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About this book

Explore the current state of the production, processing, and manufacturing industries and discover what it will take to achieve re-industrialization of the former industrial powerhouses that can counterbalance the benefits of cheap labor providers dominating the industrial sector. This book explores the potential for the Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), and Smart Factory technologies to replace the still largely mechanical, people-based systems of offshore locations.

Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things covers Industry 4.0, a term that encapsulates trends and technologies that could rewrite the rules of manufacturing and production.

What You'll Learn:What are the Industrial Internet and Industrial Internet of Things

Which technologies must advance to enable Industry 4.0

What is happening today to make that happen

What are examples of the implementation of Industry 4.0

How to apply some of these case studies

What is the potential to take back the lead in manufacturing, and the potential fallout that could result

Who This Book is For:

Business futurists, business strategists, CEOs and CTOs, and anyone with an interest and an IT or business background; or anyone who may have a keen interest in how the future of IT, industry and production will develop over the next two decades.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to the Industrial Internet

Many industrial leaders forecast that the Industrial Internet will deliver unprecedented levels of growth and productivity over the next decade. Business leaders, governments, academics, and technology vendors are working together in order to try to harness and realize this huge potential.
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 2. Industrial Internet Use-Cases

The potential for the Industrial Internet is vast with opportunities spread over wide areas of productivity, such as logistics, aviation, transportation, healthcare, energy production, oil and gas production, and manufacturing. As a result, many use-cases will make industry executives wake up and consider the possibilities of the IIoT. After all, industry only requires a minimal shift in productivity to deliver huge revenue, an example is that even an increase of 1% of productivity can produce huge revenue benefits such as aviation fuel savings. In order to realize these potential profits, industry has to adopt and adjust to the Industrial Internet of Things.
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 3. The Technical and Business Innovators of the Industrial Internet

The advances in sensor technologies in recent times have been driven by the advent of high-speed and low-cost electronic circuits, a change in the way we approach signal processing, and corresponding advances in manufacturing technologies. The coming together of these new developments in these synergetic fields has allowed sensor designers and manufacturers to take a completely novel approach, such as introducing intelligence for self-monitoring and self-calibration, thereby increasing the performance of their technical products. Similarly, the advances in sensor manufacturing technologies facilitate the production of systems and components with a low cost-to-performance ratio. This includes advances in microsystem technologies, where manufacturers are increasingly adopting techniques such as surface and bulk micromachining. Furthermore, initiatives exploring the potential in the field of digital signal processing involve novel approaches for the improvement of sensor properties. These improvements in sensor performance and quality mean that multi-sensor systems, which are the foundation of the Industrial Internet, can significantly contribute to the enhancement of the quality and availability of information. Due to these initiatives and an innovative approach by designers, this has led to new sensor structures, manufacturing technologies, and signal processing methods in individual and multi-sensor systems. However, it is the latest trends in sensor technology that have the most relevance in the Industrial Internet and these are the miniaturization of sensors and components, the widespread use of multi-sensor systems, and the increasing availability of radio wireless and autonomous sensors.
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 4. IIoT Reference Architecture

The Industrial Internet is reliant on the structure of M2M technology. Sometimes, it is older established technologies and practices that have been around for decades, that can spark innovation, and as a result, IIoT’s architecture is often seen as a natural evolution of M2M. This is particularly true within manufacturing, which is the biggest user of IIoT technology, primarily due to its long history with machine automation, robotics, and M2M communication and cooperation.
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 5. Designing Industrial Internet Systems

Transducers (sensors and actuators) are the fundamental core of any M2M or IIoT architecture. They are the edge devices of any system and allow us to sense and manipulate our environment. However, transducers are only viable when they can communicate with other devices or a central processing machine and to do that they need to be interconnected.
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 6. Examining the Access Network Technology and Protocols

In the previous chapter, we had to consider many diverse technologies and protocols that are in use today in Industrial Internet scenarios. However, thankfully within the access network segment we are on far more traditional network territory with long-established and dominant technologies and protocols. Therefore, in this chapter we will look briefly at the communications technologies that are likely to be implemented in an Industrial Internet deployment and the corresponding protocols and applications that are deployed as middleware to facilitate the specific requirements for some Industrial Internet use-cases.
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 7. Examining the Middleware Transport Protocols

