Crack Propagation of the Abutment Back Wall – Unified Wing Wall Under Incremental Load

An abutment is a sub-structure that shall be designed as no damage to withstand all external loads. However, many abutments collapsed subjected to severe earthquakes. Besides, the pounding between superstructure and sub-structure has an impact on the performance of abutment. This research is focused on crack propagation of the abutment back wall-unified wing wall subjected to horizontal incremental load with numerical and experimental analysis. According to the analysis, the crack propagation phenomenon is similar which is developed near the connection between the abutment back wall and its support. Hence, further study is needed to evaluate the behavior of full type abutment subjected to liquefaction load.

Desy Setyowulan, Ming Narto Wijaya, Lilya Susanti

Shear Capacity of Lightly Reinforced Concrete Columns

The columns with light confinement are common in current detailing practice in many developing countries. Nevertheless, the available shear strength formulas at many codes are generally developed for regular reinforced concrete columns that tend to ever-estimate the shear strength capacity. A semi-empirical analysis has been conducted to investigate the flexure-to-brittle transition due to the shear strength degradation for lightly confined columns. The principal stress at the cracked area of concrete as the function of the ductility level of columns has been used to develop the model. A set of database collected from previous studies has been used to verify the model on estimating the shear strength of reinforced concrete columns at lateral load failure. As a result, the model provided good agreement with the experimental data and is useful to be applied in practical design or in analyzing the seismic performance of such columns.

Ari Wibowo

Effect of Twisted Soft Drink Can Waste Fiber on the FRC Flexural Behavior

Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is a material consisting of concrete with reinforcement and additional fibers in the manufacturing process. Fiber can be either natural fiber or artificial fiber. Fiber is added to reinforced concrete to increase its flexural strength and ductility. The present development is using waste material as fiber in FRC. Waste material is used as fiber not only to reducing waste problems but also to find new materials that are cost-effective and can increase the strength of concrete. One of the weaknesses of FRC is the weak bonding between fiber and cement, therefore this research was carried out using plain soft drink can waste fiber and twisted soft drink can waste fiber. The specimens are FRC beams and flexural test is carried out. From the research, it is known that twisted fiber provides better performance than plain fiber, both in flexural strength and ductility.

Christin Remayanti Nainggolan, Indradi Wijatmiko, Ari Wibowo

Performance of Soil Composite Cement Base Layers with Additive Matos Soil Stabilizer on Suka Bumi–Kedang Ipil Road Section Kutai Kertanegara East Kalimantan Indonesia

Challenges of applying the soil composite cement base layers (SCCBL) in Indonesia are availability of equipment especially in remote areas, and soil material as specified on SKh-2.5.4. The SCCBL UCSunsoaked value requirement according to S.Kh. 2.5.4 must be reach in 8% maximal cement content. In most case additives are needed to reach the required strength. This paper present an evaluation of SCCBL with additive matos soil stabilizer on the Suka Bumi – Kedang Ipil Road Section Kutai Kertanegara East Kalimantan Indonesia. Laboratory mix design consist of unconfined compression test according to Indonesian National Standard (SNI) of soil composite cement and soil composite cement- matos samples was performed to determine composition of SCCBL material. Application of SCCBL was carried out according to S.Kh. 2.5.4. Evaluation of strength and homogeneity was carried out using dynamic cone penetrometer test. Correlation of CBR values to the scale penetration resistant (SPR) values was obtained using the scale penetrometer or LWD. Based on average SPR of overall thickness and average SPR of lower thickness, the SCCBL meets the strength requirement in accordance with S.Kh.−2.5.4.

Teguh Widodo

An Experimental Assessment on the Performance of Fly Ash in Concrete

This paper presents the experimental investigation of the influence of fly ash on fresh concrete and hardened concrete mechanical properties, i.e., compressive, tensile, and bond strength. The fly ash content was used from a 5% replacement to a 50% replacement of OPC. The optimum replacement level of fly ash was observed between 15% to 30% for achieving high compressive strength. Whereas highest bond strength was achieved using 10% to 15% fly ash. The effects of fly ash were much pronounced after 28 days curing, such as at 90 and 180 days.

Nasir Shafiq, Muhammad Afiq Ammar

Effect of Sand Proportion on Fineness Modulus of Combined Aggregate, Workability, and Compressive Strength of Concrete

Aggregate is the largest proportion of concrete so it has a major effect on the properties of concrete. Aggregates consist of combined fine aggregates and coarse aggregates. Deficiency or excess of fine aggregate affects the fresh concrete and hardened concrete. The proportions of sand by weight used in this study are: 30%, 35%, 40%, 43.5%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, and 70%. The water cement ratio is fixed at 0.52. Each variation consists of 3 concrete cylinders, with a total of 30 cylinders. From the research obtained, the increasing proportion of sand causes a decrease the fineness modulus of combined aggregate and workability. Increasing the proportion of sand to a certain extent from the results of the mix design increases the compressive strength. The proportion of sand less and more than results of the mix design decreases the unit weight.

Arusmalem Ginting

Rigidity Boundaries of Floor Reinforced Concrete Diaphragm

In design and analysis of seismic reinforced concrete floor slabs, diaphragms should be designed as one of the important part of member design. Theoretically the floor slabs could be considered as rigid, semi-rigid and flexible floor diaphragms, however, in reality this should be implemented based on the assumption of the in-plane stiffness which should be determined appropriately. The code does specifically mentioned the definition of this matter but the rigidity boundaries for design practice is relatively uncleared. An attempt was done through a selected design example by using the general commercial softwares for finite element method to calculate these boundaries. This paper elaborate in detail of this exercise from practical point of view consideration.

Hadi R. Tanuwidjaja, Grace K. Santoso, Euricky Tanuwidjaja

Effect of Graphene Oxide on Mechanical Properties of Rubberized Concrete: A Review

This study is a review of the available literature on the solution to enhance the mechanical properties of concrete by using Graphene oxide (GO). Significant changes in both fresh and hardened state properties are observed when cement is partially extracted from concrete, in addition of the usage of crumb rubber as a partial fine aggregates’ replacement. The rubberized concrete increases ductility and toughness, higher impact resistance and improved cracking resistance as rubber contribute to the enhanced elasticity but reduce the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and stiffness of the concrete. In this regard, GO is proposed to be added, in hopes that by implementing a new type of nanomaterial, the mechanical strength lost due to modifications such as rubberization and aggregates replacement will be retained back.

Muhammad Wihardi Tjaronge, Muhammad Ali Musarat, Kevin Law, Wesam Salah Alaloul, Saba Ayub

Compressive and Flexural Strengths of Mortar with Silica Aerogel Powder

Excessive usage of sand in construction industries has generated many environmental issues. Silica aerogel, is able to minimise environmental issues while providing thermal resistance for building materials. Silica aerogel has properties such as lightweight, nano-porous and very low thermal conductivity compared to sand in the mortar matrix. This paper studied the compression and flexural strengths of mortar with silica aerogel as a sand replacement. Cement to sand ratio of 1:3 was used and sand was replaced with silica aerogel in the volumes of 15%, 20% and 25%. 15% volume of sand replacement with silica aerogel powder was the optimum ratio as it possessed the highest strength during experimental work. All the specimens were able to achieve the minimum strength for Type N non load bearing wall with the optimum ratio of 15% volume silica aerogel powder. In conclusion, silica aerogel mortar achieved the minimum strength of type N mortar.

Lee Thin Tay, Yee Yong Lee, Yeong Huei Lee, Ahmad Beng Hong Kueh

Study of C-S-H Formation of Cemented Sediment Brick

This paper presents an experimental study of chemical structure formation in newly developed sediment bricks. Morphology analysis was conducted by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images to observe morphological structure and amorphous material while mineralogy analysis through Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine amount of the amorphous materials. C-S-H formation that formed a dense material was observed in Mix 4, which made up from 20% weight of sediment-sand, 70% weight of sediment-silt and stabilized by 10% weight of cement content, which was identified to be the best mix in earlier publication [1]. Higher content of calcite in Mix 4 shows existance of carbonates that indicates lower C-S-H formation compared to Mix 1, which has higher cement content. Meanwhile, larger amount of SiO2 in Mix 6 does not indicate higher production of C-H-S. This is verified by SEM images whereby unreacted sediments were observed in Mix 6. This study showed that increment of sediment content disturbed the production of hydration products. In addition, C-S-H formation is not solely verified by amount of SiO2, it has to also verify through SEM images since SiO2 can also be the unreacted raw materials.

