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About this book

This book gathers the best articles presented by researchers and industrial experts at the International Conference on “Innovative Design, Analysis and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering (I-DAD 2020)”. The papers discuss new design concepts, and analysis and manufacturing technologies, with a focus on achieving improved performance by downsizing; improving the strength-to-weight ratio, fuel efficiency and operational capability at room and elevated temperatures; reducing wear and tear; addressing NVH aspects, while balancing the challenges of Euro VI/Bharat Stage VI emission norms, greenhouse effects and recyclable materials. Presenting innovative methods, this book is a valuable reference resource for professionals at educational and research organizations, as well as in industry, encouraging them to pursue challenging projects of mutual interest.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

3D Digitizing Practice-Advantage in Reverse Engineering with Accuracy Boost

3D Digitizing is the way toward copying an article practically and dimensionally by Reverse Engineering procedures. In current mechanical situation, three-dimensional-geometry recuperation was finished using estimation of the segment directly with the measures else using structure up of physical models or replication using the assistance of computer numerical control systems which result low precision. This work distinguishes the means associated with the Reverse Engineering procedure and 3D information securing method, which is inline for creating CAD models. The three-dimensional digitizing systems were demonstrated as a significant device for the three-dimensional-geometry recuperation, which is financially savvy and of good precision. Endeavors are made to distinguish a practical way to deal with recuperate 3D state of items by utilizing a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). To affirm the method, complicated state of IC motor cylinder is digitized by utilizing a CMM. Examined crude information is spared in point document arrangement and it is moved to CAD virtual products to create cloud focuses. Smooth parametric surfaces were gotten with the help of fitting of B-splines bends converted as surfaces which is accessible in business CAD software, Pro/E wildfire 2.0 package. This strategy for copy the total 3D model demonstrates a reduction in information misfortunes while recovering the 3D picture that will be spared as a correct information position for other CAD/CAM needs.

C. J. Thomas Renald, S. Yuvaraj, J. David Rathnaraj

Cell Arrangement Measurement—A Perfect Usage of Cell Fabricating Framework in an Industry

Advantages of cell producing framework rely upon central point to be specific the plan of equipment cells and part group, setup period and technique for task. CMS become a disappointment when these components are not appropriately utilized. This work consolidates three exhibit-based grouping calculations specifically Altered-Single Linkage Clustering strategy (MOD-SLC), Direct Clustering Analysis (DCA) and Rank Order Clustering-2 (ROC-2) for investigating continuous assembling delay with assembling cell development. In the investigation, Modified-Single Linkage Clustering technique beats the other two strategies, paying little mind to the measure utilized, independent of any extra commonness of outstanding components in the informational index. The outcomes are approved with continuous assembling frameworks information

C. J. Thomas Renald, S. Yuvaraj, J. David Rathnaraj

Exploratory and Numerical Examination of Blending of Four Planar Parallel Planes

Blending of fly streams is one of the basic issues that can be investigated in the field of liquid elements which has a ton of utilization esteem in different burning and impetus frameworks. Modern/household gas burners, fuel infusion frameworks, short separation take off and arriving of planes are a portion of the spots where fly blending plays a crucial job in the perspective on proficient ignition and toxin scattering. In this examination, obstruction and collaboration of four parallel planar planes have been dissected both numerically and tentatively for different stream conditions. The business CFD programming bundle, Fluent 6.3.26, has been used to foresee the stream parameters for different stream conditions. In accumulation, to help the numerical examination, an exploratory method utilizing pitot cylinder has been created to research the issue of intrigue. Just the mean stream field is featured in this examination. The outcomes acquired from both test and numerical strategies have been contrasted and found with be concurred. A couple of symmetrical stable vortices has been shaped. The union point and the consolidated point have been found to happen on the hub of symmetry. The situation of union point and the joined point changes conversely as for the separation between the planes.

C. J. Thomas Renald, K. Karthikeyan, S. Yuvaraj, J. David Rathnaraj

Clutch Operating Mechanism for Disabled People with Leg Amputee

Motor vehicles have become essential and important part of our daily life when it comes to mobility. It is necessary to own a car as it reduces distances. But disabled persons who are physically incapacitated always face difficulty when it comes to mobility. As per census year 2011, out of 1.21 billion population, 26.8 million are disabled which is 2.21% of the total population. Commercially available products offer control of clutch to the user by means of hand interface, however these products are expensive and invasive. Thus, it is needed to develop a better mechanism for disabled (people with one leg disability) person which is more cost-effective and agronomical. In this paper, a mechanism is developed which provides control of clutch at two points by hand instead of leg. Modelling, assembly and simulation using CATIAV5 and structural analysis using ANSYS workbench are presented. Design, fabrication and working of the developed mechanism are explained.

Ravi Kumar Gupta, Deepak Goyal, Akhilesh Kumar Sharma

Optimization and Analysis of Front Telescopic Suspension for Electric Bike to Have Comfortable Ride: India Perspective

As per current government directives, every automobile OEM has to come up with EV model by 2020. But current Indian road conditions demand variation in torque requirement which leads to uncomfortable ride and so affecting the battery life of electric bike. So there is a need to optimize existing traditional suspension system to experience better and comfortable ride with electric bike which may lead to extend battery life. With this objective, present research and development work initiated to design, develop, and analyze traditional suspension system specifically for an electric bike on bumpy roads using simulation behavior of the spring and damper. The study involves development of solid CAD model of two inverted telescopic spring and damper systems, viz. primary and secondary and virtual simulation of the CAD model in ADAMS software. Spring and damper systems are joined together with different set of attachments and classified them as traditional and optimized one to achieve the desired objectives. To compare the traditional and optimized suspension system, transmissibility analysis at bump size of 10 cm and 3 cm is carried out and corresponding stress developed in shackle plate and fork body is also analyzed to make sure that stresses are within permissible limit of material.

Yogendra L. Jain, V. U. Garud, S. Dubal, S. Arole

Design and Analysis of Aluminium Matrix Composite Aircraft Wing Structure

Reduction of weight ratio seems to be a very challenging thing in aerospace industries as it improves the performance and efficiency of an aircraft wing. Isotropic properties of composites are used to make highly efficient aircraft structures for meeting the performance requirements. Focusing on better properties metal matrix composites are giving high strength, reduction of weight ratio, low density and high thermal conductivity when compared to any other composites. MMCs are used in automotive, civil and aerospace industries for increasing the production. This research work deals with MMCs which is reinforcement as LM6 and fly ash matrix material. Sir casting process is used to produce the MMCs. Mechanical characterisation of the composites are tested with ASTM D 638 standard. The main aim of this paper is to design the composite aircraft wing structure by CATIA. Structural, dynamic analysis was performed by ANSYS software and results has been validated.

M. Saleem, Nishant Kumar Raj, Shreshth Gupta, Yogesh Kumar

CFD Analysis on Extrusion of Slurry in Direct Ink Writing

Direct ink writing (DIW) is one of the additive manufacturing (AM) technologies being widely utilized to produce functional parts from a complex three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design (CAD) model without the need of dies, molds, jigs, fixtures and other expensive tools. Recently, screw-type extruder become very vital to handle high viscosity slurry and uniform dispersion of material from the micronozzle for achieving high-dimensional accuracy is extremely essential to fabricate parts using DIW. In this article, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is performed to simulate the extrusion behavior of the slurry having viscosity in the order of 50,000 poise. Through varying the inlet velocity of slurry for various viscosities, CFD analysis is carried out to determine the maximum pressure developed at the top of feed zone. In addition, extrusion behavior is studied for the cases of increase in the speed of screw spindle and varying mass flow rate. Experiments are performed to measure the viscosity of the slurry with respect to shear rate. Theoretical calculations are compared with CFD analysis results and they are in good agreement in predicting the inlet pressure.

E. Balasubramanian, Yogesh Kumar, Nishant Kumar Raj, S. Smruthi, P. Vikram

Experimental and Numerical Study on Temperature Distribution of Infrared Heater Used for Curing Solid Propellant Slurries

The combustion rate of solid propellants is strongly influenced by its shape and geometry. The use of conventional casting and forming methods to produce complex-shaped solid propellants is tedious and requires skilled manpower intervention, which greatly increases the production time and costs. Now a day, the application of the additives manufacturing process simplifies the production of complex-shaped parts from the slurries composition, but the curing process of the parts is still carried out by placing the printed slurry in the furnace with uniform heating for a long time. To shorten the extended curing time, layer by layer curing scheme with curved ceramic infrared heater (FTE serious) was implemented in this study. The capability of the heater to produce uniform temperature distribution over the printed part was measured with thermal camera (i.e., FLIR duo r). Moreover, ANSYS Fluent software was used to develop a numerical model based on the control volume method and to simulate the temperature distribution of the part. The simulation results and the thermal imaging measurement value showed good agreement.

