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About this book

Information technologies have evolved to an enabling science for natural resource management and conservation, environmental engineering, scientific simulation and integrated assessment studies. Computing plays a significant role in the every day practices of environmental engineers, natural scientists, economists, and social scientists. The complexity of natural phenomena requires interdisciplinary approaches, where computing science offers the infrastructure for environmental data collection and management, scientific simulations, decision support, documentation and reporting. Ecology, environmental engineering and natural resource management comprise an excellent real-world testbed for IT system demonstration, while presenting new challenges for computer science. Complexity, uncertainty and scaling issues of natural systems constitute a demanding application domain for modelling, simulation and scientific workflows, data management and reporting, decision support and intelligent systems, distributed computing environments, geographical information systems, heterogeneous systems integration, software engineering, accounting systems, control systems, as well as sustainable manufacturing and reverse logistics. This books offers a collection of papers presented at the 6th International Conference on Environmental Engineering, held in July 2013, in Lüneburg, Germany. Recent success stories in ecoinformatics, promising ideas and new challenges are discussed among computer scientists, environmental engineers, industrial engineers, economists and social scientists, demonstrating new paradigms for problem solving and decision making.

Table of Contents


Research Paper


Influence of Environmental Protection Requirements on Object-Oriented Software Design

The questions of environmental impact that company produce take important place nowadays. The ISO 14064-1 [1] standard specifies principles and requirements for monitor and control the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals. These requirements can be met by optimizing companies business processes (production, logistic, etc.) and by decreasing the power consumption of the companies’ equipments. As side effect of these changes, the total costs of companies can be decreased as well. Companies’ data centres and servers consume more than half of total spent electricity power. These servers are mostly used by companies’ software systems. Hence, if the software systems require less calculation time, less space, there will be no requirements to keep the big energy consuming servers, and the most of tasks can go in cloud as well. Hence, the environmental protection requirements should be considered in developing software systems for companies. In this paper, we aim to give some literature review and propose the research on the topic.
Marat Abilov, Jorge Marx Gómez

Impact of Design on the Sustainability of Mobile Applications

Within the context of a consumer, who is anywhere contactable via mobile phone or a mobile access to the internet and his fast changing needs, it becomes more and more important to create a balance in the product-life-cycle. With regard to the design and sustainability of software the requirements to a programmer and the department of information technology in a company are getting higher, especially on mobile Applications (Apps) for mobile devices. The paper aims to explain what makes a good design for Apps and which types of Apps exist. Afterwards a description of the characteristics of a sustainable designed App and a comparison between Apple Design versus Metro Style (was changed due to copyright issues to “Windows 8-style UI”) follows. In connection to the environmental friendliness of Apps it is to be recorded that material and energy have to be saved everywhere it is possible. Developers have the responsibility to create applications in a way that is as efficient as possible. The design of an App can be updated with just one mouse click which is far easier than updating hardware, because hardware can’t be updated and has to be completely exchanged. The update principle is an important step towards sustainability. Software does not really pollute the environment but there is a kind of virtual pollution of the environment.
Hans-Knud Arndt, Bartosz Dziubaczyk, Matthias Mokosch

Investigating the Promotional Effect of Green Signals in Sponsored Search Advertising Using Bayesian Parameter Estimation

Over the last years we have observed a remarkable shift of media spendings from offline brand building activities to online performance advertising as well as a noticeable increase in “green marketing” efforts and sustainability communication by companies of various branches. In this paper we bring these two research streams together. We develop and perform a non reactive A/B-test that enables us to evaluate the influence of sustainability information on the customers decision to buy a product by clicking on an ad on a search engine results page (SERP). We analyze campaign performance data from a European e-commerce retailer, apply a Bayesian parameter estimation to compare the two groups, and discuss the implications of the results.
Tobias Blask

DialogueMaps: Supporting Interactive Transdisciplinary Dialogues with a Web-Based Tool for Multi-layer Knowledge Maps