L. W. Ean, M. A. Malek, B. S. Mohammed, Chao-Wei Tang, C. Y. Ng

Flexural Behaviour of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Tubes Subjected to Static Load

This paper presents the flexural behaviour of glass fiber reinforced polymer tubes subjected to static load. Two samples of GFRP crossarms produced by Wagner were tested under static four-point bending in order to determine the flexural behaviour. The results show that, both samples were able to withstand the same load and moment with a maximum load of 75 kN and 19.69 kN.m respectively. Wagner 1 had a lower mid-span deflection and a higher flexural modulus as compared to Wagner 2. However, Wagner 2 had a higher flexural toughness due to the contribution from the side of tubes to sustain the load until failure, unlike Wagner 1 where the initial crack occured at the edges of the tube so that the tube failed at 11 mm mid-span deflection. The different behaviour between these two samples is because the samples were taken from different location of transmission tower and already exposed to the environment and load from the transmisson tower’s conductor.

Agusril Syamsir, Abdulrahman Alhayek, Audrey Yeow Yee Keng, Daud Mohamad, Mohamad Zakir Abd Rashid, Shuhairy Norhisham

Investigation on Behavior of Concrete Slab Due to Low Velocity Impact Using Numerical Modeling

This paper presents on the low velocity impact loading on plain slab concrete. There are three different thicknesses of concrete slabs; namely 20 mm, 30 mm, and 40 mm, all of which have been subjected to 1 blow of impact from 1.25 kg steel ball per slab. The resulting deflections and stresses on the concrete midspan was then observed. It was found that the highest deflection occurs for the concrete slab with the 20 mm thickness with a value of 9.965 mm, while the lowest deflection was found to be at 4.157 mm for the slab thickness of 40 mm. The highest mid-span stress occured at 20 mm slab for 500 mm drop height. During impact it was observed the slab is still in elastic linear region.

Agusril Syamsir, Syahidatul Islamiah, Shuhairy Norhisham, Nur Liyana Mohd Kamal, Norazman Mohamad Nor, Vivi Anggraini

Investigating an Optimum Mixing Method to Produce Foam Concrete Fulfilling the Workability, Density, Shrinkage, Strength and Total Volume

Production of foamed concrete may encounter segregation, shrinkage and poor strength. The nature of mix is flowable but must maintain homogeneity of both foam and sand particles. One of the reasons for these problems is the difficulty in mixing method. Two mixing techniques, wet and dry mixing methods, were investigated and resulting properties recorded. Five main properties characterized a foamed concrete mix and these are density, workability, shrinkage, strength and total volume. The first mixing method, wet mixing method, tend to have segregation and shrinkage problems. The target density was difficult to achieve. The second mixing method, dry mixing method, proved to achieve target density easily and lesser shrinkage problem. The dry mixing method proved to produce foamed concrete with specific target density and workability.

M. I. Safawi, S. N. L. Taib, L. P. Hua, A. Rashidi

Experimental Study of Two Stages on the Use of Local Rubber as Base Isolator for Dwelling Houses

Base isolators have not been extensively used in Indonesia because they have to be primarily imported from abroad and thus, they need high costs. One of the efforts to reduce the costs of base isolators is the use of local rubber that is totally processed within the country, from harvesting the rubber latex until manufacturing elastomeric seismic bearing. Before using local rubber as base isolators, the prediction of vertical and horizontal stiffness of the base isolator is required through a grade 40 uniaxial test; 50; and 60 shore A in IRHD standard. The uniaxial test indicates that grade 50 samples have the best modulus so that the base isolator test only uses grade 50 rubber. From the test results, the damping value for energy dissipation is 12%. This value gives hope for the future development of low-cost base isolator technology in Indonesia.

Usman Wijaya, Elly Kusumawati

Advanced Construction and Building Information Modelling

Frontmatter

Prospects of a Sustainable EOL - Carbon Footprint Assessment of a Tropical Housing Habitat

End of Life (EOL) is a vital phase in environmental life cycle impact assessment. However, most of studies either do not consider this phase or make its assessment based on certain assumptions, thus limiting the actual contributions. A proper pre-assessment of such environmental impacts during planning can achieve an optimum sustainable design inception at an early stage. The current work evaluates the carbon footprint potential of the EOL phase of conventional housings in a tropical climate of Malaysia. Conventional units with varying areas, height and type of construction have been analyzed. The life cycle inventory was achieved by developing the virtual prototypes of selected units using Building information Modeling (BIM). Partial life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to obtain carbon emissions. The study highlighted a contribution of 2.5 to 3.0 tons-CO2 with average intensity of 1.00 kg-CO2 per unit area. The dismantling operation dominated the hauling operations by 50%. Concrete and bricks were the top two materials dominating the hauling activity. Statistical technique, regression, highlighted a significant relationship between dependent (carbon footprint) and independent (area) variables. Study, being one of the few addressing conventional low cost housing sector in tropical climate, is expected to act as mile stone and guideline baesed upon actual data of facilities for a realistic environmental conscious and optimum sustainable decision.

Syed Shujaa Safdar Gardezi, Nasir Shafiq

Analytical Investigation of Failure Behavior of Beam-Column Knee Joint with External Steel Plates Anchorage Using 3D RBSM

External steel plates anchorage is one way to reduce the reinforcement congestion inside the beam-column joint because the reinforcing bars of the beam and column are anchored using steel plates located outside the joint. In this study, the failure behavior of the joint is investigated through the study of internal stresses using a discrete analysis method called 3D Rigid Body Spring Model. Simulation results are compared with experimental results. The simulation results show that in BCJ-Hook (conventional hook bar anchorage), the capacity of the beam-column joint in open case is significantly lower than that in close case. Meanwhile, in BCJ-Plates (external steel plates anchorage), the maximum load in open case is roughly the same as that in close case with only 6–14% reduction in maximum load. Higher capacity in BCJ-Plates is caused by the confinement from the steel plates.

Liyanto Eddy, Kohei Nagai, Punyawut Jiradilok

Dominant Success Factors of Managing Subcontractors by Main Contractors in Sustainable Development Project

Challenges faced by businesses, including a construction service sector, are involved. The complexity in a construction business stimulates construction project practitioners to cooperate and apply POAC (Planning, Organizing, Actuating, Controlling) management function well. However, there always problems during the construction process, like problems between contractor-subcontractor. A contractor plays roles as one who executes the plan, and a subcontractor works under the contactor's commands—the contractor-subcontractor relationship based on a legal contract. There is no research on the problems conducted on the base of POAC management perspectives yet. The samples of this research are contractor-subcontractor who was working on a skyscraper project in Jakarta. The research instrument conducted four dependent variables and 40 independent variables. Data analyzed with confirmatory factor analysis in 2 stages; each stage results in dominant numbers derived from the respondents' perception. The research finds that the most commonly occurring problem between them is actuating

Bambang Endro Yuwono, Yuhana, Raflis

Effect of Fire Flame Exposure on Basalt and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

Damage of concrete in fire varies according to the nature of fire, mix proportions and constituents of concrete. When concrete are caught in fire, it can suffer consequential damage. Lots of research has been conducted so far to assess the effect of fire towards concrete. Usage of fiber becomes one of the interest in this evaluation of fire performance because fiber not only enhance the mechanical properties such as, compressive and tensile strength, but fiber can provide additional durability which is preventing cracks. In this study, chopped basalt and carbon fiber are used as reinforcement in concrete and its performance are compared with normal concrete. This paper reported the performance of fiber-reinforced concrete of standard grade 20 and 40 when subjected to fire flame at 28 days. The effect of fire on fiber reinforced concrete covers changes taking place in cement paste, aggregates, fibers, as well as their interaction that result in changes of physical and mechanical properties of concrete specimens. A direct fire exposure test was developed to imitate real fire event. Concrete specimens were burnt at 1000 °C temperature for 90 min continuously. After burning, the specimens were cooled at ambient temperature before further testing. From the findings, it is found that G20 OPC specimens obtained the highest residual compressive strength. Likewise, G40 OPC + CF specimens also obtained high residual compressive strength. Apart from that, the occurrence of spalling and cracking is observed during the duration of the fire exposure and after. The study showed adding carbon fiber in concrete improved its properties and damages observed after fire exposure were minor as compared to basalt fiber.

Siti Nooriza Abd Razak, Laurent Guillaumat, Nasir Shafiq

Delay and Cost Overrun of Palm Oil Refinery Construction Projects: Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Model

In spite of the development and innovation in the construction technologies, still, delay and cost overrun are the most crucial challenge of the construction industry in both developed and the developing countries. This research aims to develop a prediction model using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The prediction model consists of the most impactful causes of delays and costs overruns during the construction of Palm Oil Refinery projects which were ranked based on importance, severity and frequency. A series of 39 questions were developed from the questionnaire survey causing delays and cost overruns during construction of palm oil refinery projects. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm was used to develop the prediction model for palm oil construction projects.

