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2024 | Book

Innovation in Urban and Regional Planning

Proceedings of INPUT 2023 - Volume 2

Editors: Alessandro Marucci, Francesco Zullo, Lorena Fiorini, Lucia Saganeiti

Publisher: Springer Nature Switzerland

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering

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About this book

This book gathers the proceedings of the INPUT2023 Conference on ‘Innovation in Urban and Regional Planning.’ The 12th International Conference INPUT was held at the University of L'Aquila, Italy, on September 6–8, 2023, and brought together international scholars in the fields of planning, civil engineering and architecture, ecology, and social science, to strengthen the knowledge on nature-based solutions and to enhance the implementation and replication of these solutions in different contexts. The book represents the state of the art of modeling and computational approaches to innovations in urban and regional planning, with a transdisciplinary and borderless character to address the complexity of contemporary socio-ecological systems and following a practice-oriented and problem-solving approach. Computational tools, technologies, data, mathematical models, and decision support tools are explored for providing innovative spatial planning modeling methodologies.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Resilient, Circular and Sustainable Cities

Frontmatter
Settlement Network Supplying Energy

Few people now doubt the future of the global energy transition. The only question is whether the pace of renewables’ penetration will be sufficient to compete with the rate of warming. Dynamic changes are also taking place in the Hungarian electricity system. In addition to nuclear power, which provides the basic electricity supply, the most dynamic is solar power, which is largely small-scale and residential. The emergence of solar power is outlining the emergence of an energy production and supply fabric of municipalities. This creates the potential for over-producing municipalities to supply the electricity needs of neighbouring settlements with lower production beyond renewables. By taking advantage of this energy sharing, electricity supply based on pure renewables can be achieved more quickly.

Balázs Kulcsár
Industrial Symbiosis and Circular Urban Practices

In the period 2014–21, world consumption of resources increased by about 13%, higher than population growth which was instead of 8% and slightly less than the annual growth of world GDP of 2.2%. This complex global condition confirms the need to continue promoting the transition to a circular economy, on multiple scales, to reduce the environmental impact through a system in which resources are used efficiently and sustainably, as an alternative to the current model of linear economy. The circular economy, which is based on the concept of the “3Rs - Reduce, Reuse, Recycle”, is expressed thanks to the industrial symbiosis (IS), i.e. the collaboration and sharing of data and resources between different industries or companies within a given territory or the same geographical area. In particular, the IS aims to create collaborative relationships between companies and territories in order to share resources, reduce waste and improve production efficiency. In other words, the IS is functional for the circular economy, and consequently the circular city, by virtue of the progressive international metropolisation. In particular, IS manifests itself with industry 4.0 through the positive integration of digital innovation between businesses, communities and territories and the multi-dimensionality of IS - provincial/metropolitan city, regional and/or national/international - confers a strategic role to face the challenges of sustainable development.In this synthetic framework, the aim of the present paper is to represent a set of circularity indicators through spatial autocorrelation in order to evaluate the IS maturity level in province/metropolitan cities and to promote circular transition.

Ginevra Balletto, Martina Sinatra, Francesca Sinatra, Giuseppe Borruso
The Process of Metropolisation and Spatial Accessibility. The Case Study of the Cagliari Metropolitan City

With the complex processes of metropolisation, increasingly broad and reticular, which connect and mix different settlement forms (central areas, suburbs, medium-sized cities, peri-urban areas…) the spatial reorganization of land-use and urban functions also manifests itself: residence, work, services, study, trade and leisure.Furthermore, the consequences on the distribution of urban functions and on the transport system are also substantial, radically transforming the lifestyle of the communities, especially for the more numerous ones in peripheral areas. Accessibility is a key issue for scientific disciplines applied to territorial governance. In fact, it expresses the level of organization of the territory and in particular of the services, for this reason it is considered as a fundamental aspect for its proper functioning.Furthermore, with the transition from the municipal administrative dimension to the metropolitan one, accessibility assumes a preponderant role for the governance of the metropolitan cities/region increasingly characterized by multi-directional and multi-purpose mobility and by a significant vulnerability of the community. In this framework, the aim of the paper is to develop a methodological approach to support metropolitan city planning (policy target) through the combination of spatial autocorrelation of the different accessibility intensities (private and public) and social-material vulnerability index (SMVI).

Ginevra Balletto, Martina Sinatra, Giuseppe Borruso, Francesco Sechi, Gianfranco Fancello
A Participatory Mapping for Planning a Circular City

The Circular City paradigm contains the principles of the Circular Economy that fully fit the goals of the 2030 Agenda. However, for these to be implementable, a great deal of effort is still required in terms of planning, economic and geographical analysis. The paper, given the need to analyse the state of affairs of the territory under examination, intends to create a mapping of the good practices in the field of sustainability and circularity. The case study under examination is Genoa. Firstly, starting with a survey of the municipality and several investee public and private companies, it will be possible to highlight actions in the field of circularity in order to plan and design new ones. Subsequently, we also focus on spontaneous initiatives carried out by the various actors in the area. In this way, the aim is to bring together the two “bottom-up” and “top-down” approaches, to ascertain whether and where points of convergence exist at these two levels, to detect good practices and identify the actors involved. This participatory mapping will be carried out in a georeferenced manner by means of GIS from existing municipal cartographic supports for planning a circular city.

Federica Paoli, Francesca Pirlone, Ilenia Spadaro

Integrating Ecosystem Services into Spatial Planning Processes: Sustainable Solutions for Healthier and Safer Urban and Rural Environments

Frontmatter
Landscape Planning and Fragmentation: A Method for Classifying Rural Landscapes

In the last decades, safeguard and management of environment and landscape have been acknowledged as priority to recover degraded habitats and reduce biodiversity loss. Anthropogenic landscape fragmentation (LF) -due to settlements and transport and mobility infrastructures- leads to smaller and more isolated habitat patches and can jeopardize both ecosystem continuity and quality.Scientific literature and Italian regional landscape planning practice show a certain lack of quali-quantitative methods -with specific focus on LF- to identify, describe, classify, assess, and monitor rural landscapes. This research aims at proposing and applying a quali-quantitative method to fill such a research gap.The method is based on the use of landscape fact sheets (LFSs) and focuses on landscapes spatial setting, habitat type, target species, Natura 2000 sites, quantitative assessment of LF and defragmentation measures, at sub-regional level, i.e., at landscape unit (LU) scale. The method allowed us to draft LFSs that characterize eleven LUs set by the regional landscape plan adopted in Sardinia (Italy) in 2006.This methodological approach is exportable in similar contexts and provide planners and policy makers with an overview on regional areas affected by LF.

Antonio Ledda, Vittorio Serra, Giovanna Calia, Andrea De Montis
Nature-Based Solutions and City Planning: A Study Related to the Preliminary Masterplan of Cagliari, Italy

The nature-based solutions are spatial planning measures implemented to restore and protect ecosystems and their capacity of supplying services, and to support the local communities, by leveraging on natural resources and enhancing the quality of natural contexts. The conceptual and technical methodological approach of this study considers nature-based solutions as urban planning tools aimed at mitigating heat waves, especially in densely urbanized areas, and at boosting several environmental, economic and social beneficial impacts thereof. A set of planning policies based on nature-based solutions are discussed as regards the definition of the preliminary Masterplan of Cagliari, the capital city of Sardinia, an Italian insular region. The nature-based solutions are identified with reference to the framework proposed by the European Environment Agency concerning adaptation to climate change and environmental risk reduction, which builds on a set of spatial profiles focused on water resources, forests and woodlands, agricultural production, urban areas and coastal zones.

Corrado Zoppi
Green Infrastructure and Grey Infrastructure. Rehabilitation of Disused Infrastructure Assets as an Opportunity for Green Development for Cities

With climate change and extreme weather events resulting from it, a strong demand for urbanization due to a steadily increasing population, cities face a number of complex challenges in responding to current issues and preparing for future needs.Green Infrastructure (GI) have been identified as a useful tool to cope with the effects of climate change. They are positioned as a possible alternative to grey infrastructure. A GI is able to provide a multiplicity of benefits and functionalities that can be assimilated with what emerges from the definitions of Ecosystem Services (ES).Numerous studies, in an attempt to find an unambiguous definition of GI, have developed the concept of a grey-green continuum that underlines the link between green and grey infrastructures. The aim of this paper is to focus on the concept of continuum in order to identify the correct nuance depending on the required benefit and boundary conditions. Furthermore, it is highlighted that variability does not invalidate sustainability as a goal to be achieved.Based on this assumption, three best projects of disused grey urban infrastructure that are given new value will be investigated - social, economic and environmental. The High Line in New York, Seoullo 7017 Skygarden in Seoul and the Xuhui Runway Park in Shanghai represent the three case studies in which a balance between GI and grey infrastructure is noticeable. For each we highlight which path has been followed for a green reconversion.

Daniele Soraggi
SEEA and Ecosystem Services Accounting: A Promising Framework for Territorial Governance Innovation

ES rapidly was adopted by quantitative geographers and urban planners as an effective tool to deliver reliable spatial analysis on natural capital and its interaction with citizens and economic ecosystem. Although several relevant applications of ES in planning have been realised, it is still difficult to find a common agreement on how to adopt ES as a standard planning support system. Through a literature review this research aims to highlight how monetizing ecosystem services could be effectively integrated in territorial management practices. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) framework was identified as a promising tool for this purpose according to its analytical structure based on the integration of national budget, spatial analytics based on ES, and social information characterizing the groups of beneficiaries.It represents an international accounting tools for natural capital appraisal aimed at supporting a holistic decision-making process adopted by UN.In particular, SEEA aims to provide accounting over time to measure the health of the environment, the environment’s contribution to the economy, and the impacts of economic activities on the environment. The research aims to highlight the challenges and opportunities that arise from implementing SEEA in urban planning, providing a critical analysis of the value of ecosystem services with the goal of promoting sustainable practices and nature conservation.

