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About this book

This book provides a roadmap for how police services can address incivility in the workplace and become more inclusive from the inside out. In the past few years policing has come under increased scrutiny due to a number of police-involved shootings and in-custody deaths, where systemic racism, the inability to effectively confront persons suffering from mental illness, and excessive use of force have been perceived by civil rights groups to play a significant factor. These deaths and the subsequent public outcry have led to various constituents questioning the legitimacy of the police. The book incorporates real stories of police officers and case studies of select police organizations. A look inside a number of these departments has identified an equal concern for incivility within the workplace in the form of gender and ethnic harassment and discrimination. The costs of workplace incivility can be significant as workplace victims are not only likely to decrease their work effort, quality of work, and their level of commitment to the organization, they are also likely to mistreat others in the workplace and to take their frustrations out on those they serve. While these costs have a significant impact for police organizations, incivility by police officers against members of the public can have a much greater impact in terms of eroding perceptions of police legitimacy.

This book takes a unique approach in providing a model for police organizations to pursue in becoming more inclusive. To this end, this book will be very relevant for police practitioners, reform advisors, researchers, and graduate-level course in special topics.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction: A Basis for Policing and Inclusion

Abstract
For many western societies, Sir Robert Peel’s principles have served as the framework for modern policing, beginning with the establishment of the London Metropolitan Police in 1829. Considered as relevant today as they were at their origin nearly two hundred years ago, Peel’s principles stipulate that the basic mission of the police is to prevent crime and disorder. The ability of the police to fulfill this mission is dependent on the cooperation and consent of the public, and the ability of the police to secure and maintain public trust and confidence. These principles require that the police provide service to all members of society without regard to race or social standing. Despite the many positive changes that have enhanced the professionalism of the police and introduced more modern management practices, attempts to reform the police may have inadvertently caused the police to move away from the spirit of Peel’s principles through bureaucratic structures, rigid performance management regimes and internal control mechanisms that reinforce the divide between the ranks and an “us against the world” mentality.
Angela L. Workman-Stark

Chapter 2. Understanding Police Culture

Abstract
Parts of the police culture may need to evolve in order to establish a more inclusive internal climate. Yet before seeking to influence a culture shift police leaders first need to understand it. This chapter provides an overview of the common descriptions of the police culture, how the culture might have changed over time and how new recruits are socialized. This chapter also highlights the types of cultures that tend to be found within policing as well as the different cultures that might emerge from one police organization to another. Excerpts from interviews with current and former serving police officers are also included to illustrate their experiences as they relate to key points discussed throughout this chapter.
Angela L. Workman-Stark

Chapter 3. Identity and Belonging in Policing

Abstract
Building on the discussion of police culture in Chap. 2, in this chapter I briefly explore the concept of identity before turning to a description of the police occupational identity, how it is shaped, how it might be threatened, and possible reactions to that threat. I also touch on the concept of organizational identification and the relevance of this concept today. While culture may be deemed as providing the necessary resources and scripts for individuals within an organisation [1794], identity is the image that is presented to others based on cultural expectations of behavior [56]. Consistent with other chapters, I also incorporate excerpts from interviews with police personnel to illustrate or reinforce key points.
Angela L. Workman-Stark

Chapter 4. Barriers to Inclusion

Abstract
There are all kinds of examples of men and women who have rewarding and positive careers in policing. They have a sense of belonging. They have opportunities for advancement and they are supported in their development. However, for a number of women, minority group members and even some white heterosexual men, there are numerous barriers that continue to prevent them from being fully included in the workplace. By understanding these barriers police leaders are in a much better position to make the necessary changes and improve the workplace experience.
Angela L. Workman-Stark

Chapter 5. Justice Climates in Police Organizations

Abstract
One of the consistent themes I have heard in my more than 24 years in policing is the issue of fairness in the workplace relating to how decisions are made about the distribution of work, developmental opportunities, promotions, performance evaluations, and discipline processes. Building on a brief introduction of organizational climate in Chap. 1, in this chapter I delve further into the concept of climate and its linkage with culture. Organizational climate is a reflection of the dominant norms and values of an organization’s culture, which influence employee behavior [58]. To create a fair and more inclusive environment police leaders can only successfully undertake change when the climate—what people experience, and the culture—what people believe the organization values, also change [70].
Angela L. Workman-Stark

Chapter 6. The Inclusive Police Organization and a Process for Change

Abstract
This chapter begins with definitions for diversity and the concept of inclusion, followed by a discussion of the benefits of each. Attributes of an inclusive police organization, along with an organization development model that depicts the evolutionary process from exclusive club to inclusive organization, are also discussed. This chapter concludes with the introduction of a process for facilitating change.
Angela L. Workman-Stark

Chapter 7. Establishing the Foundation for Change

Abstract
This chapter is focused on building a solid foundation for the change process. The various themes covered are generated from extensive research as well as personal experience with similar types of change. These include conducting the organization assessment, gaining leadership commitment, assessing readiness for change, and creating readiness for change through communication, employee involvement and change leadership.
Angela L. Workman-Stark

Chapter 8. Designing a Process of Change

Abstract
Police reforms have typically focused on the similarities between police officers rather than their differences, and top-down management control rather than rank and file participation. By approaching change in such a fashion opportunities have been lost to pursue different ways of managing—not all officers require the same amount of supervision, to engage police personnel in reform efforts, and to identify outstanding officers and learn from them [70]. Instead, reform efforts have generally assumed that all police personnel are the same, thereby promoting a one-size fits all model.
Angela L. Workman-Stark

Chapter 9. Inclusive Leadership

Abstract
This chapter begins with a description of inclusive leadership and the anticipated outcomes of more inclusive leadership practices. At the individual level, a starting point is greater self-awareness of the conscious and unconscious biases that are affecting decisions and judgments made about people in the workplace. This chapter also highlights inclusive team leadership, and more broadly the elements that will assist police leaders through the process of embracing a shift in leadership.
Angela L. Workman-Stark

Chapter 10. Monitoring and Evaluating Progress

Abstract
Designing an intervention plan, or even a few preliminary activities to start, takes a significant effort yet it is still just one part of the change process. Throughout this process of change organizational leaders need to openly communicate with employees on a timely basis, to seek their input and to share information about the implementation process; that is, letting people know if the change is going in the right direction and what goals might have been achieved.
Angela L. Workman-Stark

Chapter 11. Conclusion

Abstract
When I first assumed the role of overseeing the RCMP response to allegations of gender discrimination and harassment, I had no idea where the journey would take me. I never imagined that learning about the many unfortunate experiences of women who had been bullied, harassed and discriminated against would compel me to better understand what was actually happening below the surface. What I have learned through my interviews with serving and former police personnel, extensive research and working with police organizations, is that the issues extend beyond gender and cannot be fixed just by putting in place tough harassment policies and practices and increasing the numbers of women and minorities. The issues are much more deeply rooted.
Angela L. Workman-Stark
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