Skip to main content

2022 | Book

Industry 4.0, China 2025, IoT

The Hype Around the World of Automation


About this book

The book gives an overview about automation technology over the last 50 years, based on my own experiences. It is a good summery for automation since 1970 for all who want to know about the context of automation developments and their standards. It is a fundamental summery and enables the reader to get experience in the complex field of automation.

In detail the question is arised, whether Industry 4.0, China 2025, IoT, AI are a revolution or more an evolution of timewise established availbale technologies in HW, SW and algorithms. Is the hype about Industry 4.0 justified or not?

In that context a timelline since 1970 ist shown for AI, ANN, essential milestones in automation, e.g OSI-model, automation pyramid, standards for bus systems, main SW-languages, robots, AI, ANN, pattern recognittion, Ethernet, the 12 most important international field busses, their main features and characterisitcs, foundation of committees, harmonization and standardization efforts, OPC UA and cloud computing, field devices, PLCs, SCADA, MES, ERP and automation history.

All that history is seen in the context of µ-controller, DSP (Digital signal processor), FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays), ASICs (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit) , Chip on Board. It is include the HW-history, from Intel 8080 to octuple multicore processors. In the same way it is shown the history of field device out from laboratory into the field with all difficulties and benefits of that transition. The issues are summerized in a pyramid of complexity. Requirements for robustness and safety are shown for field devices.

In the same way it is shown the development of mainframes, workstations and PC’s. SAP a leading ERP System is explained in mor detail. Specially it is figured out how SAP works and what has to be considered in working with such kind of system. The differences between MES- and ERP-systems are discussed, specially also for future combined SAP/MES systems.

Explained are the problems of middlesized companies (SMEs) in dealing with Industry 4.0 and automation.

Further examples are given and discussed for automized quality control in automotvie, PCB-handling, CIGS (Solar cell)-production. Also shown is the upgrade for older products and make them ready for automation standards. In detail the history oft he modern robotics is shown for the automotive industry. In summery also is figured out the Industry 5.0 which is just coming up more and more.