Rossella Scorzelli, Beniamino Murgante, Benedetto Manganelli, Francesco Scorza
Assessing Ecosystem Services Provided by Nature-Based Solutions Alongside Different Urban Morphologies

Contemporary cities display a complex picture of different urban forms typified by built-up areas with different buildings patterns and open spaces layouts. These morphology types are differently characterised by high level of impervious surfaces and limited amount of greenery which can expose to climate change related risks. To cope with these issues, Nature-Based Solution (NBS) have emerged as a strategy to deploy and manage urban ecosystems through providing Urban Ecosystem Services (UES). In order to better understand the complex morphological features of urban fabric and recognise the actual suitability of hosting new greenery, this study proposes a four-steps methodology for exploring challenges and opportunities to integrate NBS in four different morphology types: (i) Land-use and Land cover Analyses for drawing an overall picture of the land pattern and bio-physical features; (ii) Buildings maintenance & Land quality (B&L) and Landownership Analyses in order to explore the quality and maintenance levels of buildings and open spaces while identifying the current situation in terms of property asset; (iii) a Land Transformability Scenarios Assessment to evaluate the aptitude of land to host NBS; (iv) an UES assessment to estimate the potential of NBS in different morphological types to provide UES. Accordingly, four scenarios (Minimum Public, Public heritage, Private and Transformation) are drawn alongside the morphology types of historic fabrics, terraced houses, multi-storey apartment buildings and detached houses. The case study of the town of Ragusa (Italy) is here presented.

Riccardo Privitera, Giulia Jelo, Daniele La Rosa
Territorial Regeneration Between Sustainable Land Use and the Enhancement of Ecosystem Services

In the panorama of knowledge of the Ecosystem Services (ES) and their applications on the territory, it is interesting the case study aimed at identifying the ES in an area with a high degree of naturalness such as the Maiella National Park (MNP).In collaboration with the MNP, the key objective of this research is to investigate the contribution that the reuse of some abandoned areas can determine in terms of ES. In this way, attention can be paid to the balance between ES and the need to reactivate forms of sustainable local economies that can, through specific projects such as the “Banca della Terra d’Abruzzo” (Regional Law No. 26/2015), actively contribute to green deal policies.The purpose shared with the MNP is to implement the production of scenarios regarding land use change and then to quantify the advantages or disadvantages in terms of variation of ES. In this way, it will be possible to determine which solution is most suitable for the areas under investigation and provide the institutions with the necessary tools to enhance the territory. At the same time, provide guidance on sustainable land management measures that adhere highly to the strategies and objectives of the 2030 Agenda.This study represents the main result of a collaboration between the University of L’Aquila and the MNP for the creation of a unified database able to inform potential stakeholders about the actual condition of uncultivated/abandoned public and private units, contextually deepening some important ecosystem services.

Carmen Ulisse, Federico Falasca, Cristina Montaldi, Alessandro Marucci
Green Infrastructure and Ecosystem Services to Guide the Revision Process of Land-Use Plan. A Methodological Framework

Nowadays, several experiences in the spatial planning show that a performance-based planning approach that introduces the ecosystem services provided via green infrastructure can positively influence the social dynamics and contribute to improve the quality of life in rural and urban environments.Despite the need to introduce ES and GI concepts and paradigms into the spatial planning process, in the Italian planning system the green component in cities is still planned at the municipal level by the Land Use Plan, which is based on prescriptive model of zoning.The paper analyses a research project developed for two case studies on different urban contexts in the Marche region (Central Italy) through a comparative method based on a multiscale planning approach to evaluate ecosystem services related to land uses and land use suitability. In both cases, this approach has positively influenced the revision process of the current Land Use Plan in supporting the design of green infrastructure to improve the environmental performance of cities.

Monica Pantaloni, Francesco Botticini, Silvia Mazzoni, Luca Domenella, Giovanni Marinelli
The Integration of Sustainable Development Principles Within Spatial Planning Practices

The 2030 Agenda has marked a radical shift in mindset regarding global development, going beyond the traditional sectoral approach in favor of an innovative holistic approach, which establishes a relationship between sustainability, economic progress, social justice, and environmental protection. Its objective is to build a fair, inclusive, and environmentally responsible world. The Italian government, after an elaborate and complex process of adapting the goals of the 2030 Agenda to the national context, approved the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (NSSD) in 2017. The implementation phase of the NSSD is conferred to regional administrations, who are entrusted with aligning their sustainable development policies with the guidelines defined at the national level. The challenges encountered during the implementation process of the NSSD can be mainly attributed to the transition from a sectoral approach to an integrated territorial governance vision that comprehends and analyzes the complexity of territorial dynamics, in order to propose development pathways that integrate environmental, social, economic, and institutional dimensions. This contribution analyzes the implementation processes of the NSSD at the regional level and proposes a methodological approach aimed at integrating the principles of the NSSD within the Regional Strategies for Sustainable Development (RSSD). It also proposes a methodology to implement RSSDs at the local level and presents an example of its application by illustrating the definition of the Municipal Masterplan of the city of Cagliari, in Sardinia.

Federica Isola, Francesca Leccis, Federica Leone
The Role of the Agendas for Sustainable Development in Designing the Metropolitan Sustainable Infrastructure. The Case of the Metropolitan City of Cagliari

This paper presents the policymaking process for the Agenda for the Sustainable Development of the Metropolitan City of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy), as an integration and orientation device for current and implementing planning tools, but above all a reference framework and an operative tool that confers meaning and makes it possible to monitor metropolitan policies and projects. Nevertheless, it directs programming on funding channels relating to the SDGs. The integrated projects for sustainability are the core element of the new way of operating, with the aim to stimulate collective action at all levels, promote active discussions and, around these, build the consent and the progressive definition of agreements. They are the fundamental pieces of a new organizational structure for the metropolitan city of Cagliari: the metropolitan sustainable infrastructure. They act in a complementary way on multiple dimensions of urban organization and on several spatial scales with the aim to implement the specific sustainability objectives of the Metropolitan City. In this sense, participation processes are encouraged in relation to the integrated projects to be implemented, acting as “catalysts”. Public Administrations, Authorities and stakeholders variably involved in each integrated project will formally define program agreements in specific areas of intervention to implement the sustainable integrated projects. This actively contribute to innovating the metropolitan governance processes in terms of tools and procedures in line with the EU and Ministerial requests.

Tanja Congiu, Paolo Mereu, Alessandro Plaisant
The Regionalization of Ecosystem Services to Support Sustainable Planning: The Case Study of the Province of Potenza

The term “Ecosystem Services” refers to the benefits provided by natural ecosystems to human society, which are crucial for human well-being and long-term sustainability. In order to effectively plan for the use of these services, spatial simulation of natural processes can help identify optimal methods of combining short-term economic development with long-term sustainability. This requires analyzing complex territorial systems and considering interactions between biodiversity, human activity, and the abiotic environment. Multifunctionality, or the joint provision of multiple services, functions, and benefits, is an important concept in the context of Ecosystem Services, as it measures the potential benefits provided to society and human well-being. This study proposes a methodology that uses regionalization algorithms to develop a territorial model capable of identifying sub-regions of specialization (areas with high provision of one or more ReMES) by analyzing maps of Ecosystem Services data. Regionalization is used to identify more geographically coherent regions that provide similar benefits for human well-being, rather than using cluster analysis. The results provide a measure of territorial performance that can be used to compare different development scenarios, including environmental protection and socio-economic development strategies. This information can help decision makers evaluate trade-offs associated with various policies and identify areas in which investments in Ecosystem Services can improve human actions and environmental conservation.

Francesco Scorza, Simone Corrado, Valeria Muzzillo

Supporting the Transition Towards Ecologically-Oriented Urban Planning: What’s the Role of Early-Career Researchers? Innovative Findings, Experiences, and Ways Forward

Frontmatter
Protected Areas: From Biodiversity Conservation to the Social-Ecological Dimension

The main strategy adopted by EU Member States to stem biodiversity loss is the establishment of new protected areas to be included in the Natura 2000 network. The effectiveness of this network is not satisfactory everywhere, with critical issues concerning poor consideration of socio-ecological system, planning that treats protected area as isolated entities, and conservation objectives that are not always synergistic with the objectives of maintaining a good level of both ecosystem services supply and multifunctionality. The paper explores these weaknesses in order to propose a conceptual framework to guide next steps within the LIFE IMAGINE project and provide the partnership with a fertile ground for discussion. The project pursues the aim of supporting the development of an integrated, unified, coordinated and participatory management strategy for the Natura 2000 network in the Umbria region (Italy). The integration between the ecosystem services framework, biodiversity conservation needs and the investigation of socio-ecological system shows potentials to derive planning implications useful to achieve the objectives and to support the multidisciplinary approach of the project.

Angela Pilogallo, Federico Falasca, Alessandro Marucci

Towards Denser and Greener Cities? Methods and Indicators to Monitor Trends and Impacts in Support of Urban Planning and Policies

Frontmatter
Steering Net Zero Land Take Urban Growth. A Decision Support Method Applied to the City of Castelfranco Emilia, Italy

The primary aim of the research is to provide a flexible and easy-to-apply method which makes it possible to identify the most suitable areas to be densified and the most critical ones, where the priority is to maintain green spaces. The method is structured into 5 main phases: collection of relevant indicators, their categorization and weighting through the involvement of experts, normalization and the calculation of synthetic indexes through GIS. The method has been applied on the territory of the medium-sized municipality of Castelfranco Emilia in the Emilia Romagna region, where the Regional urban planning law is forcing municipalities to design urban plans with a clear target of net zero land take by 2050 but can be easily scaled to different contexts. The results clearly show which urban areas are most suitable to be densified and their characteristics hampering or favoring densification.