K. Tesfaye, M. Silambarasan, L. M. Manova, E. Balasubramanian, A. S. Praveen

Experimental Investigation on Geometric Error in Single-Point Incremental Forming with Dummy Sheet

Single-point incremental forming (SPIF) process is an emerging sheet metal forming process in which constraint of using dedicated press tools is eliminated. Some process limitations like poor surface finish, longer forming time, higher geometrical error, and uneven wall thickness distribution restrict its applicability in sheet metal industry. But SPIF process with dummy sheet has the capability to overcome some of the prevailing limitations of SPIF process. In the present paper, influence of dummy sheet thickness, step size, wall angle, and feed rate on geometrical error in terms of root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of formed part is investigated. Box Behnken design is used to design the experiments. From the analysis of experimental result, it is found that dummy sheet thickness, step size, and wall angle are significant process parameters influencing RMSE. No significant influence of feed rate on RMSE is observed. RMSE increases with increase in dummy sheet thickness and wall angle, while it decreases with increases in step size. As feed rate increases, there is nominal decrease in RMSE which is desirable. So higher feed rate is recommended to reduce forming time. Further, empirical model is developed to predict RMSE. Also, optimization of process parameters is performed to minimize RMSE. Confirmation experiments were performed in order to check the accuracy of developed predictive model and it is found that predicted results are in good agreement with experimental results.

Vikas Sisodia, Shailendra Kumar, Rahul Jagtap, Kiran More

Numerical Investigation on Optimized Convergent Divergent Nozzle in 3S Separator Device

In this work, the optimal parameters required to develop the shock at a specified location of a convergent-divergent nozzle in the 3S supersonic separator are obtained using a meta-heuristic algorithm in conjunction with the surrogate model. Here, the study is carried over the air. Initially, a non-conventional optimization scheme firefly algorithm is employed to obtain the optimal parameters of convergent-divergent nozzle such as area ratio and operating pressure ratio to develop the normal shock at a specific location of a nozzle in 3S device. The operating pressure ratio limit is imposed as a constraint in the problem. The mathematical modelling of a nozzle is based on the one-dimensional flow governing equations. To reduce the computational cost, mathematical modelling is replaced by a neural network-based surrogate model. Then, using the optimal parameters obtained from an optimization scheme, the nozzle is modelled and simulated in ANSYS Fluent to validate it by identifying the shock location in the divergent portion of nozzle.

L. Prabhu, N. Kiran Jadediya, P. Gangadhar Venkata Ramana, J. Srinivas

Thermal Distribution on Gas Turbine Blade Using Thermal Paint

Thermal life of any hot surface depends on its surface temperature measurement. Turbines and combustors are the main components of a gas turbine system which are subjected to high thermal stress due to flow of combustible gases. Higher exposure of these components to the maximum temperature leads to thermal stress; hence, the measurement of temperature at different locations of these components is necessary. Measurement of temperature through thermal paints is the latest development in the field of surface temperature detection. The present study deals with the design, fabrication and surface temperature evaluation of gas turbine blades. The colour change observed at different locations of blades corresponds to different temperature. A computational analysis of these blades has been performed. The observed experimental results hold in good agreement with the computational results.

P. L. Rupesh, Arulprakasajothi

Development and Experimental Assessment of a Fluid Flow Monitoring System Using Flow Sensor and Arduino Interface

The flow monitoring has been a priority in fluid handling industry for controlling and regulating various parameters. Any change in flow dimension directly affects the output parameters in the domain of heat transfer, fluid mechanics, fluid power, etc. This may lead to huge economical and quality loss which is totally unbearable. The traditional fluid flow measurement methodologies are time consuming, bulky and affected by pressure, temperature, and viscosity with self-draining characteristics. It also requires appropriate observation followed by theoretical calculations. This motivates developing a flow management system incorporating integration of flow meters with the electronic control system. In the generation of open-source instrumentation, it is quite easy to implement such in-house built systems. This paper presents development of a fluid flow monitoring system using flow sensor YF-DN50 and Arduino interface. The algorithm is designed in ARDUINO IDE and is communicated to Microsoft Excel through PLX DAQ. The experimentation is carried out on centrifugal pump to measure the outlet discharge by conventional method and with use of developed system. The comparison of outlet discharge measured by both approaches has been plotted for calibration purpose. The advocated approach is efficient, reliable, inexpensive, and flexible particularly for academic research. Additionally, the system may perhaps be implemented in stand-alone special purpose industries and for laboratories at engineering institutes.

Sharad S. Mulik, Abhishek D. Patange, R. Jegadeeshwaran, Sujit S. Pardeshi, Aditi Rahegaonkar

A Study on the Performance and CO2 Mitigation Potential of an Advanced Micro-gasifier Cookstoves for Sustainable Development

Cooking is an essential part of life as food is indispensable for the persistence of human beings. Cooking of food requires heat energy and which can be met through electric cookstoves and LPG in developed countries. But the developing countries still depend on the combustion of biomass fuels such as wood, crop residues, dung cake, charcoal to meet up with their cooking and heating demands. The biomass is abundantly existing everywhere in the world and can be burnt directly in the cookstoves. Attention has been increased all over the globe in dipping the consumption of household energy and indoor air pollutants. Advanced micro-gasifier cookstoves (AMGCS) has been a topic of recent research, but still, 3 billion people cook over inefficient means of cookstoves though the number of initiatives has been taken by the government and non-government agencies to encourage the energy-efficient biomass cookstove. In this paper, an effort has been made to discuss the AMGCS with its recent advancements, performance, CO2 mitigation and payback period.

D. Sakthivadivel, P. Ganesh Kumar, G. Praveen Kumar, P. Raman, Ranko Goic, S. Iniyan

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Non-reacting Flow in Can Combustor for Microgas Turbine Engine

Generally, microgas turbines are in the range of 30–200 kW. So, here it is proposed to develop a microgas turbine engine with a capacity of 3 kW which will have applications in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and standalone power generation for domestic use. In this study, the behavior of non-reacting flow pattern inside a swirl stabilized can combustor is studied. Total pressure loss, which is an important performance parameter, is predicted numerically and compared with that from experiments. Good agreement is achieved between experimental and numerical results. The combustor total pressure drop was found to be negligible; in the range of 0.002–0.06% at an inlet velocity ranges from 1.7 to 10.19 m/s. Flow pattern indicates strong vortex formation due to secondary air entrainment inside the flame tube.

V. Kirubakaran, David S. Bhatt

Effect of Number of Inlet Tangential Ports and Their Angle on Spray Characteristics of Plug Type Swirl Injector

Fuel atomization is a critical process. Swirl injector is used in gas turbine combustion chamber, rocket thrust chamber and hybrid rocket motor, etc., because of its efficient atomization process. This paper focuses on an experimental study on spray characteristics of plug type swirl injector using three injector configurations namely SW1, SW2, and SW3. The objective of the study is to analyze the spray characteristics like liquid sheet break up length, spray cone angle, discharge coefficient, and volumetric flow of plug type swirl injector for three chosen configurations. The injection pressure got varied from 1 to 2 bars and water was used as working fluid. The experimental data shows that for all injection pressures, SW1 configuration gives 43–49% lesser breakup length, 39–51% higher spray cone angle, lesser discharge coefficient, and 1–6% lesser volume flow rate compared to SW3 injector. It is also observed that SW1 configuration gives 7–11% lesser breakup length, 1–3% higher spray cone angle, 1–2% lesser discharge coefficient, and 3–6% lesser volume flow rate compared to SW2 configuration. The observed results of lesser breakup length and spray cone angle make the plug type swirl injector of SW1 configuration best suited for the short combustor.

Sri Nithya Mahottamananda, D. N. Dilli Babu, P. N. Kadiresh

Hybrid Incremental Forming: Investigation on Localized Thinning and Thickness Distribution in Formed Parts

In the present experimental work, hybrid incremental sheet forming (HISF) process comprising stretch forming followed by single point incremental sheet forming (SPIF) is developed for forming conical frustum. Experimental investigation is done to find the influence of process parameters on thickness distribution and localized thinning in the formed parts. Experimental result reveals that stretching has a substantial effect on localized thinning in formed parts. Small improvement in the thickness distribution and localized thinning is found in formed parts. Experimental investigation on the influence of preform tool shape is also done to further improve thickness distribution. It is observed that the geometry of preform tool and amount of stretching has a great influence on thinning and thickness distribution. It is found that intermediate preform tool size and small amount of preforming results in forming conical frustum having uniform thickness distribution. Also, a considerable reduction in forming time using developed HISF process is observed as compared to SPIF process alone.

