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2024 | Book

Indexing on Non-Volatile Memory

Techniques, Lessons Learned and Outlook


About this book

This book focuses on online transaction processing indexes designed for scalable, byte-addressable non-volatile memory (NVM) and provides a systematic review and summary of the fundamental principles and techniques as well as an outlook on the future of this research area.

In this book, the authors divide the development of NVM indexes into three “eras”— pre-Optane, Optane and post-Optane—based on when the first major scalable NVM device (Optane) became commercially available and when it was announced to be discontinued. The book will analyze the reasons for the slow adoption of NVM and give an outlook for indexing techniques in the post-Optane era.

The book assumes only basic undergraduate-level understanding on indexing (e.g., B+-trees, hash tables) and database systems in general. It is otherwise self-contained with the necessary background information, including an introduction to NVM hardware and software/programming issues, a detailed description of different indexes in highly concurrent systems for non-experts and new researchers to get started in this area.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction
This chapter gives an introduction to the topics covered by this book, in particular the overall vision of byte-addressable non-volatile memory (NVM) and its impact on database indexing.
Kaisong Huang, Tianzheng Wang
Chapter 2. NVM Hardware and Software
This chapter provides the necessary background on NVM hardware, how it fits in modern computer systems and the way software can program it.
Kaisong Huang, Tianzheng Wang
Chapter 3. A Primer on Database Indexing
This chapter introduces the basics of indexing for OLTP databases. We will start with the overall concept of indexing and discuss indexes commonly used by OLTP systems, in particular trees and hash tables. Readers already familiar with these topics may skim and fast forward to later chapters.
Kaisong Huang, Tianzheng Wang
Chapter 4. Range Indexes on Non-Volatile Memory
In this chapter, we survey range indexes built for non-volatile memory. They are typically built on top of B+-trees, tries, or a hybrid of both. Our discussion will focus on the additional features and necessary modifications tailored for NVM on top of conventional indexes.
Kaisong Huang, Tianzheng Wang
Chapter 5. Hash Tables on Non-Volatile Memory
This chapter surveys hashing techniques for NVM. Hash tables on NVM also have to depart from traditional in-memory or on-disk hashing architectures to consider NVM’s properties, such as limited endurance and lower performance compared to DRAM.
Kaisong Huang, Tianzheng Wang
Chapter 6. Summary
This chapter summarizes the previously discussed techniques following several dimensions and distills useful design principles that can be useful for building indexes on NVM and DRAM/SSDs in general.
Kaisong Huang, Tianzheng Wang
Chapter 7. Lessons Learned and Outlook
This final chapter discusses the “lessons learned” from previous research on NVM indexing and gives an outlook to future NVM indexing and indexing techniques in general. We analyze the potential reasons for the demise of Optane PMem, followed by the “legacy” left by NVM-based indexes discussed in previous chapters, and potential future work.
Kaisong Huang, Tianzheng Wang
Indexing on Non-Volatile Memory
Kaisong Huang
Tianzheng Wang
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Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

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