Marco Oliverio, Elisa Conticelli
Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Urban Growth and Greening Goals Towards Sustainable Development

A quantitative assessment of the complex relationship between urban growth and greening represents an efficient method to manage and understand the land cover transformation. A key solution to reach this aim is combining innovative Remote Sensing (RS) technologies and geospatial techniques to assess the interaction dynamics of urban and greening changes towards sustainability over time. Despite this, the research on this issue still needs to be fully explored. The authors propose an innovative methodology based on Deep Learning (DL) algorithms and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques that, considering the population dynamics and two new indicators, evaluate the co-relation between urban growth, vegetation and population changes. The overall methodology is tested on the urban area of Matera municipality (Basilicata, Italy), analyzing changes in urban, greening and population from 2000 to 2020. Thanks to a quadrant analysis, the results (i) highlighted development patterns of the built-up area and the vegetation cover, (ii) identified the quadrants of the study area characterized by valuable or critical levels of co-relation between urban growth, greening changes, and population dynamics towards sustainability. The applied methodology could support local administrators, technicians, and researchers in promoting strategies to improve sustainable urban development.

Carolina Salvo, Alessandro Vitale
Performance-Based Site Selection of Nature-Based Solutions: Applying the Curve Number Model to High-Resolution Layers to Steer Better Greening Strategies

Urbanisation and consequential soil sealing are primary sources of urban vulnerability towards extreme water-related events, which will be even more frequent with climate change. The high rates of imperviousness characterising contemporary cities generate large volumes of stormwater runoff that traditional drainage systems may not be able to manage, even for small-intensity events. Several planning experiences have proven effective in designing green strategies and implementing nature-based solutions (NBS) to reduce stormwater runoff produced in highly impervious areas.Nevertheless, these experiences usually consist of local-scale plans necessary to evaluate NBS but incapable of providing practical methodologies to scale up NBS performance-based planning. Hence, the paper aims to develop a spatial indicator to identify where a specific type of NBS, namely green roofs, could provide the highest benefits by combining an index related to the need for runoff reduction with an index related to the suitability of green roof interventions. For assessing runoff reduction needs, the method applies the Curve Number model, developed by the Soil Conservation Service, to the Geo-Topographic Database of the Lombardy Region, a well know instrument used by urban planners. The same database is used to identify where green roofs could be implemented. This application allows us to obtain, even for dense cities, a site-specific assessment of good potential green roof locations, i.e., where green roofs are needed and where they can be built. The paper will test the proposed methodology to the city of Como, Lombardy (IT).

Andrea Benedini, Riccardo Roganti
Urban Ecosystem Services: Land Cover and Potential of Urban Soils

Urban Ecosystem Services are being employed to provide different solutions to the issues affecting contemporary settlements, such as climate change mitigation, social inequities, and well-being. Therefore, urban greening strategies play a crucial role in supporting, enhancing, and safeguarding ecosystem functions within the urban context.The supply of urban ecosystem services depends on the availability and spatial distribution of green and blue areas, thus on the strategic decisions on land use allocations that are made during planning processes. Urban planning also determines the distribution of population and functions within the city, which influences ecosystem services (ES) demand, as well as other properties of the city’s physical structure (e.g., accessibility), which play a key role in defining who benefits from ES. To make cities increasingly sustainable, it is necessary to increase the number of areas able to express and support ecosystem functions and thus new ES provisions. So, it is necessary to understand what free soils are and how they are spatialized in urban areas, able to support ecosystem functions and express related services. This paper explores the possibility of using GIS-based and Machine Learning techniques for identifying urbanized areas that can provide (source) or utilize (sink) ES, based on the degree of land transformation. The study is part of a broader research context that aims to assess the relationships between urban configurations, land use, and ES, considering the integration of urban ES and extra-urban ES in governance processes.

Federico Falasca, Alessandro Marucci
Denser and Greener Cities, But How? A Combined Analysis of Population and Vegetation Dynamics in Berlin

Urban greening is increasingly advocated as a strategy to counteract the loss of green spaces and associated ecosystem services due to urban densification. However, how to combine greater population density with more green spaces is still a topic of debate. Recent studies revealed cases of cities that became overall denser and greener during the last decades, but the underlying types of vegetation trends and their spatial distribution in relation to population growth have not been investigated yet.We focus on one of the mentioned successful cases, Berlin, and apply an own-developed algorithm to examine urban vegetation dynamics using NDVI temporal series. The algorithm distinguishes between abrupt changes linked to variations in the extent of vegetation cover and gradual changes associated to vegetation growth or decline. We analyze the two dynamics between 2004 and 2017 in a 500-m circular neighborhood around the more than 332,000 residential address points in the city of Berlin, and quantify population change within the same areas.An increase in both population density and NDVI characterized the surroundings of most of the analyzed residential address points. However, the observed NDVI increase was most frequently an effect of vegetation growth, which sometimes compensates for the loss of vegetation cover. The results question the relevance of simple NDVI-based indicators to monitor greening trends. Furthermore, they raise doubts about the greening strategies associated to densification interventions and their effectiveness in providing the ecosystem services demanded by a growing population.

Chiara Cortinovis, Dagmar Haase, Davide Geneletti
Identifying Accessibility Gaps to Urban Functions and Services – Examples of Italian Medium-Sized Cities

The accessibility to urban ecosystems, functions and services (transport node, public services or areas, historical areas) represents a crucial issue to be addressed when planning contemporary cities toward higher levels of sustainability and a more equal spatial distribution of these services/functions. Accessibility is directly linked to the issue of environmental justice, because it relies on the general principle that all people have a right to have access to the same services. However particular social groups may benefit from different level of accessibility more than other, depending on where the services/functions are located and how they can get to the service.This work proposes a method to identify in a spatially explicit way accessibility gaps to urban function and services for three Italian medium-sized cities, namely Catania, Bari and Modena. By mapping different type of functions and services (green areas, education, health care, sport and leisure) and their areas of influence, the three cities are classified in sub-basins with different degree of accessibility. The integration analysis on different social subjects (children, elderly people, all population) allows to identify gaps to specific functions and services needed by the social subjects living in the area.Results are used to suggest a new or modified system of urban functions and services able to take into consideration the different demands and needs of social groups living in the three cities and therefore to maximise their overall accessibility.

Daniele La Rosa, Federica Pennisi, Viviana Pappalardo, Riccardo Privitera

Innovative Approaches and Methodologies for Driving Sustainable and Inclusive Urban Regeneration

Frontmatter
Social Media as a Database to Plan Tourism Development: “Venac” Historic Core in Sombor, Serbia

One of the most significant novelties in urban planning last decades has been the inclusion of ICT tools. The most common approach is to form geographical and territorial information systems (GIS and TIS) to create, monitor and visualise urban plans. However, accurate statistical data is necessary in this process, which can be a challenge for the sectors with fast development, such as a tourism. It exemplifies a fast developing, unconventional and often hard-to-control sector. Official statistical data for tourism quickly become outdated for urban planning. In the other side, tourism has vibrant social-media coverage and rich available e-data shared through it. Although such e-data can be found everywhere today, it is still new for formal documents like urban plans.The core aim of this research is to show how the e-data in social media can be utilised to analyse city space for a new urban plan. The case in the research in the “Venac” Historic Core of Sombor. Despite being the best-preserved medium-sized city in Serbia, Sombor peripheral location in the country hindered its development. Nevertheless, the recent rise of cultural tourism means that Sombor has been rediscovered for tourists. The city authorities recently initiated a new urban plan for the regeneration of “Venac” Area, where local experts and the team from the Faculty of Architecture in Belgrade worked together with e-data from online social media to address the recent tourism development in planning measures. This research analyses four locally popular social media applications: Instagram, Google Maps, Google reviews, and Snapchat.

Branislav Antonić, Aleksandra Djukić, Veljko Dmitrović, Rastko Čugalj
Using the GIS to Assess Urban Resilience with Case Study Experience

Urban resilience refers to the degree, limitation, or extent to which cities can withstand change before reorganizing into a new set of structures and processes. Research shows that the concept of resilience was introduced for the first time in 1994 at the Center for Unexpected Events Research States Unites states. The aim of this research is to analyze the spatial components affecting the urban resilience of Tehran's metropolitan area; in the form of physical and spatial indicators identifying the main factors affecting urban resilience. Initially, indicators in 11 categories, including Red Crescent centers, fire departments, hospitals, green spaces and parks, emergency rooms, crisis management centers, medical centers, blood transfusion centers, police centers, subway stations and food production centers based on land use studies have been established. Available in the GIS software environment demonstrated the resilience of regions through the use of recovery tools. Increasing marginalization and, subsequently, urban poverty in areas such as the southern region and inequality and inequality in terms of infrastructure perception and a range of development indicators. The magnitude of 24% of Tehran's unstable tissue, and the residence of about 42% of the city's inhabitants in the crisis tissues are among the other dangerous things for the citizens, that brings us geographers and urban planners to consider all these risks in terms of location and space to identify them, provide the programs and solutions required to make these zones resilience.

Ebrahim Farhadi, Sarah Karimi Basir, Beniamino Murgante
Map4Accessibility Project, An Inclusive and Participated Planning of Accessible Cities: Overview and First Results

Map4Accessibility is a recently founded ERASMUS+ project aimed at fostering Higher Educational Institution (HEI) service-learning (SL) through the implementation of various activities for community accessibility mapping to improve physical and digital accessibility of universities and cities. To achieve this purpose, the Map4Accessibility project targets multiple profiles, including higher education students, higher education staff, people with disabilities, elderly people and residents in the areas being mapped. Following the SL criteria, the project adopts a co-design process involving all stakeholders in all parts of the process from issues identification and understanding to the mapping accessibility solution generation. In this contribution, jointly with a global overview of the project, we present the main results of the first work package, related to the facilitation guide for explorative walks and the digital accessibility mapping review. The facilitation guide aims to support students’ evaluation of accessibility issues in different urban contexts following the SL pedagogical approach. The digital accessibility literature and projects have fed some proposals for developing an inclusive citizen science app for accessibility mapping.