In environmental engineering, experts from different disciplines and with diverse backgrounds and responsibilities need to cooperate. As they tackle problems important to society and practice, this type of cooperation can be characterized as transdisciplinary. In transdisciplinary settings, the actors involved bring together theory, models and knowledge from different disciplines. In order to integrate this knowledge and to create a better understanding of the complex issues under consideration, experts can use methods like knowledge mapping. Compared to other methods used in environmental engineering, knowledge maps are based on a lower degree of formalization. In this article, we derive requirements for a method and a tool for supporting the interactive creation of knowledge maps in groups from theory and from existing methods related to environmental engineering. Based on these requirements, we describe the concept of a new method and a supporting tool called DialogueMaps. This tool is web-based and aims at supporting transdisciplinary interactive dialogues for developing multi-layer knowledge maps.
Paul Drews, Arno Sagawe

The Role of ICT in Green Logistics: A Systematic Literature Review

This chapter provides a systematic literature review of the field of Green Logistics with a focus on the role of ICT (Information and Communication Technology). It is based on 51 papers in international peer-reviewed journals and conferences. We analyze and cluster the papers in different areas, like Logistics category, ICT category and research methodology. Moreover, we identify different Information Systems used in Green Logistics and extract potential benefits of the use of ICT for Green Logistics and unsolved research problems. With this, information gaps in current research are determined and recommendations for further research are presented.
Volker Frehe, Frank Teuteberg

Green Big Data: A Green IT/Green IS Perspective on Big Data

Big Data is recently used as a keyword to discuss technologies and methods which should enable the processing of big, fast growing, in many cases weak structured amounts of data, which cannot or limited be analysed with traditional approaches. This publication is aiming at the analysis of connections between concepts which are relevant in the context of Big Data and those, playing a role in Green IS in order to systematically utilize findings from the field of Big Data for Environmental Management Information Systems. We explore in a Green IT perspective, if already resource-efficient Big Data applications are discussed and in how far Big Data concepts can be applied for the design of resource-efficient business processes.
Thomas Hansmann, Burkhardt Funk, Peter Niemeyer

Conceptualizing the Quantification of the Carbon Footprint of IT-Services

This paper focuses on conceptualizing the quantification of the Carbon Footprint of IT-Services (CFIS). Initially, the increasing relevance of Carbon Footprint to the IS-community is pointed out. Based on literature review, we present related work that describes underlying concepts e.g. the Carbon Footprint of Products, Life Cycle Assessment as well as IT energy and performance measurement. We apply a transfer-oriented approach (design science) to propose a methodological framework for CFIS that is based on the phases of Life Cycle Assessment, and furthermore provide an example for the calculation. To our opinion the conceptualization of CFIS is an inevitable step to advance Green IS, since it quantifies dependencies between IT-Services, IT energy consumption and related greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the paper contributes to the IS community by providing an applicable and novel method to IT-Service providers for calculating the CFIS and by identifying further important research directions in this field.
Daniel Grimm, Björn Schödwell, Koray Erek, Ruediger Zarnekow

Using Key Performance Indicators and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis to Compare the Sustainability of Mobility

This work is a result of the increasing social awareness around the term of sustainable mobility. It identifies the mayor problems in current solutions and comes up with a foundation for solving these problems. According to the authors, the basic problem can be found within the increasingly complex and immeasurable system of mobility. A foundation is provided by making heterogeneous alternatives for mobility (transportation modes) comparable in the context of sustainability, while putting heavy emphasis on the ecological dimension of it. The key to a successful comparison of such transportation modes is stated as the selection of semantically suitable key performance indicators (KPI) and a reasonable decision analysis method, which will be covered throughout this work. A healthy set of KPIs is selected by considering various existing indicators, like indicators for measuring resource consumption or air pollution. This work provides a method for comparing the relative sustainability of multiple modes of personal transportation by using key performance indicators and the multi-criteria decision analysis method PROMETHEE II. Some possible practical use cases which are able to create real world added value are introduced by the authors as well.
Sven Kölpin, Daniel Stamer, Benjamin Wagner vom Berg

Developing a Maturity Assessment Model for IT-Supported Energy Management

Maturity assessment modelling is a recognised instrument in both academic and business domains which has recently become the focus of discussion in connection with sustainable information and communication technology. At the same time, the acceptance of Corporate Environmental Information Systems (CEMIS) in the corporate world remains modest, and CEMIS continue to be confronted with various problems. Against this background, a maturity assessment model for IT-supported environmental management will be developed with the aim of incentivising companies to deploy CEMIS and thus increase its usage in the corporate domain. The long-term goal is to fundamentally shift the status of environmental management so that it is no longer viewed as being passive, non-integrated and often costly, but rather as being a strategic instrument whose potential can be systematically exploited with the help of a maturity assessment model. The development of maturity assessment models will first be illustrated with the help of a process model. As the development of a maturity assessment model for environmental management in general represents an extremely comprehensive undertaking, application of the model developed here will be explored in the limited context of energy management and planned implementation within a corporate network.
Christian Manthey, Thomas Pietsch

