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About this book

This book presents the proceedings of SympoSIMM 2019, the 2nd edition of the Symposium on Intelligent Manufacturing and Mechatronics. Focusing on “Strengthening Innovations Towards Industry 4.0”, the book presents studies on the details of Industry 4.0’s current trends. Divided into five parts covering various areas of manufacturing engineering and mechatronics stream, namely, artificial intelligence, instrumentation and controls, intelligent manufacturing, modelling and simulation, and robotics., the book is a valuable resource for readers wishing to embrace the new era of Industry 4.0.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Artificial Intelligence

Frontmatter

Niblack Algorithm Modification Using Maximum-Minimum (Max-Min) Intensity Approaches on Low Contrast Document Images

In recent decades, detection or segmentation has been one of the major interesting research subjects due to the analysis of the information. However, most of the historical document has degraded and low contrast problem. Recently, many binarization methods were proposed in order to segment the text region from the background region in the low-quality image. In this paper, an improved binarization method was inspired by Niblack method was presented. The modification focuses to find the optimum threshold value by using the Maximum-Minimum intensity technique. The main target is to reduce the unwanted detection image and increase the resultant performance compared to the original Niblack method. The proposed method was applied to the document images from H-DIBCO 2012 and H-DIBCO 2014 dataset. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the target was achieved by the F-Measure by F-measure (58.706), PSNR (10.778) and Accuracy (86.876). This finding will give a new benchmark to other researchers to propose an advance binarization method.

Wan Azani Mustafa, Wan Khairunizam, A. S. Mat Yusoff, Syed Zulkarnain Syed Idrus, Mohamad Nur Khairul Hafizi Rohani

Predicting Outcomes in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Using Machine Learning Models

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as blunt and penetrating injury to the head and/or brain caused by an external force that leads to temporary or permanent impairments to the brain function. Accurate measurement of prediction for the outcomes of affected individual is highly desirable to plan and optimize treatment decision. The clinical experts predict the outcomes of brain injury patients with a high degree of accuracy based on their experience and the standardized Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). The GOS has been used over the past 40 years and it plays an important role in developing the understanding of brain injury. Recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have heightened the need for developing predictive models using machine learning (ML) methods especially for TBI patients who require life-saving interventions. ML is a subfield of AI which allows the computer algorithms to learn patterns by studying data directly without being explicitly programmed. This paper compares the different ways in which predictive models evaluate the potential of ML for TBI outcome prediction. A literature survey of latest articles from 2016 to 2018 reveals that the predictions of existing predictive models compute different prediction performances in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and area under receiving operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Depending on the specific prediction task evaluated and the type of input features included, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) creates a powerful model to predict outcomes of TBI with profound accuracy compared to other ML models. Although ANNs are considered as “black-box” in computational models, their benefits in clinical medicine have infinite potentials in evidence-based medicine practice because ANNs can be trained on new patient information. Moreover, the existing predictive models show that ML can be leveraged to more accurately predict the outcomes of TBI patients. Most importantly, predictive models can provide real-time clinical utilization that leads to greater accuracy and higher predictive value for patients suffered from traumatic brain injury.

Nor Safira Elaina Mohd Noor, Haidi Ibrahim

Blood Vessel Detection Monitoring System and Mobile Notification for Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosis

Disease diagnosis based on retinal image analysis is very popular in order to detect a few critical diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, high blood pressure, cancer and glaucoma. The important part of the retinal is a blood vessel. Besides, the blood vessel study plays an important part in different medical areas such as ophthalmology, oncology, and neurosurgery. The significance of the vessel analysis was helped by the continuous overview in clinical studies of new medical technologies intended for improving the visualization of vessels. In this paper, a new blood vessel detection based on a combination of Kirsch’s templates and Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) was proposed. The main objective of this study is to improve the detection result of FCM and achieved more effective performance compared to the Kirsch’s templates result. The proposed method experimented on 20 images is utilized namely from Digital Retina Images for Vessel Extraction (DRIVE) dataset. The resulting images are compared with the benchmark images based on a few image quality assessment (IQA) such as accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The total average of accuracy is 92.64%, while sensitivity and specificity obtained was 95.73% and 60.45% respectively. The three parameters of the IQA will then be displayed in a column on the GUI. The second part of the system is for the mobile notification system to send SMS to a mobile phone. In order for the user to obtain the image analysis results, there must be a notification system on the mobile phone. By using the GSM module integrated with Arduino Uno, notification regarding image analysis will be sent to the mobile phone.

Ahmad Syauqi Mahmud, Wan Azani Mustafa, Mohd Aminudin Jamlos, Syed Zulkarnain Syed Idrus, Wan Khairunizam, Mohd Al Hafiz Mohd Nawi

Reduction of Salt-and-Pepper Noise from Digital Grayscale Image by Using Recursive Switching Adaptive Median Filter

Digital images may suffer from impulse noise, including salt-and-pepper noise. One of the common methods to deal with this noise is by using median filter, which is a type of non-linear filter. Standard median filter includes noisy pixels in calculating the median value for the restoration process. However, this will lead to an inaccurate result, where the noisy pixel values may be selected for the restoration. Another approach is by using recursive median filter, where the calculation for the median value is also based on the previous outputs. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the feasibility of improving the performance of recursive median filter, by adapting it to switching and adaptive approaches. This scheme is called as Recursive Switching Adaptive Median Filter. As the switching median filter is used, the method is divided into two stages, which are noise detection and noise restoration stages. In the noise detection stage, salt-and-pepper pixel candidates are identified. Then, in the restoration stage, an adaptive method is used for the restoration. The size of the filter is expanding until there are at least eight noise-free pixel candidates defined by the window. As the recursive method is used, the noise mask is updated every time the restoration is done. The experimental results show that this scheme has good performance in terms of mean square error and structural similarity index measure, as compared to six other median filtering approaches. However, the scheme does not perform well at high level of corruption, especially when the level of corruption is more than 80%.

Aina Qistina Md. Taha, Haidi Ibrahim

Parameter Tuning in the Single-Solution Simulated Kalman Filter Optimizer

Single-solution simulated Kalman filter (ssSKF) is a variant of simulated Kalman filter (SKF) algorithm. Both algorithms employ the well-known Kalman filtering mechanism in an optimization process. Unlike the population-based SKF, the ssSKF operates using one agent. In this paper, parameter tuning of the ssSKF algorithm is presented.

Nor Hidayati Abdul Aziz, Zuwairie Ibrahim, Nor Azlina Ab Aziz, Badaruddin Muhammad, Tasiransurini Ab Rahman, Mohd Saberi Mohamad, Suhazri Amrin Rahmad

Path Tracking Simulation of the Buggy Car by Using Fuzzy Information of the Steering Wheel

The steering wheel control is the method used for the navigation of an autonomous vehicle. In order to control the autonomous vehicle, the steering wheel controller must be able to adapt as the road condition and surrounding environment can change abruptly. The existed autonomous system currently in the testing phase. The system still needs to improve because there is some report regarding an accident caused by the test autonomous vehicles. The aim of this research is to implement the human driving capability into the Fuzzy controller. One of the human capabilities is the ability to make a decision based on the current situation. The fuzzy system is developed based on human driving data while controlling a buggy car. The experiments used to collect data such as position, speed, heading and steering wheel angle. Data then use to develop the membership function for the fuzzy inputs and output. The simulation is performed in order to study the performance of the Fuzzy controller. The performance of the Fuzzy controller is satisfactory and can be improved. The maximum path tracking error recorded is 9 m and 7.5 m for right and left turn simulations.