Raffaele Pelorosso, Andrea Zingoni, Sediola Ruko, Giuseppe Calabrò
Universities, Cities and Sustainability

The aim of the article is to discuss the involvement between universities and the cities that host them, analyzing the physical and functional relationships that are established between them. Universities not only experiment with sustainability, but they also promote, educate, research, and actively collaborate with the community. However, their role within the cities is influenced by their physical characteristics and how they interact with the city. In this article, we will focus on “universities integrated with the city”, those dispersed within the urban fabric rather than concentrated in a campus, highlighting some pros and cons of implementing sustainability.We will begin by discussing how sustainability has become a guiding principle for universities and how it is - or should be - applied within them. We will then examine and evaluate the role of universities within their respective cities or towns. In addition to providing examples from other institutions, the University of Sassari will be analyzed as a specific case study.

Cristian Cannaos, Giuseppe Onni, Alessandra Casu, Tanja Congiu
Urban Regeneration and Architectural Quality in Inner Areas of the Italian Apennines. Indicators and Models for Projects and Planning

The issue of inner areas cyclically resurfaces in the attention of Italian politics in different way. Currently, both SNAI (National Strategy Inner Areas) and PNRR (National Plan for Recovery and Resilience) are dealing with this issue. The intent of the research, that is now in development, is to describe a procedure for diagnosing and classifying the conditions of the centers/towns/urban tissues of inner mountainous areas, identifying the different categories of intervention and efficiency indicators of possible interventions for the recovery of functional roles, paving the way for quality architectural projects.It is evident that the Italian settlement, with its very dispersed configuration, is extremely burdensome for the provision of public services with important consequences on the finances of municipalities and, especially for the “smaller” ones, the contradictory building/urban development outlined above has generated over time conditions of high de-qualification of the fabrics and their functional organicity, generating also neglected building landscapes, far from any kind of attractiveness or architectural and urban quality.In addition to that, the pandemic of Covid-19, with the systematic and generalized affirmation of “smart working,” has given a strong impetus to the leitmotiv of returning to small towns with a vast supply to which, out of the emergency, is corresponding a demand contained in numbers. This generates a form of “competition” among municipalities in which the quality component will be considered discriminating in the choice among these.Thus, for small municipalities in inner areas, architectural and urban interventions will have to be highly qualifying, suitable for generating a recovery of role, significant improvements in the quality of life and environmental value, as well as a high impact on the reaffirmation of identity of resident communities.

Camilla Sette
Using Decision Aiding Software for a Project-Oriented Planning: The Urban Agenda for Sustainable Development of the Metropolitan City of Cagliari

Metropolitan Cities, already engaged in the definition, updating and implementation of their governance tools, such as Strategic Plans, Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans, etc., have the task to define the Metropolitan Agenda for Sustainable Development in accordance with the SDGs. Starting from the construction of a shared reference framework on sustainability initiatives and strategies at different levels, the policymaking process for the Agenda of the Metropolitan city of Cagliari identifies nine fields of action (FoA) to summarize the contents and objectives of the sustainability strategies in interrelated thematic areas. The FoA prompt the debate with the local governments and their technostructures starting from the projects ongoing and in planning. The outcome of 5 meetings with the 17 municipalities around the FoA represents the metropolitan framework in relation to problems, opportunities, plans, projects and places. A decision support tool based on cognitive mapping technique together with specific criteria for the selection and analysis of the projects allows to identify several clusters, as embryonic forms of integrated projects for sustainable development. This paper presents preliminary outputs of the two groupings emerged during the discussion of the technostructures of the Metropolitan city of Cagliari which inform the formulation of integrated projects and reveal critical factors for their implementation.

Tanja Congiu, Paolo Mereu, Alessandro Plaisant
Children-Oriented Urban Regeneration: An Inclusive Co-design Approach for the Italian Recovery Processes

Italy is a country highly vulnerable to natural disasters and their effects have been amplified by climate change. Moreover, its inner areas are undergoing a process of depopulation, population ageing and financial marginalisation. Post-emergency urban regeneration (fast-track project), however, has been done mainly from a financial perspective and in some cases seen as an opportunity to build back better, responding to the complex issues of ecological and digital transition. So, how can regeneration processes answer the complex questions of equity, collaboration, health and green spaces?The complexity of these processes can be approached by simplifying the target, narrowing it down to the most sensitive segment of the population in terms of perceptions, health, responsiveness and justice: children. Using child-oriented indicators then means promoting gender equality and creating more sustainable and inclusive regeneration projects. In this framework, individual citizens, associations and networks are more effective and ready to intervene and collaborate with administrations (open government) than national policies that struggle to translate general guidelines into place-based projects. Collaboration also means networking different competences involving several dimensions of citizens’ well-being. This work aims to orient existing methodologies for regeneration to the gaze of children, playing an active role in co-design processes, with a free, intuitive, inclusive vision and ensuring that the city is truly a right for all. The research is the result of inter-disciplinary work that seeks to promote an integrated vision of design through experimentation in four areas: urbanism and architecture, social science, inhabitable nature and health, and engaging graphics.

Ludovica Simionato, Aline Soares Cortes, Silvia Di Eusanio, Michela Gessani
Is Rome (Italy) Undergoing Passive Ecological Gentrification Processes?

Urban greening interventions are intended to improve citizens’ quality of life but often lead to increasing the value of real estate assets, excluding vulnerable residents, and attracting wealthier dwellers. We refer to this process as “active ecological gentrification”. The Covid-19 pandemic and its associated lockdowns and social distancing measures, provoked, at least in some cities, an appreciation of the urban green infrastructures, expressed by rising property values in closely located urban areas. We call this process “passive ecological gentrification” because it occurs despite the lack of any noticeable improvements of the green infrastructure. The hypothesis is that the way people interact with their local environment has changed, leading to a higher willingness to pay for living near green and open areas, presumably because of its increasing appreciation by city residents. In this paper we ask whether Rome (Italy) may be experiencing “passive ecological gentrification” processes. Using statistical data about tree coverage and real-estate values before and after the Covid-19 pandemic, we show that there are, indeed, initial signs. However, in order to demonstrate the existence of passive ecological gentrification in Rome, further research using extensive data is required. The paper concludes describing the limitations of the current study and delineating future research paths regarding this topic.

Angela Pilogallo, Dani Broitman
Advanced Technological Approach for Risk Mitigation and Land Protection: The SICURA Project

The SICURA project: Smart House of Security Technology, aims to catalyze new business models driven by 5G technology, focusing on enhancing the security of infrastructure, urban areas and the environment. Facilitated by IoT and AI solutions, with a focus on cybersecurity, the project envisages a permanent research laboratory as a hub for innovation within the future Smart City of L'Aquila. The initiative is funded by Ministry of Enterprise and Made in Italy and aligns with emerging technologies such as blockchain, AI and IoT for next-generation networks. Taking advantage of 5G capabilities, the SICURA project facilitates the collection, processing and integration of data from sensors in the field to identify and address vulnerabilities. The city of L'Aquila is an ideal site for such initiatives thanks to its experimental 5G network and advanced optical network infrastructure. However, despite its natural riches, the municipality struggles to capitalize on ecosystem services due to limited soil knowledge and urban expansion patterns. To mitigate these challenges, the project employs spatial planning and innovative monitoring techniques to quantify and meet the demands for ecosystem services. This approach seeks to adapt and protect the territory from risks, harmonizing with urban planning regulations and addressing climate change issues. The article introduces a methodological approach to urban risk assessment, addressing settlement and socio-demographic systems.

Sara Pietrangeli, Lucia Saganeiti, Lorena Fiorini, Alessandro Marucci
The Innovative Management of Community Space as a Key Strategy to Guide Urban Regeneration Programs: The Experience of the Neighbourhood-Hub Project

The effective use and management of public spaces for socio-cultural activities is a key factor in urban regeneration initiatives. This is one of the most challenging tasks for public administrations due to a range of factors, including securing sufficient funding, defining clear objectives and strategies, effectively managing social aspects and community participation, and ensuring long-term sustainability of these spaces. Traditional models of public space management may no longer be adequate in addressing these complexities. Innovative tools are necessary to simplify procedures and promote greater collaboration between public authorities and citizens. With this in mind, this paper presents the “NeighbourHub Model” (NHub), a novel management model designed to enable digital participation between public administrators and socio-cultural associations, improving the alignment between the supply and demand of community spaces by promoting temporary and rotational use of spaces. NHub prioritizes transparency, accessibility, and accountability, which are key principles for public administrators to follow when assigning public spaces. We describe a case study that investigated the applicability and utility of NHub in two social housing neighbourhoods in Cagliari (Italy) that are characterized by a significant number of underused and abandoned public spaces and of social and cultural associations that are deeply embedded in local communities. Our findings demonstrate that the model allows, on one hand, to enhance the knowledge of the heritage by increasing its utilization capacity, and on the other hand, to improve the capacity of action of the community. NHub, in fact, provides a tool to negotiate potential conflicts and facilitate participatory decision-making among stakeholders, supporting the governance of urban commons.

