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2020 | Book | 1. edition

Innovation Management in the Intelligent World

Cases and Tools

Editors: Tugrul U. Daim, Dirk Meissner

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Book Series : Science, Technology and Innovation Studies


About this book

This book introduces readers to state-of-the-art cases and tools for managing innovation in today’s rapidly changing business environment. It provides a wealth of methodological knowhow and guidance on practical applications, as well as case studies that reveal various challenges in technology and innovation management. Written by a mix of academic scholars and practitioners, the respective chapters present tools and approaches for the early detection of emerging fields of innovation, as well as relevant processes and resources. The contributing authors hail from leading innovative companies including Google, Amazon, Intel, Daimler-Benz, and NASA.

Table of Contents


Information Technology

Chapter 1. An Investigation of the Motivations and Strategies Behind Apple’s Product Design
“Strategy has been defined as the match between an organization’s internal resources and skills and the opportunities and risks that its external environment creates. The major advances in strategic analysis during the 1980s centered on the link between policy and the external environment (Grant 1991).” Around the same time of this strategy development a new company was about to be founded, Apple, Inc. We are all familiar with Apple, Inc., “Apple Computers, Inc. was founded on April 1, 1976 by college dropouts Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak who brought a vision of changing people’s view of computers to the new company. Jobs and Wozniak wanted to make computers small enough to have people in their homes or in their offices. In short, they needed a user-friendly machine (Brashares 2001).” How did Apple go from two people in a garage to what it is today?
Brian Barley, Ande Kitamura, Thomas Loar, Edwin Ramon-Samayoa, John Yuzon, Tugrul U. Daim
Chapter 2. New Product Development
Since the industrial revolution, the global industrial economy continues to expand rapidly. The automotive industry enabled people to live outside of cities and commute in. The aerospace industry has linked not only states but entire countries. Henry Ford’s assembly line revolutionized the way things were manufactured. At the heart of every successful design and manufacturing company is an efficient new product development process. This process allows engineers to understand their customers’ desires and make quantitative and qualitative decisions about what features to design into their product. Companies that can rapidly innovate, deploy product development strategies, and integrate tooling suppliers are likely to gain and maintain market share.
Claris Leung, Andy Hsiao, Michael Hobernicht, Kevin Camp, Vanessa Kung, Tugrul U. Daim
Chapter 3. Impact of Technology in the Future of Sports
The purpose of the case study is to understand the impact of Intel’s technologies in the field of sports. It describes Intel’s journey starting from entering the Virtual Reality domain to using this new technology for improving a viewer’s experience.
Also, it explores Intel’s future plans to improve an athlete’s performance and help understand sports injuries faster and extends toward understanding Nike’s presence in the field of using technology for sports. It highlights how Nike is using technology in their products to improve an athlete’s performance.
M. Krishna Priya, Raj Srinivasan, G. Harshitha, Shraddha Zingade, Nihal Jeena, Tugrul U. Daim, Dirk Meissner
Chapter 4. Internationalizing Google AI Research Google AI
The internationalization of R&D has been a relatively recent phenomenon. Multinational companies (MNEs) have extended their R&D operations to locations outside their home countries only in the last 30 years. Within the globalization of technology over the past three decades, the internationalization of private investment in research and development has been a major development. Multinational companies (MNEs) used to do most of their R&D operations in their home countries before the 1980sIn order to conduct groundbreaking research, large firms depend on their strong ties with universities and research organizations in their home countries. Global MNEs have become the main players in many countries behind R&D investments. This makes the internationalization of business R&D a key dimension of science, innovation, and technology policy.
This chapter presents a case study of Google, one of the leading MNC specialized in internet-related services and products, which includes online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
It discusses the drivers behind Google research and development and international aspects. Along with the study of the importance of internationalization in Google R&D, the study mainly focuses on Google AI, the revolutionizing technology, Google’s mission, Research partnerships, and Google AI R&D portfolio.
Aayushi Gupta, Binu Thomas, Fayez Alsoubaie, Harsita Gadiraju, Priyanka Patil, Tugrul U. Daim, Dirk Meissner
Chapter 5. Amazon: Industrial/International Corporation and Dynamics
In an environment of continuous innovation and competitive markets, it is essential for an organization to explore and concentrate its efforts toward research and development. Also, globalization of research and development with international and industrial cooperation is one of the important business strategies to expand an organization’s operations and development. Academic institutions also play an important role in industrial innovation by collaborating with the firms in the development of emerging technologies. In this way, organizations achieve pioneer innovations and achieve profits by means of international, industrial, and academic cooperation.