Hafiz Halin, Wan Khairunizam, Hasri Haris, I. Zunaidi, Shahriman Abu Bakar, Z. M. Razlan, Wan Azani Mustafa

The Classification of Skateboarding Trick Manoeuvres Through the Integration of IMU and Machine Learning

The evaluation of tricks executions in skateboarding is commonly carried out subjectively. The panels of judges rely on their prior experience in classifying the effectiveness of tricks performance during skateboarding competitions. This technique of classifying tricks often fell short in providing accurate evaluations during competition. Therefore, an objective and unbiased means of evaluating skateboarding tricks is non-trivial. This study aims at classifying flat ground tricks namely Ollie, Kickflip, Shove-it, Nollie and Frontside 180 through the use of inertial measurement unit (IMU) and machine learning models. An amateur skateboarder (23 years of age ± 5.0 years’ experience) executed five tricks for each type of trick repeatedly on a customized ORY skateboard (IMU sensor fused) on a cemented ground. From the IMU data, a number of features were extracted and engineered. On the pretext of classification models, Support vector machine (SVM), k-NN, artificial neural networks (ANN), logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF) and Naïve Bayes (NB) was employed to identify the type of tricks performed. The results suggest that LR and NB have the highest classification accuracy with 95.0% followed by ANN and SVM together caped at 90.0% and RF and k-NN with 85.0% and 75.0%, respectively. It could be concluded that the proposed method is able to classify the skateboard tricks well. This will assist the judges in providing more accurate evaluations of trick performance as opposed to the subjective and conventional techniques currently applied.

Muhammad Amirul Abdullah, Muhammad Ar Rahim Ibrahim, Muhammad Nur Aiman Bin Shapiee, Mohd Azraai Mohd Razman, Rabiu Muazu Musa, Anwar P. P. Abdul Majeed

Predicting Serious Injuries Due to Road Traffic Accidents in Malaysia by Means of Artificial Neural Network

Malaysia has recorded a steady increase in the number of road traffic accidents from year to year at an alarming rate of 5%. Serious injuries due to the accidents, which could lead to permanent disability, might cause a long-term problem to the nation economy-wise. Predicting the number of serious injury cases in the future is important in understanding the trend of road traffic accidents to help policymakers in proposing a countermeasure. Time-series model has been employed to predict the occurrence of road traffic crashes including fatalities. Nonetheless, the prediction of serious injury cases, which should not be taken lightly due to its potential impact, has not been proposed especially with regards to Malaysian road traffic accident data. This study attempts to employ artificial neural networks (ANN), a machine learning algorithm, to predict the number of serious injury cases in Malaysia based on the road traffic accident data of the past 20 years. Machine learning has increasingly been adopted in recent years owing to its ability to predict as well as catering for the non-linear behaviour of the data examined. A single-hidden ANN model was developed based on seven features, namely the number of registered vehicles, population, length of federal road, length of FELDA road, length of federal institutional road, length of federal territory road, and length of the expressway in order to predict the number of serious injuries. It was established from the present investigation that the developed ANN model is capable to predict the number of serious injuries from 1997 until 2017 with a mean absolute percentage error of only 3%. This demonstrates the capability of the developed machine learning in road traffic accident prediction, and it could be useful in outlining an action plan to mitigate the number of serious injuries in Malaysia.

Nurul Qastalani Radzuan, Mohd Hasnun Arif Hassan, Anwar P. P. Abdul Majeed, Rabiu Muazu Musa, Mohd Azraai Mohd Razman, Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

Instrumentation and Controls

Frontmatter

Welding Quality Assessment Using Waveform Signal Analysis of Vibration

The present study aims to investigate the quality of welding coupons in terms of mechanical strength by using the waveform signal analysis of time domain. The custom designed mechanical vibrator system combined with two sensor array was served to perform the tests and visualizing their results. The obtained vibration waveform from the mechanical vibration test has been compared with tensile test results. From the vibration waveform, peak to peak value is chosen to represent the waveform size, while for the tensile test result, maximum force is used to represent the strength of welding structure. The vibration waveform value then is compared with maximum force to find the relationship. From the analysis, a correlation between vibration signal and tensile strength was developed. This result agreed well with the early hypothesis of that a higher vibration waveform signal indicates a poor weld quality while the lower vibration waveform signal represents a sound quality. However, a statistical analysis reveals that there is no strong correlation between the vibration signal and mechanical strength. Despite, the acquired waveform signal was not giving an obvious indication of the hidden defects as well as its location due to the high noise level. Contradiction in results may arise due to the unbalanced data treatment and insufficient number of specimens. This study of the signal analysis method as a pre-assessment technique to quantify a weld quality, is important in the attempt to create a system monitoring for welding structure with using non-destructive test with new approach.

A. M. Najib, E. R. Imam Fauzi, F. F. Kamarul Bahrin, N. D. Zainudin

Arm Games for Virtual Reality Based Post-stroke Rehabilitation

Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability. World Health Organization (WHO) published that the second leading of death is stroke accident and every year, 15 million people worldwide suffer from stroke attack, two-thirds of them have a permanent disability. Muscle impairment can be treated by intensive movements involving repetitive task, task-oriented and task-variegated. Conventional stroke rehabilitation is expensive, less engaging and at the same time need more time for the rehabilitation process and need more energy and time for the therapist to guide the stroke-survivor. Modern stroke rehabilitation is more promising and more effective with modern rehabilitation aids allowing the rehabilitation process to be faster, however, this therapist method can be obtained in the big cities. To cover the lack of rehabilitation process in this research will develop and improve post-stroke rehabilitation using games. This research using electromyography (EMG) device to analyze the muscle contraction during the rehabilitation process and using Kinect XBOX to record trajectory hands movements. Five games from movements sequence have designed and will be examined in this research. This games obtained two results, the first is the EMG signal and the second is trajectory data. EMG signal can recognize muscle contractions during playing game and the trajectory data can save the pattern of movements and showed the pattern to the monitor. EMG signal processing using time or frequency feature extractions is a good idea to obtain more information from muscle contractions, also velocity, similarities and error movements can be obtained by study the possible approaches.

C. Basri Noor, Wan Khairunizam, S. Diny Syarifah, I. Zunaidi, Lee Hui Ling, A. B. Shahriman, M. R. Zuradzman, Wan Azani Mustafa

Design of Sliding Mode Controller Using Smoothening Method for Chattering Suppression in Machine Tools

Sliding mode controller is a widely known robust controller, providing outstanding control performances especially in disturbance rejection. However, the chattering phenomenon that induced undesired vibration often constrained the applicability and control performance of sliding mode controller. This undesirable vibration is caused by high frequency switching, originating from signum function in mathematical formulation of the controller. This paper proposes a smoothening method in designing the sliding mode controller to reduce the chattering effect induced by the signum function. The proposed smoothening method modified and replaced the original signum function in control laws of sliding mode controller using three respective smoothening functions, namely; hyperbolic tangent function, Langevin function, and Gauss error function. The control performances of proposed algorithms in terms of tracking error reduction and chattering suppression were compared with original sliding mode controller and the popular pseudo-sliding mode controller. Simulated results showed that Langevin function is superior in both tracking error reduction and chattering suppression (94.3%). Both Gauss error function and hyperbolic tangent function able to compensate chattering but with tradeoff in tracking error reduction.

Weng Sun Tong, Tsung Heng Chiew, Zamberi Jamaludin, Ahmad Yusairi Bani Hashim, Lokman Abdullah, Nur Aidawaty Rafan

A New Approach of Finding Transfer Function of Piezoelectric Actuator Using Finite Element Modelling

The piezoelectric element can be used both as actuator and sensor. The control of the piezo element system requires knowledge of transfer functions between the input and the output of the system. The transfer function is complicated to be determined using an analytical approach, especially for a thin structure with embedded actuators and sensors. The goal of this paper is to present a new approach using a finite element formulation for the piezoelectric element as an aiding tool for an analytical approach to estimate the system transfer function. A 3D finite-element model is developed with piezoelectric patches, which are surface bonded on a thin quadrilateral plate and supported with spring damper elements. The results show that the behaviour of the piezoelectric element for various electric excitation and motor vibration depends on the different frequency range. The mode shapes and natural frequencies at specific frequency spectrum are also presented. It can be concluded that the finite element modelling can be used as a new tool for scientific investigation of this material in various form.