Ivan Blečić, Emanuel Muroni, Valeria Saiu
Decision-Support Tools for Territorial Regeneration: A GIS-Based Multi-criteria Evaluation Utilizing the Territorial Capital Framework

In recent years, the issue of territorial regeneration has become increasingly important, especially for fragile regions such as inner areas. However, frequently such interventions appear as isolated and sectoral proposals with specific details and outcomes, lacking an overarching vision for the territory. One approach to address this challenge can consist in the operationalization of the concept of “Territorial Capital”, which encompasses various dimensions crucial for sustainable development, including human, social, cognitive, infrastructural, productive, relational, environmental, and settlement capital. Territorial regeneration, in fact, requires an integrated approach that considers not only the physical and environmental aspects of a region but also its social, cultural, and economic dimensions. A comprehensive and systematic methodology is provided by the evaluation framework presented in this study, which is specifically designed to support policy development for fragile regions. This framework employs open data sources in a multi-criteria spatial assessment, generating a dashboard for real-time monitoring of the geographical distribution of various indicators of Territorial Capital. To showcase the potential applications and outcomes of the framework for territorial analysis and policy design, a case study focusing on the Island of Sardinia is presented. This research is significant in three ways: first, it conceptualizes the notion of territorial capital in terms of development capabilities; second, it employs a spatial evaluation model that accounts for potential interactions between territories; and third, it highlights the potential usefulness of the results for territorial analysis and policy design, with a particular emphasis on the role of technology in the process.

Ivan Blečić, Arnaldo Cecchini, Valeria Saiu, Giuseppe Andrea Trunfio
Public Space-Led Urban Regeneration. The Identity and Functional Role of Rocco Petrone Square

The article addresses the issue of urban regeneration guided by the ‘reinvention’ of the functional role and the ‘enhancement’ of the identity role of public space. It is a strategy capable of promoting assets and resources that interface with public space because it encourages interaction between existing structures and living communities. The urban regeneration strategy assumes public space as an element that can foster perspectives, not only of urban-ecological and morphological-functional quality, but also of urban sustainability, equity, social and cultural inclusion and revitalization, efficiency and local economic development. The specificity of place and interaction with its context is taken into account to prepare interventions capable of returning livable and recognizable environments to cities based on the needs of their users. The case study of Rocco Petrone square, a public space that currently has no particular peculiarities, located into the Sasso di Castalda Municipality (Italy) is examined. The “Urban and Functional Redevelopment of Rocco Petrone Square” project has different phases: consideration of the design context; evaluation of design requirements; and identification of design goals. These are followed by: the selection of the design concept and the proposal of the design intervention. It is intended to reorganize and redefine the configurational features and promote its role as the center of social life through a mix of compatible uses, services, and activities with strong cultural, symbolic, communicative, ethical, identity, pedagogical, and inclusive connotations. This means making, not only the project area well-structured and usable, but also the context environment ecologically balanced and enjoyable in an aesthetic sense.

Francesca Perrone

The Innovation of Urban Planning Tools for Energy-Resilient Cities

Frontmatter
Utilizing Spatial Multi-criteria Analysis to Determine Optimal Sites for Green Hydrogen Infrastructure Deployment

Green hydrogen has emerged as a promising solution to tackle the challenges of urban regional planning and energy resilience. The production and use of hydrogen as a renewable energy carrier can play a critical part in reaching these objectives as cities worldwide work to lower their carbon footprint. The main challenge is to identify the most suitable areas for the Green Hydrogen Infrastructure (GHI) location. Several criteria are essential to select these areas to ensure efficient distribution and accessibility. This paper proposes a spatial multi- criteria analysis integrating the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in the Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify the most suitable locations for hydrogen infrastructure. This approach considers multiple criteria, such as demand, accessibility, environmental impact, and cost. In addition, three different scenarios were analyzed, emphasizing the technical, economic, and environmental criteria. The final result saw the comparison of three different land suitability maps to identify the best sites for plant placement. The GIS component allows for spatial analysis, making it possible to visualize and analyze the spatial relationships between potential locations and other relevant factors. The method is applied to an energy-intensive industry in Matera municipality (Italy).This approach offers suggestions on how urban planners, decision-makers, and other stakeholders may help green hydrogen become developed and used as a sustainable energy source. This research claims that green hydrogen could significantly improve energy resilience in the face of climate change and other global concerns while transforming energy systems.

Shiva Rahmani, Rossella Scorzelli, Federica Ragone, Grazia Fattoruso, Beniamino Murgante
Energy-Saving and Urban Planning: An Application of Integrated Spatial and Statistical Analyses to Naples

The worldwide push to promote sustainability has placed the energy transition as an action priority, especially considering the impacts of climate change and the current energy crisis. Despite the widespread acceptance that local action is essential for achieving low-carbon cities that save non-renewable energy sources, a lack of integration between energy-saving solutions and urban planning continues to hinder the work of local decision-makers, technicians, and practitioners. This study integrates statistics and spatial analysis techniques to investigate the relationships between urban characteristics and residential energy consumption. The study is a first step of wider research which employs a GIS-based methodology on an urban scale to support decision-makers in identifying the most effective urban areas and fields of intervention to reduce urban energy footprint in the face of climate challenges and emerging geopolitical scenarios related to energy supply. The spatial and statistical analysis was based on variables related to key urban characteristics, including socio-economic, physical, functional, and environmental factors. The research was conducted in the city of Naples, Italy, and the results indicate that the GWR methodology differently explains residential energy consumption values according to the urban context. The outcomes support local decision-makers defining a knowledge frame of urban context in order to identify energy saving interventions.

Gerardo Carpentieri, Carmela Gargiulo, Carmen Guida, Floriana Zucaro
Urban Energy Resilience and Strategic Urban Planning in Emilia-Romagna: Evidence from Three Cities

Contemporary cities are facing many challenges, from social and economic issues to the new risks related to the impacts of climate change. Focusing on energy consumptions, and the related GHG emissions, cities are considered not only the main global contributors but also the areas most exposed to risks, because of their density of population, functions and economic activities. Implementing urban planning strategies with the purpose of increasing energy efficiency and resilience overall are, for all these reasons, considered a top priority. This paper investigates the innovative contents about energy-efficient and energy-resilient urban planning solutions that have started to be implement in the cities of the Emilia-Romagna region. Two kinds of planning instruments are therefore analyzed: the voluntary Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans (SECAPs) and the mandatory local city plans, recently approved in several cities of Emilia-Romagna. A comparative analysis of three cities in the Emilia-Romagna region, Bologna, Modena and Ravenna, is proposed on the strategies of their newly local city plans and SECAPs with focus on the topics of energy management and planning. The aim is to assess whether the new structure of local city plans and the influence of SECAPs could be useful in implementing such urban energy resiliency solutions.

Giovanni Tedeschi
Renewable Energy Communities in Urban Areas: Determining Key Characteristics from an Analysis of European Case Studies

The European Green Deal aims to achieve neutrality in Europe by 2050. To do so, according to the European Commission, Renewable Energy Communities (REC) might be an attractive solution to find the right balance between sustainable and inclusive energy transition and security. Moreover, the central position of citizens as prosumers - instead of solely consumers – allows to reduce inequalities and to include the most vulnerable in the energy sector. This work aims at framing the key characteristics of REC in urban areas by analysing selected case studies located in large European cities (MeerEnergie-Amsterdam, EnerCit’If-Paris, Viertel Zwei-Vienna, Ecopower-Brussels, Energy and Solidarity Community East-Naples, Energent-Ghent, Hyperion-Athens) and to identify and analyse possible measures to be implemented in urban RES considering social, climate and technical impacts. The analysis is performed through a detailed factsheet built up considering the European Commission’s energy transition recommendations, definitions and literature on REC. The collected information on case studies will then be clustered according to three main drivers (technical, climate and social) to make the key characteristics comparable and to understand the trends of each of them in the urban context. The results of this research allow for the identification of twelve measures, which may be considered to set up an urban renewable energy community.

Moreno Di Battista, Claudia De Luca, Angela Santangelo
Promoting Engagement and Inclusion: A Case Study on an Energy Community in Cagliari, Italy

In Italy, Energy Communities struggle to spread as they should, very few are active. Such communities can assume a central role in the development of sustainable energy systems because they are able to include and involve many people and have the potential to provide answers to problems of social and economic inequality and the energy crisis. A major problem identified is that traditional governance tools for establishing Renewable Energy Communities (RECs) often prioritize the technical aspect rather than encouraging active stakeholder involvement. The overall goal of this study is to improve the environmental impact of individuals and the community by proposing a method, engagement projects and activities, and operational planning tools to support policy-making processes to build conditions in which participation in the energy system can trigger virtuous behaviour, developing a certain amount of self-sufficiency in terms of management. We will argue that this method of engagement influences the extent to which parties can or cannot engage in the whole framework of collective management of Energy Communities. To exemplify this approach, we present an experience still in progress in establishing the first Solar Energy Community in the city of Cagliari, to demonstrate how the dynamics of inclusion and exclusion in renewable energy projects can help produce a spatial, social, cultural and economic context that can adapt to changing circumstances, capacity demands, technological innovations, demographic, economic and social trends. Such actions will be useful for the development of programmatic, participatory and democratic strategic planning in which the lines of development and management of an energy community are gathered.

Ivan Blečić, Alessandro Sebastiano Carrus, Giuseppe Desogus, Emanuel Muroni, Valeria Saiu, Maria Carla Saliu

Smart Happy Region. Relationship Between Planning and Subjective Well-Being

Frontmatter
Identifying the Features of a Walkable-Oriented Redevelopment of Brownfields: A Systematic Review

Over the past two decades, many systems have been developed to support the development process of brownfield sites, but, existing systems often do not fully understand the complexity of brownfield sites from a sustainable development point of view but the solutions for the development of brown lands is to improve pedestrian-friendly cities, and accordingly, the purpose of this research is to identify the characteristics of a pedestrian street in the redevelopment of brownfields. This research utilizes content analysis and qualitative review of articles, systematically examining studies in the field of brown-fields and walkable-oriented. The data collection method is based on selected textual documents, and data analysis employs coding techniques followed by qualitative analysis. The data were categorized into four stages using MAXQDA and collected from articles published between 2018 and 2023 by Scholar. Based on the objective and categorization of the articles, qualitative components were extracted and classified into five main themes: 1. Physical 2. Functional 3. Environmental 4. Economic and 5. Social. Among the main components analyzed the highest frequency was related to environmental factors, followed by physical, functional, social, and finally economic factors. Achieving environmental quality and sustainability is one of the long-term goals in the development of brownfields, aiming to reduce the depletion of natural resources in cities and ensure their long-term availability to humans. Among the solutions, walkable-oriented approaches such as linear parks, green walkways, green transportation, and easy access to essential amenities in cities receive more attention from urban planners.