Rahul Jagtap, Vikas Sisodia, Kiran More, Shailendra Kumar

Influence of Seam Threading of a Cricket Ball on Its Trajectory

Like other sports, cricket is also a sport where the perfection of the player decides the outcome of the game. One of the key areas that influence the game is bowling. Seam on the cricket ball helps a bowler in achieving the expected trajectory of the ball. This paper focuses on modelling the flow around the ball with its seam upright and travelling in air. This is the phase during which the ball movement is completely under the influence of aerodynamic loads. This is an important phase during its flight since this will decide the course of the ball after it hits the ground. In order to model this, three different models of cricket balls are taken viz., a smooth sphere, a sphere with a plain seam and a sphere with threaded seam. All the three models are subjected to numerical simulation of wind tunnel tests and the results are compared with the existing results. It is observed that the threading on the seam plays an important role and hence should not be neglected while modelling. It is also observed that the computational cost associated with the modelling of threading on the seam is high.

K. S. Vepa, N. V. S. S. Sagar

Numerical Modeling and Analysis of a Multi-rotor UAS

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) are gaining a lot of importance due to their inherent advantage of operating the aircraft with no onboard pilot. Though there are single and multi-rotor UASs, the later one is a popular choice for operations like surveillance and seed sowing in agriculture. This work emphasizes on carrying out computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations for investigating the flow around a quadcopter (UAS with four rotors) for different angles of attack (AoAs). Phenomena such as vortex formations and wake regions are studied. Quadcopter chosen for this work is a topology optimized 3D printed model. Numerical wind tunnel simulations are carried out for different wind velocities. Influence of relative propeller motion on each other is also studied. Stability of the quadcopter during lift and hovering stages is examined. From the results, it is observed that the stability of the quadcopter is dependent on the combination of AoA and velocity. Further, at lower ground clearances, the quadcopter is more stable than at higher altitudes because of the flow pattern.

K. S. Vepa, N. V. S. S. Sagar, Balasubramanian Esakki, Chandrasekhar Udayagiri

Multistage Mass Optimization of a Quadcopter Frame

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are swiftly achieving their distinction in the fields of defence and agriculture. Of all the UAVs, quadcopters are widely used due to their inherent advantages like easy control and manoeuvrability. The need to operate for a longer duration under suitable payload is perhaps an exacting task. The flight time and efficiency of quadcopter typically rely on its weight. Among all the parts of a UAV, frame is the structural member that takes up the entire load. Since it constitutes up to 30% weight of the UAV, optimization of the UAV frame is highly recommended. To study this, weight of an off-the-shelf model is optimized using numerical schemes in two stages. In the first stage, optimization is done for the shape of the frame using Design of Experiments (DoEs). In the second stage, optimization is carried out for mass using topology optimization. Despite the considerable reduction of mass in the design of experiments, mass is further reduced in the second stage, i.e. topology optimization. Topology optimization yielded a complex-shaped model that is difficult to manufacture using traditional methods hence the optimized model is redesigned and validated using static structural finite element analysis.

N. V. S. S. Sagar, Balasubramanian Esakki, Chandrasekhar Udayagiri, K. S. Vepa

Comparative Study of Response of Vibrations for Circular and Square Defects on Components of Cylindrical Roller Bearing Under Different Conditions

Rolling element bearing is the crucial constituent in many revolving equipments. For effective performance of the machine, it is necessary to precisely predict the effect of various parameters and operating conditions on the machine’s behavior. In this paper, the dynamic responses of a rotor-bearing system are studied. The presence of defect in bearing may lead to failure hence bring to a standstill of machinery. The solution of this problem is to discover these defects in earlier stages to avoid any damage to system. In this paper, the effect of speed load and defect is studied. The circular and square defects are produced by using electro discharge machine on inner race, outer race, and rolling element. In experimentation, vibration amplitudes for various speeds and loads for healthy bearing, circular defect bearing, and square defect bearing are observed. Mathematical model has been developed to predict the effect of defect in terms of the amplitude of vibration. The comparison of experimental analysis and mathematical model for both inner race and outer race shows good agreement. It shows that the vibration amplitude increases as speed and load increases. In addition, it is observed that inner race defect has significant vibration amplitude than outer race defect. Both circular and square defects have dominant effect on rotor bearing system.

Sushant M. Patil, R. G. Desavale, Prasad V. Shinde, Vijay R. Patil

Development of DLP-Based Stereolithography System

A low-cost stereolithography (STL) apparatus was developed to produce highly precise, three-dimensional (3D) structures from broad selection of functional materials, especially photopolymer resin. The developed stereolithography apparatus (SLA) utilizes focused light beam of wavelength range (300–700 nm) coming from the DLP projector and passing through the objective lens over the surface of a photocurable resin, which undergoes photopolymerization and forms solid structures. The photopolymer used in this STL system was polyethylene glycol di-acrylate and photoinitiator was Irgacure 784. The Creo 3.0 software was used for modelling of 3D object. A special MATLAB code was developed for slicing of the 3D CAD model. The Creation Workshop software was used to control the z-stage motion with the help of Arduino microcontroller, stepper motor, and ball screw. It also controls time period to display the sliced images through DLP projector and settling period. The experiments were successfully performed to built hexagonal cross-section and pyramid objects with 0.1 mm curing depth and two seconds curing time. The pyramid object with maximum 120 numbers of layers with 12 mm maximum dimension along Z-axis was build.

Baban Suryatal, Suhas Deshmukh, Sunil Sarawade

Experimental Investigation on Geometric Accuracy and Surface Roughness of Formed Part in Multistage Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) Process

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) process is an advanced dieless sheet metal forming process in which the requirement of a dedicated punch-die setup is eliminated. The dedicated punch-die setup is replaced by a universal blank holding fixture, a punch (or tool), and a backing plate. It has a variety of applications ranging from automotive to biomedical fields. But its limitations such as inability to form steeper wall angle and high geometric error in single-stage restricts its application in sheet metal industries. To overcome this, multistage SPIF process is an alternative to achieve larger wall angles. Formability in multistage SPIF process is increased by providing intermediate stages. Various methodologies have been suggested to enhance the profile accuracy, however, it still remains the major issue. In the present paper influence of process variables namely feed rate, number of forming stages and pitch size on geometric accuracy and surface roughness of formed part is investigated. Taguchi L18 orthogonal array is used for design of the experiments. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), it is found that the number of stages and pitch size have a significant influence on geometric accuracy and surface roughness. Since feed rate is an insignificant parameter. So a higher feed rate can be used to reduce forming time. Further, a mathematical model is developed to predict the geometrical accuracy and surface roughness of the formed part.

Sunandkumar Gajjar, Vikas Sisodia, Rahul Jagtap, Kiran More, Shailendra Kumar

Wear Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steels Sintered and Forged Under Partial Vacuum Atmosphere

DSS has a mixture of ferritic and austenitic stainless steel employed in different industrial branches owing to combined mechanical and corrosion properties. DSSs utilization is increasing year after year in the automotive and offshore industries. The main objective of this research is to produce Duplex Stainless Steels through powder metallurgy. In this investigation, two DSSs namely DSS A and DSS B were prepared using pre-alloyed powders such as 310L and 430L together with the addition of elemental powders of chromium, nickel, and molybdenum in correct proportions to obtain the required DSS composition. The powder particles are blended in a pot mill for 12 h to obtain a homogeneous distribution of alloying elements. Using a Universal testing machine, DSS with 15 mm radius and 10 mm thickness was compacted at 550 MPa. After compaction powder preforms were sintered at 1350 °C in a partial vacuum and hydrogen atmospheres. Sintered compacts were forged at 1150 °C and quenched in water. Wear tests were performed using full factorial experiments (L16) and analyzed using Taguchi’s Signal to Noise ratio analysis. Forged DSS B sintered under partial vacuum exhibited wear rate of 0.014 mm3/mm for 20 N loading condition. ANOVA reveals that material has a contribution of 18% towards wear rate, closely followed by a condition.