A. M. Najib, M. N. Muhammad, M. N. Maslan, A. Y. Bani Hashim, A. J. Fairul

Mechanomyography: An Insight to Muscle Physiology

The aim of this review article is to highlight an important application of mechanomyography as a tool to study muscle physiology related issues. Skeletal muscles are of vital significance in our body and contribute well towards all type of movements. Although, there are other techniques in vogue used for non-invasive assessment of muscle. But mechanomyography (MMG) do offer shear benefits for reliable muscle study. So, a substantial number of related articles were searched for this technical review from various databases including SCOPUS, PubMed, ScienceDirect, IEEE Xplore and springer link. Records were screened according to the selection criteria. The studies related to muscle physiology aspects analyzed using MMG were only selected for detailed analysis. During in depth analysis of records finally selected for this article, physiology aspects investigated via MMG were divided into seven sections including muscle stiffness, Parkinson disease, effect of dehydration, muscle contractile properties, muscle contraction mechanics, muscle temperature and muscle hypertrophy. The findings of this review suggest that MMG is a useful and reliable tool to investigate muscle physiology and it has significant applications in sports and medicine. Muscle contractile properties can be employed for future investigation on muscle fatigue, stiffness, atrophy and even functional mechanics of muscle. This review might fill the gap in knowledge in understanding of muscle physiology using MMG.

Irsa Talib, Kenneth Sundaraj, Chee Kiang Lam, Md. Asraf Ali, Jawad Hussain

Identification of a Piezoelectric Compact Actuator

This paper describes the identification of a highly nonlinear and hysteretic piezoelectric compact actuator. A system identification technique was used based on observed data from the actuator mounted on a base structure. The parameter estimation process was conducted using the recursive least squares algorithm. Once the transfer function model has been obtained, it is required to verify whether the model is good enough or it meets the necessary requirements to represent the system. The experimental results and the SI approach indicate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Mohd Nazmin Maslan, Mohd Syafiq Syed Mohamed, Ruzaidi Zamri, Lokman Abdullah, Mahasan Mat Ali, Mohd Zamzuri Ab Rashid, Mohd Samsuddin Noorazizi

Seismic Control of a Building Structure Equip with Hybrid Mass Damper Using Sliding Mode Control

This paper addresses the issue of the impact of controllers in suppressing the vibration of structural building during seismic. It is important to implement an appropriate controller to avoid a huge impact to the building structure from damage and collapse while earthquake occur. Sliding mode controller (SMC) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) are proposed to alleviate the vibration. SMC is selected as control strategy because of its robust control technique that can reject the disturbances while PID is known as simple control design. The simulation for two storey building equipped with structural control device which known as hybrid mass damper placed at the top floor of the structure that represent by mass, spring and damper are constructed by using Matlab/Simulink. The input excitation to the structure is taken from El Centro earthquake with magnitude of 6.9 Mw. The output response for the system generates displacement, velocity, control input, and frequency response. Based from the result, SMC has better performance compared to PID and overall SMC is success to suppress the building vibration according to the displacement performance obtained.

Normaisharah Mamat, Fitri Yakub, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki Shaikh Salim, Mohd Zamzuri Ab Rashid, Sharifah Munawarah, Shairatul Akma Roslan

Enhanced Time Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network

Time synchronization is one of the critical and elementary issues that need to be solved in a wireless sensor and actuator network so that all the nodes and actuators can share the same time notion and then cooperate seamlessly. In this paper, an enhanced control-theoretic distributed time synchronization protocol, which utilized sliding mode control and PID control to achieve the convergence is introduced, investigated and compared with existing protocols in literature. As a result, the introduced time synchronization protocol shows convincing results. The protocol can converge in finite time and has the lowest cumulative integral errors among the compared protocols.

Yeong Chin Koo, Muhammad Nasiruddin Mahyuddin

An Innovative Anti-theft System for Automotive

An innovative anti-theft system for automotive is proposed to uphold the principle of improving and solving the problems related to vehicle burglaries in our community. Here, the system was introduced with its design specifically done in fulfilling several considerations such as able to detect the sound frequency produced when the burglar breaks the vehicle’s mirror and also the motion of burglar in the vehicle. The system was designed using microphone and bandpass filter to detect the specific sound frequency of the vehicle’s glass breakage. The motion of burglar in the vehicle will be detected by using PIR sensor in the system. Furthermore, Arduino Nano was used in the system to program the input signal from the sensors to the output such as buzzer which can produces a loud noise to attract the attention of the public and disturbs the decision making of the burglar. In order to improve the system, it was added with a function to be able to make a phone call to the user whenever the system is triggered whether by the glass breakage or the motion of burglar.

Firdaus Zainun, Samson Chan Kit Hwa, Nor Amylia Mohd Halmy, Choong Chia How, Muhammad Nasiruddin Mahyuddin

Intelligent Control of CNC System Based on IEC 61499 Function Block Technology

For being more competitive, more productive and more cost effective, machining industry requires a numerous change that are not only involving implementation method but also technology improvements. The major challenge is to find new solution for synergize the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool control system capability to be more flexible and adaptable towards intelligence of next generation CNC machine tool. Availability of high level and detailed information data interface in CNC machine tool system provides real opportunity and challenge to promote the improvement of CNC system intelligent capability. One of famous research recently was the development of ISO 14649 (STEP-NC) as a next generation of data model interface for CNC system. However, STEP/STEP-NC is a passive data interface model which not contain any intelligent functionality. Therefore, there are still a lot of works must be done and more dynamics approaches needed for enhancing intelligent functionality to the STEP-NC compliant CNC system. This will eventually make next generation CNC system can be fully developed. The aim of this paper is to analyse the potential of IEC 61499 function block as enabler technology in enhancing intelligent functionality for next generation CNC system.

Muhammad Azri Othman, Zamberi Jamaludin, Mohamad Minhat

Analysis of Interpreted CAD/CAM Trajectory as Alternative Input Reference for Control System

A novel CAD/CAM-control system (CADCAMConSys) interpreter functions to communicate data seamlessly between CAD/CAM and control system of a machine tool. It was developed using MATLAB graphical user interface that serves as an alternative graphical input interface for position controller. The developed interpreter is capable to interpret CAD/CAM data to be utilized as an alternative reference input for position control scheme designed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The interpreter aims to further enhance the flexibility and capability of a prototype XYZ milling machine that integrates CAD/CAM data with position control schemes and algorithms designed in MATLAB/Simulink platform. This paper focuses on the analysis of the compatibility of the interpreted CAD/CAM data as the input reference for the controller. This research is expected to produce a control system with versatility in input signal forms.

Norhidayah Mat Seman, Zamberi Jamaludin, Mohamad Minhat

Effect of Cutting Forces on Surface Roughness for Varying Depth of Cut and Feed Rates in Milling Machining Process

The aim of this study is to evaluate characteristics of cutting force at varying cutting conditions during milling machining process. Firstly, material selected as the work piece to be machined was aluminium whereby the cutting forces during actual milling process at varying cutting conditions were measured using a Kistler dynamometer. The milling process consisted of circular shaped aluminium product of 60 mm diameter. The cutting parameters that were varied consist of cutting speed, spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Depth of cuts of 1 mm, 2 mm and 2.5 mm along with the spindle speeds of 500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm were selected for this study. Next, the cutting forces characteristics were will be analysed by using a Fast Fourier Transform methods through the MATLAB software. Analyses of the cutting forces showed harmonics frequencies of varying amplitudes. Next, the surface roughness and roundness of the cut materials were analysed. These analyses provide insight into factors that give most influence on the quality of the cut materials for varying characteristics of cutting forces, thus enabling effective strategies to be implemented for damping of the high frequencies cutting forces. Results obtained showed that higher magnitude components of the cutting forces were produced at greater spindle speed and depth of cut. Meanwhile, improvement in quality of surface roughness were measured at higher spindle speed.