Mina Ramezani, Arezoo Bangian Tabrizi, Esmaeil Kalate Rahmani, Tiziana Campisi
Well-Being Cities and Territorial Government Tools: Relationships and Interdependencies

At the end of the 1970s, Manuel Castells theorized the concept of a “city of well-being” within what was defined as the “new urban question”. What differentiates the condition of contemporary cities and territories from the second half of the last century is the emergence of environmental issues, related to the climate crisis, which add to those of social revitalization, cultural and economic valorisation of the city, and which call for the need to identify new indicators to build the public city and achieve a new urban welfare. In this context of reference, this contribution aims to investigate the relationship between quality of life and quality of the urban environment, through a critical examination of the Urban Development Plan (STEP 2025) of Vienna, named for the tenth time “most liveable city in the world”. This is to define theoretical-methodological and operational references for the actualization of new indicators/requirements/standards of urban welfare, exportable and applicable to different territorial contexts, which provide both quantitative and performance criteria, useful to integrate/innovate strategies, plans, programs, and normative/regulatory apparatuses from the perspective of sustainable development and ecological-environmental regeneration of the contemporary city. The article introduces an initial set of urban welfare indicators, adopting a systemic approach with the aim to emphasize the close relationship between urban well-being, environmental sustainability, and social inclusion while charting new trajectories for urban planning development.

Laura Ricci, Carmela Mariano, Marsia Marino
A Preliminary Survey on Happy-Based Urban and Mobility Strategies: Evaluation of European Best Practices

In 2011, the United Nations General Assembly made the initial move towards regulating the concept of happiness as the primary factor for promoting sustainable development and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In fact, the UN General Assembly recognised the need to establish a new approach based on an inclusive, equitable, and balanced urban planning paradigm that promotes the happiness and well-being of people. Only in 2012, the report “Wellbeing and Happiness: Defining a New Economic Paradigm” remembers this aspect and the relationship between happiness and well-being as good practices in the design of urban spaces as well as in human mobility. Even though the regional planning/smart mobility dualism has demonstrated great potential in socio-economic and spatial development, there are no studies or research that connect this dualism to the broader concept of happy region in terms of well-being, population satisfaction, and quality of life. With these premises, the purpose of this paper is to propose recommendations for mobility interventions that may alter the regional structure and urban growth by enhancing regional well-being and happiness. In this regard, an analytical approach is proposed, based on a systematic and cross-reading of the best European practices in mobility solutions and urban projects, highlighting the originality and value of this research to strengthen the happy region model based on integrated mobility and regional planning choices.

Chiara Garau, Giulia Desogus, Tiziana Campisi
Spatial Smartness and (In)Justice in Urban Contexts? The Case Studies of Cagliari and Parma, Italy

In response to urbanisation pressures and climate change, urban regeneration policies aiming at developing dynamic solutions for happy, inclusive, smart, and sustainable cities should include equitable access to basic services. This paper proposes a metric for measuring the level of spatial (in)justice in urban settings, beyond the city centre. The suggested indicator combines spatial, statistical and configurational analysis to calculate the number of people living in areas with limited access to basic services. The research focuses specifically on three categories of services: educational facilities, public transportation, and green areas, by exploring and evaluating Cagliari and Parma, two Italian cities. The purpose is to promote the transparency and effectiveness of public policies by facilitating well-informed decisions in the field of urban regeneration. Indeed, the development of a relevant, reproducible, comparable, and understandable metric of spatial injustice can help public agencies with: i) identification of critical areas; ii) definition of objectives for regeneration strategies; iii) measurement of the results of policies; and iv) comparison of alternative scenarios. The results underline the disparities in access to basic services between the compact core and the edges of urbanised areas. The findings underline the importance of prioritising regeneration policies in marginal areas to reduce spatial injustice. Finally, the study proposes a valuable tool for public agencies to identify areas of spatial injustice and develop targeted strategies for urban regeneration. By reducing inequalities in access to basic services, cities can become happier, more inclusive, smart, and sustainable.

Chiara Garau, Alfonso Annunziata, Giulia Desogus, Silvia Rossetti
Obesity and Its Relationship with Urban Pattern in Italian Regions

Overweight and obesity are currently major health issues in Italy, where their prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades. The built environment plays an important role in this sense. In this study, we aimed to investigate this association within Italian regions.Urban sprawl/sprinkling can be defined as urban patterns where large percentages of the population live in low density residential areas. It is quantified for each Italian region using the CI (Compactness Index). In the 20 Italian regions, the average obesity rate (defined as BMI ≥ 30) in 2021 was 9.75%. Our analysis showed a significant association of the CI with the obesity rate. People living in sprinkling areas seem to be more likely to gain weight than those living in more compact places. This could be related to the possibility of walking for daily activities. Combined with other research from public health, there is moderate support for the assertion that urban layout can have significant influences on health and health-related behaviors. Some possible developments of this project could be to define a demarcation threshold between pedestrian/cycle and motorized mobility in terms of distance and to suggest a clinical strategy to address obesity promoting active commuting, calibrated to the urban characteristics of the area.The research is fully in line with the SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, in particular with regard to the goals “Good health and well-being, Gender quality and Sustainable cities and communities”.

Lucia Romano, Camilla Sette, Bernardino Romano, Antonio Giuliani
Factors Affecting the Evolution of Sustainable Mobility in Smarter, Happier Cities

The growing connections between people and the outside world through the evolution of infrastructure and transport services are among the factors that can make places happier.In particular, the concept of happiness could be directly related to the number of possible choices and therefore to the degree of freedom perceived during the daily travel. It must be emphasised that the models on which our cities are based, created on people and/or cars, have a direct influence on daily travel. Similarly, the increasing spread of mobility services such as shared mobility can stimulate the supply of transport and make travel more sustainable, generating a lower economic and social environmental impact. The development of such services has broadened the scope of traditional on-demand services (both shared mobility and DRT). Alongside these, recently introduced services such as ride hailing, carpooling and all vehicle sharing services that allow people to share cars, scooters and bicycles are consolidated and continue to grow. This article focuses on a literature analysis of European case studies highlighting the main factors that have contributed to the choice of these forms of mobility. The comparison of the different case studies shows that environmental factors (such as climate change) together with economic and social factors have influenced and continue to influence mobility choices, especially in the post-pandemic phase and the current energy crisis. The study therefore provides the basis for improving the planning and management of services in the European context and ensuring higher sustainability standards for transport systems.

Tiziana Campisi, Matteo Ignaccolo, Giovanni Tesoriere, Elena Cocuzza
Participation for Everyone: Young People’s Involvement in the Shift Towards Happier and More Resilient Cities

Citizens’ engagement and empowerment in urban climate adaptation scenarios have been increasingly gaining attention: the shift towards communities’ involvement in the traditional top-down planning processes reveals a spreading acknowledgment of the necessity to focus on people’s needs and wellbeing for more resilient and happier cities, in accordance with goal 3 and goal 11 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.In this context, the Climate Transition Strategy (STC) of Brescia focuses a whole set of actions on the participation of citizens of all ages; among the “Citizens’ involvement and communication” actions, Action 7.2.5 envisions the setup of climate adaptation-related experiences by the Science Centre AmbienteParco.A package of laboratories for middle schoolers is currently being developed in collaboration with the University of Parma and has been an opportunity to test their sensitiveness and responsiveness about climate change and its related countermeasures in urban planning (both with ad hoc surveys and direct observations), thus recognizing young people’s role as holders of knowledge and as the adults of tomorrow.This contribution presents the outcomes of the first test-stage of the project, which can be intended as an applied research experience, carried out within the Afterschool Program of AmbienteParco. Laboratories appear to have been effective in raising awareness about both the STC and climate adaptation, and students have shown to be sensitive and responsive to these topics. This experience has demonstrated that young people can represent not only indicators, but also stakeholders in the shift towards a Happy and Resilient City.

Ilaria De Noia, Silvia Rossetti
Territorial Imbalances in the Post-pandemic Context: A Focus on Digital Divide in Italy’s Inner Areas

At EU level, geographical differences in terms of economic and social development can influence the quality of life (QoL). It is overly simplified to classify countries according to average scores in the dimensions of QoL, as large differences exist between different population groups (Eurofound 2014). However, in order to reduce inequalities (SDG 10) and improve the territories’ socio-economic conditions, a well-defined spatial connotation is necessary. In Italy, the National Strategy for Inner Areas (SNAI) has classified the national territory by first identifying the service ‘poles’ and then defining the “inner areas” in terms of spatial remoteness (update 2020). This study initially provides an in-depth look at how ‘inner’ the NUTS 3 regions are (Bertolini and Pagliacci 2017), and then focuses on digital divide in the post-pandemic context. For each ‘SNAI pilot area’ there are four indicators that monitor the digital divide, in terms of population percentage reached by fixed and mobile broadband (ISTAT). How much is really being done in disadvantaged areas to provide reliable, high-quality Internet access? On this issue, SNAI has programmed about 70 million euros (OpenCoesione), will this be enough to invest in Internet infrastructure and support local training opportunities? Remote working can become a tool for enhancing inner areas if it is included in an integrated strategy to improve the QoL. The main spin-offs for the environment concern the reduction of travel (lower emission of pollutants, especially PM10, 5, 2.5) and urbanisation (SDG 11).

