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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Innovative Technologies and Learning, ICITL 2020, held in Porto, Portugal, in November 2020.

The 65 full papers presented together with 2 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 127 submissions. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: Augmented and Virtual Reality in Education; Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics; Emerging Issues and Trends in Education; Innovative Learning in Education; Online Course and Web-Based Environment; Technology-Enhanced Learning; Application and Design of Innovative Learning Software; and Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Design, and Mathematics.

Due to the Corona pandemic this event was held virtually.

### A Model of a Cooperative Learning Technique in a Flipped International Marketing Management Classroom

The great changes in education have shifted the use of the traditional pedagogical approach to the techno-pedagogical approach. However, business or management education merely postulates the traditional one by the teacher-centered method. The techno-pedagogical approach will be designed to emphasize the use of flipped classroom and Jigsaw II cooperative learning approaches to optimize the learning process. Therefore, this research proposes a design of an innovative pedagogical model of teaching methodology with the Flipped-Jigsaw II Cooperative Learning approach in order to promote an effective learning environment of the International Marketing Management course which is later expected to activate the important skills as the element of the projected outcomes of the course. A deep interview has conducted to three interviewees in verifying the proposed model from the teachers’ perspective. The result shows that the proposed model is projected to facilitate the learning process in order to attain the course’s outcome better than the traditional ones.

Noviati Aning Rizki Mustika Sari, Ting-Ting Wu

### Combining EEG Feedback on Student Performance and Self-efficacy

This study aims to investigate whether the feedback designed based on EEG (electroencephalography) signals and mind-mapping contributes to student attention, performance, and self-efficacy. The EEG headset was used to collect and measure the participant’s attention levels. This study uses a mixed-methods of quasi-experimental design. The participants were 30 graduate students that randomly assigned to the control (non-feedback) group and experimental (with-feedback) group. A random grouping was used to divide the participants into two groups, control and experimental. The participants in experimental group will receive both negative and positive audio feedback. The research finding shows that the participants who receive the feedback had higher attention state and significant influence of self-efficacy compared to those in the groups without feedback. And the feedback does not influence the participant’s performance. Meanwhile, participant’s mind-maps score and performance between the two groups showed no significant influence. This study suggest for future studies, to explore the effect of different types of feedback on students attention.

Astrid Tiara Murti, Ting-Ting Wu, Yueh-Min Huang

### Design of Reciprocal Teaching-Collaborative Learning Approach in Enhancing Students’ Reading Comprehension Skill

Reading comprehension is one of the English language abilities for academic learning and as a crucial component of lifelong learning. Through reading, students will develop themselves and achieve progress in every aspect of their life. Referring to the importance of reading, appear the question of how to improve students’ reading comprehension skills. Therefore, teachers should develop their method effectively and use appropriate learning strategies independently to improve students’ reading comprehension skills. One best strategic method to develop reading comprehension skills is the reciprocal teaching. Therefore, this study was preliminary research to obtain perceptions about the design of reciprocal teaching combine with collaborative learning in large classes. This study conducted a qualitative approach to collect some perceptions from the English expert. The participants were English teachers of Polytechnic in Indonesia. Then, the result of the study was students predicted more interactive, communicative, active group discussion, critical thinking, motivation, leadership, and cooperation.

Olivia de H. Basoeki, Ting-Ting Wu, Yueh-Min Huang

### Mathematic Learning Efficiency Analysis of Story-Based Situated Learning in Low-Achieving Elementary School Students

The objective of this study is to understand how story-based situated learning affect low-achieving students’ learning performances and discuss their impact on learning efficiency, math anxiety and differences in attitudes toward mathematics. The subjects of this study were low-achieving 5–6th grade students of an unnamed elementary school in Taichung of Taiwan. Experimental group used story-based situated learning, while the control group used traditional lecture method. The study found the following: (1) Experimental group’s post test scores regarding mathematic achievement exhibited significant difference in comparison with the control group. (2) Experimental group’s math anxiety scale results had significant difference comparing to the control group. Experimental group students were also found to be less anxious than those of the control group. (3) Experimental group’s math attitude scale results exhibited significant difference when compared to the control group. Experimental groups were also found to have better attitude scores than the control group.

Chih-Wei Huang, Hong-Ren Chen, Sen-Chi Yu, Yi-Lun Su, Chia-Chen Chen

### Implementation of an Individual English Oral Training Robot System

To improve oral English ability, in addition to learners’ willingness to practice more, the learning effect will be more obvious if tutor assistance is provided and can involve one-on-one individual tutoring. However, due to the scarcity of English teacher manpower, teachers cannot take care of every student in class, nor can they teach students one by one after class. Robot-Assisted English Speaking may provide a feasible solution. Therefore, this research has developed an educational robot system that can support individual tutoring of English speaking after class. It is called “English Oral Training Robot Tutor System (EOTRTS)”, which can actively lead students to learn through robots, and help students improve their oral English practice through individual tutoring and interactive methods. The implementation of this system is to use the social robot NAO’s voice recognition, QR code scanning, humanized limbs, and various sensor functions as well as the ability to interact with people and other features to help students learn oral English after class. The experimental results show that, in addition to a slightly lower satisfaction with the robot’s gesture performance, the students’ acceptance of the EOTRTS system is promising.

Chen-Yu Lin, Wei-Wei Shen, Ming-Hsiu Michelle Tsai, Jim-Min Lin, Wai Khuen Cheng

### Pilot Study of Information Literacy Competency of the Elderly: A Case Study of Multimedia Instant Messaging Applications

The aging of the population and the rapid development of digital technology have brought many shocks to our world and changed the way of life we take for grant-ed. The development of mobile technology provides many opportunities for the elderly to improve their quality of life. A total of 20 subjects were enrolled in this study, with an average age of 71.5 years old. Through this course, we summarized the factors affecting information literacy as “learning motivation and attitude”, “whether the application is close to needs in their lives”, and “whether the family and friends can help the study” through observation and interviews. During the experiment we observed the information literacy performance of the elderly in the use of multimedia instant messaging applications. It is found that when learning digital technology and using multimedia instant messaging applications, information literacy is not directly related to age, education, or gender. It is mainly the acceptance attitude towards technology and the link degree between applications and life that affect the development of information literacy among the elderly.

Yi-Chen Lu, Ting-Ting Wu

### Study on Development of Mobile App Design as Learning Media in Student Internship Support: Toward Strengthening Tie and Realistic Feedback in University-Industry Cooperation

The development of technology was rapidly especially in the mobile phone that equipped with various mobile apps. A mobile app was developed on the purpose to help humans toward an easier and efficient ways. Education was received resonance effect from mobile apps influencing to various fields. Therefore, this study was a mixed-method research approach, were had a purpose to obtain user responds on the engagement of mobile app into the student internship program toward successfully of cooperation between university-industry. The sample of this study was fifty-five students on engineering faculty, two teacher, and four industry supervisors. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect the data as the mobile app user response which will be implemented on an internship program. The result was realistic feedback will be achieved through pictures and videos reporting that represent industry technology implementation, and through industry feedback that represents observation result on students’ performance during the internship.

Andik Asmara, Ting-Ting Wu

### 3D Digital Design to Support Elementary School Students’ Spatial Visualization Skills: A Preliminary Analysis

This study aimed to investigate the effect of 3D digital design on students’ spatial visualization skills. A 3D digital design program as one of afterschool clubs was created in a public elementary school. 10 students voluntarily participated in the program. A quasi-experimental pretest and posttest design was used to fulfill the research purpose. The educational experiment lasted for six weeks. Prior to the study, students were given a spatial visualization pretest. One week after the completion of the experiment, students received the same post-test. The results showed that the 3D digital design intervention significantly improved students’ spatial visualization skills.

Pao-Nan Chou, Ru-Chu Shih

### Developing the Scale of Technology Product Imagination Disposition

Due to the rapid development of information technology, not only did people begin to think about the rapid development of wireless networks, but also the development of products in other fields through various tools and applications, including the rise of audio-visual platforms and the popularization of mobile applications. They have made mobile games and mobile payments closer to our daily life. In this way, technology education has been widely used in the educational environment, showing the increasing demand for technology products in education. This study aims to develop and verify the characteristics of people’s imagination of technology products. A total of 135 objects over the age of 18. Through exploratory factor analysis performed by principal component analysis of the varimax orthogonal rotation; item analysis uses comparisons of extreme groups so as to check item-total correlations and internal consistency; Confirmatory factor analysis compares the goodness of fit indices of the first-order model, the first-order four-factor model, and the second-order model. These analyses are conducted to determine and construct validity and reliability. A second-order model technology product imagination disposition scale is constructed, which contains 17 items in four facets, namely practical evaluation, positive preference, beyond reality and attitude, to measure people’s imagination of technology products and help teachers understand the characteristics of students.