C. Rajkumar, J. Udaya Prakash, C. Sarala Rubi, R. Mariappan

Static Analysis of a C-Channel Robot Gripper Arm Using Finite Element Analysis

In recent years, increase the demand in automobile companies, and to survive in a competitive world, and to achieve the customer target and satisfaction, the companies going through for automation. So it leads to improvement in quality and brings zero defects and also reduces the process cycle time, manpower cost and bring safety aspects. In our project, two gripper plates (six electromagnets each) are mounted on C-type gripper bracket. These electromagnets are used to hold the face of Clutch Cover plate. For forming process, the clearance between the tool and cover plate is 0.5 mm for avoiding fracture and plastic deformation. Our aim is to find the deformation of gripper bracket at Static condition. The model of robot gripper bracket is established using the SOLIDWORKS software and Finite element analysis (FEA) is done by ANSYS 17.0 and the results are compared with the optimization techniques tool. Different values of loads are applied are compared and prove the design is valid.

D. Sakthimurugan, L. Antony Michael Raj, V. Antony Aroul Raj, R. Balaji, K. Thavasilingam, N. Bharath

TLBO and JAYA: Insights into Novel Multi-objective Optimization Techniques

Optimization is an effective tool for optimum utilization of existing resources so as to improve quality, productivity and to reduce the cost. The majority of the real-world situations have multiple objectives that conflict with each other. Hence multiple objectives or criteria need to be optimized effectively and simultaneously for achieving the best output. Hence, many evolutionary algorithms like Pareto Optimization, Non-Sorted Genetic Algorithm (NSGA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Simulated Annealing (SA), etc. have been developed in the past for this purpose. However, in order to obtain more accurate predictions, these techniques are continuously being modified to make them evolutionary in nature resulting in newer multi-objective optimization techniques. Teaching-Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) and JAYA are two state-of-the-art multi-objective optimization techniques. This paper presents a review of TLBO and JAYA multi-objective optimization techniques with an emphasis on key insights into the methodology and algorithms, followed by their application in different fields. It is observed that these techniques yielded better performance than the existing ones.

V. Rajashekar, Yeole Shivraj Narayan

Study of Vehicle Pulling Phenomenon and Various Factors that Influence Vehicle Pull

Vehicle pulling is extremely frustrating and perpetually adjusting the steering wheel while driving the vehicle is additionally very unsafe if the person driving the vehicle gets distracted even for several seconds. The pulling issue can begin from different underlying roots. Determination of the proper root cause(s) among many doable choices is very important to rectify the pulling behavior. However, the diagnostic method is very complicated to put in practice due to the functional limitations of the manufacturing processes. In this research, we describe possible causes and remedial actions for the resolution of a vehicle having a drift or pull condition. The study was performed on a batch of vehicles having pulling problems and the wheel alignment values for those vehicles were matched with the defined values. Experiments were carried for understanding the effect of change in the tire conicity values, tire pressure, and many other parameters like road camber and crosswinds. We have proposed a generalized method based on our investigations for examination and resolution of the vehicle pulling problem.

Kale Shubham, Patil Pramod, Sharma Ankur, Tawade Prasad, Bhalekar Sahil

Design and Analyzing Vibration with Acoustic—Structural Coupling of Muffler for Four-Stroke Diesel Engine

Muffler is one of the important devices in the exhaust system. This plays a key role in reducing the exhaust gas noise and pressure, before when they are expelled from the exhaust system. This noise comes from the exhaust manifold which is due to the large pressure in the difference between atmosphere and exhaust gases. For quite operation Muffler is used. In this paper, a muffler with selective sound-absorbing material like carbon fiber and rockwool was used. Two different mufflers (original and modified) are designed and modelled Creo2.0. Acoustic—structural simulation is done for the two different models of muffler along with two assigned sound-absorbing materials. The simulation results are explained that the acoustic power level (dB) and frequencies are reduced for the modified model than the original model when the Rockwool material is used.

T. Sreedhar, B. Nageswara Rao

Review of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a Material for Additive Manufacturing

In manufacturing and product development, tremendous changes have been observed over a decade. The process of developments ensures the transformations to human life as and when required. The additive manufacturing is one of the processes involved in it, which emerged very fast in recent technical improvements/revolution. The additive manufacturing facilitates the development of the new range of materials along with improvements in the properties of existing materials. In this review article, the emphasis is on Polydimethylsiloxane in the additive manufacturing process. This article also discusses the primary considerations and the properties to be considered for the manufacturing of Polydimethylsiloxane to make it suitable for additive manufacturing. The review suggests the various parameters of the PDMS which made it a suitable option for additive manufacturing. Authors also tried to highlight the desired steps involved to enhance the additive manufacturing process with the help of emerging hybrid additive manufacturing processes.

Qusai Alkhalaf, Sarang Pande, Ritesh Ramesh Palkar

A State-of-the-Art Review on 3D Printed Orthotic Devices for Flat Feet Condition

Flat feet are one of the most commonly occurring ailments among humans all over the world. About 20–30% of the global population is suffering from this condition. Not only elder people but middle-aged people between 40 and 60 years and even younger age people between 18 and 21 years are also suffering from this ailment. Based on the National Foot Health Assessment conducted in the USA, about 18 million people, aged 21 years or older have this condition along with another 8 million adults suffering from fallen arches. This is mainly attributed to the change in lifestyle of the people. Lack of physical activities, overrunning, sitting or standing for long time, obesity pregnancy, rheumatoid arthritis diabetes, etc. are the primary reasons for this condition to develop in a normal person. A flat foot generally affects skeletal alignment leading to pain in the ankles, knees and hips. In order to overcome this, orthopedists are recommending the usage of orthotic devices for providing relaxation and comfort to the foot. Conventionally, orthotic devices made from custom silicon using an injection molding methods are used but their performance in terms of providing comfort is not up to the satisfied state. Researchers are trying to find an alternative to the conventional ones by finding better comfort providing optimized designs like 3D printed orthotic devices. This paper presents an extensive review of the state of research being carried out in the field of leg prosthetics especially orthotic devices including 3D printed orthotic devices.

S. Koteswari, Yeole Shivraj Narayan

Synthesis and Characterization of 17 Cr Ferritic ODS Steel Developed Through Vacuum Hot Pressing

In the present investigation, on 17 Cr ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel composition of (430L + 0.3Y2O3 + 0.5ZrO2 + 0.1Ti) wt% (alloy A) and (430L + 0.3Y2O3 + 0.5ZrO2 + 0.1Ti + 4Al) wt% (alloy B) were developed through mechanical alloying (MA) using VHP (vacuum hot pressing). The mechanically alloyed powders were taken at different milling time intervals for confirming the nanocrystalline size using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Finally, 20 h of milled powders were consolidated through vacuum hot pressing (VHP) at 1180 °C in the pressure levels of 60 MPa, and the cooling rate of 50°C/min. Throughout the experiments, the vacuum level was maintained by 10−3 Torr. Hot-pressed samples were subjected to densification studies; microstructural examination and hardness were analyzed in the current study. The nanocrystalline size of 3.6 nm (alloy A) and 6 nm (alloy B) were obtained at 20 h of milling time. The highest hot-pressed density of 7.60 g/cc (99% theoretical density) was acquired for aluminium-free ferritic ODS steel (alloy A) pressure at 60 MPa, whereas aluminium-contained alloy B lesser hot-pressed density of 7.34 g/cc was obtained. The microstructures of alloy A and alloy B containing ferrite along with complex oxides such as (Y–Zr–Ti–O) and (Y–Zr–Ti–Al–O), which is evident from TEM-EDS analysis. Alloy A has a higher hardness (870 VHN) due to the fine grains structure of material compared with alloy B (764 VHN).

G. Dharmalingam, Sellamuthu Prabhukumar, M. Arun Prasad

Investigation on Mechanical Properties of AA6082-AA7075 Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys

In this present investigation, an effort has been made to evaluate the mechanical properties of AA6082 and AA7075 dissimilar aluminum alloys were joints fabricated by the Friction stir welding process (FSW). The effects of FSW process parameters such as tool revolving speed, welding speed, tool pin profiles, and axial load also investigated. Three different FSW tool pin profiles are used in this investigation like straight cylindrical, tapered, and taper threaded. The different tool speeds are 1000 rpm, 1300 rpm, and 1500 rpm. The welding speeds are utilized for this investigation is 20 mm/min, 40 mm/min, and 60 mm/min. The unvarying axial load 2kN is used in this work. The Friction stir welding process is a solid-state joining process. This method was most suitable for combined two dissimilar alloys of AA6082-AA7075. This experimental investigation was successfully done with the help of FSW process parameters. The mechanical properties and quality of the weld joints were observed after one by material testings. The material testing like as tensile and hardness test. It is used to determine the process parameters and their performance measure with the minimum variation. The optimization process was done with the help of FSW process parameters. In this context, the L9 Orthogonal array was used in the optimization process. After the end of the experimental investigation, the results indicate the massive tensile strength value is gained by a straight cylindrical pin profiled tool at a rotational speed of 1300 rpm and the welding speed is 60 mm/min. The hardness of the weld specimen is increased with the decreasing of tool revolving speed is 1000 rpm, as well as the traveling speed, which is 20 mm/min which obtained by a tapered pin profile tool. The results indicate tool pin profile plays a vital role in getting the quality of the weld joints.