Priscilla Sofia Dastoli, Francesco Scorza

Climate Sensitive Planning: Re-defining Urban Environments for Sustainable Cities

Frontmatter
BIM as a Tool for Urban Ecosystems Control

Increasing urbanization in our cities and disastrous weather phenomena produce changes in hydrological regimes that put a strain on traditional city drainage infrastructure, causing significant impacts on urban areas, citizens, the environment and the economy.In addition to proper climatic factors, the characteristics of urban morphology and their distribution within the fabric significantly affect the urban microclimate.Therefore, it becomes essential to regulate water flows through the control of spatial topography, housing density, uses of spaces and prevailing age of construction of buildings, orientation of streets, amount of undeveloped and vegetated spaces.BIM technology enables the control of all these aspects through the simulation of design choices that aim to restore and reactivate the potential of urban ecosystems to adapt and mitigate the consequences of climate change.We will look at some proposals for using BIM for climate - sensitive urban planning, foregrounding actions to increase the quality and safety of cities.

Monica Buonocore, Angela Martone
Adapting to Change: Understanding Mediterranean Archetypes as Resistance Strategies

The current contribution proposes a contemporary exploration and redefinition of resistance archetypes, within the Mediterranean geo-climatic context, aimed at aiding the identification of new shaded spaces adept at tackling climatic shifts in Mediterranean cities. In this perspective, architecture plays a pivotal role in the implementation of design strategies that can be succinctly termed design actions of resistance. These actions constitute a pivotal element in counteracting climate change, presenting a critical array of tools for mitigating negative impacts and promoting an amelioration of climatic conditions in Mediterranean regions. This contribution, rigorously framed within the sphere of architectural composition, ushers in novel vistas in the discourse between architecture and the environment, underscoring, with emphasis, the imperative of a design commitment consciously oriented towards sustainability, adaptation, and resistance to climatic phenomena.

Martina Scozzari
Climate Driven Hydrological Performance of Nature-Based Solutions: An Empirical Assessment of a Blue-Green Roof

Nowadays, we must cope with the continuous modifications of stormwater runoff regimes induced by urbanization and climate change. Therefore, it is time to abandon the static approach that relies on single evaluations of events with specific return periods and to adopt a dynamic approach based on continuous data simulation and a resilience paradigm. This concept has been particularly discussed in the context of green roofs (GR). This work aims to define the hydrological performance of a specific Nature-Based Solution (NBS), namely a particular type of GR called a blue-green roof (BGR). This system couples a water storage layer beneath the soil layer to collect infiltrated rainfall and release it gradually. The pilot BGR, named Polder Roof, has been installed in Viterbo, central Italy. A proxy index of water content known as the Antecedent Wet Weather Period (AWWP) is proposed and tested over two years and two months of monitoring to verify its ability to explain BGR performance. The results demonstrate the potential usefulness of AWWP and other easily collected climatic indices for assessing NBS, especially when there is limited data availability for climatic variables. This work aims to assist designers and planners in 1) gaining a better understanding of the hydrological performance of BGR and 2) planning more efficient NBS in the Mediterranean climate.

Raffaele Pelorosso, Andrea Petroselli, Ciro Apollonio, Salvatore Grimaldi
The Engagement of Small European Municipalities in Achieving the Climate Neutrality

Over the past two decades, European municipalities have been including in their local strategies energy and climate consideration, thereby developing actions plans with a growing focus on both mitigation and adaptation to climate change. This paradigmatic change has been supported by the EU policy framework on energy, climate and environment, currently enshrined in the European Green Deal, and by the new Leipzig Charter on sustainable cities, which have set the “green” transition as a reference for implementing interventions aimed at reducing carbon emissions. In the challenge of climate change adaptation and mitigation, major European cities have behaved as frontrunner to meet ambitious climate targets by designing and implementing a well-developed set of experiences and good practices. However, also small municipalities with a population of less than 10000 inhabitants have been playing a key role in the climate transition. This is evident from the high participation of small municipalities in the Covenant of Mayors initiative in Europe (CoM), covering the 63% of the whole CoM signatories. The CoM initiative is supporting local authorities in taking local action against climate change through a bottom-up voluntary approach. CoM signatories commit to develop a Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan (SECAP) to meet their energy and climate targets. By analyzing the SECAPs of a sample of small municipalities with most ambitious 2030 targets in the EU, this paper aims to explore how these signatories intend to achieve their objectives thereby building upon their actions to identify urban planning trends and options.

Luigi Santopietro, Valentina Palermo, Giulia Melica, Francesco Scorza
Climate Changes and Protected Areas. Towards an Integrated Management

In the current phase of growing uncertainty and vulnerability of contemporary territories, in the presence of serious degradation and depletion of environmental resources, the impacts of climate change represent one of the main issues that planning and territorial governance must address with absolute urgency. In this framework, the World Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) recognizes Protected Natural Areas as significant “reservoirs” of ecosystem services, which are defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment as “the benefits people derive from ecosystems”, essential for the health and well-being of local settled communities, to cope with biodiversity loss, and reduces the risks and impacts related to climate change.The essay proposes, therefore, starting from the illustration of a French case study, to contribute to the identification of theoretical-methodological and operational references that reach an integration of environmental issues, with specific reference to climate adaptation actions, in ecological-environmental regeneration strategies and in planning tools of protected areas, and, more generally, in urban planning tools for territorial governance.This is, in particular, the Climate Adaptation Plan of the Hautes Vosges in the Parc Naturel Régional des Ballons des Vosges within the “Life Natur'Adapt Project”, developed from 2018 to 2023 by the Nature Reserves of France with a series of European partners, including Europarc.

Laura Ricci, Alessandra Addessi
Urban Coastal Landscape. The Fragile Buffer Areas of Bacoli, Palermo and Termoli to Switch the Decay into Development

The urban coastal landscape is now at the center of new attention, as a result of cultural, social, economic, and real estate evolution. A new approach is actually clearly expressed by the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (PNRR) missions, which identify as priorities those actions for mitigating hydrogeological risks, safeguarding green areas and biodiversity, ensuring the health of citizens, and attracting investments. Starting from the interference between anthropic pressure and the need to preserve the biotic and abiotic environment, this work is aimed at highlighting the impact of the built environment on natural ecosystems in the urban coastal landscape. This study will be conducted on three sample areas in southern Italy, representative of Mediterranean biodiversity. Referring to these cases, a study will be carried out, considering both factors of anthropic pressure and those relating to ecosystems and their degree of naturality.

Agostino Catalano, Paola De Joanna, Silvia Fabbrocino, Dora Francese, Vincenzo Ilardi, Giulia Maisto, Rosa Maria Vitrano
A Methodological Approach to Improve the Definition of Local Climate Zones in Complex Morphological Contexts. Application to the Case Study of Naples Metropolitan Area

With the intensification of climate change and urbanization processes, the topic of heat loads in urban areas has been receiving increasing attention from scholars and planners. In response to the pressing need to fill the gap between urban climatology and spatial planning issues, Canadian geographers Stewart and Oke introduced the concept of Local Climate Zones (LCZ). The main goal of LCZ system is to define morpho-typological (urban) surface classes that contribute to the creation of local climate conditions, mainly related to heat loads, based on a characteristic range of values of given parameters (Sky View Factor, permeability ratio, height and distance between buildings, anthropogenic heat fluxes, etc.). The LCZ concept was applied to understand which urban/rural spatial configurations were relevant for analyzing the urban climate. Although LCZ are an effective tool to make planners and designers aware of how urban configurations can impact on city temperatures and heat wave risks, they are rarely used as knowledge for climate-proof urban planning and design actions. Actually, the LCZ system suffers from some limitations, such as it lays on a topographically isotropic space and therefore does not take into account the relevant effect of the third dimension in lowering or enhancing heat loads. This paper propose an upgrade of the LCZ system through an integration with indicators able to describe topographical configurations with significant effects on surface heat balance. An application of the proposed method to Naples case study is presented, advantages, some limitations and future research prospects are discussed.

Carlo Gerundo, Marialuce Stanganelli
Intervention Strategies for Urban Climate Control: Integration of Nature Based Solutions in the Historical-Heritage Neighborhood “el Almendral” of Valparaíso

In the current context of global change, and particularly climate, one of the most predominant issues is the mitigation of climate change and its effects, to achieve the sustainable development goals at the global level, it is necessary to explore new fields for the implementation of interventions. There is immense potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions and energy consumption in the implementation of energy efficiency improvements in historic buildings, it is urgent to think about the adaptation and recovery of the built environment with criteria that respond to environmental requirements, in addition to the traditional links of historical and heritage conservation.This research studies a sector of the neighborhood “el Almendral” of Valparaíso, part of the historical conservation areas, considering the historic buildings and public space in this area. The intervention proposals consider the regulations and standards for the conservation of buildings and historic areas, proposing the integration of nature-based solutions for urban climate control and the recovery and enhancement of historic buildings. The proposals are analyzed using the ENVI-met software, subsequently the results are compared to identify the feasibility and benefits of each one, on the other hand, temperature changes at the urban level will be quantified and compared to identify the best proposal.

Pamela Muñoz Ossandón, Massimo Palme

Urban and Peri-Urban Areas: Building Knowledge and Mapping to Better Plan the Sustainable Green City

Frontmatter
Group Model Building to Assess Local Knowledge of Nature Based Solution Implementation

Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) are increasingly adopted as measures for enabling climate change mitigation and adaptation, for reducing flood risks and for enhancing urban ecosystems. However, several barriers hinder the implementation of NBS in urban areas, in planning activities and strategies. These include the inadequacy of some existing methods based on hard and top-down approaches, the complexity and uncertainty associated with the network of citizens involved and the structuring of the knowledge deriving from that, in urban strategies. References emphasized the need to take citizens and their local knowledge into account when assessing the effectiveness of NBS implementation in planning strategies. Local knowledge could help to understand the success or failure of actions designed only by expert knowledge. Furthermore, shared local knowledge could increases social justice and the consequent livability of urban context.To this aim, this paper proposes a bottom-up methodological approach to assess the effectiveness of NBS implementation in spatial planning strategies, starting from local knowledge. The methodology was applied experimentally by involving high school students in the city of Brindisi (IT).Group Model Building (GMB) aimed at the exchange, generation, acquisition and dissemination of local knowledge of students involved, about NBS implementation in territorial planning strategies.Specifically, the GMB exercise used (i) Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to build a knowledge model of the students involved, (ii) geographic maps to define specific urban areas requiring NBS implementation, (iii) scenario building to define the benefits and possible shortcomings of NBS implementation in the urban context and spatial planning strategies.