Zamberi Jamaludin, Nur Ayunni Shamshol Ali, Nur Aidawaty Rafan, Lokman Abdullah

Intelligent Manufacturing

Frontmatter

Mechanical Behaviour of Banana Fibre Reinforced Concrete with Kenaf Fibre as an Additive

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of various kenaf fibre (KF) ratio as an additive: banana fibre (BF) reinforced concrete compared to normal concrete (NC) on the mechanical properties of the reinforced concrete. Thus, this paper will discuss the effect of fibres as the additives to reinforced concrete mixed. The properties included compressive strength and splitting tensile strength. The different ratio of KF1.4%: BF1.5%, KF1.6%: BF1.5% and KF1.8%: BF1.5% were used in this study. The results show that the strength was increased with the increasing of fibre additives, but they were not stiff compared to the normal concrete. While the splitting tensile strength increased when the content of fibre increased. The test data indicates that the addition of fibre will increase the mechanical properties of the concrete.

Nurul Akmam Naaamandadin, Ahmad Izdihar Saharudin, Wan Azani Mustafa, Ragunathan Santiagoo

Characterization and Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Thin Films

This paper focuses on the mechanical and morphological properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre reinforced in polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH). Samples were prepared via solution casting method with different loading of OPEFB fibre range from 5 wt% to 30 wt%. To improve the performance of thin films, tapioca starch (TS) was added into the formulation. From the result obtained, the tensile strength of PVOH/OPEFB thin films decreases as fibre loading increases. This might due to the weak interfacial adhesion between OPEFB fibre and PVOH matrix and also the tendency of fibres agglomeration to form the non-homogeneous compound. However, interestingly to observe that tapioca starch addition has increased the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the thin films. From scanning electron microscopy analysis, the presence of tapioca starch has enhanced the adhesion of PVOH matrix and OPEFB fibre.

Nurul Syazwani Othman, Ragunathan Santiagoo, Wan Azani Mustafa, Mustaffa Zainal, Azlinda Abdul Ghani, Nurul Akmam Naaamandadin

Mechanical Properties of the Utilisation Glass Powder as Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete

Waste glass as a partial replacement of the cement can contribute to the sustainable development, environmentally friendly, energy-efficiency and economical in the construction industry. Thus, this paper will discuss the effect of glass powder when partially replaced the cement as 4%, 8%, and 12%. They have been tested for its compressive strength and split tensile up to 28 days of curing. It was expected to undergo pozzolanic reactions with cement hydrates, forming secondary Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C–S–H) once waste glass was milled down to the micro size particles. The results showed that the compressive strength of 4% replacement of glass powder concrete is 40.8 MPa at 28 days of testing which can be classified achieving the objective because higher than conventional concrete. The results indicate that the concrete with waste glass powder was able to increase the workability of concrete and also the compressive strength.

Nurul Akmam Naaamandadin, Izzad Shafiq Abdul Aziz, Wan Azani Mustafa, Ragunathan Santiagoo

Optimization on Surface Roughness of Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D Printed Parts Using Taguchi Approach

Taguchi Method is an effective tool introduced for the optimization of the product or process quality. In order to achieve the optimum performance of the 3D printed parts, the Taguchi method was employed because it is a simplified yet powerful method for experimental design using the orthogonal array method. In this research, an orthogonal array of L9 (34) was used to determine four parameters with three levels each. The samples with ASTM D638 type IV standard ware fabricated by 3D Printer type FDM. The results were obtained and data was analysed. Thus, the result shows the optimum parameters are print pattern (cross), orientation on Y-axis (0°), support angle (0°) and side walk (0.15 mm). The study demonstrates that the better surface roughness (Ra) of printed parts by Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) machine that can be optimized by using Taguchi method and the outcomes of this study might be used as reference for other researchers.

Mohd Nazri Ahmad, Mohd Hidayat Ab Rahman, Nurul Ain Maidin, Mohd Hairizal Osman, Mohammad Khalid Wahid, Hussin Mohamed Saiful Firdaus, Nur Afifah Abd Aziz

Factors that Entrapped the Malaysian Mobile Provider in the Red Ocean Traps

The telecommunication industry in Malaysia is led by the 3 major companies that continuously compete over a small profit of pool to increase their market share in Malaysia. This has cause the telecommunication industry to be caught in the Red Ocean traps. Furthermore, in this research, the top three mobile providers which are Celcom, Digi and Maxis the factors that cases the Mobile Provide in Malaysia to be entrapped in the Red Ocean Traps. By resolving the Red Ocean traps of Mobile Provider in Malaysia, they can achieve a sustainable business and create new opportunity in the market. A qualitative interview is conducted to collect the respondent’s answer for the analysis. The data is analyzed by using the qualitative method. The result of this research will be the causes and strategies to release Red Ocean traps of Mobile Provider in Malaysia. This research has been able to provide innovative suggestion that will help the Malaysian mobile providers to be sustainable within the business.

M. F. M. Sam, H. Hafizuddin, B. C. Chew, Y. F. Yusof

Multi Response Optimisation of Injection Moulding Process Parameter Using Taguchi and Desirability Function

In this study, the optimum injection molding process parameter of warehouse plastic pallets is identified. Compressive strength and part weight are the selected quality characteristic. Barrel temperature, injection speed and holding pressure are the selected process parameter. Taguchi optimization method and desirability function is used to identify the most effective process parameter on the compressive strength and part weight. Based on the conducted experiment, 241 °C of barrel temperature, 72 mm/s of injection speed and 11 MPa of holding pressure, optimise the compressive strength to 5242 kg and part weight to 11.6 kg. The optimised process parameters are studied with an actual experiment and the percentage error of optimised process parameter are identified which is 4.6% for compressive strength and 0.2% for part weight. Moreover, a quantitative relationship between the process parameter and the selected quality response is established using regression analysis. The percentage error of the prediction model for compressive strength is 10% and for part weight is 0.3%. Thus, the prediction model used in this study is effective and practical. This research is beneficial for all the plastic moulding industry which produce plastic pallets. The results can save cost on material consumption and also ensure high product quality.

Vivekanandan Panneerselvam, Faiz Mohd Turan

Utilization of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for Selecting the Best Design Concept of Conveyor System

Accurate concept selection during product development is a crucial process. Inappropriate selection could reason the manufactured goods to have a high failure rate in the market. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) offer as an alternative tool to cater decision-making process. AHP act as a tool in almost all applications related to decision-making problems. This paper presents the methodology and results of a case study which adopts AHP concept. The steps taken can be a guideline that will be able to assist designers or engineers, to effectively analyze various design criteria, alternatives at the conceptual design stage, and finally a precise decision-making.

K. N. Kamaludin, L. Abdullah, M. N. Maslan, R. Zamri, M. Mat Ali, M. S. Syed Mohamed, M. S. Noorazizi

Fabrication of Polypropylene/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber/Kenaf Core Composites: Effect of Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride as Compatibilizer

The fabrication of polypropylene (PP)/acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)/kenaf core (KC) composites were investigated. Tensile and morphological properties of composites were evaluated with the addition of polypropylene maleic anhydride (PPMAH) as a compatibilizer Five compositions of PP/NBR/KC with varied NBR loading (0–60 phr) were prepared with the addition of constant PPMAH ratio at 5phr. All the materials were melts mixed using a heated two-roll mill at temperature 180 °C and speed of 50 rpm. PP/NBR/KC compounds were compressed into 1 mm thin sheet by using a hot press machine and cut into a dumbbell shape specimen. The tensile test was conducted according to ASTM D 638 using a Universal Testing Machine. The results indicated that tensile strength slightly decreased with increasing NBR loading. However, it is interesting to observe that PP/NBR/KC composites with PPMAH compatibilizer have better tensile strength. Almost 43% improvement resulted for PP/NBR/KC/PPMAH composites with ratio 70/30/10. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, composites with PPMAH compatibilizer show good attachment of KC filler with PP/NBR matrices.

Nurul Syazwani Othman, Ragunathan Santiagoo, Wan Azani Mustafa, Nur Liyana Othman, Mohd Al Hafiz Mohd Nawi

Pollutant Emission in Diesel Engine

As for the diesel engine, it is well known as one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution, which cause by exhaust emission. Therefore, due to the energy constraint, the rising cost of raw petroleum and environmental change with the expanding request for vitality preservation and environmental protection further enhancement in fuel adaptability and emission reduction in a diesel engine are direly required. The outflows framed are indigent upon the engine configuration, power yield and working burden. The complete ignition of fuel prompts real diminishments in the development of fumes discharges. Complete on combustion will leads a significant mechanical power for the vehicle, which is perfect on the air-fuel mixture. With a specific end goal to diminish NOx and PM arrangement it is important to comprehend the components of its development.

Mohd Al Hafiz Mohd Nawi, Mohd Hazwan Mohd Hanid, Wan Azani Mustafa, Mohd Shahir Kasim, Raja Izamshah Raja Abdullah

A Bottle Neck Simulation System for a Generic Production Process

The increase rate of consumer demands and stiff global competition among firms forced the industry to increase productivity by optimizing the production capacity to meet daily targeted yield. The presence of bottleneck problem, due to several triggering factors, is one of the root cause of low yield. Thus, to improve the yield whilst at the same time reducing the defects rate in the presence of bottle-neck, one need to seek the best model to accurately represent the production process. In this paper, bottle-neck detection algorithm is discussed and utilization rate for simulated setup of 2 different production topologies; series and parallel are discussed in the perspective of bottle-neck occurrence in the workstations being studied. The main aim of the simulation model is to monitor and analyze the system to pinpoint the bottleneck in the system. The scheduling algorithm is integrated in the proposed model in order to control the bottleneck occurrence, thereby, improving the productivity and meeting the targeted yield.

Azrul Haniedy Jamil, Muhammad Nasiruddin Mahyuddin, Ahmad Rafeek Ibrahim, Timothy Tong

Study of Sawing Performance of Band Saw Machine on Honeycomb Structure Material

This article investigate the influence of different sawing angle and different band saw cutting speed by measuring the sawing vibration, motor current and shear stress caused by sawing. The band saw carrier stand are the closest fixing parts of the sawing point, the sawing vibration is measured by the axis vector of the two adjustable band saw carrier stand, so that we can understand the main vibration behavior occurring during the sawing process. Motor is the heart of the band saw machine, more current is needed to drive when the sawing resistance is large, in case to ensure the smooth cutting process, motor current monitoring system is established to monitor the motor current. The load cell is buried in the feeding plate to measure the sawing load, the shear stress is obtained after conversion. This study is to find correlation between cutting rate, band saw speed, and cutting angle of the honeycomb structure on vibration, motor current and shear stress.

Chun-An Cheng, Chin-Chung Wei

Improvement of Material Removal Rate (MRR) Through Ultrasonic Vibration Frequency in Machining Hardened Material

Machining hardened D2 tool steel material for mold and die application facing many problems such as low material removal rate, poor machined surface, high cutting force, extreme machining temperature and rapid tool wear. A new machining strategies using rotary ultrasonic assisted end milling (RUAEM) is proposed aim to improve material removal rate (MRR) and machining time. To evaluate on the effectiveness, machining test were perform between conventional machining and RUAEM with different slurry concentration ranging from 0 to 20% alumina oxide contents. Taguchi statistical technique was used as the experiment design consists of independent variables i.e. cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, frequency vibration, amplitude vibration and abbrasive slurry concentration with MRR as the machining response. The highest MRR with an average value of 161.58 mg/min was obtained from the combination of runs no. 12-e (Speed of 30 rpm, 45 mm/min feed rate, 30 µm depth of cut, frequency of 27 kHz, 1 µm amplitude and 20% concentration). From ANOVA analysis, it proved that the strongest machining parameter factor that affecting the material removal rate (MRR) are cutting speed (A), feed rate (B), depth of cut (C), % slurry concentration (E), cutting speed & depth of cut (AC), cutting speed & frequency (AD) and cutting speed & amplitude (AE). The result indicates that by adding ultrasonic frequency can improve the MRR values in machining hardened materials.

Azlan Ramli, R. Izamshah, M. Akmal

The Effect of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Micro Drilling Parameter on Hole Accuracy

The research was executed to study the effect of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) micro drilling parameter on hole accuracy. The main contribution of this research is to improve manufacturing process of hole micro size by finding the optimum parameter for excellent hole accuracy. However, to obtain the optimum parameter, the behavior of hole quality must be investigated. The parameters considered in the experiment were machine spindle speed and cutting feed rate. The experiment was carried out by drilling CFRP panel using the router machine with micro drill bit (D0.9 mm) to make holes while a measuring microscope was used to observe and analyze the holes. The quality of hole created on each panel was compared, and at the same time, the hole diameter was measured to determine hole accuracy. In term of hole diameter, as the number of drilled holes increased, the diameter of holes reduced for both entry and exit hole. Minimum diameter of entry hole at spindle speed 8,000 rpm and 10,000 rpm were 0.8986 mm and 0.8973 respectively while maximum diameter of entry holes were 0.9297 mm and 0.9234 mm each. Similar pattern occurred at the exit holes as well. The result shows a linear relationship between hole accuracy, hole quality and number of drilled holes, it was also found that the spindle speed did not have a significant impact and there is a need to test the feed rate. In this regard, determining the excellent hole accuracy of CFRP is useful for mechanical assembly process of aircraft parts.

N. Syuhada Nasir, N. Ab Wahab, H. Sasahara

Hardness and Water Absorption Properties of Silicone Rubber Based Composites for High Voltage Insulator Applications

In almost all new-builds, replacement and upgrades, silicone rubber (SiR) material was an attractive alternative compared to traditional ceramic based insulators. This paper showcases the experimental findings to understand the physical properties of silicone rubber filled with various mineral fillers of calcium carbonate, silica and wallostonite minerals (CaCO3, SiO2 and CaSiO3) for high voltage insulator applications. The physical attributes have been analysed through the hardness and water absorption testing. An addition of mineral fillers into pure silicone rubber at different weight percentages of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt% had caused a significant improvement of hardness values which was clearly dominated by SiR/CaSiO3 composite samples of wallostonite mineral addition. In addition, in terms of water absorption, the stable water absorption behavior has again possessed by the SiR/CaSiO3 composite samples. Wallostonite mineral has responsible to improve SiR rubber physical properties due to their nature of hydrophobic and sharp edges morphologies, which advantages for hardness and water resistance. Hence, from these studies, it can be concluded that, the best performance of SiR based composites was clearly made known by SiR/CaSiO3 for both testings.