Muhammad Sani Abdullah, Wesam Salah Alaloul, M. S. Liew, Muhammad Ali Musarat

Human Factor Engineering in Oil and Gas Construction Works – A Case Study to Mitigate Safety Risk

The oil and gas construction industry has become one of the major high risk industry in Malaysia. With the high volume and cost of project, the risk of safety also become higher. There are significant numbers causes the accident is the human factor. Thus, the requirements of human factor engineering in the process safety management has become compulsory to the industry. However, due to the cost constraints and schedule, management may find way to do shortcut during execution. This study will somehow categorize the human factor engineering causation and portrays its factors that need further research on the subject. The purpose of the case study is to find the factor relate to Human Factor Engineering in Oil and Gas Construction works. The recommendation from the study is to further study the awareness of the Human Factor Engineering implementation in Oil & Gas Construction Works in order to further mitigate the safety risk at projects.

Mat Saaud Nor Arinee, Othman Idris, Ir Baharuddin A. Rahim

Causes of Construction Accidents and the Provisions of Safety Regulations in Construction Industry in Malaysia

In order to improve safety performance, Malaysian government has gazetted an occupational safety and health policies to provide guidelines to be followed in dealing with occupational safety and health activities at site. Meanwhile, Factories and Machinery Act provide regulation with respect to the health, health and welfare of person, machinery and for matters connected therewith for the control of factories. This paper aims to identify cause of accidents and the provisions of safety regulations in construction projects in Malaysia. Methodology is by analysing the DOSH report. Statistic from DOSH shown that from 2015 to 2019, about 116% increase in accident cases. The main causes of accidents are work at high, unsafe work practice or conditions and failure of structure. Under Section 15 of OSHA 1994, contractors and employers can be charged under this section if fail to provide a healthy and safe working environment for their employees.

Ku Adenan Ku Ismail, Idris Othman

Development of Framework for BIM-Based Tools to Minimize the Causes of Accidents in Construction

Despite increased efforts given to the field of safety management, the number of accidents is continuing to rise in the construction industry. Now with the help of Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology, incident rates may dramatically decrease. However, there is little or no information available to be utilized by the safety officers and designers in the BIM-based tools for the training and design works respectively in Malaysia. The main aim of this paper is to develop a framework to aid in giving comprehensive safety training to workers and to gather all the necessary information that can be used in BIM-based tools for the selected types of accidents at the design stage. The research will be carried out by using the triangulation method. The findings of the research will guide safety officers in giving comprehensive safety training in a 3D virtual environment.

Idris Othman, Aminu Darda’uRafindadi, Madzlan Napiah, MiljanMikić, Hayroman Ahmad, Nura Shehu AliyuYaro, Balarabe Wada Isah, Ahmed Farouk Kineber, Muhanad Kamil Buniya

Factors of Safety Misconduct Affecting Safety Performance of Tall Building Construction Site

This is a review paper to analyze factor of safety affecting the construction industry which is mainly involved in building projects all over the world. Every country has their own unique tall building or known as skyscrapers is constructed to elevate the country pride. On the other hand, tall building save space and accommodate more residents as compared to low rise buildings. However, vast problems encountered by construction team to ensure the safety performance of the construction site is well maintained. In all over the world, we can observe that there are many accidents involve during building construction especially due to safety misconduct. Those accidents affect directly on the project performance of works delay and financial constraint due non-compliance of safety procedure. A definitive objective for the construction industry is to lessen workplace accidents, wounds, and fatality to zero. The less accident there are, the more popular the construction company name will be, this popularity can contribute to the company revenue whereby client favours to award the project to the construction company which has a good reputation and well-rounded in terms of safety management as well. In this study, the factor of safety misconduct that affecting safety performance of tall building construction site will be identified through literature review and questionnaire survey. The factors will be validated as well using the case studies project. The statistical strategies including Relative Importance Index (RII) and Average Index (AVI) will be used to break down the information accumulated, while the statistical package for the social science (SPSS) will be used to gauge the Spearman’s rank correlation between different gatherings of respondents, the Cronbach’s alpha (reliability test) and legitimacy of the study. The sub factors, which were grouped into five main groups according to past studies namely: 1) worker involvement 2) Management 3) Material and Equipment 4) workplace & 5) Software and Technology.

Varunesh Thinakaran, Idris Othman

Characteristics of Interlocking Concrete Bricks Incorporated Crumb Rubber and Fly Ash

The application of 10% crumb rubber and 56% fly ash to partial replacement of fine aggregations and cement, respectively, by volume has formed rubberized interlocking bricks (RIBs). RIBs have been produced by semi-automatic interlocking pressing machine. This study aimed to extend previous research on the characteristics of newly developed RIBs. The initial rate of suction, dry density, efflorescence, thermal conductivity, and the elevated temperature was conducted. It was found that RIBs exhibited a lower density and higher initial rate of suction, as well as better thermal conductivity. The RIB’s compressive strength decreased while the porosity increased with the increase in the elevated temperature.

Bashar S. Mohammed, Amin Al-Fakih, M. S. Liew

Image – Based Change Detection in Concrete Beam

Detection of crack change using images requires accurate pre-processing steps including geometrical and photometrical registration. In this paper, a change detection system is proposed to detect changes of cracks in images taken from different viewpoints in concrete structures. The geometrical registration step was done by the image-based 3D photogrammetry technique. With this technique, images taken at different times and viewpoints can be rectified to remove noise that is not real changes. The queried and reference images were then used to detect changes between the images by a simple change detection algorithm. The experiment was conducted on images of a concrete beam sample with various stages of crack development. The results were compared against the real measurements of crack width changes. It was shown that the proposed method provides accurate results in detecting changes in a crack in the sample datasets.

Krisada Chaiyasarn, Apichat Buatik, Kuntapit Jirakasemsuk, Pakkapong Khuangsimma, Suraparb Keawsawasvong

Mechanical Properties of Steel Fibre Reinforced Lightweight Concrete by Incorporating Recycled Car Waste Tyres Aggregate

Waste tyre synthetic rubber chip (WTSRC) obtained from passenger cars has been long neglected by waste tyre recycling industry mainly due to market demands in tyre rethread products and crumb rubber by-products such as rubber safety mats. This paper looked at the different mechanical properties in WTSRC and waste tyre natural rubber chip (WTNRC). To achieve unit weight of 1800 kg/m3 (±200), different mixture of crumb rubber (CR) in the form of natural rubber chip (NRC) and synthetic rubber chip (SRC) in the ratio of 100% to 0%, 80% to 20%, 60% to 40% was evaluated by incorporating Steel fibre (SF) in different volume faction (Vf) of 0, 0.2, 0.4 to develop a lightweight concrete (LWC) of 10 MPa as an aggregate substitution. Concrete tests such as slump test, compressive strength test, splitting tensile test and ultrasonic pulse velocity test were studied in this research. Although the tests showed that increasing in SF decrease the workability, but also proves that with the right percentage of SF inclusion can improve the mechanical properties of the lightweight concrete, and from the result the maximum compressive strength had achieved at about 14.5 MPa at 28 days. The finding of this investigation shows that correct mixture in NRC and SRC with the incorporating of SF has promising result strength required as hybrid LWC as sustainable alternative in the construction materials industry.

Yeow Kah Niam, Ming Kun Yew, Siong Kang Lim, Chuan Fang Ong

The Effectiveness Implementation of Project Risk Management Plan in Property Development in Malaysia

A successful project was determined by whether or not the project achieves its goal, objectives or meet the stakeholder’s expectation. Every property development has its own risk that will affect the project objectives or goals if it gets worse. Project risk management is one of the crucial elements which needs to be developed in order to minimize the impact on the project. Project risk management is not about total elimination of the risk, but it’s the process of identifying, accessing and controlling the risk. This paper will be focusing on the review of an effectiveness in the implementation of risk management in the projects to find out if the risks faced by the property developers are being managed effectively and thus, being minimized.

Idris Othman, Nor Haslinayati Abdul Ghafar, Shim Woon Choon

Review of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry for Aerial Mapping Applications

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry one of the most popular photogrammetry technique due to short period of time for data acquisition and low costs compared to the use of classical manned aircrafts. This technique widely been used in many kind of application that related to aerial mapping. This paper review the UAV photogrammetry used for aerial mapping applications. The previous results by others researchers showed the capability of the UAV photogrammetry captures the complex shape and topography. The application for the image processing uses a sequence of 2-dimensional (2D) images to recreate a scene and built it in 3-dimensional (3D) model. The study will utilize the software for 3D models reconstruction which are open source tools and commercial software packages. The study also describe the brief idea to enchance the uses of the UAV photogrammetry in research. End user will have ideas using of the software for photogrammetry.

N. M. Zahari, Mohammad Arif Abdul Karim, F. Nurhikmah, Nurhanani A. Aziz, M. H. Zawawi, Daud Mohamad

Effects of Quartz Powder on the Compressive Strength of High Performance Engineered Cementitious Composites

This study presents an experimental investigation on the effect of quartz powder on the compressive strength of high performance engineered cementitious composites (HP-ECC). Four different HP-ECC mixtures were considered ECC mixture with PVA fibres and zero quartz powder, ECC made with PVA fibres and quartz powder, ECC made with steel fibres and zero quartz powder, ECC made with steel fibres and quartz powder respectively. Different percentages of steel and PVA fibres were investigated at 0 to 2%. The compressive strength of HP-ECC was examined for 1, 7, 14, and 28 days. Based on the experimental results, it was found that the inclusion of quartz powder leads to enhancement in the compressive strength. Compressive strength of more than 100 MPa was obtained for both ECC made with quartz powder. On the other hand, the fibres type has a negligible effect on the performance of HP-ECC.