This chapter presents a case study on Amazon, which has been one of the biggest success stories in the online marketing arena. It was best known for being the best online seller of books, music, and videos. But today, Amazon has emerged one of the global market leaders with not only its Amazon Prime Services but also by embarking on cloud computing technologies called the Amazon web services, with products like the Amazon Echo and drone technology for Amazon prime Air. This is because Amazon has been developing its technology internally and by setting up research and development centers globally. Amazon has over the decades made significant investments when compared to other organizations with the focus on pioneering solutions for their customers.
This study discusses the drivers behind Amazon’s international and industrial cooperation. Along with the collaboration that Amazon has recently initiated with the universities worldwide. Along with the different types of co-operation that Amazon has currently positioned itself, we also study Amazon’s investments into emerging technologies with strategies for building profitable partnerships in the market.
Deemah Alassaf, Lipishree Vrushabhendra, Nouf Alswine, Vidhi Chokshi, Tugrul U. Daim, Dirk Meissner
Chapter 6. Ethical Issues of Data Tracking and Analytics
Data tracking has become a regular aspect of consumers’ interaction with good and services providers. While most people understand that they have to share certain personal details to freely use apps and websites, we question what data is legitimately gathered in order to improve their experience and what can be a potential threat to the safety and privacy of consumers. This chapter looks at how data is collected, stored, sold, analyzed, and regulated to answer the question of ethical issues in data tracking and analytics.
The biggest collectors of data are governments, communication services, social media-based companies, and medical and academic researchers. There are many reasons for these companies to collect data. They can provide richer user experience, verify that they are complying with regulations, and verify applicant backgrounds. It also helps them build user profiles and research anomalies and trends in behavior. Large companies have invested millions of dollars in data centers, storage, and security to manage the data that they collect on their users. But with all of this security, is our data safe? There are thousands of examples of data breaches that would indicate that there is no way for companies to guarantee the data’s security. Knowing that any data can be hacked, is it ok for companies to keep so much data on their users? Data brokers are at the center of the market of data. They are compiling data from multiple sources about what you are watching, your demographics, and things you are interested in. Using all of this, they are able to provide companies with information that helps them market their products and increase revenues.
Companies also use algorithms to analyze datasets and create relationships and patterns about their consumers. Data can be used to give companies customer intelligence, which helps them understand their user base and know what recommendations and ads to show. Supply chain management uses data analytics to forecast demand and create more efficient routes. Quality management can track scrap and test results to reduce product failures and save money. Large sets of data allow companies to detect the risk and fraud potential of different users’ actions.
Data ethics revolves around the moral problems related to generating, recording, processing, sharing, and using data. There are many frameworks surrounding data ethics, but very little regulation making sure companies are not taking advantage of consumers. The European Union recently implemented the GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation), which gives consumers more power over their data and visibility into what it is being used for. It also forces companies to delete data when requested and gives the government recourse for fines and punishment if the regulations are broken.
Aishwarya Joy, Tyler Stahl, Caitlin Mohnike, Rushikesh Jirage, Kate Darcy Kula, Tugrul U. Daim
Chapter 7. Silicon Forest, the Tier-2 Stagnation
Several attempts have been made to developing Oregon and the Silicon Forest into an IT technology hub but these have not achieved the intended impact. Looking for a wider perspective than Oregon and high-tech relationship only, adding the impact of this relationship in other areas like housing market, political decisions, unemployment, or transportation and beyond, looking for the potential links between these external factors reveals the reasons that have prevented Oregon to become a Tier-1 technological hub.
Analysis of past events and developments allow gathering information that provides a better understanding of the present situation, and furthermore, to predict the closer future. Or being less aggressive, try to understand why Oregon and Silicon Forest is not fostering as an IT technological hub and it seems that has reached its maximum capacity already.
Jessie Truong, Jose Banos Sanchez, Mohammad Al Gafly, Shreyas Vasanth, Smarajit Chakraborty, Tugrul U. Daim, Dirk Meissner