With regard to the connectivity between devices in the proximity edge network and communication between the operational and management domain, we have to bear in mind that diverse protocols and layer-1 physical electrical characteristics will differ. As an example, we might well have, in a manufacturing plant, many devices connected by diverse technologies such as Bluetooth, ZigBee, or even Ethernet. The problem is to integrate those protocols so that it is transparent to the systems. We discussed gateways earlier, but they introduce latency, jitter, and potential packet loss.
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 8. Middleware Software Patterns

The Industrial Internet requires real-time detection and reaction if it is going to work in time-critical environments, such as controlling machinery on a production line or monitoring the status of medical equipment connected to patients in a hospital. Therefore, the applications in the operations and management domain must receive notification of any change in status—crossing a predetermined threshold—immediately. This is also desirable in the world of the consumer IoT; however, with so many sensors to monitor, how can we do this?
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 9. Software Design Concepts

The Industrial Internet will require the convergence of mobile and social devices, the cloud, and Big Data analytics to be successful. The traditional M2M architecture used was based on the principles of the SOA, and now with the introduction of the IIoT, SOA is more important than ever for delivering services, providing insight, and integrating systems. By applying service-oriented architecture principles to IIoT architecture, a business can manage and govern business and IT transformation. The benefits range from the seamless integration of machines, devices, and services, as well as cloud-enabled software, infrastructure, and platforms for services and solutions, which provides for holistic business insight. SOA also provided the agility to externalize APIs. SOA integrates the domains of the IIC reference architecture, such as the control (OT), operations, and enterprise (IT) domains, among others, with the Internet of Things.
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 10. Middleware Industrial Internet of Things Platforms

In the previous chapters, we discussed some of the many diverse communication and wireless protocols, technologies, and software patterns available to designers when building IIoT solutions. As we have seen, there is no one solution for every situation so in most cases we will have to deploy several protocols and technologies to meet requirements and then integrate them in some way. For example, in the proximity network we may find a mixture of legacy and modern technologies; some may for example not support IP or the wireless technologies that we favor in our design so we will have to mix and match technologies. This type of design is referred to as a heterogeneous design as it supports several if not many diverse protocols, technologies, and software patterns.
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 11. IIoT WAN Technologies and Protocols

The core difference between M2M and the IIoT architectures is the interaction with the Internet. The Internet connectivity allows M2M systems located in remote locations to communicate beyond their natural boundaries. This facilitates collaboration among devices, customers, partners, and supply chains around the globe.
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 12. Securing the Industrial Internet

Security is one of the biggest inhibiters to adoption of the Industrial Internet, the deep-seated fear of opening up industrial processes to potential disruption or the loss of critical business secrets to the Internet strikes deep. Traditionally, industrial networks have managed to remain immune to most of the scourges of the Internet such as viruses, worms, Trojans and DDos attacks, simply because their architecture and protocols are so different from IT enterprises and consumer computer devices.
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 13. Introducing Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0’s provenance lies in the powerhouse of German manufacturing. However the conceptual idea has since been widely adopted by other industrial nations within the European Union, and further afield in China, India, and other Asian countries. The name Industry 4.0 refers to the forth industrial revolution, with the first three coming about through mechanization, electricity, and IT.
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 14. Smart Factories

If we look at how Industry 4.0 will work in theory, we can see that everything from the supply chain, business models, and processes are there to provide the Smart Factory. Similarly, all the external interfaces from supply chain partners, smart grids, and even social media conceptually have the smart factory at the hub—it is the sun around which other processes orbit.
Alasdair Gilchrist

Chapter 15. Getting From Here to There: A Roadmap

In order for businesses to adapt to the concepts of the Industrial Internet, they need to realize the company’s current position regarding their processes, procedures, philosophy, strategy, and current technologies in relation to the level of adaptation they wish to achieve. Then there is the thorny issue of the actual means to achieve that objective. A common question arises, “how do we get from where we are now to where we want to be”?
Alasdair Gilchrist

Backmatter

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