Najwa Kamarudin, Jeefferie Abd Razak, Nurbahirah Norddin, Noraiham Mohamad, Lau Kok Tee, Tony Chew, Nurzallia Mohd Saad

Mechanical Properties and Fracture Morphological Observation of Recycled Polypropylene (rPP) Filled Dried Banana Leaves Fibre (DBLF) Composites: Effects of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Surface Treatment

Disposal of after-used plastic based product has created worldwide problems on environmental pollution. This scenario has initiated the inventiveness to develop eco-friendly bio composites products. In this research, recycled waste polypropylene (rPP) was loaded with dried banana leaves fibre (DBLF), for rPP/DBLF composites fabrication. The effects of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment on DBLF has studied based on the resulted mechanical and fracture morphological properties of produced rPP/DBLF composites. Dried banana leaves have been grounded into 30 µm of fibre length, and rPP was taken from injection moulding scrap and crushed into finer rPP particles. The rPP/DBLF composites are prepared through double steps compounding method by using a melting device (230 °C, 95 rpm, 60 min) followed by an injection moulding process (210 °C, 30 s of residence time) for various amount of treated and untreated DBLF fibre loading at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%. It was found that the tensile strength (TS) of treated NaOH-rPP/DBLF composite has significantly increased into about + 45.20% with 30 wt% of DBLF-NaOH loadings, in comparison to unfilled rPP sample. Loading of NaOH treated DBLF into rPP was enhanced the strength result which indicates successful reinforcement effects introduced by DBLF-NaOH filler. This could be explained by finer DBLF particle morphology as observed by SEM and presence of OH group from the successful NaOH treatment, which responsibly encouraged the mechanical interlocking and chemical bridging with rPP, for improved matrix-filler interaction, that significantly increased the TS. In overall, this study has successfully highlighted the potential of DBLF filler to enhance the properties of rPP, as an additional choice of degradable plastic based composite for various promising applications.

Thinakaran Narayanan, Jeefferie Abd Razak, Intan Sharida Othman, Noraiham Mohamad, Mohd Muzafar Ismail, Ramli Junid

Surface Roughness Analysis of Zirconia Dental Restoration Manufactured Through CNC Milling Machine

The aim of the study was to characterize the chemical composition and surface roughness of zirconia dental restoration, fabricated by means of CNC milling machine. The chemical composition and surface roughness of the restoration were studied by SEM/EDS and surface roughness tester machine, respectively. The digitized metal restoration was used as a CAD reference model. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) showed the presence of carbon (C), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) in the reference model, while the presence of zirconium (Zr) and oxygen (O) was confirmed in the zirconia disc which consists of more than 89% zirconium oxide. Meanwhile, all specimens yielded the Ra values lower than 0.5 µm, except for point F which might be caused by the waviness profile due to the milling process. The improvement of the surface profile of the dental restoration could be achieved with some polishing techniques which are not considered in the present study.

Rahimah Abdul Hamid, Wan Nur Amirah Wan Muhamad, Raja Izamshah, Mohd. Shahir Kasim

Design and Analyses of Semi-automated Portable Oil Spill Skimmer for Water Treatment Application

Oil spill response action plan is highly critical for preserving the ecosystem around the oil spillages area. During emergency situation, the action taken need to be responsive and effective to prevent the spillages from spreading widely and causes more harm to sea and water creature. Currently, several techniques were introduced with regards to response plan such as using booms, skimmers, barriers, storage barges, tanks and also vessel depending on the types of the spillages and the methods applied by the emergency response team. Owing to this reason, the project is conducted, to help providing an alternative for oil spillages response plan for water treatment application. Part of this project is designing prototype of portable oil spill skimmer to collect oil spillages in a different scales and area such as in the middle of the ocean, sea shore, water treatment facilities and reservoir. Radio frequency control is used as a controller for detection of location of the prototype while wireless camera for real-time monitoring. There are three analyses conducted for this project namely buoyancy force test, speed manoeuvring test, remote control coverage test and vision system coverage test. Results showed that the prototyped developed passed for the buoyancy force test. The maximum distance for coverage test using remote control is up to 50 m while it is improved to 60 m via vision system technique.

L. Abdullah, K. Santuso, Z. Jamaludin, R. Zamri, M. N. Maslan

Modelling and Simulation

Frontmatter

Flow Analysis of Three Plate Family Injection Mould Using Moldflow Software Analysis

Flow analysis of three plate family injection mould using pin point gate that consist of four cavities was studied. The responses investigated were volumetric shrinkage, in-cavity residual stress and deflection. The experiment was conducted using Taguchi method with L9 orthogonal array. The parameters involved in this study were mould temperature, melt temperature, injection time and cooling time. The plastic specimens were designed using CATIA V5 and the drawing was imported to Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) simulation software environment. The feed system such as sprue, runner, pin-point gate and cooling system of three plate mould were designed inside the simulation software. Flow analysis was conducted under cool + fill + pack + warp analysis. From the flow analysis using Taguchi method, the lowest volumetric shrinkage obtained is 7.907%. For other responses, the lowest in-cavity residual stress and deflection found are 27.69 MPa and 0.9203 mm respectively. After optimization using optimized parameters, the value of volumetric shrinkage is reduced about 2.88% to 7.678%. In-cavity residual stress is reduced about 0.14% to 27.41 MPa, while deflection of plastic parts is reduced about 0.30% to 0.9176 mm. From ANOVA results, it is found that melt temperature is the most important factors affecting volumetric shrinkage, in-cavity residual stress and deflection of plastic parts.

Noorfa Idayu, Mohd Amran Md Ali, Mohd Shahir Kasim, Mohd Sanusi Abdul Aziz, Raja Izamshah Raja Abdullah, Mohd Amri Sulaiman

Optimization Process Parameters of Flat Plastic Part Having Side Gate System Using Flow Analysis Software

Injection moulding process is one of the most important process in manufacturing plastic part. However, during injection process, many parameters are required to set-up at the injection machine monitor. Long time is needed to adjust the parameters in order to get high quality of product. Therefore, simulation software is essential to speed-up the setting process especially for producing new product. The objective of this research is to optimize the injection process parameters of melt temperature, mould temperature, injection time and cooling time. The responses of fill time and time to freeze are set the lowest the better meanwhile total part weight is set the higher the better. Taguchi method and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed to optimize all parameters. The plastic material used in this simulation analysis was polypropylene. The flat plastic part was designed using CATIA software and the design was transferred to the Moldflow simulation software. It found that, the lowest value for fill time and time to freeze is 0.2099 s and 12.21 s respectively. Meanwhile, the highest value of part weight is 4.5565 g. After optimization process, fill time shows no change. However, freeze time decreases for 0.4% to 12.16 s then total part weight increases for 0.12% to 4.620 g. ANOVA result shows that injection time was the most significant parameter for fill time meanwhile melt temperature was the most significant parameter for time to freeze and total part weight. Thus, these optimization parameters result can be used for future experimental work.

Mohd Amran Md Ali, Noorfa Idayu, Mohd Shukor Salleh, Mohd Najib Ali Mokhtar, Zulkeflee Abdullah, Sivaraos

Conceptual Framework for Lean Manufacturing Implementation in SMEs with PDCA Approach

Implementation of lean manufacturing tools and practices in any type of organizations can bring many benefits, such as reducing waste and creating the value-added products to customers. There are a lot of frameworks have been developed in different industry worldwide, but still many companies find it is difficult to adopt the lean implementation especially for small and medium enterprises, SMEs. One of the critical challengers is due to lack of understanding of the real lean concept and inadequate of effective framework in SMEs. Thus, there is a strong need to develop a suitable framework specifically construct to suit SME’s feature characteristic in order to SMEs can maximize the gain of lean benefits. Various main existing lean implementation frameworks and the common challenges faced during their lean journey are discussed. This present paper aims at developing an effective conceptual lean manufacturing framework that serves as a guideline to implement lean manufacturing in the industry and in attempt to overcome some of the limitations gap in main existing framework. It starts with the review of the main existing framework and highlighting the key elements adopt in SMEs. The proposed conceptual framework is constructed with detailed of four implementation phases in sequential process and included the 16 key components of step by step guidance flow. The PDCA cycles (Plan-Do-Check-Act) approach has been integrated into these difference four phases of lean manufacturing implementation with the adoption of feasibility lean practices to suit for SME’s environment. This is to provide a simple and comprehensive framework for ease the SMEs lean practitioner to follow it accordingly in order to improve the organization’s performance. However, the proposed framework is at conceptual stage, which it requires further study of practically implementation to be validated by future researches.