M. S. Liew, Bashar S. Mohammed, Kamaluddeen Usman Danyaro, A. M. Al-Yacouby, Sani Haruna

Methodology Review on Multi Stakeholders Decision of Urban Market Land Use

Economic growth has a dependency on urban spatial development. Achievement of its sustainability is indicated by two criteria, namely the ability to grow with its environment and the economic capacity of the community. In contrast to commercial property, public facilities tend to face difficulties in improving land productivity. The number of public facilities whose location is not in accordance with the initial plan of urban development and make it more abandoned. There are many stakeholders with different preferences. Decisions of public facilities development are influenced by various stakeholders to coordinate. Various perspectives and interdependence cause complexities. There are a lot of research on the role of stakeholders in the construction of public facilities with various research methodology. This paper presents a mapping of the methodology used in previous studies. The results will assist further research in determining the use of the most appropriate research methodology.

Christiono Utomo, Yani Rahmawati, O. L. Sari

Sustainability Criteria for Green Building Material Selection in the Malaysian Construction Industry

A Green building material (GBM) is an environmentally friendly, health-promoting, recycled and high-performance construction materials that affect the selection of materials for all three sustainability pillars (3Ps). The lack of proper instructions for GBM and the difficulty in adjusting GBM sustainability criteria become a challenge for GBM selection. Different strategies have been implemented to meet current and future requirements. This study mainly focused on the GBM criteria selection, through literature review, and expert judgement. A total of three main criteria and 32 sub-criteria have been found. Hence, this study provides sustainable assessment criteria for GBM selection in the Malaysian construction industry.

Ezzaddin Al-Atesh, Yani Rahmawati, Noor Amila Wan Abdullah Zawawi

Role of Inflation in Construction: A Systematic Review

The construction industry is dynamic in nature and contributing to a great extent to the economic growth of any country yet being affected the most by influential factors causing distressed in the stakeholders. A systematic review was carried out in this study to evaluate the role of inflation in construction as inflation is considered as one of the most influential factors in the construction industry. Scopus database was selected to extract the English research articles from the year 2009 to 2019 with keywords of “Inflation” AND “Construction” in the field of engineering. Total of 210 articles was extracted and after reviewing the titles and the abstract in-depth, only 20 articles were left for further assessment. It was revealed that the major impact of inflation comes as cost and time overrun in construction projects and the construction industry is at high risk due to fluctuation in inflation over time. It is therefore recommended to consider the inflation before project start.

Indra Jaya, Wesam Salah Alaloul, Muhammad Ali Musarat

Sources of Risk and Related Effects in the Malaysian Construction Industry

Construction projects nowadays have higher complexities, calling for increased awareness, assessment and management of the risks involved. Key construction risks need to be first identified, then assessed and methods on risk mitigation need to be mapped out to better managed the potential of undesirable events within projects. This study aims to compile Malaysian construction related risks and their relevant impacts on the construction project risk and its effects to the construction projects. It serves as a compilation database for Malaysian construction project, which will be used as future risk data. Data was collected by conducting structured questionnaire surveys and distributing it to professionals involved in the construction industry. Discussion herewith will emphasize on the findings related to project risks detected based on the sources of risk. The risks will be group under specific groups of risk and linked with the effects the said risks produced. This project correlates the sources and effects of construction risks in Malaysia. It is hopeful that through this research, a proper knowledge or risk retention centre can ultimately be created to aid future effective qualitative and quantitative risk analysis for all construction projects.

Sim Nee Ting, Beatrice Jarit

Smart and Sustainable Infrastructure

Frontmatter

Accuracy of Bus Timetable Using Information Communication and Technology GPS to Inform Trans Metro Bandung Bus Passenger

Trans Metro Bandung (TMB) bus in Bandung, Indonesia operates since 2008 with three routes. In 2016, TMB operator implements a Global Positioning System (GPS) to inform passengers regarding bus arrival time at each bus shelter. The study aim is an evaluation of how accurate is the TMB GPS and recommendations to improve service quality. The case study is on two TMB routes implement TMB GPS, observing arrival time at each bus shelter by real-time, by TMB GPS, by google map, and by Waze. The comparative analysis used to evaluate the time accuracy. Results of a study using statistical tests indicated that bus arrival time between real-time and all those applications is the same, but the average time difference between real-time and GPS TMB arrival time is still 13 s. Recommendations provided are improving internet quality and facility, implement TMB GPS to all TMB bus and disseminate the TMB GPS to the society.

Anastasia Caroline Sutandi, Aldian Dermawan

Decision Making of Retrofitting Alternatives of Cikeusik Bridge Pillars

A structural deterioration of infrastructure system is inevitable. As the deterioration process affects the performance of the infrastructure system, structural assessment and strengthening technique are needed to resolve the issues. Cikeusik multispan steel bridge that was built in 1970’s is part of Cikeusik Weir which connected with eight pillars of reinforced concrete. Assessment results which accomodate by conducting destructive, non-destructive test as well as structure modelling tools show that those pillars are in near severe condition. In order to restore the pillars performance, retrofitting are necessary to be implemented. However, selection of a structural retrofitting alternative is not an easy task. Steel jacketing, concrete jacketing and fiber reinforced polymer are among those available alternatives. Through semi quantitative method of decision making, the concrete jacketing is the most suitable alternative for strengthening the pillars.

Altho Sagara, Andreas F. V. Roy, Gisella Liviana

Study on Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in Medan Based on Coverage Area and Accessibility Index

Many big cities in Indonesia such as Medan face the unbalanced growth between the vehicles and the road length. Strengthening the public transport system is a solution to solve the problem and shifting people to use public transport is a challenge. Improvement of the public transport services should fulfill the accessibility and coverage area of the region. This study aims to evaluate the coverage area of Bus rapid transit (BRT) services using walking distance to public transport stop as the indicators and accessibility index of sub-district region. The result of this study can be a consideration for the government of Medan that is developing public transportation in order to shift the private vehicle user and solve urban transport problems in Medan.

Ridwan Anas, Ami Kholis Hasibuan, Medıs S. Surbakti, Ika Puji Hastuty

The Impact of Growth in Vehicle Ownership on Commuter Travel Time

The easiest measure to assess the impact of this imbalance between vehicle growth and the road network is an increase in daily/annual work travel time. This paper will discuss the effect of the growth of motorized vehicles on working travel time with the Yogyakarta Special Region case study. Primary data in the form of interview data to the commuter. Commuters selected as respondents are commuters who have a permanent home and work place/location. The main question is the change in travel time experienced by commuters over 10 years (2008–2018). The tendency of changes in travel time based on distance traveled will be analyzed using the regression analysis method. In this study using 300 commuter respondents. The results showed that in 10 years (2008–2018), there was an increase in motorcycle ownership of 8.41% per year. The growth of motorcycle ownership affects the increase in travel time to 5.654% per year. Car growth increased by 10.52% per year and resulted in increased travel time to 10.54% per year.

Nindyo Cahyo Kresnanto, Bayu Kunto Wicaksono

Measurement of User Interest in Public Transport Performance Variables Using AHP

Service performance is the key to success in organizing public transportation. Performance variables directly felt by users include access to information, services in transportation, bus stop security, customer service, travel security, fares, and cleanliness. These seven variables need to be measured in terms of their effect on service performance. To measure the weight of this influence, the method to be used is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The respondents interviewed as AHP inputs were 100 people, and only seven respondents had enough consistency to be analyzed. The results showed that access to information had the most significant effect on performance by 27.35%. Services in transportation influence weight of 15.75%, safety at bus stop 9.29%, customer service 16.74%, travel safety 7.33%, fare 13.49%, and cleanliness 10.05%. It can be concluded that transportation information access to public transportation is the dominant variable to get attention.

Fatsyahrina Fitriastuti, Nindyo Cahyo Kresnanto

Evaluation of Road Maintenance Program Based on International Roughness Index (IRI) and Surface Distress Index (SDI)

An important part of managing road pavement is an assessment of the functional condition of the road. This assessment is important because it can be used as a material to determine actions to be taken on a road section so that it can function properly until the planned age. Some parameters in the assessment of road functional conditions that are often used are the International Roughness Index (IRI), Surface Distress Index (SDI) and Pavement Condition Index (PCI). This study aims to obtain and compare IRI values from the Roughometer tool against results from a combination of IRI and SDI values from the Hawkeye tool, and apply it to the road maintenance program. The results of the analysis show there are differences in the road maintenance program from the results of the assessment of the two tools.