Stefania Santoro, Giulia Mastrodonato, Domenico Camarda
Mapping Relations Transformation of Urban and Natural Landscape in Adriatic Cities Fostering Landscape Sustainability and Promoting Landscape Quality as Spatial Planning Objectives

The understanding of urban and natural landscape relation as a multidimensional process integrates spatial, functional, and perceptive dimensions, temporal, and holistic principles. The interconnections of the urban development processes and natural landscape transformations prove the changeability process of the landscape relation.Spatial problems of extensive urban spread into natural resources indicate the disrupted relation of the urban and natural landscape that is a non-renewable resource and heritage asset. In the specific context of the Adriatic, these spatial problems are further intensified in cities settled between two strong natural elements - the sea and the mountain. The research aims to investigate how spatial planning guides and anticipates the changeability process of landscape relations in case cities of the West and East Adriatic Coast. The Heritage Urbanism approach is complemented by the Urbanscape Emanation layer concept in mapping identity factors and evaluation criteria for enhancement models of the urban and natural landscape relation.The overlapping layers of urban dispersion patterns and natural networks of the example cities (36) settled between the Adriatic Sea and the mountain hinter-land of Apennines and Dinarides result in establishing relation models and problems of the urban and natural landscape. Different use of sustainability in spatial planning practices of representative cities (3) from Italy, Croatia, and Montenegro are compared to conclude spatial planning objectives for fostering landscape transformations. Spatial planning knowledge and techniques can improve only when landscape transformations, interconnections, sustainability, quality, and education are integrated as spatial planning objectives in enhancing relations of urban and natural landscape.

Ana Sopina, Bojana Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci
Characterization of Urban and Peri-Urban Areas in Umbria Region to Identify Their Possible Role in the Conservation of Natura 2000 Network

The work presented describes the characterization of urban and peri-urban areas of the Umbria Region to identify a methodology for assessing the relationships between urban systems and the Natura 2000 Network. These activities were carried out as part of the LIFE IMAGINE UMBRIA Integrated Project 2020−2027 (LIFE19 IPE/IT/000015) to investigate the possible role of these areas in the conservation of habitats and species of community interest. Indeed, urban shapes influence the overall quality of the landscape, the ecosystem functions of environmental systems and the quality of life of local communities. The main objective of this research is to assess correlations between changes in the interface between urbanized and natural areas, recognizing the distribution of settlements to obtain useful classifications and patterns for land use planning. In this context, interpretive and descriptive activities gain particular importance as they lead to a characterization of settlement morphotypes that enable systematization of the forms and relationships between settlement and natural components, contributing to effective planning choices.

Chiara Di Dato, Ilenia Pierantoni, Lorena Fiorini, Alessandro Marucci, Massimo Sargolini
Preliminary Study Towards the Integration of Brazil’s Linear Parks into Urban Sustainable Mobility System

The linear parks concept assumes character in areas with characteristic different dimensions, long but not wide features. Having the extension of a few blocks or several kilometers, commonly alongside avenues, rivers, and coastal lines. It has direct impact on the green space availability of a city and its connections, also on citizens well-being and on the transportation system, especially on active modes (walking and cycling). The urban context can be shaped through planning decisions, where the implementation of new solutions, in this case linear parks and greenways, may influence directly on people decisions towards their journey within the city, modes of transport to choose, and methods to commute. Enhancing the green in these spaces impacts citizens health, urban biodiversity, air quality, noise pollution, ecosystem services, and life quality as consequence. To integrate mobility and green infrastructure plans may be part of the solution package to achieve a more sustainable future for cities. This study aims to present and analyze two linear parks currently existing in Brazil, to discuss the impact on urban planning and future mobility. The relevant literature available about Parque Macambira-Anicuns in Goiânia and Parque Estadual do Cocó in Fortaleza was analyzed regarding mobility integration. By this assessment it was possible to identify the gap in studying the connectivity of the linear parks with active modes of transport in both cities. Even though the interest in introducing bike lanes and pedestrian paths were demonstrated in both cases, the lack of linking alongside the parks and with the city mobility plan decreases the benefits expected.

Mariana Batista de Morais, Amanda Oliveira Mesquita, Bárbara Mylena Delgado da Silva

Densification and Urban Regeneration for Climate Adaptation in Sustainable Settlements

Frontmatter
Natural Cities and New Italian Urban Regions. The Role of Medium-Sized Urban Areas in Italy

The contribution intends to examine the concept of natural city, starting from the hypothesis that the administrative boundaries of cities and regional entities are not able by themselves to capture the dynamics of territorial coalescence in progress. Urban systems are progressively increasing connections and their networks (not only physical) are consolidating, producing welding phenomena that create polycentric urban regions. Two distinct but integrable territorial analysis strategies are analysed: the survey and measurement of the degree of physical density of the settlements and a general strategy capable of capturing the commuting basins. The Italian urban system, thus, can be observed from the combination of these two analytical strategies, showing the emergence of medium-sized urban regions (between 50,000 and 300,000 inhabitants) which constitute the territorial and economic 21st century skeleton of Italy. These are very dynamic urban regions that are positioned between metropolitan Italy and the internal areas. Finally, we analyze a multi-temporal rank-size model of Italian urban regions, constructing scenario where the settlement peculiarities at the macro-regional level emerge. An initial analysis at a temporal level (releasing up to the 1950s) reveals how the Italian urban system has been changing, giving greater weight to medium-sized natural cities, even in a landscape of demographic decline.

Giampiero Lombardini
Limit Land Take. A Matter of Thresholds?

Soil is a key element for achieving national and international sustainability objectives. However, the legislation in this field is still far from defining the limits of land take, without prejudice to the objective of zero net land consumption to be achieved by 2050. In Italy, the legislation on the subject is very varied. Among this work’s objectives is to identify the weaknesses and strengths on which to focus new policies and tools to control the land take. The definition of land take in the regional laws is often ambiguous, and the methods indicated for containment as well as for monitoring often appear to lack scientific basis. The most important problem the international community raises is the lack of proportionality between the variation of urbanization and that of population. As evidence of this, Agenda 2030 has developed, in the context of reaching the target 11.3 a specific index the “Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate” (LCRPGR) which aims to monitor the relationship between the scale of urban development and demography, to link the growth of urbanized parts to the real demographic dynamics that are found in the territory. The correct identification of threshold values now appears to be a viable solution for achieving the objectives set at the European level. The proposed work represents a first exercise in this direction. The comparison of the LCRPGR index with established indices of scientific literature (both of quality of life and of configurational analysis of urban spaces) could provide useful indications.

Cristina Montaldi, Francesco Zullo, Michele Munafò
Recuperate the Existing. Technical Devices a Réaction Poétique

The planetary preoccupation around the climate change questions, requires a new literacy of aesthetics taste that updates the codes of project, in order to safeguard the lived and built environment.Paradoxically, when climate change begins to take on an aesthetic connotation, it is precisely the theme of aesthetics that is largely absent from the debate on sustainability and training courses.The figure of the designer, also from a training point of view, needs other knowledge necessary for the implementation of the new environmental and technological requests. Even within a necessity multidisciplinarity process, he seems to be chasing skills distant from his fields of knowledge, losing the real contribution he is able to offer: designing devices capable of improving human living conditions on the basis of an aesthetic and cultural principle. Educating to a new aesthetic experience aimed at the sustainable world is a fundamental objective of the ecological-technological transition.Our aesthetic taste, about conservation and historical ‘patina’ as well as shared references of modernity, is contaminated with ‘probable devices of sustainability’ towards a new aesthetic sense. The sustainable city and its architecture must not be the poor sister of the unsustainable one: on the contrary it must be more beautiful, aesthetically stronger and more convincing. A work on the beauty of sustainability to keep together necessity and freedom of choice, ‘because, in the end, it will be aesthetics that will make sustainability sustainable’.

Ludovico Romagni
Advanced Planning Tool Mosaic (A-PTM) Decision Support Tool Towards the Sustainable Development Goals

In this session, it is therefore proposed to institutionalize the technical device “Planning Tools Mosaic” (PTM), developed within the project “Sost.EN. &Re” (Sustainability, resilience, and adaptation for the protection of ecosystems and physical reconstruction in Central Italy). PTM is defined as a homogenous and standardized overall picture of the main contents of municipal urban planning instruments. The proposed mosaicing is based on two technical models: a basic set-up (B-PTM) and an advanced one (A-PTM), able to provide indications about the perspectives of urban evolution of a given territory. The session proposes an experiment on the Abruzzo Region, developing an analysis of the current state of municipal planning in the region itself through a recognition of the availability of documents, the type of tool and the updating period. A first phase of the work concerned the regional survey of the type of urban planning tool in force for each municipal authority, together with the year of approval of the same, in order to obtain an updated overview of the state of municipal planning of the Abruzzo region.

Vanessa Tomei, Bernardino Romano, Francesco Zullo
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Innovation in Urban and Regional Planning
Editors
Alessandro Marucci
Francesco Zullo
Lorena Fiorini
Lucia Saganeiti
Copyright Year
2024
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-54096-7
Print ISBN
978-3-031-54095-0
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-54096-7