Jia Yuik Chong, Puvanasvaran A. Perumal

Comparisons in L32 2k-Factorial and L25 Taguchi for the 16 nm FinFET Statistical Optimization Applications

This project examines and analyzes the process parameter variance towards on-state drive current (ION) and leakage current (IOFF) towards the 16 nm double-gate FinFET (DG-FinFET) device by the implementation of 2k-factorial design, with comparisons made against an L25 Taguchi statistical method. Alterations with two levels for six process parameters consisting of the threshold voltage (VTH) doping dose, VTH doping tilt, polysilicon doping dose, polysilicon doping tilt, Source and Drain (S/D) doping dose and S/D doping tilt will be done to analyze and improve the results of both ION and IOFF. The physical characteristics of the device will be defined on the ATHENA module, with the ATLAS module then used to characterize its electrical properties. Consideration is made with the responses from both modules by the assistance of the L32 2k-factorial design to reduce the device’s variability as well as maximizing the value of ION while minimizing the IOFF value. By achieving both values, the ION/IOFF ratio are able to be maximized in order to reduce the power consumption of the device subsequently. The most dominant factor towards both ION and IOFF values is identified with polysilicon doping tilt, showcasing the largest standardized effects at the end of this experiment. The optimum values achieved with 2k-factorial design with ION and IOFF at 1648.48 μA/μm and 42.096 pA/μm respectively while achieving better ION/IOFF ratio with 39.160 × 106 as its ION have surpassed the value of ION achieved in Taguchi method that was valued at 1559.96 μA/μm. Importantly, the results acquired have met the predictions of the International Technology Roadmap Semiconductor (ITRS) 2013 for the year 2020.

Ameer Farhan Roslan, Fauziyah Salehuddin, Anis Suhaila Mohd Zain, Khairil Ezwan Kaharudin, Abdul Razak Hanim, Haroon Hazura, Siti Khadijah Idris

Energy Consumption Clustering Analysis in Residential Building

Demand for electricity has been rapidly increasing in the residential sector as it is one of the necessities proportional to the increase in human population. However, most of the occupants less aware on how to use energy efficiently. The major factors that contribute to the energy consumption in residential buildings consumption are due to occupant’s activities and their lifestyle. Some of the occupants also not realize that they have used the electrical energy inefficiently because they utilize inefficient household appliances. As a result, inefficient energy has caused waste of energy. Waste of electrical energy will not only impact the costs of processing energy resources; it also impacts our environment. In order to save the electricity, we have to improve the energy efficiency by conserving or improving the efficiency. By improving the efficiency, the consumer should be able to know the household appliances that use high power consumption via their electrical appliances. The main aim of this project is to implement the clustering techniques to the measured data and to determine the most energy usage in home appliances using MATLAB simulation. In order to determine the number of cluster data for household appliances, the measured data will go through certain techniques that usually being used in clustering.

Muhammad Aiman Razak, Fitri Yakub, Nur Najwa Izzati Sulaiman, Mohd Zamzuri Ab. Rashid, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki Shaikh Salim, Zainudin A. Rasid, Aminudin Abu

The Power Level Control of a Pressurised Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant

The control system of a reactor core in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is non-trivial to ensure safe operation of a nuclear power plant. Owing to the complex and non-linear characteristics of a nuclear power plant, it is, therefore, essential to control the power in load following condition through the regulation of the reactor core. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy of different variation of classical control schemes, namely, P, PI, PD and PID to control the power level output. The reactor core model is based on the H.B. Robinson Pressurised Water Reactor NPP. The control schemes evaluated were tuned based on the Ziegler-Nichols tuning method. It was demonstrated through the following simulation investigation that the PID control scheme is appropriate in regulating the power level.

Jothi Letchumy Mahendra Kumar, Anwar P. P. Abdul Majeed, Muhammad Aizzat Zakaria, Mohd Azraai Mohd Razman, Mohd Ismail Khairuddin

Mesh WSN in Midstream and Downstream of Oil and Gas Industry

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has been used in the oil and gas industry since its implementation cost is less as compared to the wired solution. WSN can be found in a wide range of applications starting from the exploration stage up to the storage and refining stages. Thenceforth, there are a lot of problems faced by past researchers. The security, robustness, energy constraint and scalability are some of the challenges and they are interrelated with each other. These problems could affect the power consumption, network lifetime or economical aspect. This paper will discuss the solution, method, and algorithm that have been proposed by the researchers in midstream and downstream of the oil and gas industry. Later, it was found that the energy conserving solution is the most focused topic and IEEE 802.15.4 standard has been used by most of the researcher.

A. S. Azman, M. Y. Lee, S. K. Subramaniam, F. S. Feroz

Wireless Sensor Networks in Midstream and Downstream in Oil and Gas Industry

Oil and gas industry can be considered to be one of the biggest corporations worldwide. It involves complex and critical process and machinery for the exploration, extraction, refining, transporting and marketing petroleum product. Hence, it is important to have a system to control, monitor, maintain and secure the industrial assets. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) have the capability to sense, process and communicate hence, making it one of the best solutions to the existing problem in the oil and gas industry. This paper discussed the challenges faced during deploying the WSN and give an overview of the solution proposed by past researches.

M. Y. Lee, A. S. Azman, S. K. Subramaniam, F. S. Feroz

Performance Analysis of n-Channel VDG-MOSFET with High Dielectric Permittivity

The use of high dielectric permittivity in vertical double gate MOSFET (VDG-MOSFET) can overcome the problem of power dissipation and leakage current. In this paper, we investigated the performance potential of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) which has been deposited on silicon for use as a high-permittivity gate insulator and tungsten silicide (WSi2) for use as metal gate based on 2-D numerical simulations. The analysis and optimization of n-channel VDG-MOSFET is conducted, using a combination of L9 orthogonal array (OA) of Taguchi method and grey relational analysis (GRA). Four process parameters which are VTH implant energy, halo implant dose, source/drain (S/D) implant dose and S/D implant tilt angle are optimized to obtain the desired value of on-current (ION), off-current (IOFF) and subthreshold slope (SS). The design of experiment (DoE) is based on the L9 OA of Taguchi method and then the experimental data for multiple responses are converted into a single unit called grey relational grade (GRG). The most optimal level of four process parameters towards multiple responses are selected based on the highest GRG. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most significant factor is observed to be S/D implant dose with 35.6% factor effect on GRG. The optimized value for ION, IOFF and SS after the optimization approach are 1599.3 µA/µm, 865.5 pA/µm and 68.02 mV/dec respectively with 0.8362 of GRG.

Ameer F. Roslan, K. E. Kaharudin, F. Salehuddin, A. S. M. Zain, A. R. Hanim, H. Hazura, S. K. Idris, Z. A. M. Napiah

Study of Gauss–Newton and Total Variation Image Reconstruction Approach in Imaging the Phantom in Concrete Using Electrical Resistance Tomography

This paper is to evaluate different imaging method to reconstruct the image of phantom located in a concrete medium. This research uses three types of image reconstruction technique such as NOSER prior, Laplace prior and Total Variation (TV) to image the different numbers and sizes of steel in concrete. The reconstructed images undergo image quality assessment using Mean Structural Similarity Index (MSSIM) to evaluate the similarity compared to the reference image. The TV algorithm is found most superior after comparing with all the cases stated to reconstruct the better image for Electrical Resistance Tomography system in concrete structure application.

Vernoon Ang, M. H. F. Rahiman, R. A. Rahim

Temperatures Distribution and Contact Area of the Peaks of Three-Dimensional Rough Surfaces

All surfaces are rough. When two surfaces slide over each other, the contact temperature and contact area of peak have the different distribution under different operating parameters, and affects the tribology properties, precision, reliability and of contact pairs. In this work, a 3D Finite Element Method is used to analyze the temperature distribution and contact area of the peaks and valleys of designed asperity of sliding contact surfaces. The affecting parameters include pressure, roughness, sliding speed and Peclet number of rough surfaces. Analysis results showed that the increase of contact pressure makes up to the contact area and surface temperature increase simultaneously. The temperature rise parameter of peaks was larger than those of valleys as speed increases. However, the effect of pressure on the temperature rise of the non-contact zone is greater than the effect of velocity. The temperature rise parameter and contact area of asperity peaks of decreased as surface roughness increased. At the same surface roughness, the more the surface asperity number, the lower is the contact area and maximum temperature rise parameter. The relationship between contact pressure, sliding speed and asperity density can be used as a reference for surface engineering design of parts.