Medis Surbakti, Saleh Samsuri, Ridwan Anas, Ahmad Perwira Tarigan

Interpretation Method of Distributed Fibre Optic Strain Sensor in Instrumented Static Pile Load Test

Interest on the instrumented pile load test using Distributed Fibre Optic Strain Sensor (DFOSS) has become a main discussion topic among engineers in the geotechnical field. Limitation of conventional instruments like Vibrating Wire Strain Gauge (VWSG) have led to the need of improvement in the sensing technology. DFOSS technology offers a continuous strain profile in a single sensing cable, and it differs from the conventional sensing technology, that only provides a point-wise measurement. Interpretation of the pile load results to establish concrete modulus and load transfer curves are critically analysed in this paper. This paper aims to propose the best methodology of unit shaft friction curve fitting method based on several points selection methods to provide a reliable and presentable of design parameter.

Nur Hidayah Mahadi, Hisham Mohamad

The Effect of the Placement of the Roughometer III Sensor on the Result of the IRI Values on National Roads

Driver comfort is influenced by the level of road surface roughness, so it is necessary to check the road condition regularly. In some cases the results of the survey only illustrate how the pavement conditions that passed by the wheel where the roughness sensor is installed. Evaluation of each part of the road needs to be checked by compare IRI value generated from the roughness sensor device that placing on the right wheel and on the opposite side. In this study Roughometer III was used to calculate the pavement roughness on Medan-Binjai along 7 km on four lanes in both directions. Based on the results of the analysis carried out, there are differences in the right and left wheelpath IRI values. From the survey results on the Binjai-Medan lane direction, the categories of road roughness conditions are clearly different so that the priority road maintenance will be different.

Medis Surbakti, Doly Manurung, Ridwan Anas, Irwan Sembiring

Role of Project Governance in Managing Projects Sustainability: A Theoretical Perspective

Sustainability is incessantly posing challenges when it is studied juxtaposition with project management. To ensure sustainability companies undertaking projects ought to set strategic and operational plans that will add to the project sustainability. Research shows that existing project management structures do not effectively consider sustainability issues and therefore need revisions at strategic and operational levels. Similarly, while the theme of project governance is finding traction in the literature, the discussion that connects project governance and sustainability in projects is elusive. This research work is specifically focusing on developing a linkage between project governance and managing sustainability in projects. There is an acute scarcity of literature encircling linkage between project governance and sustainable project management, thus, based on the extensive review of the literature, this study is one of the pioneering studies to highlight the relationship between the themes of project governance and sustainable project management.

Mehfooz Ullah, Muhammad Waris Ali Khan, Lee Chia Kuang

Investigation of Traffic Noise Pollution at Puchong Residential Areas

Urban areas are exposed to high traffic volume that can associate to the source of noise pollution. Noise pollution is ranked as the third most harmful environmental pollution after air and water. The objective of this study is to investigate the level of traffic noise pollution at the residential area of Puchong, Selangor. This study is carried out at two residential areas. The traffic volume and noise level data are collected at three different time intervals during weekday and weekend. A survey is conducted to investigate level awareness and health effect on surrounding affected communities. The result showed the traffic noise is ranging from 65 to 84 dB(A) during weekday and weekend. Based on the survey conducted, most of respondents aware that traffic is the highest contributor to noise pollution. The noise pollution condition is getting bad as compares to previous year.

Nik Nur Ifadah Mohamed Nazri, Nurul Hani Mardi, Nur’atiah Zaini, Shuhairy Norhisham, Nurul Natasha Nabila Naim

Online Shopping and Travel Behaviour Based on Information and Communication Technology Activity

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have extensively reshape individuals’ daily activity. Even more, ICT suggested to reshape the spatial and temporal fixity of activities. For instance, shopping activities are no longer can be performed just in leisure time. Using ICT, online shopping also can be done even while working and studying. This paper seeks to explore the personal and ICT characteristics of users with different patterns of using ICT, also to discuss how it appeals to impact their online shopping behaviour. Using descriptive analysis, finding suggest that the way of people use ICT to perform certain activity can identify their behaviour of utilizing ICT and online shopping.

Jeanly Syahputri, Tri Basuki Joewono, Muhamad Rizki, Dimas B.E. Dharmowijoyo

Remediation of Soft Soil by Hydrated Lime

Soft soil is soil whose strength is premarily determined by water content and high compressibility, and it consists of silt and clay. The clayey silt content in soft soils greatly influences the ability of the soil to absorb water. The characteristics of soil are determined in the area along Gempol to Pasuruan distrct, East Java, Indonesia so that soil improvement is recommended, anticipating a large settlement due to pavement loads and vehicles. This study aims to analyze modifications in the natural soil when stabilized with lime. Several laboratory experiments were carried out to obtain the optimum quantity of lime, which is 6%. The strength of the remedial soil was investigated by California Bearing Ratio and triaxial tests. Generally, lime improved the strength of soil samples but, in the case of the shear strength parameter, the friction angle increased and the cohesion decreased.

Yulvi Zaika, As’ad Munawir, Alwafi Pujiraharjo

Truck Accident Risk Model for East Java, Indonesia

East Java Province has popular as one of the highest traffic accident in Indonesia, one of the problems is a traffic accidents involving truck. Traffic police data shows that the number of truck accidents is high in the national road segment of Sidoarjo-Ngawi. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop the truck accident risk model to get the determinant factor of truck accidents in a study area. The analytical method used is logistic regression analysis, by using interviewed data taken from 88 truck drivers that has been involved in a traffic accident. The results of analysis show that the model for the frequent accident is contributing by their frequent violating the traffic sign behavior. Finally, it is interesting to know that the truck position off the road pavement after accident is affected by length of trip duration, the habit of smoking while driving, and overloaded.

Achmad Wicaksono, Muhammad Zainul Arifin, Meriana Wahyu Nugroho, Yayan Rachmadi Utomo

Effect of Phase Change Material on Rheological Properties of Asphalt Mastic

Rheology has been applied in wide study area, including in asphalt material. Many researchers utilize Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) to evaluate the effect of additional material in asphalt or asphalt mastic. However, there is limited study on the rheology of Phase Change Material (PCM) in asphalt mastic. This study prepared conventional mastic and PCM mastic to be tested in DSR. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of PCM in asphalt mastic. The result showed that PCM increases the elastic properties but decreases the modulus except at 12% PCM.

I K Mizwar, Madzlan Napiah, Muslich H Sutanto

The Future of Wind Power in Malaysia: A Review

Renewable energy generation is given a priority in sustainable development worldwide to decrease the dependency of fossil fuel-based power generation. Wind energy is one of the fast-developing sources of clean energy in the last decades due to the speedy development of wind turbines’ capacity and the possibility of installing them at offshore sites. Malaysia has set-up a promising plan for renewable energy development to reduce GHG emissions by 45% by the year 2030. To date, Malaysia is depending on conventional methods for power generation such as natural gas coal and hydro. This paper discusses the future of wind power in Malaysia in terms of defining the most suitable places and their energy density and the techno-economical aspect of wind energy. It was found that Terengganu, Borneo, and Sabah are the most suitable places with an average annual wind power density greater than 500 kWh/m2.

Shamsan Alsubal, M. S. Liew, E. S. Lim, Indra S. H. Harahap, Ahmed M. M. Nasser

Investigating the Ride-Hailing Users and Their Perception of the Usefulness of Its Services: A Case from Bandung, Indonesia

Developing countries like Indonesia experienced a substantial growth of motorcycle- and car-based ride-hailing services. However, there is still a limited insight into how its service implies travel behaviors. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of ride-hailing users as well as their travel behavior and users’ perception regarding the service usefulness. The analyses employed data from questionnaire distribution in Bandung City in 2018. The sample describes that ride-hailing users are not only travelers who previously used private transport (motorcycles or cars) but also travelers who used public transport. The level of appreciation for ride-hailing is quite high, which implies that users most likely to have a positive impression of ride-hailing service.

Tri Basuki Joewono, Muhamad Rizki, Dimas Endrayana Dharmowijoyo, Dwi Prasetyanto

Exploring the Ride-Hailing Drivers’ Characteristics and Their Order Rejection Behavior in Bandung City

With the sharing economy characteristics, ride-hailing services have created a substantial number of jobs. While the number of ride-hailing drivers reached more than one million drivers in Indonesia, there still limited insight on who is the ride-hailing drivers and how their behavior in the receipt of an order from the potential passengers. This paper describes the characteristics of ride-hailing drivers as well as their travel behavior, particularly in the factors for refuse an order from the potential passengers. The study collected data using a questionnaire survey in Bandung City in 2019 that distributed to drivers of ride-hailing. The descriptive analysis shows that several segments of drivers also have other jobs among their jobs as ride-hailing drivers. MBRH drivers tend to have a lower distance to pick-up users than the CBRH. Furthermore, security reason is the highest reason to refuse the order for both of the group. At the same time, the payment method and personal characteristics of the passenger is not influenced to refusing the order.