Leaders and Practices

Chapter 8. Sports Innovation
Nike has fundamentally grown to be one of the world’s most recognizable brands. From its inception, the company took the sportswear industry by storm driven by one simple motto—“To bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world.” Innovation has been monumental to the company’s global success and market leadership in the sports industry. The company has transformed what research and development means in the sportswear community. In fact, the first spike less, cleated track shoe was initially developed and innovated using a waffle iron in order to create more traction on the field. Cultivating innovation is ingrained in the company’s culture. Nike has elevated its brand to be synonymous with sportswear research. The following analysis will use Nike as a case study to better understand product planning, development, and technology integration strategies. There is a unique distinction between system centered design and user-centered design—Nike’s Innovation efforts span both. Nike’s research and development efforts focus on excelling performance and inspiring athleticism in their loyal consumer base.
Achala Kaushikkar, Sema Kirkewoog, Erica Merckling, Sneha Prabhu, Tugrul U. Daim, Dirk Meissner
Chapter 9. Managing Research & Development Portfolio at NASA
The NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) R&D roadmap management methodologies and processes as it relates to technology development activities are reviewed.
The chapter provides an understanding of the fundamentals of how NASA manages R&D roadmap strategy/project Selection Methodology, measures performance and risk as well as Human Resources and Capital. It also describes NASA Partnerships and the NASA 2050 Vision.
Bashair Al Saglab, Charles Asafo-Adjei, Shahram Khorasanizadeh, Stephan Hoo-Fatt, Tugrul U. Daim, Dirk Meissner
Chapter 10. Technology Forecasting in the Automotive Sector
The case study examines a number of tools that are used within the knowledge management and technology forecasting realm. Also, it gives an overview of how Daimler Trucks North America currently practices knowledge management and technology forecasting. Special attention is given to sharing knowledge inside the company and across company borders for different purposes. It is shown how effective knowledge management and technology forecasting is designed and implemented.
Colette Marthaller, Tanzila Akhter, Luciane Dolgos, Jessier Truong, Marthed Mohammed, Abdalilah Owaishiz, Tugrul U. Daim
Chapter 11. The Process of Forming a Successful Medical Device
Throughout modern industries, Research and Development (R&D) elevates companies to further expand products and develop new products through different methods which will be elaborated in the writings below. The development of a new product in any company can seem daunting as there are many obstacles to overcome throughout the extensive project. Therein lies the key to success of a new product development which is segmenting out the product into a specific methodology. Biotronik/MSEI implements a methodology for new product development by using fundamental tools and concepts in fulfilling the development process.
Raghav Gupta, Kyle Haston, Isaac Kreft, Obianuju “Uju” Obiano, Colin Owens, Colleen Salmon, Tugrul U. Daim
Chapter 12. Effective Qualification of Suppliers in Manufacturing
The main focus of this chapter is to shed light on the process of supplier selection in the manufacturing industry. In the recent past, supply chain management has become extremely competitive among organizations whose aim is to satisfy the market demand. To satisfy this, the process of supplier selection and evaluation plays a key role in forming an effective supply chain. With the increase in globalization, the traditional supplier selection process where time, cost, and quality were the main priorities have taken a back seat and the focus has now shifted to sustainability and creating a green supply chain ecosystem. With the advancement in technology, the industry is trending toward an approach including the environmental factors. The goal of this chapter is to consider the qualitative and quantitative methods that need to be considered in the evaluation and selection of a supplier. The selection of the right supplier should not solely depend on the price factor but on a series of quantitative and qualitative factors to maintain partnership for a significant amount of time.
Sneha Prabhu, Tugrul U. Daim, Dirk Meissner
Chapter 13. Innovation Management Framework at a Medical Devices Company
The company in this case applies a dedicated elaborated innovation management framework including strategic planning and a strong focus on project management. Foresighting innovation is among the central elements of long-term strategic planning, which results in dedicated roadmaps for all technology domains. The company uses a moderate share of external inputs for its innovation activities but emphasizes the importance of internal competences strongly and assures that external sources for innovation are well incorporated in its own activities.
Kevin D’Souza, Jesse Fritz, Gwendolyn Jester, Jacqueline Nayame, Janet Rosenthal, Matt Yamamoto, Tugrul U. Daim