K. Giridharan, G. Chakravarthi, S. Karthick, S. MuthuKumaran, S. Padmanaban, M. Kabeerr

Quieter Cabin Through Reduction in Uncontrolled Vehicle Air Leakage and Controlling Actions at Various Levels

Quieter cabin and environment inside are important areas of success for any automobile as both are vital aspects of passenger comfort. On the contrary cabin air leakage can adversely affect these two areas to a greater extent. Air from the passenger cabin finds its way to the outer environment through the gaps formed in assembly interfaces and BIW, which is unintended and unrestricted air-leakage referred to as cabin air leakage. Same way may be followed by outer smell and noise, which directly affects the environment of cabin. Unintended air leakage is having some indirect effects such as reduction in the efficiency of HVAC cooling-heating causes excessive compressor engagement thus dropping fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Identifying accurate leakage paths and deploying suitable counteraction results in tangible benefits such as silent cabin, improved passenger environment and also adds up intangible benefit as higher fuel efficiency. In this paper, we used “Elimination methodology” to carry out the air leakage study on passenger vehicles, in which at static condition vehicle cabin is pressurized with air with the help of BLT (body leak test) machine and leakages were identified with help of stethoscope and soap water. Smoke machines can also be used for initial cabin leakage analysis. Later leakages and gaps were eliminated one by one by applying silicon sealant or putty thus getting the individual leakage contribution as well as final improvement value which can be achieved. The improvement in air leakage by 29% (254 CFM to avg. 180 CFM) is achieved through design modification of seals, BIW, application of expandable strips, plugs, closed-cell foam, stickers at various levels of manufacturing.

Kedar Kulkarni, Pramod Patil, Samar Deshpande

Aerodynamic Analysis of Manta Ray-Inspired Micro-air Vehicle Wing Planforms

This study examines the performance of a bio-inspired micro-air vehicle’s wing planforms at a low Reynolds number. The shape of the manta ray’s wing was extracted from the real image of a manta ray and a B-spline curve was generated. The Zimmerman planform was taken as the base for the model. Using Bezier curve, the planform was extended on the sides to create two models with differing curvatures which were named Manta A and Manta B. Numerical simulations were conducted using ANSYS FLUENT 15.0 at a Reynolds number of 1×105, and the aerodynamic characteristics of the planforms were studied. It was clear from the results that the manta ray-inspired planforms provided better lift characteristics at all angles of attack between 0° and 20° when compared to the base Zimmerman planform. It can also be observed that both the manta planforms provide better CL/CD ratios by around 11–23% between angles of attack 10° and 20°.

Deepak Subramanian, Jerome Alex Revanth, Gangadhar Arasu Vasagan, Pankaj Soorya Ramnarendran, Rajesh Senthil Kumar Thangeswaran, Balajee Ramakrishnananda

A Route Planning Strategy for Commercial Deliveries Using Drones

In this work, we address the problem of route planning in the scenario of using drones for commercial deliveries. One main difference in such a scenario as compared to traditional truck-based deliveries is due to the limited weight capacity of the delivery vehicles, i.e. the drones. This necessitates solving the routing and scheduling together unlike many vehicle routing problems studied in the literature. Also, a practical solution must be scalable and must take into account the complexities of the real-world scenario (e.g. orders get updated dynamically and frequently). Accordingly, we propose a heuristics-based greedy approach which entails low computation overhead and is easily scalable. We show simulation results demonstrating the efficacy of the approach.

Soumen Manna, Anand Narasimhamurthy

Assessment of Local Pressure Coefficient Over Conventional and Unconventional Tall Buildings

This article provides an overview of local pressure coefficients (Cp) on conventional and unconventional tall buildings with the application of CFD. Various modifications in architectural shapes on tall buildings eventually lead to a reduction in the wind load on building surfaces. The surface pressure on conventional (Square and rectangular) buildings is relatively different in comparison to unconventional tall buildings. This study is to assess the surface pressure coefficient over rectangular, taper and setback buildings. The assessed results show that the taper building has 7% Cp rise at ground level (y/H = 0.225) in the windward face, and 34% Cp fall at the middle level (y/H = 0.475) in the side face when compared with the rectangular building. Whereas for the setback building, Cp at ground level near setback (y/H = 0.225) has reduced to about 25% and about 6% at the middle level (y/H = 0.475) in windward than that in the rectangle building. Also, the side faces of the setback showed a 15% drop in Cp than other buildings. In leeward face, Cp is reduced to 56% near setback at the top of the building (y/H = 0.725). This assessment of the Cp on these buildings shows that the effect of setbacks on building reduces the pressure variation on all faces and the downstream wake vortices.

K. B. Rajasekarababu, G. Vinayagamurthy

IoT-Based Protection of Ventilation and Air Conditioning Units in Chemical Industry

In this industrial world, the dependence on the chemicals for the growth of the nation has become evident from the looming of more chemical industries. As a result, there has been more and more case of chemical disasters both in developed and developing countries. The disaster is due to the failure of the conventional secure system, which is based on Wi-Fi, and many times, it becomes unreliable during the unfortunate event of disaster. This project aims to provide a safe environment during emergency situations by an automated response and a means to communicate the information of the disaster immediately so that the impacts of it can be reduced. Present technological advancements such as Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), General Radio Pocket Service (GPRS) have been utilized in the communication of the disaster informations through Internet of Things (IoT). Also, the primary focus of the project is to make a building-independent monitoring system so that the loss of connectivity does not occur due to the damage in the building. Further, the real-time sensor data will be transferred to the IoT server via GPRS connectivity. The real-time values are sent to IoT through API by using the GPRS connection on the GSM module. The data logging can be separated channel wise and more actions can be programmed on the IoT platform through MATLAB. The system deals with monitoring and controlling the working environmental conditions like carbon monoxide, methane, hydrogen, LPG and flammable gases with sensors and using Arduino to make a decision as per preprogrammed also send this data to the cloud server and draw the sensor data as pictorial statistics. The data upgraded from the enforced system is accessible within the Web from anywhere within the world. The automatic venting off the toxic gases from the working premises immediately after the detection and without waiting for the communication from higher position, which makes the lesser impact on worker’s life that is unaware of consequences of the accident.

M. Vigneshwaran, P. Lakshmanan, Muniyandy Elangovan

Numerical Study on Supersonic Co-flowing Jet with Varying Lip Thickness

The study on jet mixing characteristics by varying the lip thickness has been done by the many researchers in low subsonic, high subsonic, and sonic Mach numbers (0–1.0). Additionally, researchers have performed supersonic primary jet surrounded by subsonic and sonic secondary jet. The jet mixing characteristics of a supersonic primary jet surrounded by a supersonic co-flowing jet with varying lip thickness have not been performed yet. The present study probes into this numerically. Numerical results were validated with existing experimental results in the open literature. Centerline pitot pressure is calculated using the Rayleigh pitot tube formula. Results show that increasing lip thickness enhances mixing and vice versa. The numerical shadowgraph shows the shock wave propagation and its interaction. Supersonic jet phenomenon such as supersonic core, Mach disk, oblique shock waves, shock crossover, expansion waves, subsonic flow pockets behind Mach disk, recirculation zone, near-field turbulence, subatmospheric region (wake), shear layer, characteristic decay region, fully developed region, and jet interaction was studied.

