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2023 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

4. Impartiality Disclosure and Research Gap

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Abstract

SMIs may use impartiality disclosure, despite posting a sponsored post, in order to underline their “honest” support for a product they truly believe in. Impartiality disclosure may be able to diminish the negative effect caused by ad disclosure and furthermore gain additional credibility for SMIs. However, from the perspective of consumer protection “honest opinion” can represent a serious threat. This may come to pass as the content presented by the SMI as “honest”, may not be sincere, but sponsored. An SMI has more than one way of conveying impartiality, namely via hashtag or via text.

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Footnotes
1
Cf. ABDULLAHI (2020), p. 12; FTC (2015).
 
2
Cf. KIM/KIM (2020), p. 1.
 
3
Cf. DE VEIRMAN ET AL. (2019), p. 97.
 
4
Cf. SCHWARZ (2020); BVDW (2022).
 
5
Cf. ABDULLAHI (2020), p. 12.
 
6
Cf. FTC (2019); AUDREZET/DE KERVILER/MOULARD (2020), p. 600; FINK (2020), p. 195.
 
7
Cf. FTC (2014).
 
8
Cf. EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 138; KAY/MULCAHY/PARKINSON (2020), p. 3; PFEUFFER (2018), pp. 3 et seqq.
 
9
Cf. PFEUFFER (2018), pp. 2 et seqq.; DE VEIRMAN ET AL. (2019).
 
10
Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 199; FTC (2017b); FTC (2017e); WOJDYNSKI/EVANS (2016), p. 159.
 
11
Cf. INSTAGRAM (2017 A).
 
12
Cf. FTC (2017a); FTC (2017d); FTC (2017f).
 
13
Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 201.
 
14
Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 205.
 
15
Cf. INSTAGRAM (2017a).
 
16
Cf. ABDULLAHI (2020) pp. 12 et seq.
 
17
Cf. FTC (2019); EASA (2018a).
 
18
Cf. KUZEL (2021).
 
19
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 210.
 
20
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2019), p. 528; MARTÍNEZ-LÓPEZ ET AL. (2020), p. 1809.
 
21
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2019), p. 528; MARTÍNEZ-LÓPEZ ET AL. (2020), p. 1809.
 
22
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 211.
 
23
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), pp. 210 et seqq.
 
24
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), pp. 219.
 
25
Cf. FREBERG ET AL. (2011), p. 90. Definition “influencer marketing” in section A.2. above.
 
26
Sponsored posts” are defined by EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 139. as collaborations between brands and influencers in the form of social media posts.
Sponsored posts” are defined by BOERMAN (2020) p. 199, as “commercial social media posts”. The author states that the issue with sponsored posts, is that they resemble, mimic and blend with non-commercial posts. Thus, consumers often do not discern that influencer marketing is advertising. Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 199; EVANS ET AL. (2017); BOERMAN/WILLEMSEN/VAN DER AA (2017); HOOFNAGLE/MELESHINSKY (2015) pp. 2 et seq.; MEYER (2019).
 
27
Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 199.
 
28
See FORRESTER (2019).
 
29
STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 210.
 
30
Cf. STAISTA (2019 B)—Region Worldwide. Survey time period 2016 to 2018. Supplementary note: *2019 and 2020 are based on forecasts. Posts were included that contained hashtags such as #ad, #sponsored, #spon, and other popular tags indicating sponsored content. Figures were rounded.
 
31
Cf. STATISTA (2022b).
 
32
Cf. LATER/FOHR (2020), p. 41.
 
33
Cf. EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 139; JOHNSON (2019) p. 2.
 
34
Cf. KUZEL (2021).
 
35
Cf. EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 139.
 
36
Cf. JOHNSON (2019) p. 2.
 
37
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 211.
 
38
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 211.
 
39
Cf. MARTÍNEZ-LÓPEZ ET AL. (2020) p. 1810; BOERMAN ET AL. (2017); HWANG/JEONG (2016).
 
40
Cf. MARTÍNEZ-LÓPEZ ET AL. (2020), p. 1810.
 
41
Cf. FTC (2017a); FTC (2017d); FTC (2019); EASA (2018a); BVDW (2022).
 
42
Cf. PETTY/CACIOPPO, (1977), p. 7; HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 530; OBERMILLER/ SPANGENBERG (2000), pp. 311 et seq.
 
43
Cf. STUBB ET AL. (2019a), p. 118.
 
44
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 210.
 
45
Cf. KAY/MULCAHY/PARKINSON (2020), pp. 3 et seq., AUDREZET/DE KERVILER/MOULARD (2020), pp. 600 et seqq. The authors carried out a content analysis. To this end, they selected N = 36 SMIs and a sample of seven marketing campaigns, involving seven partner brands in the fashion and lifestyle industries. The research used qualitative methodology, including the examination of social media posts. The observational data was supplemented by n = 27 qualitative interviews with SMIs, that had previous experience in the industry. AUDREZET/DE KERVILER/MOULARD (2020) p. 600, pp. 12 et seq.
 
46
Cf. DE VEIRMAN ET AL. (2020), pp. 94 et seq.; HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 534.
 
47
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 529.
 
48
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 531.
 
49
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), pp. 528 et seqq.
 
50
Skepticism is defined by OBERMILLER ET AL. (2005) “the tendency toward disbelief of advertising claims”. Cf. PETTY / CACIOPPO, (1977), p. 7; HARDESTY ET AL. (2002), pp. 2 et seqq.; OBERMILLER ET AL. (2005), p. 310. Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 530.
 
