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About this book

This book presents current laboratory, scientific and clinical aspects of nanomaterials used for medical applications in the fields of regenerative medicine, dentistry and pharmacy. It gives a broad overview of the in vitro compatibility assessment of nanostructured materials implemented in the medical field by the combination of classical biological protocols. The chapters cover all aspects of integrative medicine, such as green derived nanomaterials for biological applications; synthetic and nature-derived lipid nanoparticles and polymer nanoparticles.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Basic Techniques to Investigate the Nanostructured Materials

Abstract
This chapter is to deliver the basic methods for the characterizations of nanostructured materials. There are different shapes of materials existing in the nanomaterials such as particles, sheets, roads, dots, balls and films. The crystalline structures and surface morphology of nanomaterials are clearly calibrated using advanced techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical compositions and purity of materials are examined by Energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The biological studies of nanomaterials are examined using bioactivity, anti-microbial activity and bio degradability. This review gives a comprehensive understanding of the physico-chemical and biological nature of the nanomaterials.
Navaneethan Duraisamy, Kavitha Kandiah, Balagurunathan Ramasamy

The Importance of Nano-materials Characterization Techniques

Abstract
The potential application of nanotechnology in the medical field ranges from nanomaterials and biological devices, to nanoelectronics biosensors, can be extended to molecular nanotechnology like biological machines. Nanomaterial characterization is a keystone for the development and adoption of nanomaterials for certain applications. The unique and novel physico-chemical properties of nanomaterial gave rise to a number of characterization techniques. Therefore, nanoparticles are characterized to study various physical and chemical features such as composition, structure size, morphology, surface area, optical properties, surface composition, oxidation state, and electrochemistry. The characterization of nanomaterials should not be limited to a single technique, because usually multiple measurements are needed to capture all pertinent nanomaterial characteristics. Hence, in this chapter, details of different characterization techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and zeta potential (ZP) are discussed.
Yazan Al Thaher, Balakumar Chandrasekaran, Sarojini Jeeva Panchu

Biohazards of Nanomaterials

Abstract
Nanoparticles (NPs) refer to materials that have a range of 1–100 nm in one or more dimension. These can be sourced from a variety of engineered, targeted materials and in naturally occurring forms. Many of which, have not been systematically evaluated for their hazardous nature. Extensive use of nanotechnology in daily products, as well as drug delivery systems, has lead to their accumulation and proved to be a biohazard. Some studies in the recent past have reported potential toxic effects of these NPs (Silver NPs, Cerium NPs which have proven ecotoxicological impact in the freshwater environment).
Priyanka Maurya, Samipta Singh, Rajashri R. Naik, Ashok K. Shakya

Biosynthesized Nanoparticles and Their Biological Applications

Abstract
The application of nanoparticles in the medicinal field offers some extra-ordinary usages like diagnosis, imaging, controlled and targeted delivery drug carrier, implantations, device making etc. In this chapter dealt with the recent development of technology for the nanoparticles synthesis through natural way such as plant extract, micro-organism and their biological applications. The building up of reliable, eco-friendly, and nontoxic approaches for synthesis of nanoparticles are most important to develop their medicinal applications like synthesis of metals, polymer, ceramic materials etc. These biosynthesized nanoparticles are relatively new, safe and eco-friendly with a number of the application without any toxic effects. The skill for nanoparticle synthesis includes maximum production, reducing time and cost to get distinct shape and size, to increase the stability of the nanoparticles and optimization of specific natural materials for different applications.
Mariappan Rajan, Ida Celine Mary George Raj, Amarnath Praphakar Rajendran

An Overview of Nanotoxicological Effects Towards Plants, Animals, Microorganisms and Environment

Abstract
In recent years, nanotechnology has reached the limelight of research in applications of medicine and technology. Due to its onset, huge varieties of nanoparticles possessing significant characters are synthesized with broad application fields. Even though these particles are infesting our present life; conflictual views regarding their medical and biological effects are debatable. The non biodegradable nature and nanosize are the alarming features of the nanoparticles that confront potential threats to both environment and biomedical field on its expanding usage. NPs synthesized from heavy metals like lead, mercury and tin are proclaimed as stringent and stable compounds for degradation, hence results in environmental biohazards. The extensive applications of silver nanoparticles in biosensing, cosmetics, medical devices, food and clothing products inflates its human exposure and obviously resulted in toxicity (short and long term). In vitro studies revealed various cytotoxic effects in the cells of mammals such as brain, liver, lung, skin, reproductive organs and vascular system. Furthermore, ingestion, inhalation or injection of nanoparticles in intraperitoneal region resulted in toxic effect of multiple organs inclusively brain. Accounting the metal nanoparticles biohazardous effects like ROS (Reactive oxygen species) generation, DNA damage, protein denaturation and lipid peroxidation has been proved on carbon based nanoparticles, organic lipid based nanoparticles, mineral based nanoparticles, nano diamonds, nano composites, etc. Although, nanotechnology has become an advent field of research nowadays, it is importing significant environmental and health hazards thus couldn’t be beneficial to both society and economy.
V. Ananthi, K. Mohanrasu, T. Boobalan, K. Anand, M. Sudhakar, Anil Chuturgoon, V. Balasubramanian, R. Yuvakkumar, A. Arun

Synthetic, Natural Derived Lipid Nanoparticles and Polymeric Nanoparticles Drug Delivery Applications

Abstract
In modern therapeutic field, the delivery of drugs to the desired site is a crucial bottleneck that needs to be addressed for efficacy and potency of the administrated drug. The recent advancements in the field of nanotechnology has enabled researchers to deliver the drug and other diagnostic agents without unfavorable effect in human. Though drug delivery system (DDS) is highly advantageous, the clinical success rate depends on the appropriate carrier molecules which precisely recognize the target site for the release of drug and its biocompatibility. To overcome this concern both synthetic and naturally derived lipid-based nano carriers are the preeminent option as it is biocompatible, non-toxic, enhances the bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs, drug release modulation flexibility, improved drug loading capacity and stability. Similarly, several bioinspired synthetic polymeric nanomaterials shown advantage of controlled release with less toxic effects, better encapsulation and grand bioavailability. In this chapter, we discussed about the broad spectrum of lipids (synthetic and natural) and polymeric nanoparticles (synthetic and natural) for potential drug delivery applications.
K. Mohanrasu, G. Siva Prakash, T. Boobalan, V. Ananthi, G. H. Dinesh, K. Anand, M. Sudhakar, Anil Chuturgoon, A. Arun

Lipid and Polymeric Nanoparticles: Drug Delivery Applications

Abstract
Recently, among the novel nanocarriers investigated for drug delivery lipid and polymeric nanoparticles have gained big interest due to their safety and potency. In the last decades, lipid nanoparticles presented by solid lipid nanoparticles SLNs and their newer generation known as nanostructured lipid carriers NLCs provided a promising alternative to traditional colloidal drug carriers. Furthermore, polymeric nanoparticles are innovative systems and used widely to incorporate active ingredients and replace conventional vehicles. Polymeric nanoparticles have been shown to be highly effective in drug delivery, imaging, therapy, and theranostic applications. This chapter will mainly focus to give information about the structure, the properties, the advantages, the constituents and the methods of preparation of lipid and polymeric nanoparticles and emphasize the application of these nanoparticles in drug delivery. Furthermore, it will cover recent studies dealing with the therapeutic applications of these two types of nanoparticles.
Meriem Rezigue

Biodegradable Natural Polymeric Nanoparticles as Carrier for Drug Delivery

Abstract
Nanotechnology has been a very interesting and led to the significant progress in a biomedicine field such as controlled drug and gene delivery. Nanoparticles have been used for drug delivery because of their efficiency and in particular, biodegradable nanoparticles are now being continuously explored because of their versatility and properties like good bioavailability, very less toxicity and enhanced encapsulation. These carriers play an efficient role in cancer therapy and controlled delivery of drug molecules to the target site. The present chapter focuses on the reason for using nanoparticles as drug carrier, various methods used for polymeric nanoparticles synthesis, and various applications of biopolymers-based nanoparticles in biomedical field.
M. Sumana, A. Thirumurugan, P. Muthukumaran, K. Anand

Quantum Dots Application in Biomolecules Interaction and Bioimaging

Abstract
The semiconductor nanocrystals known as quantum dots (QDs) have become a potential candidate for next generation fluorophores. Attention in QDs research is focussed on a wide range of applications like sensor, photovoltaic cells, catalysis, biolabelling, early cancer detection, etc. The unique morphology, tunable optical properties, photostability and flexibility for surface modification by biomolecules of QDs has provoked the scientific community to unravel many problems in biological processes. In view of these scientifically advantageous and distinguishable characteristics of QDs, an overview of research on the interaction of Cadmium telluride QDs with biomolecules and bioimaging applications and limitations of QDs is presented in this chapter.
Ellappan Vaishnavi, Rajalingam Renganathan

Molecular Dynamics Simulations in Drug Discovery and Drug Delivery

Abstract
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation acts as an important supporting tool to experimental methods in the process of drug discovery. With the recent growth in computational power and development of efficient and fast computational techniques, the role of MD simulations has become even more prominent. In this chapter, we discuss the role played by MD simulations at different stages of the drug discovery process. We also discuss the contribution of MD simulations in developing drug-delivery strategies and highlight how the molecular resolution offered by the MD simulations aids in better understanding of the systems involved.
Suman Saurabh, Ponnurengam Malliappan Sivakumar, Venkatesan Perumal, Arezoo Khosravi, Abimanyu Sugumaran, Veluchamy Prabhawathi

Nanomedicine for Treating Specific Disorders

Abstract
Nanomedicine utilizes the molecular nanotechnology in the form of nanomaterial, and nanobiosensors to modify the properties of the drug for the treatment of human illness. The nanomedicine improves the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, stability properties of existing drugs. In addition, the nanomedicine serves as a diagnostic tool to monitor the physiological functions of the human body. The nanomedicine formulates the existing drug without using dose-limiting toxic excipients, and therefore nanomedicines reduce the toxicity of the drug. The sustained and controlled release of drug from nanomedicine also enhances the safety and efficacy. Overall, the therapeutic index of a drug is enhanced when the drug is administered in the form of nanomedicine. At present, a numerous number of nanomedicines have been developed to treat a wide range of human illness like cancer, HIV, kidney diseases, angiogenesis, etc. Recently, nanotechnology has been viewed as a revolutionary discipline in pharmaceutical and medical sciences. The advancements in nanomedicines are continuously growing to treat life-threatening diseases such as cancer, HIV, etc. Despite, there is a significant progress in the development of nanomedicines, the clinical translation of nanomedicine remains challenge in drug development. The present review describes the challenges, recent progress in development, therapeutic properties, clinical role and potential outcome of nanomedicine in treating specific human disorders. It will be useful to simplify the monitoring, diagnosis, and curing of diseases in personalized health care.
M. Ramesh, K. Anand

Nanomedicines in Cancer Therapy

Abstract
Cancer is one of the most controversial diseases known for humanity and emerged as a global health problem all the time. The drug discovery scientists and clinicians have attempted to cure cancer since centuries. Conventional cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy have many limitations including low specificity, lack of stability, rapid drug clearance, biodegradation and limited targeting besides number of side effects associated with these treatments on the actual patients. Nanomedicine has evolved over the past few years and became a breakthrough technology for the diagnosis and the treatment of several cancer types. Specifically, the drug is being carried out through carriers called nanoparticles in which the properties of these carriers are very important for the successful treatment of deadly diseases like cancer. In this chapter, we describe the application of nanotechnology and nanomedicines in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Further, we discuss the targeted-nanodrug delivery to cancer cells in a broad context. Moreover, we provide a glimpse on marketed nanomedicines available for the management of cancer.
Enas Abu-Qudais, Balakumar Chandrasekaran, Sara Samarneh, Ghadir Kassab

Nanomedicines in Tuberculosis: Diagnosis, Therapy and Nanodrug Delivery

Abstract
Nanoparticle-based delivery systems represent a promising nano medications to deliver a therapeutic agent, selectively and effectively, to a specific tissue or organ in the body; thus treating chronic diseases such as tuberculosis. The delivery of first-line and second-line antituberculosis drugs, using synthetic or natural polymeric carriers, has been extensively reported as a potential intermittent chemotherapy. In addition to the prolonged drug release, this delivery system can enhance the therapeutic efficacy, reduce dosing frequency and side effects, and increase the possibility of selecting different routes of chemotherapy and targeting the site of infection. The choice of carrier, system stability, toxicity and production capacity are the main considerations during the development of such system. Regardless of the obstacles, the nano drug delivery have systems shown a promising effectiveness in treating TB.
Abdel Naser Dakkah, Yazan Bataineh, Bilal A Al Jaidi, Mohammad F. Bayan, Nabil A. Nimer

Nanomaterials in Nutraceuticals Applications

Abstract
Diverse strategies are adopted to fight against various diseases and probable health risks. Besides the pharmaceutical approach, diet-based strategies are also deemed apt to avert various disorders. “Nutraceuticals” considered as bioactive components found in natural products. Bioactive components are additional nutritional ingredients that typically present in small quantities of foods that are used in day-to-day life and strongly believed to play a crucial role in the maintenance of our health. The food products used as nutraceuticals can be categorized as dietary fiber, prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants and other different types of herbal/natural foods. These nutraceuticals facilitate in combating a number of the major health problems including microbial infections. In recent years, nanotechnology-based formulations like micro- and nanoencapsulation have been a rising interest for nutraceutical, food and pharmaceutical applications. To enhance nutritional quality and stability of the nutraceuticals, one option is to encapsulate the functional ingredients using food-grade or “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) materials that can exhibit controlled-release behavior. These diversity of building blocks and formulation methods led to nanocarriers like nanoemulsion, nanodispersion, nanoparticles, liposomes etc. with diverse physicochemical properties and functional characteristics. Based on the above-mentioned facts, this chapter provides an insight of some of the emerging nanomaterial-based applications being commercialized in nutraceuticals. A glimpse on various research work undertaken for the nanomaterials in the field of nutraceuticals is also discussed in this chapter.
Mahendra Singh, Navneeta Singh, Balakumar Chandrasekaran, Pran Kishore Deb

Correction to: Integrative Nanomedicine for New Therapies

Anand Krishnan, Anil Chuturgoon
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