R. Naren Shankar, K. Sathish Kumar, N. Dilip Raja, Kamal Raj Chandra Shekar, Nishant Kumar Raj, Dipranjan Gupta

Design of Automatic Deluge Fire Protection System for Explosive Processing Building

Safe handling of raw materials is one of the greatest challenges in the processing of solid propellants. The major raw materials of the solid propellants are metallic fuel, inorganic oxidizer, polymeric binder, plasticizer, cross linking agent, anti-oxidant, curator, and burn rate modifier are processed in various stages. Most of the raw materials are susceptible to cause fire, explosion, or toxicity hazards due to their inherent sensitivity to shock, impact, or spillage. Each processing stage has its variation in degree of risks. If any fire initiation occurs in the processing stage, it leads to fire accident or severe explosion. It affects the personnel, equipment inside facility, and extends to the surrounding facilities. To reduce the effects of fire accident or severe explosion and prevent consequences (damages), an effective fire protection system is to be installed in the facility. The fire protection system includes sprinkler system, deluge system, fire hydrants, and water monitors. The selection, design, water demand, and pump selection depend on the degree of risk and explosive handling class. Comparing with other fire protection system, UN hazardous class HD 1.3 explosives handling facility, it requires deluge system with fire hydrants and water monitors. In this work, we have designed an effective deluge system that considers the floor area, water demand of the facility, number of nozzles inside the facility.

G. Vishnu Teja, M. Meikandan

Numerical Study on Sonic Underexpanded Co-flowing Jet with Varying Separation Distance

Mixing characteristics of sonic under expanded co-flowing jets are analysed with varying separation distance. The separation distance is defined as the distance separating the primary and secondary nozzles. The varying separation distance is understood as a passive way to control a jet. Reduced separation distance value of 3 mm and a dominant separation distance value of 15 mm is used in the current study. The nozzle pressure ratio chosen for the study is 5. The centreline total pressure decay, contours of total pressure, Mach number, density gradient, and turbulent kinetic energy were studied. The present study has been validated with experimental results available in the open literature. Results show that the secondary jet elongates the primary jet potential core length for the reduced lip 3 mm because the surrounding jet shields the central jet. The potential core length for the dominant lip 15 mm is reduced because the surrounding jet vigorously interacts with the central jet due to increased lip thickness. The contours show the jet mixing phenomena such as the wake region, sub-atmospheric region, recirculation zone and shock crossover, Mach disc, Shear layer amidst jets, shear layer between surrounding jet and atmosphere. The characteristics like potential core region, jet spread, Primary and secondary jet interaction and sub-atmospheric region are studied.

R. Naren Shankar, K. Sathish Kumar, N. Dilip Raja, J. Sumendran, Nishant Kumar Raj, Purushottam Kumar Yadav, S. Smruthi, Krishna Kumar Gosain

Study of Gas-Centered Coaxial Injector Using Jet in a Cross-Flow Mechanism

For the design of liquid propellant rocket engine, the finalization of the main injection scheme/pattern is an important factor. For controlling combustion and engine performance the design of injector geometry is most important. In air-breathing engines and liquid rocket engines, proper atomization and mixing of fuel are required for fuel prior to burning. An injector having configuration conforming to liquid jet in cross-flow (JICF) can be used in air-breathing engines using liquid fuels. In this work, atomization studies using Malvern Particle Analyzer conducted for gas-centered coaxial injectors using jet in cross-flow scheme. Water and gaseous nitrogen (GN2) were used as simulant fluids. Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) and drop size distribution were measured for various momentum flux ratio (MFR) and at different downstream positions.

K. R. Arun

Fatigue Analysis of Helical Spring Subjected to Multi-axial Load

Helical spring is being widely used in diverse industrial applications such as automobiles, airplanes, mechanical watches, lock mechanisms, airsoft gun and even in writing pens. It is a long-term investment product, which subjected to time-varying loads. Prediction of fatigue life characteristics of helical springs is a major concern. The main challenge is to find the appropriate mechanical criteria that can predict the number of life cycles. Helical springs are subjected to multi-axial load and it causes shear effect on the coil wire. In order to predict the fatigue life characteristics of under this loading condition, non-proportional multi-axis approach is preferred due to handling of varying loads. The present study focuses on performing finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the fatigue behavior of helical spring with stress-life and strain-life approaches. FEA results are compared with the stress and strain life theoretical calculations to predict the fatigue life and numerical simulations are also carried out to determine the maximum shear stress. It is observed that strain-life approach is able to predict the fatigue life accurately than stress-life methodology.

Tarek Al Musalli, Tesfaye Kebede Ali, Balasubramanian Esakki

Wear Properties on AA2014/Al2O3/TiB2 Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites

Wear properties of aluminium hybrid metal matrix composites have been analyzed in this study. The driving force behind this study is too broad a knowledge base on aluminium powder metallurgy to provide ideas for making aluminium powder components economical and wear-resistant. In this study, AA2014, AA2014 + Al2O3 + TiB2 wear analysis was concentrated using pin-on disc tribotester. The samples tested for wear were prepared using the powder metallurgy method. Wear tests were carried out with loading conditions of 20 N under normal atmosphere at a sliding velocity of 1.5 m/s. Coefficient of friction, specific wear rate and wear rate have been calculated. AA2014 + 5 wt%–Al2O3 + 5 wt%–TiB2 has a lower rate of wear due to the presence of wear resistance materials when compared with the AA2014 alloy.

Jayavelu Sundaram, J. Udaya Prakash, Harivind Kagitha

NiP Composite Coating of Piston Ring by Plate and Bumper Method

In automotive engines, piston rings are one of the critical components operating inside the engine keeping the vehicle mileage. The function of piston rings is for better sealing of combustion gases and oil scrapping. With the usage and time, the piston rings wear out. This introduces the need for ring coating of high quality which can operate under high temperature without damaging or peeling off and is also corrosion resistant. The NiP composite coating gives preferable high hardness and improves wear and friction resistance. The good property enhancement of the composite material is also an important factor to be considered. Property of a composite depends on the volume fraction of dispersed phase. In order to achieve good property enhancement, the volume fraction has to be increased. One such technique of achieving this is the plate and bumper method which involves the usage of fixture and is to be moved up and down. The volume fraction achieved in this method is around 8–10%. This method helps in incorporating the particles and achieving a high volume fraction with a slow plating rate. Results shows that considerably the plate and bumper helps in improving the incorporation of composite and contributes more to the mechanical property enhancement of the piston rings.

M. Malathi, J. Herbert Mabel, R. Rajendran

Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Sintered and Hot Pressed Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites

This work analyzed the microstructural and mechanical properties of sintered and hot pressed aluminum alloy AA2014, an aluminum metal matrix composite and an aluminum hybrid metal matrix composite. Sample-1 (AA2014), sample-2 (AA2014 + 5wt% TiB2) and sample-3 (AA2014 + 5 wt% TiB2 + 5 wt% Al2O3) were developed by powder metallurgy. It involves elemental powder mixing and uniaxial green compaction in a 350 MPa universal testing machine followed by sintering in a 550 °C electric muffle furnace for 2 h and hot pressing in a vacuum hot press at nitrogen atmosphere for 2 h at 620 °C. Density assessment, study of microstructure and mechanical characterization were subjected to three samples. For both sintering and hot pressed condition, mechanical and physical properties were analyzed. Samples-1, 2, and 3 display a marginal increase of 1, 1.4 and 1.4% of sintered densities after hot pressing. Sample-1, 2, and 3 porosity were decreased by 15.94, 25 and 22.2% after hot pressing. Improved mechanical properties due to the transfer of load from the matrix to the two reinforcements TiB2 and Al2O3 after hot pressing.

Jayavelu Sundaram, J. Udaya Prakash, Mariappan Ramajayam

A Novel Methodology of Enhancing Vehicle Safety Using a Safety Valve for Vehicle Wheels

The primary objective of this project is to use a supplementary valve for releasing the excess pressure in a tubeless wheel for commercial vehicles. The recommended cold inflation pressure for a wheel is 130–140 psi. During running conditions, the pressure increases as the temperature of the wheel increases. So, the PRV was designed in such a way that it must accept 20% of pressure rise in the tire due to heat produced during running conditions. The PRV was designed to open up at high tire pressure and to continue bleeding until it reaches a predetermined value. One of the supplementary issue which the PRV reduced is the wheel unbalance issue. The inflation valve adds up a mass in the wheel rim, which acts as an eccentric mass and requires a balance weight to solve the unbalance. Here, addition of PRV will reduce the amount of the external balance weight, since it adds up its own mass vertically opposite to the inflation valve.