Table of Contents

1. Motivation: Why This Book
Cobbler, stick to your last’ is an old saying that holds a lot of truth. This also applies to Industry 4.0 ‘Made in China’ 2025, IoT (IIoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) – all of which are buzzwords of the modern age and have been turned into hype by politicians and industry. However, Industry 4.0, China 2025, IoT and AI only embody what had already evolved over many years in the history of automation and technology. The aim of this book is to provide an insight of automation technology over the last 50 years and to counteract the hype that politicians are making of these topics today. It attempts to give the reader a comprehensive overview of automation technology so that he understands how to classify and communicate the facts correctly. It should make him an expert, who can participate factually and profoundly in discussions on this topic. However, I am particularly interested in contributing my more than 40 years of experience in the field of automation as well as in deepening the current events with many examples I have experienced myself.
Wolfgang Babel
2. Industry 4.0, China 2025, IoT (Internet of Things), AI
This chapter gives an overview of automation technology since 1970 until 2020 and its future. In particular, it addresses the question of what is Industry 4.0 (Sect. 2.1.1), ‘Made in China 2025’, IoT (IIoT) and AI (Artificial Intelligence), a hype or simply the systematic further development of evolutionary automation technology for more than 50 years. Most importantly, it explains how to view the interdependence of these three programs and how to manage the buzzword policy. Among other things, the four different industrial revolutions and their interdependencies are discussed in more detail. This topic is also applicable to Artificial Intelligence (AI), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Pattern Recognition and Robotics, which also have a history of more than 50 years and are interdependent. Exemplary model building from brain to mathematical model and its learning procedure is explained as well as compared with conventional polynomial classifiers. A typical PLC hardware module of an artificial neural network is shown. The topic of predictive maintenance and its special features, including model building, is also explained in detail using an example. Here, too, the learning procedure of a ‘predictor’ is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the histories of the development of software languages and architectures, from assembler to FORTRAN, C, C++ and STEP 7 are shown, which have always been a decisive factor of all technological progress in automation in connection with ever more powerful μ-controllers, signal processors and computer architectures.
Wolfgang Babel
3. Automation and Quality Control in Industry 4.0
After we have already looked at some of the contexts for the new hype Industry 4.0, ‘Made in China 2025’, IoT and the world of automation a little more closely in Chaps. 1 and 2, we will delve into the development of automation in recent decades in Chap. 3. Specifically, we deal with quality control, which is relevant to the topic of Industry 4.0, ‘Made in China 2025’ and IoT (IIoT- Industrial Internet of Things) in terms of automation. In this context, due to the complexity analytical measurement technology was and is usually the last link in the automation chain of a factory, which has taken the step from the laboratory to the running production line. Due to physical and chemical boundary conditions, it will be shown which parameters of the transition of measurement technology from the laboratory to the field have had a decisive influence on progress and are still decisive: EMC, CE, radio approvals, IP protection types, explosion protection and SIL (Safety Integrity Level) required enormous development efforts in order to develop automation technology components for tough use in the factory or in the process. The chronological introduction of analytical measurement technology in relation to physical parameters is shown very clearly. A complexity pyramid of automation from the laboratory to the process with regard to applied industry-specific technologies represents the different degrees of difficulty of introducing products into inline and online production.
Wolfgang Babel
4. Automation Pyramid and Solutions Business
In 4.1 of Chap. 4 deals with solution selling or consultative value selling: With increasing automation and complexity of field devices, ‘solution selling’ or ‘consultative value selling’ developed over the decades as a new sales and engineering tool to realize customer solutions efficiently and to customer satisfaction. The eight most important phases of solution selling and their focus compared to pure product selling are presented in detail and shown in an example. A typical questionnaire for the solution sale of a device into strip electroplating is shown. Likewise, an ROI (Return On Investment) calculation and the contractual principles for a solution sale are explained in more detail using an example. Especially in automation technology these principles have to be applied to be successful. In 4.2 to 4.7 of Chap. 4, the automation pyramid, which has been valid in automation technology since 1985, is explained in detail, from the ERP level (4.3) to the MES (4.4), SCADA (4.5), PLC levels (4.6) and finally to the field level (4-7) (based on the OSI model from 1983). In detail, the automation pyramid defines the standardized vertical and horizontal communication structures and networking topologies in automation. Each level is discussed in detail using examples. The history and special features of SAP as one of the leading ERP systems are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the history of the increasing complexity of field devices over the last 40 years is explained in detail on the basis of analytical measurement technology and physical parameters (pressure, level, flow and temperature) with regard to their integration into automation. In particular, the automation history and the individual development stages of the pH sensor, a very difficult analytical measurement technology parameter with regard to environmentally compatible design, are explained. Likewise, future new sensor technologies are pointed out. Finally, an example of a ‘smart factory’ or ‘Factory 4.0’ from the year 2000 is shown, which does not show any significant differences to the existing hype ‘Industry 4.0’, ‘Made in China 2025’ and IoT and clearly expresses that it is an evolution despite all progress to date.
