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Published in: Environmental Management 6/2020

24-10-2020

Improving Long-term Monitoring of Contaminated Groundwater at Sites where Attenuation-based Remedies are Deployed

Authors: Miles E. Denham, Mark B. Amidon, Haruko M. Wainwright, Baptiste Dafflon, Jonathan Ajo-Franklin, Carol A. Eddy-Dilek

Published in: Environmental Management | Issue 6/2020

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Abstract

This study presents an effective approach to tackle the challenge of long-term monitoring of contaminated groundwater sites where remediation leaves residual contamination in the subsurface. Traditional long-term monitoring of contaminated groundwater sites focuses on measuring contaminant concentrations and is applicable to sites where contaminant mass is removed or degraded to a level below the regulatory standard. The traditional approach is less effective at sites where risk from metals or radionuclides continues to exist in the subsurface after remedial goals are achieved. We propose a long-term monitoring strategy for this type of waste site that focuses on measuring the hydrological and geochemical parameters that control attenuation or remobilization of contaminants while de-emphasizing contaminant-concentration measurements. We demonstrate how this approach would be more effective than traditional long-term monitoring, using a site in South Carolina, USA, where groundwater is contaminated by several radionuclides. A comprehensive enhanced attenuation remedy has been implemented at the site to minimize discharge of contamination to surface water. The immobilization of contaminants occurs in three locations by manipulation of hydrological and geochemical parameters, as well as by natural attenuation processes. Deployment of our proposed long-term monitoring strategy will combine subsurface and surface measurements using spectroscopic tools, geophysical tools, and sensors to monitor the parameters controlling contaminant attenuation. The advantage of this approach is that it will detect the potential for contaminant remobilization from engineered and natural attenuation zones, allowing potential adverse changes to be mitigated before contaminant attenuation is reversed.

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Metadata
Title
Improving Long-term Monitoring of Contaminated Groundwater at Sites where Attenuation-based Remedies are Deployed
Authors
Miles E. Denham
Mark B. Amidon
Haruko M. Wainwright
Baptiste Dafflon
Jonathan Ajo-Franklin
Carol A. Eddy-Dilek
Publication date
24-10-2020
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Environmental Management / Issue 6/2020
Print ISSN: 0364-152X
Electronic ISSN: 1432-1009
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-020-01376-4

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