T. Sundararajan, R. Muthuraj, P. Hariharan, R. Srinivasan

An Innovative Method of Preventing Bolt Hole Crack in Aluminium Wheels by Using Laser Peening Technique

The primary objective of this project is to increase the fatigue life of aluminium wheels and to prevent the fatigue failure of the wheel above the bolt hole region. In the testing and validation of wheels, the cornering fatigue test (CFT) plays an important role in deciding the stiffness of the wheel. In CFT testing, the wheel will be fixed in the bottom flange, and the bending moment will be applied, according to the load rating of the wheel multiplied by its corresponding test factor. CFT testing results of aluminium wheels showed crack above the bolt hole region in most of the cases. To prevent this mode of failure, and also to improve the fatigue life of the wheel further, it has been found that increasing the localized hardness above the bolt hole region will improve the fatigue life in CFT. Laser peening is a surface hardening technique by which the surface hardness of the material will be enhanced, along with which hardness and compressive residual stresses will be imparted on the surface in which the treatment is done. The depth of the high magnitude compressive stresses will greatly improve the material’s resistance to fatigue failure. In aluminium wheels, laser peening was done circumferentially around the bolt hole region to induce localized compressive stress and increase the hardness in that area. The wheel in which laser peening was done was tested on CFT and showed a significant improvement in life.

T. Sundararajan, R. Muthuraj, R. Srinivas, A. Hariprasad

Lab VIEW and PID Action-Based Brake Lever Effect for Validation of Servo Vacuum Booster

A servo vacuum, equally termed as power booster or power brake unit, utilizes vacuum to maximize the pedal action of the drivers and consequently to the master cylinder. In manufacturing of this equipment, companies have established several strategies. Such methods are designed to eliminate the potential defects, failure, or malfunction of the system. Therefore, an effective approach, Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineers’ Workbench (Lab VIEW) and Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) based real-time verification of servo vacuum booster is built to avoid failures in component testing in order to exclude components or parts that do not meet the required or defined requirements. The objective of this work is to test the servo booster using the already saved standard measures for an effective servo booster. A Lab VIEW simulation system to track servo vacuum booster output was developed. The pedaling motion is provided using the servo motor, operated by means of the control signal from PID controller, in real time to check the vacuum booster. The checked servo vacuum booster in the specified range is finally ready to mount in vehicles.

A. Selwin Mich Priyadharson, S. Vinson Joshua

Design and Development of a Cost-Effective Reloadable Motor for Sounding Rocket

A sounding rocket, also known as a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight. This paper reports the design and fabrication of a reloadable motor with a reusable nozzle for an experimental sounding rocket. The motor can be retrieved after a flight using a parachute mechanism and hence the name reloadable. A mixture of sugar and Potassium Nitrate in a ratio of 7:13 was used as the solid propellant. The burning rate of the propellant was measured in open atmosphere and found to be 7.22 mm/s. The nozzle which is the functional part of the motor was robustly designed to yield the required thrust load for lifting the rocket. The throat diameter of the nozzle was estimated to be 8 mm corresponding to a thrust load of 688 N which could raise the rocket to an altitude of 1500 ft from the ground level. The time-dependent variation of thrust, pressure and propellant mass flow rate inside the combustion chamber was analyzed using the Meteor software. The pressure, temperature and velocity distribution within the nozzle were estimated through computational analysis using ANSYS fluent. The maximum velocity at the nozzle exit was found to be 2.86 M. Further, the cost-effective analysis of the proposed design was carried out in terms of the fuel and materials used for fabrication of the motor assembly.

Ravikiran, Mohd. Jawad Shariff, H. Kaushil, S. Likhitha, Nikhil Bhootpur, Sreejith Mohan

Challenges in the Design of Safe Handling System for Explosive Dust

Powders manufacturing industries have been growing significantly for the past few decades due to their economic benefits of producing net-shaped or near-net-shaped components compared with conventional metal-working methods. The incidents related to fires and explosions due to powders are unfortunately regular occurrences throughout the world with many injuries to severe injuries and fatalities every year. It is observed that 30% of the industrial accidents are occurred due to dust explosions and also happened in the dust collection systems. But there are no explicit studies carried out on the handling of explosive dust, which are potentially hazardous with their sensitivities viz., friction, heat, vibration, and impact and static. Since these are uncommon materials used in the industries; no reliable data has been established for the safe handling of explosive dust by different dust collectors. Aerospace and military industries are operating the explosive materials for different applications. Dust is generated during the manufacturing of various components of the rocket for space applications. Explosive machining is one of the critical operations in rocket production. Dust generated during explosive grain machining shall be properly collected and carefully handled to mitigate the associated potential risks. In order to meet this challenging task of collecting highly hazardous dust, a safe and healthy collection extraction system is inevitable. To address the above challenge, a suitable dust collection system is designed by considering various critical parameters. System worthiness for safe handling of dust is verified using risk control technique ETA. The designed system minimizes the manual cleaning and provides provision for easy maintenance. This paper deals with the challenges in designing a suitable collection system for explosive dust and verification its worthiness using ETA.

Nagababu Kurakula, Elangovan Muniyandy

Risk Assessment on Storage and Handling of Highly Toxic Chemical in Rocket Industry

In solid propellant manufacturing of the rocket industry, many chemicals are used, but among all Toluene di-isocyanate (TDI) is highly toxic and also recently the threshold limit value (TLV) was amended from 0.005 to 0.001 ppm by American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). The exposure to TDI occurs mainly through inhalation of vapors at workplace and storages; hence, TDI is to be carefully handled due to its toxic nature which affects human health and environment; therefore, spillage of Toluene di-isocyanate causes adverse effects, so utmost care should be taken to avoid human exposure to the toxic vapors. Due to industry demand, in processing of solid propellant, large quantity of TDI was used as curator, which will be in the form of containers stored in bulk in designated storage rooms of the order 8–16 tons. Any major spillage/leakage in this store may affect the plant personnel as well as nearby residential area people in this paper; we evaluated the TDI evaporation rate and concentration level at residential area locations by ALOHA software and as per the Acute Exposure Guideline Level (AEGL) or Emergency Response Planing Guidelines (ERPG), and by this, we found that at 5000 m no significant concentration. At the same time, for the processing of solid propellant, various methods of TDI handling require the usage of different types of valves, hoses, and pipe fittings. Further, the failure modes of these handling components can lead to TDI spill/leakage and evaluated the exposure concentration level for that spills by using different hazard identification techniques. With the results, we conclude that the concentration is within the acceptable range by applying risk control measures.

P. Srinivas, Muniyandy Elangovan

Performance Evaluation of Linear Solar Collector Using Hybrid Nanofluid

This paper reports an experimental investigation on the performance evaluation of a linear solar collector using a hybrid nanofluid of CuO and TiO2. The scanning electron microscope was employed to study the morphology of the nanomaterials. A linear fresnel lens was used to concentrate solar energy on the required length of the glass tube. The nanofluid was made to flow through the glass tube and absorb the solar energy. Transmittance spectrum of samples indicated optimum properties for 0.20% volume concentration of CuO and 0.25% volume concentration of TiO2 based on which the hybrid nanofluid was prepared. The results indicated superior thermal and optical properties for the hybrid nanofluid. The absorbance of the nanofluid was found to increase with the concentration of CuO nanoparticles. Temperature profile indicated that the hybrid nanofluid could absorb more heat then water and the base fluid even at lower concentrations. Further, the photo-thermal conversion rate of the samples was found to increase with the absorptivity of the nanofluid.

Sreejith Mohan, Albin Joseph, Akash Poovathinkal, K. H. Akhilesh, Jerin Reji, Jithin Ninan Idicula, B. R. Vishnu, S. P. Sivapirakasam

Review of Experimental Approaches for the Analysis of Aerodynamic Performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

World of today is facing the problem of power crisis, because most of the power generation units are running on the conventional resources which are depleting day by day. Therefore, the need of alternative resources is the prime necessity of the hour. Many experiments and studies have been conducted that highlights the benefits of VAWT and its better performance over HAWTs. This paper presents a review of various designs and performances delivered by different types of VAWTs. Major designs that are in question in the presented paper are Savonius-type and Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine. The paper aims at comparing various designs along with their merits and demerits and parameters of various experimented VAWT. The objective of this study is to derive an optimum design that can deliver the maximum efficiency and power output within the given set of parameters like blade angle, number of blades, aerofoil shapes, tip speed ratios, and wind velocity.

Vishal Kaushik, R. Naren Shankar

Analysis and Design of an Optical Biosensor Using Mathematical Modeling

Photonics is a branch of science which deals with creation, perception, and arrangement of light in a suitable form. The waves are electromagnetic waves (EM waves) where electric and magnetic waves are perpendicular to each other. These sensors are used to detect diseases like cancer, forensic analysis, pattern, parental recognition, pattern recognition, etc. But, photonic biosensors are first designed so as to get the optical-designed simulation pattern using MEEP and opti-FDTD algorithms. The patterns are nothing but light wave patterns. These patterns are analogous to electromagnetic waves. These waves are linked mathematically by using different laws and equations. The study of mathematical model for generation of images and simulation is done mainly in this paper. Mathematical modeling of any sensor is an excellent approach to design and model it.

