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About this book

This book provides readers with a comprehensive treatment of the principles, circuit design techniques, and applications of injection-locking in mixed-mode signal processing, with an emphasis on CMOS implementation. Major topics include: An overview of injection-locking, the principle of injection-locking in harmonic and non-harmonic oscillators, lock range enhancement techniques for harmonic oscillators, lock range enhancement techniques for non-harmonic oscillators, and the emerging applications of injection-locking in mixed-mode signal processing.

Provides a single-source reference to the principles, circuit design techniques, and applications of injection-locking in mixed-mode signal processing;Includes a rich collection of design techniques for increasing the lock range of oscillators under injection, along with in-depth examination of the pros and cons of these methods;Enables a broad range of applications, such as passive wireless microsystems, forwarded-clock parallel data links, frequency synthesizers for wireless and wireline communications, and low phase noise phase-locked loops.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Injection-Locking of Oscillators: An Overview

Abstract
This chapter provides an overview of injection-locking and its applications in mixed-mode signal processing. The classification of oscillators is provided. It browses through the development of the injection-locking of oscillators with an emphasis on the characterization of injection-locked oscillators. First-harmonic methods for analyzing harmonic oscillators in weak injection are presented. It is followed with the presentation of first-harmonic methods for the analysis of harmonic oscillators in both weak and strong injection. Frequency regenerative injection specifically tailored for frequency multiplication and frequency division is explored. First-harmonic balance method capable of analyzing harmonic oscillators in first-harmonic, superharmonic, and subharmonic injections is studied. The progressive multiphase injection of ring oscillators with multiple injections is examined. The effective injection signaling arising from the nonlinearity of oscillators under injection and obtained by analyzing the Volterra circuits of the oscillators under injection is described. The chapter also briefly browses through the key applications of the injection-locking of oscillators.
Fei Yuan

Chapter 2. Injection-Locking of Harmonic Oscillators

Abstract
This chapter presents the fundamentals of the oscillation of harmonic oscillators first. It is followed with a close examination of the noise spectrum of harmonic oscillators. The modeling of injection-locked harmonic oscillators using a nonlinear system and the first-harmonic injection-locking of harmonic oscillators are investigated. Both linear and nonlinear approaches capable of deriving the lock range of harmonic oscillators are studied. The chapter also investigates the superharmonic injection-locking of harmonic oscillators. Both the second-order and third-order superharmonic injection-locking of harmonic oscillators are studied. Divide-by-2 and divide-by-3 injection-locked frequency dividers, which are the representative applications of the superharmonic injection-locking of harmonic oscillators, are studied in detail. The subharmonic injection-locking of harmonic oscillators is investigated. The intrinsic relations among the lock range of harmonic oscillators in first-harmonic, superharmonic, and subharmonic injection-locking are explored. Finally, the phase noise of injection-locked harmonic oscillators is studied.
Fei Yuan

Chapter 3. Injection-Locking Techniques for Harmonic Oscillators

Abstract
This chapter explores the factors that affect the lock range of harmonic oscillators and the techniques that increase the lock range of harmonic oscillators. Our focus is on injection-locked frequency dividers where injection-locked harmonic oscillators are mostly encountered. The chapter further investigates the dependence of the lock range of harmonic oscillators on injection signaling. Specifically, we investigate the lock range of harmonic oscillators with two unitone injections injected into two symmetrical locations of the oscillators and the relation between the lock range and the phase of the injection signals. The gated-pumped and drain-pumped nonlinear characteristics of MOS transistors are studied. Various techniques to increase the lock range of harmonic oscillators including inductor series-peaking, transformer series-peaking, inductor shunt-peaking, current-reuse direct injection, quality factor reduction, resistor feedback, second harmonic extraction, transformer feedback, and dual injections are studied.
Fei Yuan

Chapter 4. Injection-Locking of Nonharmonic Oscillators

Abstract
This chapter investigates how Barkhausen criteria can be used to analyze ring oscillators. The modeling of harmonic oscillators and relaxation oscillators is explored with a special attention to the distinct nonlinear characteristics of relaxation oscillators. The representation of a nonharmonic oscillator with a set of harmonic oscillators is presented. The fundamentals of Volterra series are reviewed. The concept of the Volterra elements of a nonlinear element and the Volterra circuits of a nonlinear circuit are introduced and the process of how to obtain them is exemplified. The modeling of voltage comparators is studied. The Volterra circuits of an injection-locked nonharmonic oscillator are derived and the characteristics of the Volterra circuits are investigated. The chapter explores how the Volterra circuit approach can be used to analyze the dual-comparator relaxation oscillator under the injection of a pair of differential currents and how the high-order Volterra circuits of the oscillator contribute to the effective injection signals of the first-order Volterra circuit of the oscillator. Finally, the lock range of the dual-comparator relaxation oscillator is investigated.
Fei Yuan

Chapter 5. Injection-Locking Techniques for Nonharmonic Oscillators

Abstract
This chapter investigates the techniques that increase the lock range of nonharmonic oscillators. It studies the impact of the degree of the nonlinear characteristics of nonharmonic oscillators on the lock range of these oscillators and investigates the lock range of dual-comparator relaxation oscillators with single unitone injection and that with dual unitone injections. The lock range of dual-comparator relaxation oscillators with dual multitone injections is derived. It compares the lock range of dual-comparator relaxation oscillators with single multitone injection and that with dual multitone injections. The impact of the duty cycle of multitone injection signals on the lock range of nonharmonic oscillators is investigated. The impact of the frequency attenuation mechanism on the lock range of both harmonic and nonharmonic oscillators is investigated and compared.
Fei Yuan

Backmatter

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