Yi-Jin Wang, Hui-Min Lai, Tien-Chi Huang, Pei-ling Chien‬‬‬‬‬

### Development of a VR STEAM Welding Project Course

This research aimed to develop the teaching mode, ability indicators, and course content of a “VR STEAM Welding Course” for the Engineering Department of Universities of Science and Technology. The students of the Electric Welding Course in Universities of Science and Technology were taken as the subjects for the integration of the STEAM education concept, in order to integrate the VR technology into the teaching of the welding course. The Fuzzy Delphi Method was adopted as the research method, and an expert questionnaire analysis was conducted. The conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) a three-part, “student-centered” teaching mode was developed, which included welding knowledge and skills training, STEAM integrated learning, and the practical application of VR; (2) Eight ability indicators of the “VR STEAM welding course” were established; (3) the “welding construction” ability indicator for VR-assisted welding teaching was the most feasible; (4) the ability indicator of “welding construction” for STEAM education had the highest integrality into welding teaching; and (5) the mobile learning platform of the VR STEAM welding course had high real-time characteristics. The findings can serve as a reference for the subsequent content design, teaching activity planning and the implementation of the experimental teaching of this course.

Chih-Chao Chung, Chun-Chun Tung, Yuh-Ming Cheng, Shi-Jer Lou

### Enhancing Students’ Learning Outcomes of a STEAM Permutations Course Through a Game Based Visual Programming Environment with Qualifying Rank Strategy

The main purpose of this research is to develop a visual programming game with a Qualifying Rank strategy (QRVPG), allowing learners to use this system to conduct a STEAM-oriented mathematics course, the content of which is permutation. In the QRVPG system, learners can perform learning tasks with lower cognitive levels in their personal game copies to understand and construct knowledge, as the level of the game role increases, levels with higher cognitive levels will also appear. Then, learners are necessary to analyze and apply the knowledge they learned to complete more difficult learning tasks. In addition, learners can compete in the QRVPG system. This research hopes to introduce the qualifying rank strategy to allow learners with similar abilities to compete with each other, through this way, enhance learners’ learning motivation and engagement. In general, this research hopes to improve learners’ core competence in all aspects of STEAM through the cooperation of game formation and the gradual development of cognitive level.

Yu-Che Huang, Yueh-Ming Huang, Andreja Istenic Starcic

### A LUPDA Assessment Model for Activities in STEAM Education

The Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Math (STEAM) has become the buzzword in the field of education. Many studies have revealed the importance of STEAM education and proposed different strategies to enhance it, nevertheless, these strategies are not in perfect alignment with five disciplines of STEAM. Therefore, this study proposed an assessment model which can match each discipline of STEAM activities respectively, including Learning, Using, Practicing, Designing, and Applying (LUPDA). We piloted and reviewed this model through the STEAM learning activities of the Micro:bit-Obstacle Avoidance Car. Finally, the LUPDA model provides effective measurement thorough STEAM hands-on activity.

Yu-Cheng Chien, Pei-Yu Chang, Hsin-Yu Lee, Tai-Yi Huang, Yueh-Min Huang

### A Testing Case of Simulation Learning in Nursing by Virtual Reality - Subcutaneous Injection Training

In this paper, a virtual reality based nursing skill training is proposed to evaluate the learning efficiency improvement under the simulation learning theory. To perform this goal, a VR subcutaneous injection scenario is constructed and used as the skill training sample for the two-year college nursing students to understand their experience during the VR training process. The constructed training system includes completed step by step operations and the on line test function to fulfill the interactive self-training and skill evaluation functions. According to the designed goal, this learning methodology can achieve better learning performance and increasing the learning motivation while reducing the corresponding cost and effort significantly. It is observed from the students’ feedback that the learning strategy, compared with the traditional teaching methods, can not only improves the student’s interest in skill training but also enhances the learning performance. That is, the proposed teaching auxiliary system can improve both the student’s interest and learning performance, and is practical to extend into other skill training fields in the future.

ChinLun Lai, Yu-mei Chang

### Experiential Learning Through Controlling and Monitoring a Real-Time 3D House Using LabVIEW in a Virtual Laboratory

This paper presents a new virtual laboratory based on a simulation environment for educational purposes. This virtual laboratory covers an important part of the smart home technology, acquiring and processing of different types of data and controls via the cloud technology. A smart house is a regular house that uses intelligent technology to efficiently gather information for the purpose of monitoring and controlling the home environment (e.g. temperature, lighting) and its electronic and mechanical devices. Its purpose is not only to make life easier for those who would benefit from these facilities on a daily basis, but also to create as much comfort as possible and a safer living environment. This paper presents a LabVIEW-based smart home simulator automation. In addition to this software created by National Instruments, a home simulator, HOME I/O developed by Real games, is used. The system can monitor and adjust the home temperature and is able to automatically adjust the brightness of every room’s light fixtures or of the outside lights. At the same time, the alarm system can be controlled, with its motion sensors, doors and windows opening sensors for the occupants’ enhanced safety and protection. The software was also designed with energy saving mindfulness making the home an eco-friendly place. To highlight the possibility of using the developed technology in a real environment, a hardware part of the system was implemented by using a MyRIO NI device.

Bogdan M. Mîndruț, Claudiu A. Oprea

### Students’ Attitude Toward Learning and Practicing English in a VR Environment

Virtual Reality (VR) technology has been engaged in educational content for students of all ages. A VR headset completes a new world with user-friendly interface, gesture controls, customized educational resources, and hands-on teacher controls. Learners are able to apply and practice their target language. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate learners’ attitude and usefulness toward the implementation of VR technique in L2 learning. VR technique assists target language learning was designed according to the curricular objectives and the subject matter of a private electrical and technical university. Mixed method was applied and 117 freshmen participated in the study. A list of questionnaires of VR technique assists target language learning was applied for the first phase of data collection. Furthermore, a semi-structure interview and a field note techniques were carried out to be the main method for the detailed qualitative data. 15 participants were randomly involved in reflecting the experience of learning English in a VR environment. The results indicated that learning the target language in a VR environment was a practical intervention for developing independent motivator. L2 students have better attitudes toward their learning experiences. Meanwhile, the perceived satisfaction and usefulness positively affect learners’ behavioral intention of VR usage and target language learning.

Ying Ling Chen

### The Impact of Applying Virtual Reality Technology to Spatial Ability Learning in Elementary School Students

This study explored the effects of virtual reality (VR) technology applied to spatial ability learning in elementary school students. As supplement materials to the Geometry Unit in the curriculum, the learning materials were developed based on the mathematics competence indicators for fifth and sixth graders in Taiwan. Designed to enhance spatial concept and logical thinking, the materials tapped into VR technology to transform two-dimensional graphics into three-dimensional spaces, in view of effectively solving the problem of learning abstract 3D spaces. A quasi-experimental method was used to understand the influence of different learning methods on students’ learning effectiveness and interest in learning. The experiment found that (1) the use of interactive VR learning materials significantly improved student’s spatial ability; (2) using VR learning materials enhanced the learning effectiveness of students with low achievement in mathematics; and (3) the introduction of VR learning materials improved students’ motivation for learning spatial concepts. The findings showed that the digital learning materials developed in this study were beneficial to the teaching effectiveness of teachers and the learning needs of students.

Wen-Hung Chao, Rong-Chi Chang

### Competence Mining to Improve Training Programs

Analysing of competence and skill shortage or surpluses is essential for educational institutes to prepare their students for satisfying labour market needs in time and comprehensively. Currently, changes in labour market needs are influenced by not just economical but also technological factors. ICT and digitalization play key roles in transformations of business processes including employees’ competences in executing these processes smoothly and effectively. Our research goal is to develop a competence mining method to identify and extract competences needed to fill job vacancies. Based on this new information the educational programs can be refined. This paper presents how to use business process models to extract competences from job vacancies and how this method evolved in time and what its contribution is to the training development based on learning outcome. Competence concept has a crucial role in this method, but it is defined on a broad scale that causes terminological diversity.

Ildikó Szabó, Katalin Ternai, Szabina Fodor

### Personnel Learning Behavior in the Workplace: A Study of Workplace Habits

Workplace learning is becoming an essential part for an organization to enhance an employee’s knowledge and skill to deliver an enterprise’s business sustainability. To develop a suitable model for workplace learning, this paper aims to investigate learning behavior for personnel in a workplace and to understand the factors that influence learning behavior for technical staff of a plastic packaging company in Bangkok. The data was collected by using a questionnaire that included 3 parts; 1) personal factors 2) learning behavior of personnel in the workplace and 3) factors that influence learning behavior of personnel in the workplace. The target group was 75 technical staff members by a multi-stage sampling. The research findings were that from 3 ways of informal learning behavior in workplace are self-directed learning, networking, and coaching and mentoring, a target group behavior to agree with highest score of self-directed learning at the average score of 3.62, compared with network learning and coaching learning which neither agree nor disagree at average score 3.36 and 3.32, respectively. Moreover, challenges on their job is the most influential factor of their learning behavior in the workplace at average score 3.64 followed by a confidence level and support from the company with an average score 3.53 and 3.38, respectively. Results from the study show that mostly staffs were interested in learning by themselves with encouragement from challenges, confidence level, and support from the organization.

Waristha Saengrith, Chantana Viriyavejakul, Paitoon Pimdee

### Required English Communication Skill Levels of Mechanical Engineers at the Workplace in Taiwan

This study examines the required mechanical English communication skill levels in the workplace. We employed Google search tool to search job openings of mechanical engineers in Taiwan and then analyzed the English skill requirements listed on each individual mechanical engineer job opening. After keying in mechanical engineer, Google shows a total of 119 job openings. Among them, 12 job openings require high school degree, 49 job openings require associate degree, 52 job openings require bachelor degree, and 6 job openings require master degree. Associate and college required degrees account for the most of the job openings. Beginning with the associate degree required jobs, employers start to emphasize English communication skills. For the bachelor degree required job openings, intermediate English skills are most needed. Results of this study enable educators to prepare students to be equipped with the skills needed by workplaces and enable them to be more employable.

Judy F. Chen, Clyde A. Warden

### Research on the Implementation Status and Learning Satisfaction of Off-campus Internship Courses in the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Technology

This study explores 38 students of mechanical engineering at the University of Technology. The experiment group and the control group are used to compare the differences in the satisfaction of students with and without the intervention of topic-oriented teaching materials, and to understand the situation of learning satisfaction after the training with external students. This study uses a questionnaire distribution method for analysis and research. The content of the questionnaire is divided into two parts: student background attribute data and student learning satisfaction. The analysis is based on descriptive statistics and t test correlation.The results show that there are significant differences between interventional teaching materials and student learning satisfaction. The value of “Course Teaching” is 4.965 p < .001; the value of “Internship Environment” is 2.183 p < .05, and the value of “Internship Tutoring” is 4.423 p < .001. The study found that the learning level of “Course Teaching”, “Internship Environment” and “Internship Tutoring” has improved significantly. Before the internship, students conducted project-based off-campus internship teaching material teaching, so that students have a certain cognition for the enterprise during the internship. Preparing knowledge and standards can also improve self-study performance. Finally, on the basis of the research results, this study puts forward related suggestions, project-based and future research for improving undergraduate internships.

Dyi-Cheng Chen, Hsi-Chi Hsiao, Jen-Chia Chang, Su-Chang Chen, Kuo-Cheng Wen, Jia-Yue Guo, Yu-Chen Gao

### Reviewing the Changes in Core Competencies for Undergraduates in Technological Universities

The objectives of this study are to explore the core competency content of electrical engineering & computer science students, as well as the current situation of training. Literature review and focus group methods were adopted to design the questionnaire survey content. In addition, first-year students from the college of electrical engineering & computer science of a university of technology underwent questionnaire surveys before and after 2 years. There were 195 effective questionnaire copies, accounting for the effective recovery rate of 60.9%. Targeting the survey results, paired sample t-test analysis was carried out. The study found that the post-test scores of students after 2 years were lower than those of the first grade, especially in terms of general core abilities, and each ability had significant differences. It is recommended that the teaching objectives and course content be consistent with the core competencies. The curriculum content should also be designed for the core competencies, using situational education, problem-based learning, and integrated teaching methods and integrated teaching methods, so that students can understand the learning goals and the focus of teaching is to promote students to improve their core competencies.

Jen-Chia Chang, Hsiao-Fang Shih, Kuang-Ling Chang

### Theoretical and Designing Framework of Constructivist Learning Environment Model that Enhance Creative Thinking and Creative Expression of Science for Medical Illustration Students

Creative thinking skills are one of the important skills of people in the 21st century, especially with science and medical personnel that, in addition to their scientific skills, they need creative expression of science together to enable to communicate or present complex information interesting and effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to synthesize the theoretical and designing framework of the learning environment according to constructivist theories approaches to enhance creativity and creative scientific expression. This research uses model research [3] that focuses on synthesis of the design process and development of learning models. It consists of 3 main steps which are 1) document analysis and learning context 2) analysis of learning theory principles and learning design theory 3) Synthesize and create theoretical framework and designing framework. The results show that the components of the theory that can support the research to achieve its objectives consist of 5 components: (1) learning theories, (2) Teaching model, (3) contextual base, (4) creative thinking and creative expression of science, (5) Media theories. The designing framework has 5 important goals which are (1) Stimulating the creation of intellectual structures, (2) Supporting intellectual balance, (3) Promoting creativity, (4) Promoting Creative expression of science, (5) Promoting and helping to balance intellectual. There are 7 components to designing this framework: (1) Problem situation, (2) Learning Resources, (3) Critical Thinking Center, (4) Collaboration Center, (5) Creative Thinking Center, (6) Creative expression of science Center, (7) Scaffolding Center.

Kan Komany, Sumalee Chaijaroen

### Tracking At-Risk Student Groups from Teaching and Learning Activities in Engineering Education

Tracking student groups, in particular, at-risk student group is a challenging but meaningful work in a large class of an engineering mathematics course, enabling instructors to ascertain how well students are learning and when they need interventions of their studies during the delivery of teaching and learning activities. In the paper, two unsupervised learning algorithms, hierarchical clustering and k-means clustering, are used and compared with the use of LMS data such as the level of achievements in online class activities, assignments, a mini-project and a mid-term test for tracking at-risk student groups at the end of weeks 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 in a 13-week semester of an academic year. Notwithstanding the higher accuracy of both clustering, the k-means clustering significantly outperforms the hierarchical clustering in terms of the precision, recall and f-measure at the end of week 11. It is found that the k-means clustering can be employed to track at-risk students with the recall of 0.640 and the f-measure of 0.533 for the initial intervention of their studies by the end of week 7.

Christopher Chung Lim Kwan

### Where Are the Students? A Study of Norwegian Technology Students’ Perceptions of Emerging Trends in Higher Education

Teachers in higher education in Norway have over the last decade reported reduced physical attendance in lectures, students not using the textbooks, and low academic performance. Also, there is an intensified institutional pressure to make use of digital tools and flipped classroom paradigms. To obtain better insight into students’ perceptions of these issues a class of computer science students’ perceptions were probed using a comprehensive questionnaire. The results confirm some of the claims that students want more digital learning such as videos, but perhaps not as black and white as it is often presented. Implications of the results is that one should not simply follow a single approach but employ an array of varied learning activities and materials.

Frode Eika Sandnes

### A Study of Learner’s Computational Thinking Using Constructivist Universal Design Learning Package for Kindergarten Education

Computational Thinking has been defined as an important skill for students to have in learning, both from early childhood to college. To be able to deal with common problems in daily life as well as other problems Easily and systematically Combined with the advancement of science and technology Resulting in the development of artificial intelligence Resulting in human adaptation and learning the basic principles of artificial intelligence. The purpose of this research was study learners’ computational thinking. The research participants were 40 kindergarten academic year 2019 students of Demonstration school of Khonkaen University. Experimental research was employed in this study. The instruments used in the experiment were Constructivist Universal Design Learning Package for Kindergarten Education. Data collection used the computational thinking test for kindergarteners. The results revealed that: the Learners’ computational thinking average score was 9.33 or 77.50%. Computational thinking of learners is at a good level.

Chinnaphat Junruang, Issara Kanjug

### Constructing an Information Search Platform Using Data Mining to Improve Student Learning

There has been an ongoing proliferation of online articles and other materials on the World Wide Web for e-learning. Although a generic search engine can be used to find materials in a subject domain (for example, computer science,) the search results often have advertising, media, and news mixed in. To improve the search quality, in this study an information search platform based on data mining technology was constructed. Using term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF), this platform calculates all terms in each web article to automatically filter out non-computer science category keywords and articles. The search platform enables students quickly find and read information in articles for a given set of search keywords. The experimental results show improved learning performance with increased computer science knowledge and concepts and more computer science articles found using the information search platform by filtering out articles in non-computer science categories.

Shu-Chen Cheng, Yu-Ping Cheng, Yueh-Min Huang, I. Robert Chiang

### Digitalization of a Systematic Literature Review Process – Lean Startup and Data Analytics Solution for Scholars

The paper aims at analyzing how Lean Startup as a product and project management approach can be used in the context of Logic-Based Program Synthesis product development. The research is interdisciplinary and connects some technological and managerial aspects of data analytics, product development, and technology management. Both the concepts of Lean Startup and Logic-Based program synthesis have very similar approach for problem-solving and developing solutions. By combining them, the paper shows results, which lead to: 1.) Designing a Method for a common process for developing a Lean Startup Program Synthesis (LSPS) application development model and 2.) Probating a concrete application development through the identified stages. The developed application’s purpose is the digitalization of systematic literature analysis via data analytics technics and the use of Qlik Sense software. Potential readers are scholars who are interested in digitalizing and automating the performance of systematic literature analysis replacing the usual reading of full papers with a cross wording filtering amongst words in titles, abstracts and author keywords of science papers.

Zornitsa Yordanova

### Effect of Facebook Use on Social Comparison Perceptions

People’s perceptions after browsing Facebook can provide valuable insights. We investigated social comparison domains (agency vs. communion) and social comparison directions (upward vs. downward) in Facebook by manipulating the domains and directions using a simulated Facebook profile of a comparison target. In total, 126 college students participated in the study. We used a Latin square design for agency upward, agency downward, communion upward, and communion downward comparisons. Individuals rated perceptive social comparisons after browsing the profiles. In this study, t-tests were conducted to compare results for the four profiles. Individuals perceived social comparison domains and social comparison directions. Furthermore, individuals browsing the agency comparison profile perceived communion information, and those browsing the communion comparison profile perceived agency information. The halo effect was evident in individuals browsing Facebook. Theoretical implications and practical implications are discussed. Suggestions for teachers and counselors are also provided.

Fu-Rung Yang, Chih-Fen Wei, Jih-Hsin Tang

### Hands-on Statistical Methods: A Case Study with Hidden Markov Models Using Simulations and Experiments

Biological processes are often very complicated compared with physics and chemistry. One of the newest and most challenging interactions between biology and computational science comes from modern molecular biology and bioinformatics, where Hidden Markov Models (HMM) are widely applied tools. This paper presents the background, theory and HMM algorithms based on examples from Gregor Mendel’s classical plant experiments. This approach aims to achieve some intuitive advantages in a biological and bioinformatical setting, because the pedagogy goes from the known to the unknown. It only presumes basic knowledge of genetics, statistics and matrix algebra. The student may gain insight into the complex HMM methodology by running “experiments” with the application MendelHMM in a kind of “digital laboratory”. The optimal model can only be sought in a certain probabilistic sense. This process is known as machine learning.

Steinar Thorvaldsen

### Integrating Big Data in Introductory Statistics Education - Challenges for Instructors and Students

Statistics education aims to equip students with theoretical concepts and analytical skills. In introductory statistics, training is focused on memorization of fundamental theorems and formulae with manual calculation. This study is in the first phase of a more comprehensive project to enhance under-graduate students’ big data literacy in introductory statistics. Challenges for instructors and students are described based on qualitative findings. Four aspects are introduced: (1) software acquaintance; (2) big data applications; (3) understanding differences in statistical inferences between small data and big data; and (4) modification of teaching/learning module. Integrating big data applications into introductory statistics can be beneficial for students in practical training and in capacity building.

Jane Lu Hsu, You-Ren Chen

### Integration of LUPDA Theory and STEAM with Computational Thinking Concepts to Develop Assessment Principles for an AI Based STEAM Activity

This study uses learn, use, practice, design, apply/analyze (LUPDA) theory to combine science, technology, engineering, art, and math (STEAM) and computational thinking (CT) concepts to develop assessment principles. The STEAM teaching activity designs and implements an artificial intelligence (AI) webcam game with micro:bit technology, AI computer vision, and deep learning techniques to recognize the user’s hand gestures via webcam. The game in our teaching experiment which can automatically interpret the user’s gestures as scissors, stone, or cloth through the webcam, and then automatically react to the user through a motor. Finally, this study proposes a set of relevant assessment principles based on STEAM, LUPDA theory, and CT concepts.

Chih-Hung Wu, Yueh-Min Huang

### Project Management for Innovation Projects – State of Art

It has been largely researched what the factors which determine successful project management are. Most of the research show a huge dependency between project success and type of the projects in terms of size, industry, scope, market, etc. Much research analyze the type of project management and all specifics related to its application. This paper focuses on project management specifically for innovation projects as they are extremely different types of projects which require distinct project management approach. The purpose of the research is to determine the current state of art of the topic by revealing the research achievements in the science literature. The research applies a systematic literature analysis through a traditional approach as well as an advanced technique for digital systematic literature review so to reveal the current status of the state of art of the topic Project management for innovation projects. The systematic literature analysis went through 299 research papers from the Scopus database so to uncover the current accomplishment. The results are of interest to scientists and practitioners primarily from the management sciences, but are also extremely suitable for practitioners from any other industry related to innovation development.

Zornitsa Yordanova

### A Comparative Study on Ethics Guidelines for Artificial Intelligence Across Nations

This study aimed to investigate the commonality and differences among AI research and development (R&D) guidelines across nations. Content analysis was conducted on AI R&D guidelines issued by more economically developed countries because they may guide the trend of AI-based applications in education. Specifically, this study consisted of three phases: 1) information retrieval, (2) key term extraction, and (3) data visualization. First, Fisher’s exact test was employed to ensure that different AI R&D guidelines (e.g., the latest ones in the US, EU, Japan, Mainland, and Taiwan) were comparable. Second, the Key Word Extraction System was developed to retrieve essential information in the guidelines. Third, data visualization techniques were performed on key terms across multiple guidelines. A word cloud revealed the similarity among guidelines (e.g., key terms that these guidelines share in common) while a color-coding scheme showed the differences (e.g., occurrence of a key term across guidelines and its frequency within a guideline). Importantly, three key terms, namely, AI, human, and development, are identified as essential commonality across guidelines. As for key terms that only extracted from particular guidelines, interestingly, results with the color-coding scheme suggested that these key terms were weighted differently depends on the developmental emphasis of a nation. Collectively, we discussed how these findings concerning ethics guidelines may shed light on AI research and development to educational technology.

Tony Szu-Hsien Lee, Shiang-Yao Liu, Yin-Ling Wei, Li-Yun Chang

### Analysis on the Application of AI Technology in Online Education Under the Public Epidemic Crisis

In order to prevent the spread of COVID-19, online education has become a learning way for primary and secondary schools and universities. However, the rapid development of online education faces many challenges. In recent years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology has been developed rapidly and applied in different industries. Therefore, many problems in online education can also be improved through AI technology, so as to improve the quality of online education, and make education improve. This paper mainly analyzes the integration of AI technology and online education to solve the problems faced by students in online learning. At the same time of reducing the burden of education participants, let AI technology play a better role, and help education develop from traditional offline mode to online and offline complementary direction.

Shuijing Li, Ming Yan, Xin Zhang, Zhe Li

### Design Aspects of a Virtual Reality Learning Environment to Assess Knowledge Transfer in Science

Science educators need assessment tools to assess to what extent learners’ knowledge and skills can be transferred to real-life situations. Virtual reality learning environments (VRLEs) can be used to create authentic virtual spaces where situated learning and assessment can take place. However, there are considerable design and implementation challenges when developing a VRLE. This research explored the design aspects of a virtual reality environment for the assessment of knowledge transfer in science education. A design science research approach was followed, implementing existing guidelines from literature in building a VRLE. Lessons learned from the implementation were formulated, and the theoretical contribution of this study is a set of literature-based, practice evaluated guidelines, synthesising lessons learned. From the study, it is apparent that there are many benefits from using a VRLE for assessment, and we hope that using these guidelines could mitigate some of the usability issues that remain.

Johanna Steynberg, Judy van Biljon, Colin Pilkington

### Research on Evaluation of Smart Learning Environment in Universities Based on AHP-FCE: A Case Study of Central China Normal University

With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT), big data, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and other emerging technologies, the Smart Learning Environment (SLE) has emerged. This paper takes Central China Normal University as an example to evaluate SLE in universities. Taking the physical, resource and social of SLE as the first-level indexes of the evaluation index system, an index system with 3 first-level indexes and 26 second-level indexes was constructed by referring to relevant literature and the actual needs of teachers and students. According to this evaluation index system, a questionnaire was designed to collect data. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) were used to analyze the sample data and evaluate SLE, which can provide reference for the subsequent improvement of SLE.

Zhicheng Dai, Mengting Wang, Feng Liu

### The Development of Simulation Web-Based Learning Environment to Enhance Ill-Structured Problem Solving for Engineering Students

The ill-structured problem solving is the one important skill of the Engineer in 21st century. Thus, the purposes of this research was to develop of simulation learning environment to enhance ill-structured problem solving for engineering students and examine learners’ ill-structured problem solving. The participants of this study consisted of 3 experts to evaluate the model and 30 students of electronics and telecommunication engineering department. The research instruments for data collection consisted of model evaluation form and learner’s ill-structured problem solving interview form. The survey research was employed to this study. Then, the model evaluation data were analyzed by using summarization and interpretation description. Moreover, the learners’ ill-structured problem solving were analyzed by using protocol analysis, summarization and interpretation description. The results of study revealed that the simulation learning environment model to enhance ill-structured problem solving for engineering students consisted of designing framework and there were 7 elements in this model as follows 1) simulation problem base, 2) resource center, 3) cognitive tools center, 4) scaffolding center, 5) enhancing problem solving center, 6) collaboration center, and 7) coaching center. The result of the model assessment revealed that the elements and function of the model were appropriate in 3 aspects follow as: con-tents, media, and designing. Thus, simulation learning environment may help engineering students to construct the knowledge and enhance ill-structured problem solving skill. Furthermore, the protocol analysis revealed that the learners solved problem by using 7 processes of ill-structured problems solving.

Thawach Thammabut, Sumalee Chaijaroen, Suchat Wattanachai

### The Study of Learner Context for the Development of Constructivist Learning Environment Model Combined with Mixed Reality Flipped Classroom to Enhance Creative Thinking in Product Design for the High School Students

Creative thinking can promote creativity and innovation skills to a learner which important in this 21st century for unlimited innovation. This aimed to study the learner’s context which basically used in the development of constructivist learning environment model. The 65 high school students were the target group. Survey research was employed by self-learner’s survey form in Open-ended question and Likert ration scales in 5 scales; examined by 3 experts based on the consistency with theoretical framework. The results in 6 part revealed that (1) Demographics: 38 females or 58.46% and the revealed that learners 31 of them or 47.69% was in high level of GPA or 3.00–3.50 (2) Learning experience: 65 learners or 100% experienced in lecturing, demonstrating, practice and textbook learning (3) Technology experience: they were in neutral level or as $$\bar{x}$$ x ¯  = 3.59, S.D = 0.64 (4) Creative thinking experience: presented in low level as $$\bar{x}$$ x ¯  = 2.98, S.D = 0.73 as well as (5) Product design experience that $$\bar{x}$$ x ¯  = 2.71, S.D = 0.68 and (6) Expectations of the learner towards learning: most learners required flexible learning styles in variety and independent study based on interest or $$\bar{x}$$ x ¯  = 4.89, S.D = 0.74. The results hence were concluded that the current model of learning management should be a learning style that is flexible of environment, discovery, and knowledge construction. This includes supporting the use of technology as a cognitive tool to enhance the construction of knowledge and creative thinking.

Sathaporn Wongchiranuwat, Charuni Samat, Issara Kanjug, Suchat Wattanachai

### Transparent Player Model: Adaptive Visualization of Learner Model in Educational Games

Despite the success of Learning Analytics (LA), there are two obstacles to its application in educational games, including transparency in assessing educational outcomes in real-time gameplay, and clarity in representing those results to players. Open learner model (OLM) is a valuable instrument with capability to improve learning that meets such challenges. However, OLMs usually suffer issues concerning interactivity and transparency, which mostly regard the assessment mechanism that is used to evaluate learners’ knowledge. Tackling down transparency issues would offer context for interpreting and comparing learner model information, as well as promoting interactivity. As there is lack of studies investigating the potential of OLMs in educational games, we argue that this work can provide a valuable starting point for applying OLMs or adaptive visualizations of players’ learner models within gameplay sessions, which, in turn, can help to address both issues of application of LA to game research and OLMs. As a case study, we introduce the proposed approach into our adaptive computational thinking game.

Danial Hooshyar, Emanuele Bardone, Nour El Mawas, Yeongwook Yang

### A Study of Learner’s Mental Model and Motivation Using Constructivism Online Learning Environment to Promote Programming in Rural School

Programming is important for development of skills and thinking for the learners. but the problem of programming is abstract content. Learners can’t imagine a result from their program during the programming. so, it makes programming is boring and difficult for learning. Mental model is understanding of learner to create mental representation in media and symbol. Development of student’s mental model can help students to construct their knowledge in programming. Moreover, motivation is the one of important factor to success in learning. The purpose of this research was study leaners’ mental model and motivation. The participants target 10 students at rural school. Experimental research was employed in this study. The instruments used in the experiment were Constructivist online learning environment. Data collection used the mental model interview recording form and motivation survey form. The results found that learner’s mental model consists with 2 characteristics as follow: (1) Represent story or event by explaining in model (2) Change rule and procedure to solve problem. The learners’ motivation was very motivated (mean = 3.93, S.D. = 0.44). It was comprised of 2 components as follow: 1) Internal motivation was (mean = 4.1, S.D. = 0.35) 2) External motivation was very motivate (mean = 3.75, S.D. = 0.53). In conclusion, the Constructivism Online Learning Environment can improve programming and self-learning performance in rural school.

Poramin Attane, Issara Kanjug

### Building an Online Learning Question Map Through Mining Discussion Content

Information and communication technology (ICT) has been widely accepted in education since the COVID-19 outbreak. Today, the convenience that ICT provides in education makes learning independent of time and place. However, compared to face-to-face learning, ICT online learning has the difficulty of finding student questions efficiently. One of the ways to solve this problem is through finding their questions from the online discussion content. With online learning, teachers and students usually send out questions and receive answers on a discussion board without the limitations of time or place. However, because liquid learning is quite convenient, people tend to solve problems in short online texts with a lack of detailed information to express ideas in an online environment. Therefore, the ICT online education environment may result in misunderstandings between teachers and students. For teachers and students to better understand each other’s views, this study aims to classify discussions into a hierarchical structure, named a question map, with several types of learning questions to clarify the views of teachers and students. In addition, this study attempts to extend the description of possible omissions in short texts by using external resources prior to classification. In brief, by applying short text hierarchical classification, this study constructs a question map that can highlight each student’s learning problems and inform the instructor where the main focus of the future course should be, thus improving the ICT education environment.

Hei Chia Wang, Ya Lan Zhao

### Creating Interactive Non-formal Learning Opportunities in Resource-Deprived Distant Learning Institutions

The rapid growth of technology has a profound effect on education, affecting both content and pedagogy and on the socio-cultural context in which it occurs. The term learning experience is used to reflect the pedagogical and technological shifts that have occurred in the design and delivery of education to learners. The importance of the socio-cultural context in which the learning takes place has a great impact on their learning. Creating such learning experiences is challenging, creating learning experiences in Open Distance e-Learning institutions (ODeL) is even more challenging. Furthermore, the evaluation of such an experience must address more than one discipline. The paper shows how data are drawn from an interactive learning experience that aligns academic goals and enrichment activities that support formal learning. To create the experience, the educational potential of social media was employed in a community of practice. Phenomenology as a philosophical worldview was used to study the experience of people in the context of open distance learning, using social media in a Computer Science environment. It is particularly useful and relevant for researchers interested in understanding the contextual realities of interactive learning communities. As a result, this contribution put forward specific attributes that affect mobile tutoring in resource-deprived distance learning environments. This study is yet unpublished, as it is part of a larger doctoral endeavor.

Petra le Roux, Corné van Staden

### Designing Framework of Constructivist Web-Based Learning Environment Model to Enhance Creative Thinking in Engineering Design Process for Grade 8th

Creative thinking is one of the most important characteristics of a person that drives innovation. It is a skill that helps countries succeed in the rapidly changing digital economy society in the 21st century [6]. Countries are therefore focused on developing creative populations. Most of today’s innovations are created by the engineering design process. But the engineering design process itself still lacks effectiveness in promoting creativity in cognitive domain [5]. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to synthesize the framework of a web-based constructivist learning environment to enhance creative thinking [2] in engineering design process [3]. The document analysis and model research [1] were employed in this study The target groups used in this study were 1) 3 experts for assessment of the learning contents 2) 3 experts for assessment of the instructional design for theoretical framework 3) 3 experts for assessment of the instructional media design. 4) 3 experts for assessment of the gathering research instruments and 5) 30 eight-grade students of Khon Kean university Demonstration school who enrolled in a course of design and technology II. The instruments used were 1) survey form for collected instructional context 2) survey form for learning characteristic of students and 3) The recording form for synthesis of the theoretical framework. Summarization, interpretation and analytical description were employed to analyze the data. The result revealed that: The framework comprised of 6 stages as following: (1) Activating cognitive structure as problem-based component (2) Adjusting to cognitive equilibrium as learning resources component (3) Enlarging cognitive structure as cognitive tools and collaboration-based component (4) Enhancing creative thinking as creative thinking design-based component and (5) Fostering knowledge construction as scaffolding-based component. (6) Encouraging knowledge construction as coaching-based component.

Pasatorn Puratep, Sumalee Chaijaroen

### Designing Framework of Constructivist Web-Based Learning Environments Model to Enhance Scientific Thinking for Secondary Students

Nowadays, Scientific thinking is important in the development of human learning. Therefore, the designing framework synthesis is the objective of this study. To promote the scientific thinking of students. The target audience was (1) experts for the assessment of the learning content (2) experts for the assessment of the instructional design for the framework (3) experts for the assessment of the instructional media design. (4) experts for the assessment of the collecting research instruments and 5) 35 Grade 7 students, 1st semester, the academic year 2020, Sri Kranuan Wittayakhom School, studying in a science course for the contextual survey. Model research type II [15] was employed by literature review to synthesize the framework. The process was as follows: study the principles and theories, to literature reviews research related to the design of the learning environment model. Assessment by experts consisting of content, design, media, and technology, measurement, and evaluation by the assessment from the expert assessment form. The research results consisted of 4 steps: (1) Activation of cognitive structure and enhance scientific thinking (2) Enhancement of cognitive equilibrium and expanding cognitive structure (3) Support and enhancement of scientific thinking and (4) Enhancement and support of knowledge construct. Also, the model has 6 components of were: (1) Problem based, (2) Resources, (3) Collaboration, (4) Scientific thinking, (5) Scaffolding, and (6) Coaching.

Autsanee Seenonlee Maneeratana, Sumalee Chaijaroen

### Development of Constructivist Web-Based Learning Environment Model to Enhance Problem-Solving and Transfer of Learning on Student in Industrial: Integration Between Pedagogy and Neuroscience

This study aimed to design and develop the Constructivist Web-based Learning Environment Model to Enhance Problem-solving and Transfer of learning on students in industrial. The methodology in this study uses Developmental Research - Type I. That focusing on the principles of designing and developing a model, the model is designed and developed according to the following steps. (1) examine and analyze the principles theories, and research (2) study learner context (3) synthesize the theoretical framework (4) to synthesize the designing framework (5) developing the Constructivist Web-based Learning Environment Model and (6) assessing the efficiency. The results of the study found that: 1) The theoretical framework consists of 6 bases: (1) Learning theory base, (2) pedagogical base, (3) Media theory base, (4) neurological base, (5) Technological base, and (6) Context of instructional base 2) The designing framework consisted of 5 stages and 9 elements, were as follows: (1) Activate cognitive structure (2) Support for adjusting cognitive structure (3) Support for enlarging cognitive structures (4) Foster for problem-solving and transfer (5) promote and assist knowledge construction and 9 components were as follows: (1) Problem base (2) Resources (3) Cognitive tool (4) Collaboration for problem-solving (5) Center for enhancing problem-solving (6) Center for transfer of learning (7) Related cases (8) Scaffoldings, and (9) Coaching.

Chan Singkaew, Sumalee Chaijaroen

### Digital Accessibility of Online Educational Platforms: Identifying Barriers for Blind Student’s Interaction

e-Learning promotes asynchronous and synchronous access to education, free from geographical barriers, allowing a great number of people, that otherwise could not study, continue their academic life. Access, however, should be equally granted for All, not limited to the instrumental level, providing a dynamic model that meets the needs of the student user. e-Learning platforms have potential to both enhance learning quality and increase education access as long as is considered user’s different needs. In this paper, we present the theoretical background about the current state of accessibility of e-Learning educational platforms and contents, by analyzing the Brazilian online educational context. This study intends to identify barriers and possible tools to enhance user experience for Blind students, and also present a UX methodology to reach that goal. For the latter, we propose a methodology based on obtaining qualitative and quantitative data to be obtained from online questionnaires. The ultimate goal is to make a global UX evaluation in order to present a complete perspective, on the actual Blind student’s experience when interacting with the digital educational contents and platforms in specifics Brazilian universities digital platforms.

Isolda Lisboa, João Barroso, Tânia Rocha

### Effect Analysis and Method Suggestions of Online Learning Under the Public Epidemic Crisis

In the context of a major national public epidemic caused by COVID-19, the education system has also been greatly affected, changing from traditional offline education to online education. In the case of changes in learning methods, the questions of how effective online learning is, whether it can achieve the learning effect of traditional offline education, and what measures should be taken if the online learning effect is not good are worthy of further analysis. To understand the general status of students’ online learning effects, this paper analyzes the methods, effectiveness and problems of students’ online learning at different stages, and puts forward appropriate suggestions on this basis. And through the questionnaire and predictive analysis method to verify the feasibility of the proposal, to provide a reference for the education objects and educators who try to improve the effect of online learning in the context of public outbreaks.

Huimin Yuan, Ming Yan, Zhe Li

### Effective Blended Learning – A Taxonomy of Key Factors Impacting Design Decisions

One of the keys to effective 21st century teaching is to integrate traditional pedagogical methods with the effective use of technology to foster student-centred learning. These increasingly sophisticated technologies are deployed in learning solutions, blending teaching techniques, learning styles, and delivery methods while creating a need for educators to gain new skills to meaningfully engage with these tools. The requirement is to scale blended learning and to design learning experiences that take full advantage of the digital platforms. This study presents a taxonomy with its dimensions and characteristics of the key factors impacting blended learning design. Such a taxonomy is useful not only for describing key factors impacting blended learning design, but also as a professional development tool for educators to increase efficacy of teaching and learning design. We constructed the taxonomy through a classification process following the taxonomy development approach of Nickerson et al.

Hanlie Smuts, Corlia Smuts

### Effective Utilization of the Constructivist Web-Based Learning Environment Model to Enhance Human Learning Efficiency Based on Brain-Based Learning

This presents the effective utilization and procedures for model use of the constructivist web-based learning environment model to enhance human learning efficiency based on brain-based learning. The Model Research Type II [1] phrase 3 Model Use was explored by Survey Research and Case Study in topics of 1) model use procedures 2) factors achieving model use and 3) model use achievements which illustrated as brain- based learning (BBL), learner’s multiple intelligence (ML), relationship between ML and learning achievement, and learner opinion. The procedures, BBL, and opinion were examined by an in-depth interview while self-assessment was for ML and tests for achievements. The results showed procedures as 1) introducing learners to connect prior and new knowledge; 2) grouping them to share and elaborate thoughts; 3) learning with designed components as (1) Problem base (2) Resources (3) Meaningful experiences base (4) Collaboration base (5) Relaxing Room (6) Entertainment Corner (7) Brain Gym (8) Multiple Intelligences Room and (9) Scaffolding bases; and 4) reflexing knowledge to adjust conceptual thinking. The factors achieving model use resulted from context of designer, developer, learners, and teacher. The achievements illustrated by learner’s 12 BBL principles; ML highest value was in language or $$\bar{x}$$ x ¯  = 5.11; while relationship between ML and achievement showed Positive Correlations at 0.88 level or 0.88 statistical significance. They satisfied with clear, direct, reachable, discoverable learning content, web-based learning, and model designed by pictures, animations, videos, graphs, navigators with icons and links.

Wanwisa Wannapipat, Sumalee Chaijaroen

### Effects of AI Scaffolding on ZPD in MOOC Instructional RPGs

This study conducts development, application, and testing of artificial intelligence (AI) tools to both monitor learner ZPD and choose appropriate scaffolding for students in a large class, while students learn- by-doing through a Role Playing Game (RPG). Machine learning algorithms are developed and integrated into the cloud-based activity at both the individual and group level. Decision trees are developed that decide a range of scaffolding to supply individual learners and groups. Finally, data are tested across control and test groups. Research results show that learners in both the blended and fully online modalities accurately recall mere-exposure scaffolding (MES). Not only do learners recall seeing the MES, over the eight RPG rounds, they also accurately recall the main pedagogical message contained in the MES. Learners receiving MES in an online mode demonstrate more behaviors associating with the core pedagogical MES message content comparing to those in a blended mode. Fully online learners more frequently check their group’s online RPG statistics and status information while also taking more time to prepare group attributes for a new RPG round.

Clyde A. Warden, Judy F. Chen

### Survey Results of Learner Context in the Development of Constructivist Learning Environment Model to Enhance Creative Thinking with Massive Open Online Course (MOOCS) for Higher Education

One of the essential skills for learners in the 21st century learning era is creative thinking that can help them to be productive in innovations. This study aimed to study the context of learners in terms of learner characteristics, learning design, and factors influence their learning. The data can be fundamentally used in the model design and development process. Survey research was employed by using a survey form in Open-ended question with 5 Likert rating scales. The consistency in between theoretical framework and survey results was examined by the experts. The results were found in 6 aspects as 1) Demographics: 18 females and 12 males or 60 and 40% respectively 2) Learning experience: every learners or 100% had the experience in lecturing, demonstrating, and practice 3) Technology experience: the learners were in moderate level or as $${\bar{x}}$$ x ¯  = 3.01, S.D = 0.64 4) Creative thinking experience: the learners was in low level shown as $${\bar{x}}$$ x ¯  = 2.41, S.D = 0.56 5) Website design experience: presented value as $${\bar{x}}$$ x ¯  = 2.18, S.D = 0.55 and 6) Learning expectation of learners: it was in very high level or $${\bar{x}}$$ x ¯  = 4.29, S.D = 0.58. It thus revealed that they only had experience in traditional style while requiring to learn with media and technology as an active learner for knowledge construction and creative thinking developing.

Benjaporn Sathanarugsawait, Charuni Samat, Suchat Wattanachai

### The Development of Constructivist Web-Based Learning Environments to Enhance Learner’s Information Processing and Reduce Cognitive Load

Nowadays information processing is human internal process which essential in information transferring. This procedure first begins in sensory memory, then short-term memory and encoded into long-term memory. The study aimed to synthesize the theoretical and designing frameworks of the constructivist web-based learning environment model to enhance learner’s information process and reduce cognitive load. Model Research Type I Model Development [1] was employed by Document Analysis. Data collection processes were conducted by 1) reviewing and analyzing related theories as well as research 2) examining instructional context and 3) synthesizing theoretical and designing frameworks. The results showed that frameworks comprised 5 basis and 4 components. Those 5 bases were as 1) Psychological 2) Pedagogical 3) Information processing and cognitive load l 4) Media theory and technological and 5) Instructional context bases while 4 model components were to 1) activate structure of cognition 2) boost the equilibrium of cognition 3) strengthen the construction of knowledge and 4) supporting and fostering knowledge construction which all by promoting information processing and decreasing level of cognitive load. In addition, 7 model elements were explored as (1) Problem Base (2) Vocabulary Plaza (3) Brainstorming Center (4) Center of Information Processing Enhancing and Cognitive Load Reducing (5) Friendly Cognitive Tool (6) Center of Scaffolding and (7) Coaching Desk. Hence, the designed constructivist learning environment model can help learners to enhance learner’s information process and reduce cognitive load.

Nat Chaijaroen, Sarawut Jackpeng, Sumalee Chaijaroen

### Theoretical and Designing Framework of Constructivist Web-Based Learning Environment Model to Problem Solving

The purpose of this research was to synthesize theoretical framework of constructivist web-based learning environment for problem solving. The target groups used in study were 1) 3 contents experts for evaluation of the contents 2) 3 experts for evaluation of the instructional designers 3) experts for evaluation of the instructional media expert. 4) 3 experts for evaluation of the collecting tools and 5) 20 students of regional special education center 9, Khon Kaen in a course of intellectual disability unit in the 2st semester, 2019. The instruments used were 1) survey form for learning contextual 2) survey form for students characteristic and 3) The recording form for synthesis of the theoretical framework of constructivist web-based learning environment model to problem solving. Summarization, interpretation and analytical description were used to analyze the data. The result revealed that: Theoretical framework of constructivist web-based learning environment comprise of 5 components as following 1) Psychological base 2) Pedagogy base 3) Problems Solving base 4) Media theory and Technology base 5) Contextual base.

Pitchaya Pimsook, Sumalee Chaijaroen

### A Study of Students’ Context-Aware to Be Used as a Basis for Designing and Developing a Model of Mobile-Based Learning Environment to Enhance Computational Problem Solving in Programming for the High School Students

Mobile-based learning as a rich environment to manage learning in a variety of learning contexts. It opens up opportunities to expand the learning experience of students, students can access to information anytime and anywhere to perform authentic activities, learning programming through mobile devices helping students to improve programming skills at all times and they can enhance computational problem solving which important competence to support the design and development of the program correctly. In developing any mobile learning environment, learner’s context-aware are necessary for consideration. The research target was the 45 high school students. The Questionnaires are an open-ended question and Likert ration scales with 5 levels and the data were analyzed through descriptive analysis. which were examined by 3 experts based on the consistency with theoretical framework. The results showed that 1) the participants were 25 males were 55%, 20 females were 45% in high school. Most of the students had the learning experience of lecturing. 2) In the basic ability in using technology, it was found that the students are very familiar with mobile devices and its applications in high level ( $$\bar{\varvec{x}}$$ x ¯ 3.89 s.d = 0.56) 3) Experience in computational problem solving found that some students have experience. 4) Programming experience Some students have experience in c programming and they can create program flowcharts. The findings show strong evidence that students are positive towards mobile-based learning and see it as an opportunity for a more flexible programming learning experience.

Kanyarat Sirimathep, Issara Kanjug, Charuni Samat, Suchat Wattanachai

### Assistive Technologies for Students with Dyslexia: A Systematic Literature Review

The goal of this research review is to identify assistive technologies available to support students with dyslexia. The study reports on how accessible these technologies are, as well as the impact these technologies can have on the students if they are adopted. The main focus of the review lies on identifying assistive technologies that can help students with dyslexia but investigation is also done into the surrounding and closely related topics of accessibility, acceptance and impact of the technology as well as trying to understand some aspects of the dyslexia disability to better understand how the technologies can aid these students and help to rehabilitate them. Based on information gathered from previous research, the study tries to find a weak spot in the field of assistive technologies and tries to determine how it can be bettered.

C. Smith, M. J. Hattingh

### Assistive Technology for ADHD: A Systematic Literature Review

This paper reports on a study that aimed to identify different assistive technologies that are currently available to support children living with ADHD. This review is conducted by using a systematic approach by collecting and analyzing academically acknowledged qualitative as well as quantitative studies between 2011 and 2019. For the purpose of this study, assistive technologies were divided into three categories namely: 1) Wearables, 2) Mobile technology and applications and 3) Computer-based technology. It was also found that some believe that the use of technology cannot be the aid to support children living with ADHD in a school environment. These results indicate that even though there are several assistive technology solutions that are currently present, there were mixed conclusions on the effectiveness of utilizing assistive technology as an aid of ADHD.

Emily Black, Marie Hattingh

### Chinese Students’ Motivations to Adopt E-Learning

Culture influences how students give meanings to, and engage with, e-learning. Since the predominance of research draws on models construed with values from the Western world they risk lacking congruence with other contexts. This study aims to identify the motives of students in Chinese culture towards e-learning and explain how these predict behavior. I use a form of laddering to identify students’ motives and associating organizing schema. Results show 37 motives draw students towards while 31 push them away from e-learning. The analysis reveals that students are drawn towards the temporal spatial benefits of e-learning. They, however they feel debilitated and lack a sense of mo-qi with both their classmates and the teacher. These results point towards a different conceptualization of e-learning motivations than seen so far in the literature.

James O. Stanworth

### Designing Freirean-Inspired Community Relevant STEAM Curriculum for Underserved Students in Pakistan Using Action Research Process

This study constituted community-based, action research that sought to identify community needs and design indigenous community relevant STEAM projects in a local community of underserved students in Pakistan. This Community-Based Action Research is conducted in “The Tent School System”; a slum school in H-11 Islamabad, Pakistan. The five-phase cyclic action research process is implemented that involved: diagnosing and identifying community problems using Freirean process of generative themes, creating STEAM lesson plans for identified problems, designing useful products using lesson plans to solve problems, evaluation of this STEAM workshop and then specifying learning for next interaction of this STEAM action project. Drawing on needs assessment survey, post feedback survey and field notes, this mixed methods study explored the experiences of low-socioeconomic students participating in contextually authentic STEAM Projects. Based on the students’ feedback, it was revealed that the main sources of student engagement in this action research project were: the overall impact of these STEAM projects on their community and the skills they inculcated in them that made them capable of solving local community challenges on their own. The major strength of this study was its successful practical application of Freire’s theory of critical pedagogy for designing community relevant learning environment for the students. Key learnings of this study imply a useful example of how students can contribute their knowledge and skills to promote general community well-being. Furthermore, the fusion of critical pedagogy of place in STEAM model offers a unique pedagogical innovation to education practitioners all around the world.

Midhat Noor Kiyani, Imran Haider, Fahad Javed

### Digital Natives and Educational Traditions. What Changes When Exchanging Textbook Content with Internet Search?

Use of technology challenge traditional concepts of learning in school. But what is actually changing? The paper shows result from a study that finds that the shift from textbook to internet content implicates significant changes. Textbooks present qualified content that is well adapted to the cognitive development of students of certain ages. Using internet content gives no such guarantees. The content validation has to be taken care of by the students. The internet search demands more complex skills than accessing content through the textbook. The students have to find relevant search terms, review and validate the results they find, select relevant content, use relevant strategies for storing and retrieving content and having the ability to present abstracts of their findings that are adapted to their learning purpose.Collaboration works well for searching for content online because the students can benefit from each other’s prior knowledge when discussing and reflecting during the learning work. Communicative and collaborative skills are important. So are good relations, to able students to work through obstacles and keep focus on the task even when internet searching takes them everywhere. Internet content has a flexibility that makes it easy adaptable to all students’ learning prerequisites. Student collaboration between heterogeneous peers can work well because the complexity of the task involves a lot of different tasks to manage and are easy to distribute. It also makes possible for high performing students to find engaging content that will motivate and nourish the learning motivation.

Lisbet Rønningsbakk

### Experiences Using Three App Prototyping Tools with Different Levels of Fidelity from a Product Design Student’s Perspective

Prototyping has become a widely embraced technique in different design fields to facilitate early user involvement to ensure that the end-product meets the users’ needs. Each design field has its tools and traditions for working with prototypes. This paper documents experiences with smartphone app prototyping from a product design student’s perspective. Three prototyping tools with different fidelity levels were explored. Based on these experiences we reflect upon the prototyping tool characteristics and their suitability for non-computer scientist. We envisage that our experiences may be useful for other product designers who want to develop smartphone apps.

Amanda Coelho Figliolia, Frode Eika Sandnes, Fausto Orsi Medola

### How Engineering Design Ability Improve via Project-Based Truss Tower STEM Course?

Engineering design ability is critical in today’s society due to the vast development of technology. However, the development of it is not easy. The introduction of STEM (Science-Technology-Engineering-Math) and the utilization of PBL (Project-based Learning) seem to promise a bright future in the development of such ability. We adopted Atman’s Engineering Design Process to evaluate the progress that students made after learning from a project-based Truss Tower STEM course. Students were grouped in six to design and construct a light-weight water tower type truss structure that can withstand severe earthquake. 137 students participated in this course and took pre-test as well as post-test. Students demonstrated significant progress in Developing Alternative Solutions and Project Realization. However, students did not show significant progress in Problem Scoping. Our research result echoes earlier research that some of engineering abilities might be trainable in classroom while other abilities might need other development methods.

Wan-Hsuan Yen, Chi-Cheng Chang

### Improving Student Learning Satisfaction in Lectures in English as a Medium of Instruction with Speech-Enabled Language Translation Application

Speech-enabled language translation (SELT) was applied to support learning of students during lectures in English as a medium of instruction (EMI). We aimed to investigate whether SELT support can facilitate students’ learning satisfaction in EMI lectures. A qualitative research method was used in this study to address the research question. Thirty-three university students were hired for the study. All of them were non-native speakers of English and attended lectures in EMI. Their learning satisfaction was measured via a questionnaire and compared across two groups (i.e. low and high English as a foreign language ability). The results showed that all students had high level of learning satisfaction. In addition, we found that level of perceived learning satisfaction of low language ability students was significantly higher compared to that of high language ability students. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that educators and researchers may consider applying SELT technology during lectures in EMI because it is beneficial for the students with low linguistic competency as to have high level of learning satisfaction.

### Model of Technology Enhanced Affective Learning

In this paper, the concept of affective learning is discussed in today’s context, in which technology plays a significant role, with the objective of developing a model of affective learning. The study is guided by Frangou’s [6] embodied knowledge construction model of affects in writing and Körkkö’s [18] holistic model of learning and guiding reflection. The models are examined and then merged to form a model of affective learning that can serve as a pedagogical framework to facilitate teaching and learning in a holistic learning environment that takes into account the learner’s motivations, interests, and experiences. In this context, the learner’s sensory and motor perceptions, together with embodied cognition, are intertwined into a technology-enhanced holistic pedagogy that considers the learner’s individual embodied learning environment. This paper concludes with discussing the model and providing ideas for future research.

Satu-Maarit Frangou, Minna Körkkö

### Outcomes of Problem-Solving Using Constructivist Learning Environment to Enhance Learners’ Problem Solving

This study aims to study and affirm the use of the constructivist learning environment to enhance learners’ problem solving. The sample groups consisted of the 40 students of Sanambin school, Khon Kaen, Thailand as the experimental group while the other 40 students in the same school was the control group. The instruments were 1) the learning environment to enhance problem solving in science subject titled Life Relationship 2) achievement tests 3) assessment form of executive functions based on Tower of London and 4) interviewing form of problem solving. The Model Research phrase 3- Model Use was employed by interviewing and protocol analysis based on Jonassen [1] with descriptive analysis and interpreting for percentage, Standard Deviation, and t-test value.The results revealed that the control group had the difference of problem solving after learning while the experimental group showed the same. In addition, the executive function assessment based on Tower of London by time using in problem solving showed the experimental group spent less time than the control group as 18.60 and 21.15 min that differed significantly at .05 and moving time of those both groups as 4.15 and 7.40 min at .05 significantly. Likewise, the experiment group presented the higher achievement test scores as 34.85 than the control group as 20.72.

Sumalee Chaijaroen, Issara Kanjug, Charuni Samat, Piyaporn Wonganu

### Removing Digital Natives from Technological Illiteracy with the Weblog

The terms “Digital Natives” and “Digital Immigrants” were introduced by Prensky to underline how the use of the Information and Communication Technologies is different between young people and their teachers, parents and more generally “adult people”. Digital Native is not synonymous with technological literacy or digital literacy. This article aims to reflect on the possible uses of ICT to help students to acquire a heightened critical awareness in the use of technologies. The study investigates the digital literacy of a group of students in the fourth and fifth years of high school, through the development and use of the Weblog. The results show that students can improve their digital skills when they become the protagonists of the learning process through the use of technologies. However, they must be leaded by teachers on this process, making them know the pillars of the digital literacy and offering them the opportunity to use these pillars for significant purposes.

Michele Della Ventura

### The Use of E-learning Tools and Log Data in a Course on Basic Logic

This paper is a study of the use of e-learning tools and log data in evaluating and further developing a course on basic logic. It is a continuation of earlier studies involving practical experiments with students of communication from Aalborg University. Two tools are involved: Syllog for training syllogistic reasoning and Proplog for training basic propositional logic. The data are logged anonymously during the course, as well as during the individual exam. Using the log data, we have obtained important insights into the effects of the lectures and exercises. We argue that the log data from using the two tools can be transformed into useful learning analytics. Careful studies based on log data can provide useful information on how the quality of the course. On this basis, it can be suggested how the course can be improved using the learning analytics based on the log data. This is evident from studies carried out over seven to eight years using log data from the use of Syllog and recent studies based on log data from the use of Proplog, also show how insight based on the log data may lead us to improvements of the course. During the present study we have developed a method by which we can determine whether the students will handle one kind of symbolic logic test better than another.

Peter Øhrstrøm, Steinar Thorvaldsen, Ulrik Sandborg-Petersen, Thomas Ploug, David Jakobsen