G. Sowmya Padukone, H. Uma Devi, Shivaputra, Meenakshi L. Rathod

A Contemporary Review on Knee Injuries and Protective Pads

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a medical condition that affects the knee joint of humans primarily in the age group of 55–60 years. It specifically triggers cartilage breakdown due to aging. However, injury, obesity, inactivity, genetics, inflammation, diabetes, and other medical reasons may also lead to osteoarthritis in lesser age groups. Some of the symptoms used for detecting osteoarthritis are muscular pain, a decrease in range of motion at joint, difficulty in joint mobilization, and mild swelling around the joint. Orthopaedic practitioners analyze this condition using the Kellgren Lawrence grading system based on X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnosis involves suggesting regular exercises for increasing muscle strength, losing weight, and putting less effort into the affected joint. Knee braces, knee caps, knee protective pads, and knee sleeves are recommended for use depending on the grade of cartilage wear. As a measure of precaution, many people in the aforementioned age group as well as sportspersons are moving towards using personal protective devices as prevention is better than treatment to the injury. Personal protective device is a patient-specific device used to decrease risk factors associated with the injury. One such device is a knee protective pad which safeguards the knee and provides comfort. This paper presents a critical review and detailed analysis of the latest trends in the development and use of conventional and unconventional knee protective pads.

K. Anirudh, Shivraj Narayan Yeole

Augmented Reality Based Collaborative Product Enhancement

The paper presents an application of Augmented Reality to support collective product development among members of different domains across the product development including end-users. Portable software tool that works on smart devices (smartphones, tablets, laptops, PCs) is developed for collaborative product development using Augmented Reality to nurture, maintain and increase a company’s market share by fulfilling consumer’s demand. Portable software tool is presented with the proposed methodology for a collaborative platform to work on mobile devices to capture the synergistic dynamics and to customize and interrelate with the product in customer(s) own environment. The product shown to the customer using the developed tool maybe customizable as per the customers’ requirement in his/her own environment remotely and to record comments. The recorded customization and comments are then stored in the database and used in the product development and enhancement of the product.

Ravi Kumar Gupta

Influence of Different Abrasives Mixtures on Abrasive Water Jet Drilling of Die Steel

Abrasive Water Jet Machining (AWJM) is a non-traditional machining process used for cutting an extensive range of materials by means of a mixture of water and an abrasive substance. The present study describes the effect of abrasive materials and stand-off distance on AWJ drilling of die steel. Different abrasives namely Silicon Carbide, Garnet, and abrasive mixtures of silicon carbide and garnet in the ratio of (60:40) were used in this study. The Output responses, namely cylindricity, circularity, and surface roughness of the drilled surfaces were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the mixture of the different abrasives increases the cutting ability of AWJ performance as compared to single type abrasives, namely, garnet or Silicon Carbide in die steel.

K. Balaji, N. Yuvaraj

Rarefied Flow Field Analysis on a Re-entry Vehicle

Rarefied flow field analysis has been carried out on a re-entry vehicle (REV) for an altitude of 105 km. DSMC-based solver was used to calculate pressure, drag, temperature and heat-flux. A blunt nose re-entry vehicle (REV) was used for the analysis in a rarefied flow field. The flow was considered to be in chemical and thermal non-equilibrium. 11 species ( $${\text{N}}_{2} ,{\text{O}}_{2} ,{\text{NO}},{\text{N}}_{2}^{ + } ,{\text{O}}_{2}^{ + } ,{\text{NO}}^{ + } ,{\text{N}},{\text{N}}^{ + } ,{\text{O}},{\text{O}}^{ + }$$ N 2 , O 2 , NO , N 2 + , O 2 + , NO + , N , N + , O , O + and $${\text{e}}^{ - }$$ e - ) model for gas composition was used with total of 47 chemical reactions. Observations were also made for the existence of shockwave, change in shock thickness and its properties. It was observed that there is a small variation in chemically non-reacting and reacting (chemically non-equilibrium) flow. The existence of shockwave can only be predicted by means of observations of properties such as temperature, pressure and density as the rarefaction is more. No clear distinct region of discontinuity was seen in the flow field and temperature and pressure field shows sudden variations in properties. Drag profile is fairly constant for both the conditions. Although the temperature is very large, the heat-flux to the body was found to be very less.

M. Abhay, Vinod Kumar, Aaditya Chaphalkar, Jiju Justus

Computation of Drag of a Ballistic Reentry Body at Various Mach Numbers

It is necessary to dissipate the kinetic and potential energy of a reentry object from Earth orbit and recover it on the ground with small impact point dispersion without exceeding thermal and structural limits. This can be accomplished either through aerodynamics or propulsion or both. The entry can be ballistic, semi-ballistic or lifting entry. In a non-propulsive ballistic entry, drag is the important aerodynamic parameter that influences the trajectory design other than the mass and entry flight path angle. While re-entering into the atmosphere, deceleration is very high because of Earth gravitational force, to reduce the deceleration rate drag of the configuration should be very high. To increase the drag reentry configuration has to be blunt. In this paper, the flow field around a typical ballistic reentry body has been investigated using RANS CFD simulations. Ansys-Fluent, CFD++ with Spalart-Allmaras and realizable k-ε turbulence models have been used in the present analysis. In this paper, various drag properties for a spherically blunt cone flare configuration, code-to-code comparison of drag and Cp distribution on the body have been discussed for various Mach numbers.

S. Balasubramanian, G. Vidya, Ganapati Joshi

Laser Machining of AISI 304: An Experimental Study of Influence of Process Parameters on Dross Height Formation

This paper presents an experimental study on influence of process parameters of laser machining of AISI 304 material on dross height formation. Laser power, cutting speed and gas pressure are process parameters which are considered during present work. Design of experiments is implemented using response surface methodology, and analysis of variance is carried out in order to find out significance and influence of process parameters for dross properties. It is identified that cutting speed acts as the most important significant parameter accompanied by laser power and gas pressure. Dross height increases with the enhancement in cutting speed and decreases with the reduction in laser power and gas pressure. Further, optimization of process parameters is also carried out to reduce dross height formation. Based on the experimental analysis, second-order mathematical model is formulated for the prediction of dross height. Model predictions and experimental results are found in reasonable agreement.

Aniket Jadhav, Shailendra Kumar

Development of Analytical Method for Mass Flow Measurement in a Porous Channel

Porous channels are used in scramjet to perform transpiration cooling in order to reduce thermal load in the combustion chamber. Therefore, it is important to analyze fluid flow in the porous channel. Prior to this, it is important to estimate the mass flowrate, pressure, and temperature precisely inside as well as outside the porous channel. In the present work, permeation cells are specifically designed and fabricated for the permselectivity test bench. This allows the user to measure the mass flowrate, temperature, pressure, and composition of outlet flow along the length of the porous tube. In order to measure the mass flowrate correctly, an analytical method is developed. To validate the method, Nitrogen is used as a fluid.

Hussain Najmi, Eddy El-Tabach, Nicolas Gascoin, Khaled Chetehouna, François Falempin

Experimental Investigation on Thermal Degradation of Multilayer Honeycomb Core Laminate Sandwich Composite in a Cone Calorimeter

There are a number of composites available but cannot be used in the aircraft because they do not possess the required fire-resistant properties. The fire norms set by the aviation regulatory bodies are very stringent, in order to use any material in aircraft interiors, it should comply with FAR 25.853 norms. This regulation demands that each material in a multilayer material as well as its assembly should comply with the regulation. Therefore, in the present study, a multilayer composite material consisting of four layers is tested in an ISO 5660 cone calorimeter at the incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2. At first, all the constitute layers (i.e. paint, laminate, and honeycomb) are tested separately at the same heat flux (i.e. 50 kW/m2) to identify the thermal decomposition process of each material individually. Thereafter, step by step layers are added and three different assemblies are formed and tested under the same heat flux to identify the thermal interaction between each layer. The obtained results confirm that the time to attain the maximum surface temperature increases with an increase in the layers of materials. However, the peak surface temperature attained by the materials increases while the CO emission for the first 300 s decreases with the increase in the material layers.

Hussain Najmi, Jocelyn Luche, Thomas Rogaume

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