Muhamad Rizki, Tri Basuki Joewono, Prawira F. Belgiawan, Dwi Prasetyanto

Spatial Analysis for Sustainable Campus Transportation: A Case Study of UTP

There are lots of environmental issues happening around us such as global warming and air pollution caused by carbon footprint released by different modes of transportation. As public universities have their own community, many of them including Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP) approach sustainability in campus by providing public transportation. Because of large scale emission caused by the influence of private vehicles on campus, campus sustainability can be achieved if universities encourage students to use public transport. Thereby, reducing number of private vehicles on campus. Hence, to encourage students to use public transport, the efficiency and effectiveness of public transport need to be improved. Based on the questionnaires, non-strategic bus-stop location is the reason why UTP students did not use public transport in campus. Finding the strategic bus-stop location using spatial analysis is one of the ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public transport. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to determine the optimal bus-stop locations using spatial analysis and to determine the sustainability of selected bus stop locations to ensure that bus-stop locations will be conducive for users and encourage the use of public transport. Site suitability analysis is one of spatial analysis technique which is the best option that is used to select the best site according the criteria that have been set. While Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) as Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique is used to determine relative importance of the conflicting criteria. Finally, the optimal bus-stop locations were identified and ranked based on their level of sustainability.

Umira Binti Ayub, Abdul-Lateef Babatunde Balogun

Indirect Bridge Health Monitoring Employing Contact-Point Response of Instrumented Stationary Vehicle

Indirect bridge health monitoring requires an instrumented vehicle with an accelerometer to scan bridge vibration. The indirect method is more practical than the conventional direct method due to its cost efficiency and mobility. However, the vehicle’s own response may pollute the recorded vertical acceleration signal. This paper utilizes a newly developed contact-point calculation method to show its efficiency to reflect the true vibration of bridges. A finite element model is developed for a vehicle placed in stationary state at mid-span of a bridge that is excited by a moving vehicle. Two cases considering different property of the stationary vehicle and different speed of the moving vehicle are developed. The contact-point response is extracted from the stationary vehicle response using MATLAB. The results show the discrepancy between the stationary vehicle and bridge responses. In contrast, good agreement between the contact-point and bridge responses is presented in the time and frequency domains.

Ibrahim Hashlamon, Ehsan Nikbakht, Ameen Topa

Ground Response Analysis for Stiff and Soft Soil Under Different Earthquake Events: A Comparison

This research work focusing on site ground response analysis of stiff and soft soil from several sites in Peninsular Malaysia Operation based on PETRONAS offshore region classification. The main purpose is to determine how these sites will react under seismic loading in terms of peak surface acceleration, response spectra and soil amplification factor under different earthquake events. A developed 1 Dimensional nonlinear analysis program known as NERA, were adopted to analyse layered soil deposits to predict site response. Six sites in peninsular Malaysian water which are classified as stiff and soft soil were analysed using six earthquake events based on time history for 1000 years return period. Findings show that, amplification occur between predicted bedrock and seabed which increased the amount of vibration received by seabed as well as offshore facilities.

M. Mazlina, M. S. Liew, A. Adnan, I. S. H. Harahap, N. H. Hamid

Bearing Capacity of Residual Soil Treated with Fine Demolished Concrete Waste (DCW) Under Soaked and Unsoaked Condition

The strength and effectiveness of stabilization for subgrade will determine quality of pavement. In order to achieve the required standard of bearing capacity value for soil, some method to increase bearing capacity need to be propose either using chemical or mechanical method. This research focus on chemical stabilization using fine demolished concrete waste (DCW) with the aim to assess concrete waste mix with residual soil to improve bearing capacity of soil as subgrade layer. The proportion of soil to DCW was 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% and being tested using California Bearing Ratio (CBR) at soaked and unsoaked condition to propose optimum percentage mix of the concrete waste to achieve the maximum bearing capacity. Based on this study the optimum percentage for concrete waste particle added is at 8% for both condition which is soaked and unsoaked. Overall the use of DCW considered to be a good soil improvement technique.

Nur Masyitah Osman, Ahmad Syauqi Md Hasan

The Influence of Socio-Demographic and Activity-Travel Participation Variables on Mode Choice for the New Railway Development in South Sulawesi, Indonesia (Case: Makassar-Parepare Line)

The abstract The present study attempts to explore the influence of socio-demographic and activity-travel participation variables on mode choice of the new railway development for inter-city travel in the eastern part of Indonesia, namely Makassar - Parepare Line. The study carried out an interview survey on private car passengers, who have conducted travel for Makassar - Parepare route. A statistical descriptive analysis approach was applied to show the influence of the variables for the mode choice phenomenon of the travelers. The analysis results show that the socio-demographic variables more influence than the activity-travel variables on the mode choice behavior for the intercity travelers.

Syahreza Alvan, Muhammad Isran Ramli, Hajriyanti Yatmar, Muralia Hustim, Ridwan Anas

Assessment of Earth Dam Critical Failure Using Numerical Method

Even though Malaysia has no experience of any dam-related failures, the occurrence of a deadly tragedy on October 2013 at Bertam Valley, Cameron Highlands has been triggered as a warning sign that there could be other possible incident. Dam failure such as overtopping flow event and embankment instability which is caused by high intensity and long duration of rainfall to the catchment area. Therefore the objective of this research is to investigate dam stability by indication of current factor of safety (FOS) for selected dams in Malaysia. Kelau dam is selected for this study. Numerical modelling Geostudio software was used for analyzing of seepage and FOS using SEEP/W and SLOPE/W. Result shows that normal water levels in steady-state conditions has an obvious lower FOS compared to the critical water level in steady state. For this study, FOS for Kelau dam have average of 2 and is consider safe.

Aniza Ibrahim, Nurul Amirah Osman, Zulkifli Abu Hassan

S-Curve Rubble Mound Breakwater

The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the wave steepness (Hi/L) with a stable profile slope of small size stone rubble mound breakwaters. The results of the study are expected to solve the difficulty of getting a big size crushed stone as a required based on Hudson method. Laboratory physical model study under 1:20 geometric scale was performed. The results showed that the initial sloping breakwater was changed into the S Curve shape profile and achieve a stable condition on the profile equation of y = −ax3 −bx + c, where a, b and c are the factors which are functions of dHi/L2. Factor c is a relative depth (d’/d). The Equations obtained can be used in the planning and designing of S-Curve rubble mound breakwater with relatively small grain size of rocks.

Muhammad Arsyad Thaha, Andi Ildha Dwipuspita, Dimas Bayu Endrayana Dharmowijoyo

Road Traffic Noise Analysis at the U-Turn in Makassar City

This research aims to analyze and predict the level of road traffic noise in a U-turn. This study was conducted on 4 different roads with 2 points of observation in each road. Noise level, number of horn, number of vehicle, speed of vehicle were recorded for 10 min in every hour for 14 h by using SLM, counter and speed gun. The noise level prediction is calculated by using the 2008 ASJ-RTN model. The results show the average of noise level for all observation points is 80.8 dB. This value has exceeded the technical limit of the road capacity, which is between 63.2 dB to 76.0 dB. From the noise prediction result show the average noise level is 78.8 dB. The comparison showed the measurement and prediction had under 3 dB in difference, so that the measurement data and prediction models can be well received.

Muralia Hustim, Rasdiana Zakaria, Muhammad Isran Ramli, Nurul Azizah Syafruddin

The Impact of Socio-Demographic and Activity-Travel Participation Variables on Mode Choice Preference of Sub-urban Commuters: A Case Study on the New Railway Operation in Maros-Makassar Line

The present study aims to analyses the individual characteristics on mode choice preference under the influence of preference of mode choice using the stated preference approach. Differences in characteristics traits lead them to variables varying importance to the impact of mode choice. The individual characteristics of each passenger have an influence on choice behavior, such as gender, education, and occupation, which are caused by cultural differences. This can be revealed not only in the individual’s choice of transport but also in other actions of their everyday lives. The individual characteristics infrequent trips of sub-urban commuters in the new railway operation then influence the preference of mode choice. We developed a model that captures the influence of characteristics relates to the mode choice. In summary, the influence factors of travel mode choice mainly included passenger’s socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and travel characteristics. Results indicate the presence of characteristics that affect the choice that strongly correlated to the mode choice.

Hajriyanti Yatmar, Muhammad Isran Ramli, Mubassirang Pasra, Gusfiadi, Dimas B. E. Dharmowijoyo

The Relationship Between Vertical Stress Due to Attraction Load and Time for Asphalt Mixture Containing Pet Plastic

Various concentrations of PET waste including, 0, 1, and 2% (based on binder weight) in two different size ranges are for asphalt concrete and Marshall stability, Marshall intelligence, indirect tensile strength (ITS) and uniaxial dynamic creep property were evaluated. The results show that Marshall stability and Marshall quotient increase with increasing PET content. Indirect tensile strength test (ITS) results show that the highest ITS is obtained by adding 2% PET to the mixture and beyond that ITS decreases with increasing PET content. Dynamic test results reveal that resistance to permanent deformation decreases with increasing PET content. However, mixtures containing finely graded PET particles have more resistance to permanent deformation than mixtures containing coarse graded PET particles. Comparing the results in rubber modified mixtures in this study with those in conventional mixtures achieved previously revealed that the trends were different.

Albert Meraudje, Muhammad Isran Ramli, Mubassirang Pasra, A. Arwin Amiruddin, Hajriyanti Yatmar

Application of Surface Response Methodology (RSM) for Improving the Marshall Quotient of AC-WC Mixtures Containing PET Plastic Waste

There are many additives to be used to improve the performance of the mixture, especially to improve the performance of asphalt mixes and the resistance of asphalt concrete to hold repetitive loading on the road. The research uses plastic waste (low-quality polymer) as an added material. This study aims to determine the optimum conditions of the asphalt mixing process with PET plastic waste added in the model system, using RSM. The method used in this research is to use Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which in the calculation uses Expert design 8.0.6 (Stat-Ease, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA). By using Box Behnken Design and 3 factorial levels generated 17 trials run. The results showed that the independent variable (X factor) were investigated, respectively X1: the ratio between PET to Asbuton, X2: mixing temperature, and X3: mixing time. In response (Y) is the Marshall characteristic.

Franky E. P. Lapian, Muhammad Isran Ramli, Mubassirang Pasra, Ardy Arsyad, Hajriyanti Yatmar

The Effect of Polypropylene (Pp) Plastıc Waste on Horızontal Deformatıon of Concrete Asphalt

This study designed a concrete asphalt mixture using petroleum bitumen as the main binding material and modified it with waste plastic polypropylene (PP) instead of using virgin plastic Polypropylene (PP) to produce concrete asphalt that has concrete good resistance to the impact of weather on the environment. The value of Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus (ITSM) is one of the main characteristics of asphalt mixture design. The relationship between the content of waste plastic Polypropylene (PP) and the horizontal deformation response of asphalt concrete is used to obtain the elasticity properties of asphalt concrete mixtures made with petroleum bitumen and plastic waste Polypropylene (PP). The horizontal deformation response obtained from the test results shows that modification using Polypropylene (PP) plastic waste in a concrete asphalt mixture using petroleum bitumen as the main binder produces a slightly more rigid mixture without a negative effect on the mixture.

Sukrislistarto, Muhammad Isran Ramli, Mubassirang Pasra, A. Arwin Amiruddin, Hajriyanti Yatmar

Assessing the Seasonal Variation of Particulate Matters Concentration in Perak, Malaysia

The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between the seasonal variations and concentration of particulate matter (PM10) in Perak using 2015 data sets from ASMA. The concentrtaion PM10 becomes complicated when in contact with meterological parameters, thus, requires thorough investigation. The need to study the point of origins and factors that may contribute to the distribution of PM10 in the atmosphere annually can provide new information to mitigate against future impact of PM10 on the health of the society. Correlation and factor analysis were used for data analyse. The result shows that PM10 concentration during the year 2015 was mostly caused by a transboundary source from a fire in Indonesia which resulted in a massive haze that affected most of South East Asia, including Malaysia. However, there is a negative correlation between weather parameters and PM10 concentrations in the month of September and October.

Mohd Fadhil Musbah, Muralia Hustim, Wesam Al Madhoun

The Perception and Behavior of Coal Truck Drivers on the Travel Timeliness

Coal-hauling requires a reliable driver because the coal driver characteristics are different from other transport drivers. The research included demographic characteristics, perceptions, and behavior of coal drivers on the travel timeliness. The research methods are observation, a questionnaire, multiple linear regression, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) with 116 participants. The results showed there was a match between demographic characteristics, perceptions, and driver behavior. Demographic characteristics show that productive age, education, and experience are sufficient, and income/month is higher than the Regional Minimum Wage (UMR), but the driver has a high workload. The results of the perception and behavior of the driver indicate that work motivation, vehicle conditions, and road conditions have a significant effect and become an essential factor in the travel timeliness of coal-hauling. The better the work motivation, the condition of the vehicle, and the road, the more timely the trip will achieve.

Ludfi Djakfar, Dewi Yuniar, Achmad Wicaksono, Achmad Efendi

Foundation Testing on Large Bored Pile in Indonesia

Foundation testing and instrumentation on large bored pile in Indonesia are presented in this paper. Testing on large bored pile with high capacity required analysis and design that satisfy safety and geotechnical criteria. For the last five years, Indonesia has a massive infrastructure project from toll road, bridge, airport, and power plant. The paper discusses the process of a super-high-capacity long span bridge foundation testing in Jakarta. The LRT is one of the largest infrastructure projects, where all the structure elevated and some of the intersection constructed as long span bridge. The long span bridge required 4400-tons pile capacity. Since static axial load test is mandatory, it become a challenge to conduct it in the middle of the Jakarta with a very narrow working space. Reaction system was chosen as the method of pile test and it became the largest foundation test with reaction system in Indonesia.

Aksan Kawanda, Dennis Rio Perdana

Measurement of Static Compaction Energy in Laboratory for Simulating Actual Field Condition on Cohesive Soils

Soil Compaction test is a preliminary test in the laboratory to obtain soil compaction parameters in the field, such as optimum water content and maximum dry density of soil. In determining the parameters, a hammer was pounded to the soil sample induced dynamic energy. However, In the field, compaction was conducted in static conditions using drum roller. This research conducted a static compacting test as an approach to match the compaction in the field. In this research cohesive soil was used as the soil sample. The compaction energy of the static method is normally not measured; hence this research is dedicated to developing a technique to obtaining the actual energy to enable the same energy as was done using the conventional dynamic test. Base on the Static Compaction Energy in the laboratory test, the maximum dry density and optimum water content sample can be best simulated the actual field compaction condition.

Anastasia Sri Lestari, Moh. Reinaldo, Lawrence Adrian, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo

A Sensitivity Parameters on Inelastic Response of Interaction Soil-Pile-Structure System Under Lateral Loading

Soil-structure interaction is the key to study the behavior of the structure under static or dynamic loading. The pile foundation is adopted to transfer the load from the structure to the soil when the structure is embedded in a weak soil stratum. Soil-pile system has a nonlinear behavior, thus, it is more complicated to understand. This study focuses on the numerical investigations of interaction soil–pile–structure system (ISPS) and interaction soil–pile system (ISP) under lateral loads. The nonlinear static analysis is carried out considering the lateral capacity of ISPS and ISP system under lateral loading using the pushover analysis, with a parametric study. The results show that in most cases, the lateral capacity of the fixed system is low compared to lateral capacity in ISPS system when increasing the axial load, pile diameter and length of the pile in all types of sand.

Khadidja Sekhri, Djarir Yahiaoui, Indra Sati Hamonangan Harahap

Greenfield Settlement of KVMRT SSP Line 2 in Kuala Lumpur Limestone Formation

Significant growth have been achieved in many major cities around the world. The demand of better connectivity through various transportation infrastructure has led to ever more reliance to underground space such as tunnels. Hence engineering-wise, a more reliable design reference will provide better ground movement estimation from the ground excavation. The instrument monitoring data for the Klang Valley Mass Rapid Transit (KVMRT-SSP) Line 2, Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur Limestone formation is presented in this paper to assess the magnitude of ground movement during tunnelling works. Back calculation of settlement trough width parameter, K and volume loss, VL are presented in this paper. Based on 13 arrays of ground settlement markers (GSM) records, the averaged back-calculated K is 0.9 whereas VL ranges from 0.16% to 0.21%. The information is useful for future tunnelling especially of similar ground characteristics in estimation of ground movement.

Noor Azlina Azhari, Hisham Mohamad

A State-of-the-Art Review on Green Roof Implementation

Green roofs are known as an effective and sustainable design tool to mitigate urban heat island (UHI) effects. Generally, green roofs can be categorized as intensive and extensive roofs based on their purpose, design and characteristics. Green roofs built with several different layers and thicknesses depending on the roof type, the aim of the design and/or weather conditions. This paper will review the application of green roof in Malaysia that can reduce indoor heat problem and promotes the energy saving among the public. Challenge towards the application, obstacles of the green roof technology, and future recommendations are also discussed. There is numerous study on the impact of thermal heat, which show that the green roof helps in reducing indoor temperature. However, from past research, most of the studies focused on commercial building and office building. Therefore, the idea of extending the use of green roof to Rest and Relaxation (R&R) building in Malaysia is suggested as it is known to be a massive public area which is suitable to introduce the benefit of the green roof.