Accounting and Modeling as Design Metaphors for CEMIS

The terms accounting and modeling both characterize the theoretical background of core components of corporate environmental management information systems (CEMIS). On the one hand, a CEMIS as a computer-based environmental management accounting system; on the other, we emphasize the role of modeling and calculation. With regard to an analysis of materials and energy flows and stocks of organizations and supply chains, accounting and modeling seem to be synonyms. However, in a software development perspective, accounting and modeling can be interpreted as different design metaphors. The aim of this contribution is to design images for computer-based CEMIS in the two perspectives. As a result, an CEMIS should be both a software tool supporting modeling activities and an information system supporting decision making.
Andreas Moeller

Operational Integration of EMIS and ERP Systems

The reference architecture of [10] integrates environmental management information systems (EMIS) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems in a holistic and long-term oriented environmental manner. Building on this architecture, we developed an extended framework to operationally integrate EMIS and ERP systems. Our proposed framework goes beyond prior specifications as it offers a semi-automatic approach to model ERP information (such as production orders) as a material flow network in which each transition represents an operation of the production process.
Florian Nottorf, Andreas Mastel

Enterprise Architectures for Addressing Sustainability Silos

A need exists for behaviour change and transparency in modern organisations where the focus needs to shift towards sustainability thinking rather than just sustainability reporting for compliance reasons. The number of organisations which are undertaking Green Initiatives and reporting on sustainability are increasing. However, many of these organisations are not viewing these initiatives strategically. The effect on information requirements and business processes is often not considered and the available tools and technologies are not used to their full potential. As a result, whilst sustainability reports are produced, the underlying infrastructure consists of “sustainability silos” comprising of a lack of integrated systems, inconsistent data and information where the integrity is not reliable. In order to address these issues this study investigates the extent to which organisations consider environmental information requirements and processes when planning their information systems and Enterprise Architecture (EA). The inclusion of Green Initiative strategies into the design of an organisation’s enterprise systems and EA is proposed. This will ensure alignment between environmental management and IT planning and result in integrated systems, an improved sustainability reporting process and more effective decision making regarding the environmental impact of organisations.
Brenda Scholtz, Anthea Connolley, Andre Calitz

Municipalities and Sustainable Tourism: Challenges, Requirements and Added Value

Municipalities as well as companies are currently addressed by their stakeholders to report their (environmental, social and economic) impacts. If municipalities are following the ideas of the Agenda 21, that are based on the results of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro (1992) when focusing on sustainable tourism, they are facing a gap due to missing indicators focusing on topics in the field of sustainable tourism and boundaries of the sustainability report. The analyzed sustainability reporting guidelines, such as the Global Reporting Initiative 3.1 or the United Nations Global Compact, lack to support municipalities due to missing indicators and support in defining the sustainability report’s boundaries. This chapter will indicate challenges, requirements and added value for municipalities with respect to sustainable tourism, by extending current sustainability guidelines based on a literature analysis and interviews done in the project “Next Generation CEMIS for Environmental, Energy and Resource Management” (IT-for-Green).
Andreas Solsbach, Barbara Rapp

The Green Product Lifecycle and Services: Is There a Gap?

IT Products are often bundled with services. One reason is the development of business structures within the industry nations. The Service enhance by its significance, while the production is transferred to other countries. This change has a great impact to the lifecycle of products. It is an open question, if this development has a positive effect to sustainability or if new problems arise. This chapter discusses alterations to the Product Lifecycle in order to consider the impact of Services to sustainability.
Timo R. H. von der Dovenmühle, Klaas Schmidt