Shin-Yuh Chern, Wei-Lun Liu, Jeng-Haur Horng, Qiong-Mao Jiang, Jin-Long Lin

The Study of Light Effect on Surface Roughness of Metallic Surface by Using Vision System Technique

This paper describes the image processing method which is one of the non-contact method is applied to measure the mean gray value (Ga) used to predict and calculate the value of surface roughness (Ra) on the specimen. All the specimens image are captured in different light source environment exposure which is Red LED light, white fluorescent and yellow bulb by using Omron CCD camera. The captured image of each specimen are processed by using MATLAB software as to calculate Ga value on the defect area of the captured image. By using formulation, the Ga value is then transform into surface roughness value and compared with manually measured surface roughness (Ra) data. It is found that there is significant effect on surface roughness measurement from different light source, which effect the accuracy of the surface roughness reading. The outcome of the study clearly indicates the effectiveness of white fluorescent light to be used as light source for surface roughness measurement for metallic surface.

R. Zamri, M. N. Maslan, M. S. Syed Mohamed, L. Abdullah, M. Mat Ali, M. S. Noorazizi

Robotics

Frontmatter

The Design and Development of an Interactive Teaching Tool for Robotics and Control System Course Using Rapid Control Prototyping Solution

Control systems of robot manipulators offer many challenges in education where the students must learn robot dynamics and control structures, and understand relations between the control parameters, and the systems performance. Interactive simulation is aimed at improving the understanding and intuition for the abstract parts of the control of robot courses. Implementation of the control design on a robot manipulator significantly impress and improve the understanding towards the control system learning. This paper presents an application of interactive simulation designed by using the National Instrument’s (NI) LabVIEW to teach control systems of robots by using the Rapid Control Prototyping method. The application considers a nonlinear robot arm and two control modules: computed torque control and PID control. For the computed torque control module, user can directly manipulate graphical representation of the systems such as choice in controller gains, desired trajectories and obtain instant feedback on the effects. PID control module will be the implementation on PID control to a well-developed 2 degree of freedom (DOF) planar robot arm through NI MyRIO-1900. User can visualize the performance of the real robotic system and manipulate the control parameters through user interface. These features make the interactive learning tool stimulating and of high pedagogical value.

Richard Lee Jiang Hong, Muhammad Nasiruddin Mahyuddin, Mohd Rizal Arshad, Yeong Chin Koo

Emotional States Analyze from Scaling Properties of EEG Signals Using Hurst Exponent for Stroke and Normal Groups

Emotion is regulated by the interconnection of the brain network. Each emotion is a different mental state, where the neuronal oscillations differ for different emotions. The EEG signal has been a useful method to analyze emotions. Furthermore, the neuronal oscillation can be observed by analyzing the scaling properties of EEG signal. In this study, the EEG signal was used as the source of emotions of stroke patients and normal subject. The Hurst Exponent (HURST) was estimated from the EEG signal to analyze the autocorrelation of the signal. The estimated HURST indicated that all emotions in this work were exhibit positive correlation in the time scale, also the neuronal oscillation for every emotions experimented were statistically different.

Choong Wen Yean, Wan Khairunizam, Mohammad Iqbal Omar, Murugappan Murugappan, Zunaidi Ibrahim, Bong Siao Zheng, Shahriman Abu Bakar, Zuradzman Mohamad Razlan, Wan Azani Mustafa

Rover Car Outdoor Localization for Navigation Tracking Using Differential Global Positioning System Estimation

GPS is a technique that has become very popular for outdoor positioning. Due to the error in satellite signal, the GPS receivers determine the accuracy of a current location with about 100 m in latitude and 156 m in longitude. Autonomous vehicles depend on positioning accuracy in navigation tracking. Inaccuracy of positioning will cause the autonomous vehicles moving in dangerous way. So in this paper, Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) experiment will be introduced to improve the accuracy of the positioning data. In the experiment, reference station and rover station will receive the positioning data from GPS satellites and the positioning data collected from reference station will be used to calculate the errors and the errors correction will then be transferred to rover station to improve the accuracy of positioning data. The results obtained will be discussed based on the range and average of positioning errors and the Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) improvement at different time.

Wi Kang Chew, Muhammad Aizzat Zakaria

Dynamic Compensation Controller with Feedback Linearization Technique of 3 Degree of Freedom Exoskeleton Robotic Arm for Upper Limb Rehabilitation Purpose

A dynamic compensation controller for an exoskeleton robotic arm is designed for the application of upper limb rehabilitation. In this paper, the proposed dynamic compensation controller with robust feature is studied and compared against the conventional PID and sliding-mode controller. The exoskeleton robotic arm need to be controlled to assist post-stroke patient in rehabilitation. The motion executed by the exoskeleton is very crucial as it determines the effectiveness of the physiotherapy assisted by the robotic technology. The assisted therapy is expected to resolve the problem of difficulty of the stroke patient to visit physiotherapist at clinics or hospital by providing an equivalent therapy service back at home. The robotic solution is not to be considered to replace the job of the physiotherapist but rather serves to complement the existing clinical practice. In this paper, we are focusing on rehabilitation of upper limb impairment [1].

Muhammad Taha Ansari, Nur Fasihah Mohd Sobri, Muhammad Nasiruddin Mahyuddin

PLC Based Automated Coolant Supply System for Machining AISI 304L in CNC Milling

In machining operation, cutting fluids plays an important role to the surface quality of a product. However, the toxicity of cutting fluids can give negative impact to the human health and environmental problems. There are many techniques that have been explored by researchers for green manufacturing such as dry cutting, high pressure cooling technique, wet cooling technique, mist cooling technique and minimal quality lubricant technique. This research work proposed to explore the MQL concepts in the CNC milling using the application of Programmable Logic Control (PLC) which is able to control the duration time for coolant supply during the machining process. The performance of the new system was evaluated by measuring the surface roughness and the quantity of the cutting fluids used during the machining process. The results show that the best surface roughness can be obtained with less amount of coolant quantity during the machining operation. Automated coolant system can minimize the use of coolant and able to reduce the coolant recycle period. Therefore, the automatic coolant supply for CNC machine has the potential to be implemented as a new method to the machining process for green cutting.

Farizan Md Nor, Fairul Azni Jafar, Aisyah Jamri, Wan Nur Izzati Wan Md Hatta, Mohd Hadzley Abu Bakar

Non-static Vision Guided Pneumatic Pick and Place Robotic System with Shared Supervisory Control

The purpose of this research is to develop a vision guided pneumatic pick and place robotic system with shared supervisory control where it is highly desirable in the current industry and is in line with the industrial revolution 4.0 that is currently being developed around the globe. In this research, a non-static Pixy camera CMUcam5 is being used as the vision sensor that provides cues to the movement of the pick and place system in an automatic mode. The sensor will receive the data from the image captured and process it to do the desired task. The system uses Arduino microcontroller and the PS2 controller starter kit wireless transmitter or SKPSW, which is tested in the manual and automatic mode. The supervisory control project is developed by using the PS2 controller as a base system that will send the data from the remote control and send output data to the system. Operational test results show that the shared supervisory control is well executed in both manual and automatic mode. The vision sensor also guides the pick and place robot to handle two objects in the automatic modes with successful attempts.

Ahmad Anas Yusof, Shakti Kumaran Asohkumaran, Muhammad Arif Aiman Ramli

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