51
Source credibility” is defined by OHANIAN (1990) as “a term commonly used to imply a communicator’s positive characteristics that affect the receiver’s acceptance of a message” OHANIAN (1990), p. 41. The source credibility model, identifies expertise, trustworthiness and attractiveness as major determinants of the persuasive effects of endorsers OHANIAN (1990), pp. 50 et seqq.; Cf. FINK (2020) p. 13.
 
52
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), pp. 532 et seqq.
 
53
Cf. HWANG/JEONG (2016), p. 532 The difference between the no disclosure condition and the “honest opinion” condition was not statistically significant.
 
54
Cf. DE VEIRMAN/HUDDERS (2020), p. 106.
 
55
Cf. DE VEIRMAN/HUDDERS (2020), pp. 107 et seqq.
 
56
Cf. DE VEIRMAN/HUDDERS (2020), pp. 108 et seqq.
 
57
Cf. DE VEIRMAN/HUDDERS (2020), pp. 117 et seq.
 
58
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), p. 213.
 
59
Persuasion knowledge is defined by FRIESTAD / WRIGHT (1994) as the knowledge that enables consumers to recognize, analyze, evaluate, and recall persuasion attempts. Further it permits consumers to perform comping tactics, perceived by them to be appropriate. FRIESTAD / WRIGHT (1994), p. 3; WEI ET AL. (2008), p. 35; KIM/KIM (2020) p. 3.
 
60
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), pp. 214 et seq.
 
61
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), pp. 215 et seqq.
 
62
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), pp. 216 et seqq.
 
63
Cf. STUBB/COLLIANDER (2019b), pp. 219 et seq.
 
64
Cf. ABDULLAHI (2020), p. 16.
 
65
Cf. ABDULLAHI (2020), p. 16.
 
66
Advertising skepticism is the predisposition to distrust advertising claims, ABDULLAHI (2020), p. 13.
 
67
Expertise is defined by HOVLAND/JANIS/ KELLEY (1953) and OHANIAN (1990) as the degree to which a communicator is viewed to be a source of sound and valid claims. OHANIAN (1990), p. 41.
 
68
Trustworthiness is defined by HOVLAND/JANIS/KELLEY (1953) and OHANIAN (1990) as the extent of confidence in the communicator’s intent to transmit the assertions they view as most valid. OHANIAN (1990), p. 41.
 
69
Attractiveness is defined by OHANIAN (1990) as the “communicator’s perceived attractiveness”. OHANIAN (1990), p. 39. In addition, the author clarifies the term by underlining the term as “physical attractiveness”: OHANIAN (1990), p. 42.
 
70
Cf. ABDULLAHI (2020), p. 14.
 
71
Cf. ABDULLAHI (2020), p. 19.
 
72
Cf. ABDULLAHI (2020), p. 20.
 
73
Cf. BOERMAN (2020), pp. 204 et seq.
 
74
Parasocial interaction (PSI) is defined by JIN/MUQADDAM (2019) p. 6 as “the feeling of companionship or illusion of friendship with media figures”. SOKOLOVA (2020), p. 4, expands upon HORTON / WOHL (1956). The theory of parasocial interaction defines the relationship between an onlooker and a performer as an illusion of intimacy, which thus takes the place of a genuine interpersonal relationship.
 
75
Cf. WEBSTER/WATSON (2002), pp. 39 et seqq.
 
76
Cf. APEJOYE (2013), p. 1.; MALIK/QURESHI (2016), p. 116; NIE/LIU (2021), p. 362.
 
77
Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 3.
 
78
See Attribution Theory, according to MOWEN/BROWN (1981), pp. 437 et seq; HEIDER (1958).
 
79
Cf. MOWEN/BROWN (1981), pp. 437 et seq; HEIDER (1958).
 
80
Cf. MOWEN/BROWN (1981), pp. 437 et seq; MOWEN ETAL. (1979); KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 3.
 
81
Cf. MOWEN/BROWN (1981) pp. 437 et seq.
 
82
Cf. MOWEN/BROWN (1981) p. 438.
 
83
See MOWEN/BROWN (1981), quantitative, questionnaire / booklet N = 993 USA midwest-students.
 
84
See TRIPP/JENSEN/CARLSON (1994), Quantitative, questionnaire / booklet with print ads as the stimuli, N = 493 USA students.
 
85
See CHEN ET AL. (2013), quantitative, online experiment N = 353.
 
86
Cf. TRIPP/JENSEN/CARLSON (1994); MOWEN/BROWN (1981); CHEN ET AL. (2013); KLEIN/BECKER (2018) conclude that MPE has a negative effect on trustworthiness, particularly for macro SMIs. Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 7.
 
87
Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018) MPE improves the attractiveness of the SMI.
 
88
Cf. MOEWEN/BROWN (1981) concede limitation due to their small sample of N = 99 and hence a lack of generalizability.
 
89
Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 4. Quantitative, online experiment, N = 1238. They observe three influencer types (micro, macro and celebrity) while considering and MPE vs. no MPE scenario, for advertising disclosure (no disclosure vs. hashtag vs standardized disclosure).
 
90
Cf. BORCHERS/HAGELSTEIN/BECKERT (2022), p. 984.
 
Metadata
Title
Impartiality Disclosure and Research Gap
Author
Corina Oprea
Copyright Year
2023
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-41364-4_4

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