Logistic Workshop


Service Quality Versus Sustainability: A New Conflict of Objectives

Sustainability cannot be obtained at no charge. This is the first and most fundamental goal conflict we are exposed to after accepting sustainability as a new substantial requirement which all our future decisions and actions will have to fulfill. This article deals with a further goal conflict which is more specific and arises in the field of logistics. The fact that demanding service requirements can restrict our efforts to promote sustainability (and vice versa) is not obvious and has not yet been scrutinized in depth up to now. The article delivers an analysis of the drivers of this conflict and the barriers which have to be removed in order to advance sustainability.
Wolf-Rüdiger Bretzke

A Standardisation of the Calculation of CO2(e) Emissions Along Supply Chains: Challenges and Requirements Beyond EN 16258

European countries are expected to reduce their total annual Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by at least 20 % by 2020 and by 60–80 % by 2050, compared to 1990 emission levels. In order to achieve such reductions of emissions and thus to optimise their efficiency and effectiveness, it is necessary to be able to compare different supply chains. Standards for the calculation of CO2 emissions are a prerequisite for such comparability. In the past, different organisations, corporates and interest groups have developed approaches for a CO2 emission calculation standard. Given the diverse background and motivation of these players the resulting calculation approaches often are not compatible or complementary. With EN 16258 a first step towards a European standardisation has been taken. This research analyses in how far EN 16258 is able to build a basis for a global CO2 emission calculation standard. Furthermore, it reflects how currently on-going work and efforts worldwide can lead to a further convergence of existing emission calculation tools.
Verena Charlotte Ehrler, Saskia Seidel

Information and Process Requirements for Electric Mobility in Last-Mile-Logistics

E-vehicles are expected to become increasingly important in the logistics sector. Global use of delivery vehicles with combustion motors causes a significant percentage of total emissions and is responsible for climate change, shortage of fossil fuels and pollution in urban areas. Simultaneously, cargo volumes are increasing, especially in urban regions due to for example e-commerce developments. The purpose of this research contribution is to investigate the critical information and process requirements that logistics service providers and retailers are facing in their daily operations by using e-vehicles for last mile distribution. The main objectives are to identify these factors for the usage of e-vehicle in the last mile distribution and to analyze different parameters. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is applied to determine the importance and weighting of these criteria. Methodically, the AHP sorts competing factors by assigning percentage points to these factors and helps to sort each factors into a ranking. So getting clear statements the AHP is a very useful tool to indicate the priority and the importance of relevant success factors influencing the use of electric vehicles for last mile distribution. The value of this chapter is to provide guidance for further research as well as a framework and ranked criteria checklist for practitioners who are interested in gaining information in preparation of adding e-vehicles to their existing transport fleet.
Matthias Klumpp, Christian Witte, Stephan Zelewski

Key Factors for Measurement of CO2 Emissions

Case Study: Container Terminal
Along with the rapid growth of seaborne traffic volumes and rising public concern about environment, transport and logistics services are experiencing increasing pressures not only to improve their operational efficiency and reduce costs but also to minimize their environmental impacts. The requirement to become more sustainable is also inevitable for seaports and terminals, as significant nodes in the intermodal transport chain. A number of approaches on calculating and documenting carbon footprint are available for transport and logistics services, and many major ports and terminals have also started adopting them. The selection criteria of which methodology to be applied would finally depend on what a company wants to achieve. Nevertheless, it is crucial that the methodology should allow identification and focus on areas of improvements in order to develop an efficient energy saving and reduction measures and allow fair allocation of emissions. The objective of this chapter is to develop an applicable carbon footprint measurement framework for ports and terminals to serve three principals: a transparent and standardized CO2-equivalent -measurement method, a consistent reporting scheme and an effective management system for ports and terminals. To achieve this, an assessment on selected existing methodologies and identification of key factors for calculation of carbon footprint at a container terminal will be performed and elucidated.
Indah Lengkong, Jens Froese

Environmental Impacts in the Liner Shipping Industry

The Hapag-Lloyd Online tool EcoCalc Reveals Emissions Arising from Container Transportation
The liner shipping industry is the most environmentally friendly way to transport goods around the world volume wise. However, since worldwide business continues to grow the environmental strains have to be kept to a minimum. Regulatory measures demand this by claiming the environmental footprint of a transport. And customers are increasing their requirements as well. In order to meet all these expectations and requirements for sustainable transport solutions Hapag-Lloyd implemented an online tool to reveal emissions in 2011, the Hapag-Lloyd EcoCalc.
Simone Ziegler
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