Emerging Technologies

Chapter 14. Elon Musk Transportation Projects
This chapter postulates several important aspects in managing R&D territory, including leadership strategies, budgeting strategies, timeliness, innovation management, and portfolio management. To better illustrate these aspects in real case, three transportation projects headed by Elon Musk were analyzed in this chapter, and a conclusion was generated based on HDM (hierarchical decision model).
Briana Tran, Dawei Zhang, Mohammad Al Gafly, Tanzila Akhter, Jillrietnefertiti Lilithcleopatra, Tugrul U. Daim, Dirk Meissner
Chapter 15. Tesla Energy
Tesla has transitioned from an electric vehicle company to an energy company that not only supports sustainable energy but also develops innovative technologies to store that energy. For Tesla Energy, the greatest challenge with solar power is to develop products that can store solar power for use when the sun is not shining. Storage of solar power is what Tesla has today mastered, with a storage device that is simple to use, easy to install, relatively inexpensive to maintain, and can store surplus solar energy which is not used at the time when it is generated but is used later when the sun is not shining. It is also optimized to be used as a backup power supply in the event of a power outage. What is most incredible is that it can be completely integrated with the grid in a smart way such that it can buy energy from the grid when it is the cheapest, i.e., during the daytime, store it, and then make use of it in the evening during peak hours when prices rise. With Tesla batteries, Tesla wants to enable the world to accelerate the move away from fossil fuels to a sustainable energy future. However, with natural gas coming up in recent times as a more affordable alternative, reducing the dependence on crude oil, it remains to be seen if Tesla can sustain its market growth and continue to lead as an innovative and sustainable energy company.
Tina Matthews, Mrunal Hirve, Yuqian Pan, Dao Dang, Elia Rawar, Tugrul U. Daim
Chapter 16. Future of Transportation: Hyperloop
Transportation has evolved over time as the various modes of transportation have expanded. Because of the numerous technical and institutional breakthroughs and the arrival of “information anywhere” in this digital age, one could foresee the future of transport being massively networked, user-centric, interconnected, and also dynamically priced. As complex and challenging this might be, together with technological innovation, it is necessary for new models of private and public collaboration. Today, as a result of one such technology, Hyperloop is referred to in the near future as the fifth mode of transport. Efforts toward its growth are being incorporated by various companies.
Our current research therefore focuses on one such company called, Hyperloop One and we analyze through our work, the different fundamentals and various factors affecting the company’s roadmap for the development of the Hyperloop.
Aayushi Gupta, Alex Tacco Melendez, Anju Babu, Catalina Reyes, Lipishree Vrushabhendra, Tugrul U. Daim
Chapter 17. R&D Management in Rare Disease Focused Biotechnology Companies: The Case of Shire
Shire is a 30-year-old global biotechnology company focused on treating rare diseases and other highly specialized conditions, currently underserved by pharmaceutical research and development. The company’s portfolio of pharmaceutical therapies is available across hematology, immunology, neuroscience, lysosomal storage disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, internal medicine, endocrine, and hereditary angioedema in more than 100 countries. Additionally, Shire is growing its therapies used in oncology and ophthalmic. Within these core areas Shire has developed some of its most successful therapies, including Vyvanse used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Lialda used to treat inflammatory bowel disease, and Adderall XR, also for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy (Ornskov 2016).
The case study identifies and analyzes Shire’s approach to R&D management. This research attempts to review the approaches taken and the efficacy of strategic frameworks used within Shire’s product portfolio.
Amir Shaygan, Tania Lilja, Bobby Romanski, Rasnia Tabpla, John Bauer, Hussain Almohameed, Tugrul U. Daim
Chapter 18. Biogas: Converting Waste to Energy
The case studies the use of anaerobic digestion process to generate biogas, an emerging energy sustainable source, in the Pacific Northwest, and what barriers are preventing its implementation in that region. In order to do that, a literature review was conducted and a visit to a local generation facility, where it is being used, was done. Based on that, a list of barriers preventing biogas adaptation in the Pacific Northwest was generated. Then a perspective analysis was conducted to come up with recommendation about how those barriers can be overcome.
Asmitha Velivela, Husam Barham, John Bauer, Jon Roschke, Tugrul U. Daim, Dirk Meissner
Chapter 19. Assessing Barriers to Electric Assist Cargo Trike Delivery Technology: Implications in Last Mile Logistics in the United States
The last mile is a special challenge for home deliveries in high population density areas. For individual companies it is not economically and technically viable currently to combine long-distance and last mile transport in one offering. To overcome this challenge an manufacturing company has entered a partnership with an based electric cargo trike company. Their goal of the partnership is to launch a high capacity electric-assist cargo trike (EACT) as the preferred last mile delivery solution for high population density areas. The product is an electrically assisted human-powered tricycle capable of hauling up to 400 pounds of cargo nearly 30 miles per battery charge. This is the manufacturing company’s second-generation pilot with units currently in beta testing by highly regarded logistic service providers (LSP’s), in the United States and Canada. The technology has shown to be versatile in solving last mile delivery (LMD) in controlled environments such as college campuses, large venues, as well as in less controlled and highly volatile urban environments in Europe.
Jesse Fritz, Tugrul U. Daim
Innovation Management in the Intelligent World
Tugrul U. Daim
Dirk Meissner
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Springer International Publishing
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN