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About this book

Methods of advanced data collecting and their analysis, models which help with decision problems as well as technical solutions which improve the integrity of contemporary transport systems at urban area are only some of many problems connected with integration in passenger and freight transport which have been discussed in this book. The book expresses case study-based scientific and practical approach to the problems of contemporary transport systems. The proposed methods and models enable a system approach to assess current solutions. In turn, implementation proposals may support the improvement of the integrity of individual elements of transport systems, and thus increase its effectiveness on the global scale.

With regard to the research results discussed and the selected solutions applied, the book primarily addresses the needs of three target groups:

• Scientists and researchers (ITS field)

• Local authorities (responsible for the transport systems at the urban and regional level)

• Representatives of business (traffic strategy management) and industry (manufacturers of ITS components).

This book gathers selected papers presented at the 15th Scientific and Technical Conference “Transport Systems. Theory and Practice” organised by the Department of Transport Systems and Traffic Engineering at the Faculty of Transport of the Silesian University of Technology. The conference was held in Katowice, Poland on September 17–19, 2018.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

The Latest Achievements of Intelligent Transport Systems

Frontmatter

Basic Framework for the Energy-Effective Train Dispatching

The problem of modeling and optimal control the train flow is considered in relation to the mixed passenger and freight traffic. The paper describes main principles used to choose traffic adjustments and to evaluate change of the consumption value due to an operative control activity. Well-defined and rapid alteration of the train speed trajectory due to impediment arise is the basic element of traffic operative adjustments. The paper proposes the methodology of calculating the travel mode parameters in case of disturbance and the optimal distribution of time margin added to trajectory elements. Correlation analysis application of the real data allows revealing the regularities in normal and disturbed train run.
Vadim Gopkalo, Boris Davydov, Alexandr Godyaev

Decision Support System to Improve Delivery of Large and Heavy Goods by Road Transport

The paper is devoted to special features of the large and heavy goods (oversized and overweight loads) transportation by road transport. To organize a delivery of large and heavy goods, two main problems have to be solved: selection of the optimal road vehicle as well as selection of the best route. Since there are a lot of factors have to be considered, it is necessary to use information and communication technologies. The concept of Decision Support System (DSS) together its modules’ interaction is presented. Software complexes, which are based on the developed algorithm to distribute the vehicle fleet units to the suitable orders, and the set of models, which allow predicting consequences of the proposed solutions, are the intelligent heart of our DSS.
Anton Pashkevich, Ksenia Shubenkova, Irina Makarova, Damir Sabirzyanov

Experimenting with Routes of Different Geometric Complexity in the Context of Urban Road Environment Detection from Traffic Sign Data

Traffic sign data is used as input for detecting change in the type of urban road environment in which an ego-car is driven. The automatic urban road environment type detection is seen as a useful advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) function that could be implemented in a straightforward manner relying on an existing ADAS function. Concretely, the traffic signs encountered along the route could be detected and logged by an on-board camera-based traffic sign recognition (TSR) system; and in order to perform the required function, it could be augmented with the change detection method described in the paper. Based on the analysis of the traffic sign and car trajectory data gathered for this preliminary study, the empirical distributions of the traffic signs along routes taken depend also on the geometrical complexity of these routes. A convenient model for describing traffic sign data along a route is a marked Poisson process. A traffic sign log is seen as a realization of such a process, and the minimum description length principle is harnessed to detect change in the road environment type. To test the applicability of this approach for urban routes of different complexity, a number of road environment transitions are looked at, while taking the route complexity into consideration. Finally, the detected changes are compared to ground truth.
Zoltán Fazekas, Gábor Balázs, László Gerencsér, Péter Gáspár

Road Traffic Scene Acquisition

The article describes how specifically a road traffic scene is perceived by traffic participants. Every vehicle driver perceives a road traffic scene slightly differently, even though they are all obliged to follow a set of identical regulations. Normative (imposed by the law) behaviours of each driver are accompanied by other behaviours which, when combined, affect quality and safety of traffic. In both categories of behaviours, i.e. normative and other, there are differences that can and should be studied. On account of the broad range of problems, the article outlines selected aspects of the subject in question. The observations provided in the article are based on a study of vehicle drivers using an eye tracking device. Tests were performed near railway intersections. The observations discussed in the paper are of preliminary nature, which is due to the small size of the test sample resulting from the testing method used.
Ireneusz Celiński, Jerzy Łukasik, Szymon Surma, Jakub Młyńczak

Junction Traffic Prediction, Using Adjacent Junction Traffic Data, Based on Neural Networks

The paper discusses the problem of substitution of traffic data, used for prediction of traffic flows at a junction, with data from an adjacent junction. Such a case arises when the measuring resources at the junction malfunction. Neural networks based approach is used for forecasting traffic flows. Solutions incorporating a multilayer perceptron (MLP) network, a cascade forward network (CFN) and a deep learning network (DLN) with autoencoders are used for evaluating the prediction performance. The elaborated designs are validated using a data set of traffic flow measurements comprising over 15 thousand measurements collected in a period of over six months. Results prove that substituting data from an adjacent junction is justified for predicting traffic flows in case of malfunctioning measuring resources.
Teresa Pamuła, Wiesław Pamuła

Advanced Data Collecting, Analysis and Intelligent Support for Decision Making

Frontmatter

Data-Driven Transport Policy in Cities: A Literature Review and Implications for Future Developments

The skill of analysis of big data provided by the ICT and the skill of using this information in the decision-making process become crucial elements of the increase in competitiveness and effectiveness in all sectors of economy, in particular in the transport sector, in the field of mobility management in cities. The data-driven transport policy is also one of key pillars of a smart city concept. The paper discusses the importance of data-driven decision making in the common transport policy of the European Union. The paper reviews also the carried out so far studies on the transport behaviour, utilising passive data streams. Finally, the paper discusses main challenges facing researchers and public transport authorities related to the use of passive data streams for the needs of studies in the future.
Anna Urbanek

Using a Crowdsourcing Tool to Collect Data on the Travel Behaviour and Needs of Individuals with Reduced Mobility

Sustainable mobility planning focuses on addressing the travel needs of city residents and improving their quality of life. The process of developing dedicated solutions relies on various tools of citizen participation, including particularly sensitive social groups, such as people with reduced mobility. The objective of the article is to present selected findings of a study conducted with the use of a web-based crowdsourcing tool to collect data on the travel behaviour and needs of citizens with reduced mobility in Kraków. These concerned aspects such as preferred means of transportation, reasons for the choice, and the evaluation of proposed solutions aimed at improving travel conditions. The final results include maps of trouble spots around the city, drawn up on the basis of spatial data generated by the respondents. The tool made it possible to analyze the travel behaviour of the study group and estimate the significance of various proposed solutions aimed at improving their travel conditions. The unique value of the study resides in the fact that it also examines the needs of child caregivers, a social group which has not yet been thoroughly studied.
Katarzyna Nosal Hoy, Sylwia Rogala

Movement Analysis of Inhabitants in the Upper Silesia Agglomeration (Poland)

Mobility preferences of residents of a specific area have a significant impact on the shaping of transport systems on a microscopic and macroscopic scale. Preference data is used to improve existing systems or design new ones that have an impact on improving the living standards of residents. This condition is one of the transport postulates. In order to present the analysis data on mobility preferences of the inhabitants of the Upper Silesian agglomeration were used.
Damian Lach

Impact of Cyclist Facility Availability at Work on the Number of Bike Commuters

The article describes the results of research designed to establish whether cycle provision can influence the number of employees commuting by bike. To that end, employee surveys were conducted in three IT companies in 2012 and 2016. The questionnaire asked about travel behaviour and what the staff thought about their company’s provision of cyclist facilities. Since 2012 each of the companies has moved its head office and the facilities for cyclists have improved. The studies from 2012 indicated a greater impact of an unseen level of organizational culture than that of artifacts such as facilities for cyclists at the company or its location relative to the system of city cycle paths. Results from 2016 indicate that when significant changes are made on the artifacts level the influence on the number of cyclists can be noticeable.
Romanika Okraszewska

Analysis of Factors Affecting Non-compliance with the Red Light Signal at City Intersections Equipped with Traffic Signaling

The main causes of road collisions in Polish cities include disrespecting the priority of way rule and failing to keep safe distance between vehicles, however, according to statistics, running a red signal is another common cause of road accidents (the cause of 3.9% accidents and 1.6% collisions). The authors of this study have made an attempt to identify the factors which condition this kind of behavior and the degree of non-compliance with the traffic signaling by traffic users, including drivers, cyclists and pedestrians. Research was conducted for each group of the road users. Investigations of incidents connected with going/driving through a red signal were conducted. The total number of road users of the analyzed traffic stream, the number of persons who failed to comply with traffic signaling, their gender and age, traffic conditions as well as time that has passed since traffic signaling turned on until running a red signal. The tests results show that it is the amount the time the motorist have to spend waiting to leave an intersection has the largest influence on non-compliance with traffic signaling.
Tomasz Szczuraszek, Radosław Klusek

Assessment of the Impact Exerted by Closing Road Tunnel on Traffic Conditions on the Example of the DW902 Road in Gliwice (Poland)

The article comments upon the impact exerted by closing the tunnel within the DW902 road on traffic conditions in the town of Gliwice. Both the tunnel in question and the town’s road network have been described, and detailed information on the direct vicinity of the tunnel has been provided. The impact of the tunnel closure on traffic conditions has been analysed by comparing traffic parameters and the road situation on the day when the tunnel was closed with those of the preceding day, i.e. when the tunnel was still operational and no significant road network disturbances were observed. For purposes of the analysis of the impact exerted by the tunnel closure on traffic conditions in the town of Gliwice, individual impact zones were defined, radially extending from the tunnel location. In order to achieve the goal of the study, a comprehensive array of available measuring, computational and analytical tools were used at the Office of the Traffic Control Centre of the Municipal Road Administration in Gliwice.
Marcin Staniek, Bartosz Gierak

Modelling, Optimization and Evaluation in Smart Transport

Frontmatter

Traffic Modeling in Poland at the Municipal Level. Multi-purpose Model

The main objective of this paper is to develop passenger traffic modeling for the entire territory of Poland at a detailed spatial scale. Analysis embraces a large number of transport regions at the municipal level and a network of national and regional (provincial, voivodeship) roads. For this purpose statistical data has been applied indicating local conditions related to spatial and socio-economic structure as well as functional relations. The cognitive goal of the study is to identify factors affecting the distribution and intensity of passenger vehicle traffic. Such identification allows for separation of those sections of the network, for which local socio-economic conditions and specific functional connections determine a different modeled traffic intensity from the actual traffic based upon the General Traffic Census measure. Modeled results have been compared with the authentic distribution of traffic on the network of national and regional roads in Poland in 2010. Combination of the following six travel purposes has been taken into account: commuting to work (COM), shopping trips (CH), commuting to university (EDU), business trips (BIZ), visiting friends and relatives (VFR) and tourist trips (TUR). Grouping the six travel purposes in a single multi-purpose model has proved to be successful and led to improved fitting with the General Traffic Census results.
Piotr Rosik, Tomasz Komornicki, Sławomir Goliszek

Estimations of Parking Lot Capacity Using Simulations of Parking Demand as Flow of Requests for Services

Paper presents a simulation model of a parking lot operation based on the object-oriented approach. The proposed model considers stochastic nature of demand for parking services: demand is described as a couple of stochastic variables – time interval between vehicles arrival to a parking lot and a parking duration. Using Python implementation of the model, the simulation experiment was carried out in order to define functional dependence between the probability of servicing the vehicle at the parking lot and numeric parameters of demand for parking services. On the grounds of the obtained simulation results, the formula for estimations of a parking lot optimal capacity was defined.
Vitalii Naumov

Multiple Criteria Optimization for Supply Chains – Analysis of Case Study

Completing of a production process in any enterprise requires designing of a proper supply chain. Its non-compliance with the ever-changing client needs may result in a variety of problems that are perceived in different ways by different stakeholders when attempting to resolve a decision problem. The paper presents an example solution of a problem related to planning of supplies of components of a final product. The proposed non-linear, deterministic mathematical model of a decision problem includes a set of 5 criteria: costs of warehousing, transport, stock in transit and the criterion of time of transport and warehouse efficiency. Such an approach allowed including various aspects of the enterprise operation and the operation of its individual departments such as supplies department, warehouse department, marketing/sales department and management.
Marcin Kiciński, Piotr Witort, Agnieszka Merkisz-Guranowska

Intelligent Decision Making in Transport. Evaluation of Transportation Modes (Types of Vehicles) Based on Multiple Criteria Methodology

Decision making highly influences peoples’ lives and their activities. Unfortunately, nowadays decision-making process is very often affected by feeling of uncertainty and risk, whereas decision problems have become increasingly complex. In these circumstances, the meaning of ‘intelligence’ aspect is gaining an importance as it highly enhances the possibility of making the right decision. Additionally, intelligent decision-making models are very useful in various sectors of economy, including transportation sector. The typical decision problem may be e.g. the process of evaluating and selecting transportation system, which is being defined as a set of different types of elements, relationships and processes. One of the transport’s element is transport facility point - especially car fleet (different kinds of vehicles). Selection of the most desired vehicles may determine the success of the whole transportation system for the company. Therefore, the process of evaluating and selecting the used fleet should be carefully considered and based on the intelligent approach. Also, various types of tools/techniques for intelligent decision making can be used e.g. Multiple Criteria Decision Making, Group Decision Making, Artificial Neural Networks, Metaheuristic, Fuzzy Logic, Case – Based Reasoning and Expert Systems. In the case study described, the author implements MCDM Methodology (especially Electre III/IV method) in order to make the right decision during selection of the most desired variant/type of the vehicle.
Barbara Galińska

Results of Research of the Traffic Safety at Signalized Intersection with Countdown Timers

The article is a continuation of the research work carried out by the authors on determining the impact of the countdown timers on traffic conditions, and—in this case—on traffic safety at the intersections. The paper presents the results of research for assessing the impact of the role of the intersection with the countdown timers in transportation network of the city on the safety of the intersections. Moreover, the article also demonstrates the force of the influence of the countdown timers on the level of traffic safety, depending on the function of the intersection in transportation network. For scientific purposes, the traffic measurements were conducted which have been described in detail in another article [1].
Aleksander Sobota, Renata Żochowska, Grzegorz Karoń, Marcin Jacek Klos

Reducing Odometer Fraud in the EU Second-Hand Passenger Car Market Through Technical Solution

One of the key issues while purchasing used car is viability of its odometer reading. Mileage incurred is basis for consumer decisions. European Union second-hand car markets score low in surveys in regard to their honesty and reliability. Evidence from around the world as well as from the EU suggests that odometer tampering is quite frequent practice. Thus dishonest sellers intercept difference in monetary value between odometer tampered and non-tampered car. For buyer there are hidden costs of depreciation and maintenance incurred but not revealed. In this paper the economic viability of one of the possible solutions to fight odometer fraud in regard to passenger cars is discussed. This solution is based on introduction of tamper-proof odometers into the market. The costs and benefits of such a move are estimated and pros and cons of the proposal are discussed. The estimates are produced for different scenarios of assumed odometer fraud levels. Regardless of the fraud level scenario considered the straight monetary benefits outweigh costs. However there are other issues which influence possible introduction of tamper-proof odometers like lasting of their effects or social and technical barriers to their adoption.
Przemyslaw Borkowski

Integrated Urban Passenger and Freight Transport

Frontmatter

Integration of Public Transport Modes – Case Study of Wieliczka, Krakow Agglomeration

Increasing problems resulting from the growing mobility and travel elongation of the suburban area inhabitants force to search for solutions that would help sustainable transport development. The process of sustainable development supports integration of various transport modes. The case study of the integration of public transport modes operating within the Krakow agglomeration area can be presented as an example of a good practice for integration of rail with bus systems. The article presents solutions applied in the field of railway connection integration with bus lines. It also presents the degree of the use of bus lines in integration with the railway connection.
Aleksandra Ciaston-Ciulkin, Sabina Pulawska-Obiedowska

Trends in Free Fare Transport on the Urban Transport Service Market in Poland

In recent years, free urban transport has become the area of interest among numerous groups. The article presents the analysis of social, economic and environmental rationale for introducing free urban transport.
Moreover, the Polish national and local laws and regulations were analysed to assess the introduction of free urban transport for various social groups. Using the source information from the Urban Transport Chamber of Commerce the criterion of age was analysed as grounds for free urban transport in Poland.
Using the budget-related data from the Polish cities and municipalities from 2000 to 2016 the economic implications resulting from entitlements to free urban transport were identified.
The conducted analyses revealed current trends regarding the entitlements to free urban transport and indicated that the main reason involves introducing such entitlements for children and youth, in small and medium towns and large cities and for seniors of over 70 years of age.
Katarzyna Hebel, Marcin Wołek, Aleksander Jagiełło

Urban Transport Integration Using Automated Garages in Park and Ride and Car-Sharing Systems – Preliminary Study for the Upper Silesian Conurbation

The transport system in many cities is becoming overloaded due to the increasing number of travels, a large share of which involve passenger cars. One of the solutions improving transport system functioning is based on a concept of changing the behaviour of travellers and of increasing the share of travels using means of transportation dedicated by the city (urban public transport, city bicycle and car rental systems). This change, even if implemented only on some travel sections, may lead to a substantial reduction of the negative impact of transport on the environment (in terms of emissions as well as of the space occupied). The paper proposes to integrate transport in cities by using automated multi-storey large-capacity garages in certain locations. A case study is also presented here for the Upper Silesian Conurbation, describing the potential impact on the transport system in that urban area. The proposed solution may also be used in different areas.
Grzegorz Sierpiński, Katarzyna Turoń, Czesław Pypno

Planning International Transport Using the Heuristic Algorithm

The article refers to the problem of planning international transport. The aim of this paper is to develop the algorithm which will be used to planning international transport. Planning international transport problems are the complex decision problems which refer to the vehicle routing problems and the problems of designating the minimal path in the graph. The approach to planning international transport presented in this paper takes into account the delay times in the intermediate points, e.g. cities and average waiting time at the border crossings. In order to determine the international transport routes the mathematical model was developed, i.e. decision variables, constraints and the criterion function. Decision variables take the binary form and determine the connections between the objects in the transportation network which are realized by the vehicles. Constraints take into account the weight limits on the routes and the time realization of the transportation task. The criterion function determines the minimal transportation route in the context the time of its realization. In order to designate the routes in international transport the heuristic algorithm, i.e. ant algorithm was developed. The steps of building this algorithm was presented. This algorithm was verified in the C# programming language. The results generating by the presented algorithm were compared with the results generating by the random algorithm.
Mariusz Izdebski, Ilona Jacyna-Gołda, Irena Jakowlewa

Freight Transport Planners as Information Elements in the Last Mile Logistics

One of the biggest challenges today in the transport of goods on the world is the problem called “last mile logistics”. This is a problem concerning the final stage of transport of goods to the customers. The role of information in the last mile logistics acquired from freight transport planners has been presented in this paper. This paper contains a detailed comparison of existing Open Source software solutions for freight transport planning. This paper also provided grounds to perform one of tasks defined under the international S-mile project implemented within the framework of the ERANET Transport III “Sustainable Logistics and Supply Chain” programme analyzing how different technologies should be modified in order to fulfills all the S-mile project objectives. In the paper the results of the analysis to identify the best freight transport planner to use in the S-mile project have been presented.
Elżbieta Macioszek

The Competitiveness of Inland Shipping in Serving the Hinterland of the Seaports: A Case Study of the Oder Waterway and the Szczecin-Świnoujście Port Complex

The aim of this article is to verify the existing knowledge in the area of competitiveness factors of hinterland modes of transport in land-sea transport chains. In order to fulfill the primary objectives of the article, a case study of the Oder Waterway and Szczecin-Świnoujście port complex was applied. The verification of competitiveness factors of inland shipping in serving seaports hinterland was made on the basis of in-depth interviews among shippers who represented the most important exporters and importers using sea transport, and whose premises were located in the areas that gravitate towards inland waterway transport. The study provided evidence that the most important factor is to assure reliability of delivery. It is the necessary condition for a modal shift between competitive transport branches. Lower transport costs without the certainty of delivery on time will not convince shippers to a modal shift.
Izabela Kotowska, Marta Mańkowska, Michał Pluciński

Backmatter

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