Shafie Rahim, Siti Aminah Osman, Siti Fatin Mohd Razali, Mohd Reza Azmi, Muhamad Nazri Borhan, Azman Mohd Jais, Rohaya Abdullah, Suhayya Rofik

Effects of Bitumen Modification on Pavement Performance Subjected to High Vehicular Speed and Extreme Temperature Conditions: A Review

Bitumen plays an essential role in the performance of bituminous mixture. Being a viscoelastic material, it is significantly affected by temperature and loading conditions. In this review, the viscoelastic behavior of bitumen over an extended range of loading frequencies and temperatures was discussed with regards to rheological evaluations. Meanwhile, the mechanism of pavement failures when it is subjected to high vehicular speed and extreme weather conditions were also elaborated. Moreover, numerous attempts that have been made to mitigate the aforementioned consequences to improve bitumen performance were included in this article. Based on the rheological performance of bitumen, this study compares and analyzes the findings of various studies on bitumen modification. In conclusion, this study suggests the suitability of each modification for various loading frequencies and temperature conditions. Further studies were suggested to alleviate the drawbacks of modifiers, thereby improving the environmental and economic aspects of bitumen modification.

Abdul Muhaimin Memon, Muslich Hartadi Sutanto, Madzlan Napiah, Fadhli Wong, Mastura Bujang

Review on the Effect of Curing on Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixture

Cold Recycling Technology is known as one of the asphalt pavement rehabilitation techniques. It is conducted without heat being applied during the process of construction, thus considered to be more efficient and environmentally friendly. Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixture (CRAM) can be produced by introducing stabilising agent which typically involves curing process to allow the evaporation of the residual moisture which enhanced the development of targeted strength. The mechanical performance and properties of CRAM is much dependent on the condition of curing whilst the rate of curing determines its strength development. Laboratory curing temperatures ranges from ambient temperature for slow curing to 60 °C for accelerated curing condition and 1.0% to 2.0% residual moisture is the measure criteria for field curing. Therefore, this study is focussed on reviewing the impact of curing procedures and conditions on the performance of CRAM.

Saeed Modibbo Saeed, Muslich Hartadi Sutanto, Madzlan Napiah, Fadhli Wong, Mastura Bujang

Back-Analysis of Ground Movement Based on Displacement Matching Approach: A Case Study of Landslide at Bridge Abutment Using 3D Finite Element Method

Phenomena of slope movement were identified on the southern side of Penggaron Bridge, which is Abutment 2 (A2) and Pier 9 (P9), at the end of 2011. Geotechnical instrumentation gives a result that the landslide movement is instead directed toward the North-East direction. A common way of back-analysis is by assuming that the Safety Factor (SF) is equal to unity through a defined sliding plane. Nevertheless, the fact is that the movements are still limited, and the residual strength is to be determined. Hence, a three-dimensional landslide back-analysis is performed to assess the slope stability for such a particular condition. A new back-analysis approach, namely the displacement matching method, is introduced and briefly explained. The results show that the method is prospective to be used, especially for the assessment of the existing Safety Factor of the slope. This study gives a better illustration of the real safety factor.

Aflizal Arafianto, Paulus Pramono Rahardjo

Influence of Raw Precursor on Mechanical Strength and Durability of Geopolymer Pastes in Sulfates

Fly ash and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) were used individually as a precursor to produce geopolymer paste samples. Both of the raw precursor were then mixed with 12 M sodium hydroxide solution to produce a hardened pastes. The pastes were oven cured at 60 °C for 24 h before being ambient cured to its testing age which were 7, 14 and 28 days. The liquid to binder ratio of fly ash and POFA geopolymer pastes was 0.30 and 0.40 respectively. Compressive strength test and sorptivity test were conducted on both geopolymer pastes. Durability in MgSO4 and Na2SO4 solutions were also conducted where compressive strength was recorded at the end of the test. Fly ash geopolymer pastes were found to achieve higher compressive strength compared to POFA geopolymer pastes. It also performs better in both sulfate solutions with lower strength loss compared to POFA geopolymer. Therefore, it can be concluded that fly ash performs better as a raw precursor for geopolymer compared to POFA.

Mohamad Yusry Harman, Idawati Ismail, Yusuf Sahari

Critical Parameters for the Development of Web-Based Knowledge System for Low Volume Rural Roads in Sarawak

Low Volume Rural Roads serve as one of the key infrastructure projects for integrated rural development in Sarawak. This road is important to help promote development, improve the flow of goods and services and ensure good public health and education, as well as land and resource management support. The aim of this study is to identify the critical parameters for the development of a knowledge-based system for the design of Low Volume Rural Roads (LVRRs) in Sarawak. A total of eleven experts with more than 10 years of experience have been selected, particularly in the areas of low-volume road design, construction and planning. The questionnaire and feedback form were used to request knowledge from domain experts. According to the survey, experts agreed that all parameters, namely traffic loading, soil condition, type of terrain, geometric features and drainage, are important for the design of low-volume rural roads.

Ron Aldrino Chan @ Ron Buking, Muhamad Nazri Borhan, Riza Atiq Abdullah O. K. Rahmat, Wan Hashim Wan Ibrahim

Toward Applying Complexity Perspective on Travel Behaviour Research

The use of motorised mode is difficult to be reduced due to individuals’ constraints either time, social, and geographical constraints. Motorised mode offers a flexibility and more freedom in mobility for reaching more out-of-home activity locations spread out in the space dimension in an effort to satisfy travellers’ needs and desires. Moreover, trip-based analysis denies the influence of different activities, the interaction between activities and travels, and other individuals on people’s activity-travel behaviour. Complexity perspective offers the inclusion of methods such as time-space prism, psychological mechanism, lifestyle and mobility biography. The inclusion of various methods in the model might improve our understanding on travel behaviour research and might improve the prediction models.

Muhammad Ridwan Anas, Dimas B. E. Dharmowijoyo, Nindyo C. Kresnanto

The Use of Geotechnical Instrumentation and CPTu for Investigation of Geotechnical Failures During Construction in Civil Engineering Projects

It is important to do monitoring of works during construction of Civil Engineering Projects due to many aspects including for safety purposes and information on the performance of the on going activities. Many engineers have done so, however they have used them only as data reporting without providing any interpretation and understanding, hence the reports are meaningless; no further use on the collected data except when failures occur and it is too late to provide necessary action. In many cases, these data provide feedback for design and analysis assumption where designers may assess the performance of his own design, giving a chance to review and revise the dimensions or even to save when overdesigning or to strengthen if the design is critical. Based on these data, back analysis can be conducted to confirm the design. The geotechnical instrumentations have been used to measure pore water pressures (piezometers), surface settlement (settlement plate), subsurface settlement (extensometers), subsurface horizontal movement (inclinometers), inclinations of structures (tiltmeters), soil pressures (stress cell) etc. This paper represents experience of the authors’ works throughout many years of geotechnical projects on the use of the geotechnical instrumentation such as the case of slope failures and landslides, excavation, heave and excess pore pressures due to pile driving, bridge monitoring in landslides area, reclamation works etc. The first case history is on failures of sheetpiles on Soft Soils and the second case is on the damage of buildings due to mass driven piling works. Many lessons learned from these observations using instrumentation and many data were obtained to prove the assumptions or new findings enhancing the theory, but most important is the generated excess pore pressure monitored by the geotechnical instrumentations may reveal the cause of failures and most important role of geotechnical instrumentation to serve for the public safety.

Paulus P. Rahardjo, Bondan W. Anggoro

Factors that Affect Sustainability of Bridges in Jayapura

This study shows the factors that influence the sustainability of bridges in Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia. The primary data collection method uses a survey, which takes 48 samples of bridges in Jayapura city and its connecting areas through the provision of questionnaires as a means of collecting data for parties who need a bridge. The analysis in this research uses inferential analysis in the form of factor analysis to find out the forming variables that affect the sustainability of bridges in Jayapura. The results of this study found three factors that influence the sustainability of bridges in Jayapura namely; initial stages of project, socio-economic improvement, and the use of local resources.

Rezky Aprilyanto Wibowo, Christiono Utomo, Moh. Arif Rohman

Assessing Landslide Exposure from Soil Characteristics Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

The critically unstable slope may hinder conventional methods to be used since installing monitoring instruments on such slope may pose an unacceptable danger to the personnel and instruments involved. Due to this constraint, this study proposes a remote landslide monitoring system utilizing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) as the platform for data capture and ‘specialized’ close-range-photogrammetry (CRP) as the processing engine for the data processing comparison of DEMs observed from different epochs will indicate the magnitude of slope movement. The researchers will discuss in detail the equipment utilized and procedures that have been followed during the experiments. The entire experiment comprises of: i) determination of moisture content (oven-drying method), and ii) determination of the liquid limit (cone penetrometer method). The primary evidence of slope movement was a set of flow paths of water flowing from the top of the hill slopes, especially when it rained, causing the deposition of soil on the foot of the slope in Seri Iskandar, Perak.

Munirah Radin Mohd Mokhtar, Suriani Ngah Abdul Wahab, Khin Cho Myint

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