Wolfgang Babel
5. Fieldbuses, Communication Protocols, User Interfaces, Hardware ASICs
After we have dealt in detail with the five different levels of the automation pyramid, this chapter explains the communication structures and networking topologies within the automation pyramid. The fieldbus distribution for the year 2020 is shown and its future trend explained. The savings of fieldbus instrumentation compared to traditional ‘cabling’ (4…20 mA) are compared. Similarly, the advantages and disadvantages of fieldbus networking are discussed and compared in detail. The OSI model (Open Systems Interconnection model), which is the basis of almost all wired and wireless bus systems and fieldbuses, is explained in detail. Furthermore, the 19 standardized fieldbus families are introduced and discussed under the aspect of real-time capability. In particular, the most common as well as the most important fieldbuses and bus systems used for vertical and horizontal communication in automation today are discussed. These are: Ethernet, Ethernet TCP/IP, EtherNet/IP, EtherCAT, PROFINET, CC-Link, PROFIBUS, HART, WirelessHART, WLAN/WiFi, Bluetooth, Modbus, CAN Bus, IO-Link, and OPC UA. Each of these fieldbuses and bus systems is explained in detail with regard to its history, technology and performance, hardware realization (ASIC’s), its relation to the OSI model and its protocol or frame. In particular, for OPC UA (Open Platform Communication Unified Architecture), an example in the solar industry for modern cloud computing is also shown and discussed. Furthermore, a historical overview for the harmonization efforts and the emergence of each fieldbus body from Ethernet Working Group IEEE 802, PNO, PI, HCF, FDT JIIG etc. up to the OPC UA Foundation and the ODVA. The work of the committees regarding the consolidation of fieldbuses and bus systems is explained in detail. Another focus is the FDT/DTM concept, which is increasingly used as a standardization tool in the SCADA/HMI level (control room) in process and factory automation and is now indispensable in modern asset management. The introduction and standardization of this concept is a particularly good example of the trends and consolidation efforts of the various committees.
Wolfgang Babel
6. History of Smaller Companies Regarding Industry 4.0, China 2025, IoT
In this chapter deals with the approach of smaller medium-sized companies in automation. The reasons and failures of many companies in the last decades in automation are shown. In particular, a typical example is used to illustrate the mistakes made by many companies in the past with regard to automation and how these weaknesses can be countered in the future. Furthermore, two examples are used to show how older generations of equipment can be retrofitted for automation from the point of view of Inline and Online quality control. One example in particular will address the aspect of how misapplications in automation can occur due to customer behavior and how this phenomenon can be counteracted.
Wolfgang Babel
7. Automation of the Automotive Industry in Fast Motion: Robotics
In this chapter, the automotive sector in particular is examined with regard to automation, since this industry has shaped and driven automation at the forefront of technology in every era. This applies to the use of robots and the modernization of networking topologies with the corresponding fieldbuses (PROFINET, PROFIBUS) in recent decades and goes back to Henry Ford with his legendary Model T. The focus is on both the history of the automotive industry and the rapid development of robotics technology in this industry. In this context, the history of robots is presented in depth, which has shaped automation to a great extent since 1970, although the origins of the robot can already be traced back to 1954. As an example, the automated use in the automotive industry of terahertz technology for future multi-layer paint measurement is shown. In particular, it will be discussed which boundary conditions have to be taken into account for such complex systems in automation and where the difficulties of realization are to be seen.
Wolfgang Babel
8. Chronology of Automation Technology Since 1970
After many individual dates and connections have been shown in the course of the book, in this chapter once again deals with a compilation of the most important dates in the history of automation since 1970 in the form of a time table. In doing so, contemporary events are divided into the following sections. AI, Artificial Neural Networks, programming languages-from robotics to the automation pyramid to Industry 4.0, Made in China 2025, IoT (IIoT-Industrial Internet of Things), fieldbus and bus systems – from Ethernet to OPC UA, committee formations – from Ethernet IEEE to EtherCAT Technology Group, FDT JIG and the OPC UA Foundation, field devices and automation – from the SIEMENS S3 to the Pilz PLC with IP67, hardware development and its influence on automation – from the Intel 8080 to the ARM A76, mainframes, workstations, and PCs – from the PDP-1 to the Apple iMac. Furthermore, the development of μ-controllers, Digital Signal Processors (DSP), ASIC’s (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) and FPGA’s (Field Progammable Gate Array) as well as multi-core processors and their permanently growing performance is shown in detail, which ultimately, paired with the most modern software technologies and software architectures, embodies the current state of automation technology. The influence of the different hardware development stages on the components of the field level, PLC, SCADA/HMI and MES level of the automation pyramid is also shown, with the emphasis on quality control from the laboratory to the field. Each time period is brought and discussed in relation to Industry 4.0, ‘Made in China 2025’, IoT (IIoT: Industrial Internet of Things)) and AI. Finally all timetables in that Chapter are summerized in an overview chart and the main interdependencies between the topics are explained in a clear form.
Wolfgang Babel
Industry 4.0, China 2025, IoT
Wolfgang Babel
Copyright Year
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

Premium Partner