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About this book

Taking the Qinghai–Tibet Railway as an example, this book introduces intelligent processing for Global Positioning Data (GPS) data. Combining theory with practical applications, it provides essential insights into the Chinese Qinghai–Tibet Railway and novel methods of data processing for GPS satellite positioning, making it a valuable resource for all those working with train control systems, train positioning systems, satellite positioning, and intelligent data processing. As satellite positioning guarantees the safe and efficient operation of train control systems, it focuses on how to best process the GPS data collected, including methods for error detection, reduction and information fusion.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Application of Satellite Positioning in Railway

Abstract
Satellite navigation system is a satellite system that covers global space to realize positioning. It determines its position through electronic receiver, namely longitude, latitude, and altitude, and ensures that the time signal transmitted through satellite broadcasting is within the error range of 10 m. Each satellite navigation system covering the globe is usually composed of a constellation of 20–30 satellites, spreading over several orbital planes. In the actual system, the number of satellites in each satellite navigation system is not identical, but the satellite orbital tilt is greater than 50°, the orbital period is about 12 h, the height is about 20,000 km distance from the surface of the earth (Han in J Shenzhen Univ (Sci & Eng) 6(1):105–12, 1989 [1]. Figure 1.1 shows a schematic of a satellite in orbit. The satellite navigation system has the characteristics of all-weather positioning, global positioning, three-dimensional high-precision positioning, and dynamic navigation, so it has a wide range of applications.
Dewang Chen, Ruijun Cheng

Chapter 2. Qinghai–Tibet Railway

Abstract
The Qinghai–Tibet plateau, with an average altitude of more than 4000 m, is known as the “roof of the world” and the “third pole of the earth” and has long been regarded as a “forbidden zone of human life.” Qinghai–Tibet railway (QTR) is a landmark project to implement the Western development strategy and one of the four major projects in the new century in China. The railway with the length of 1956 km starts from Xining, Qinghai in the east and ends at Lhasa, Xizhang in the west. Among them, the 814 km section from Xining to Golmud was completed in 1979 and put into operation in 1984. The QTR starts from Golmud, passes through Nachitai, Wudaoliang, Tuotuohe, Yanshiping, crosses Tanggula mountain, goes through Ando, Naqu, Dangxiong, Yangbajing of Tibet autonomous region, and ends at Lhasa, with a total length of 1142 km. Among them, the newly built line is 1110 km, which was officially started on June 29, 2001, and officially opened to traffic on July 1, 2006 [13]. Figure 2.1 shows the schematic diagram of the line between Golmud and Lhasa of QTR.
Dewang Chen, Ruijun Cheng

Chapter 3. Incremental Train Control System of Qinghai–Tibet Railway

Abstract
The application of GPS technology in Qinghai–Tibet railway mainly focuses on the navigation, monitoring, command, and dispatching system of the train positioning. GPS is used as the auxiliary train positioning device in the railway train control system of Qinghai–Tibet railway and is taken as a backup of the query balise (redundant system) in the moving block control system. The vehicle-mounted GPS shown in Fig. 3.1 is used as the auxiliary correction of the reference position of the ground track. GPS-aided dispatching system uses GPS to compute the actual positioning, the operational direction and speed of the operational train, and then transmits the positioning results to the dispatch center through wireless communication channel to realize the real-time whole-process monitoring and ensure the safety of the train. The continuous operational location information of train provided by GPS covers the whole operational line of the train (station and zone), which can be used to adjust the operation plan, train dispatching and controlling, and accurate real-time monitoring
Dewang Chen, Ruijun Cheng

Chapter 4. Key Scientific Problems Based on GPS Positioning System

Abstract
In recent years, China’s rail transit industry has entered a period of rapid development. The national “12th five-year plan for comprehensive transportation system” has clearly defined the construction plan and high-speed railway construction plan of China’s central and Western regions in the future period and also put forward new requirements for railway transportation technology and safety equipment.
Dewang Chen, Ruijun Cheng

Chapter 5. Error Data Detection

Abstract
There are a large number of measurement data points of GPS that are distributed on Qinghai–Tibet railway with a length of 1142 km. Due to various measurement reasons, there are inevitably some measurement errors. It is very important to develop a method to detect possible errors from all data points, and thus the reliability of GPS data can be improved by modifying or re-measuring them. Four error modes based on expert knowledge exist in the measurement data, including redundant measurement, sparse measurement, back-and-forth measurement, and large angle change. For the four error modes of the measurement data, four algorithms need to be developed to detect the possible errors of the corresponding data points. In order to remove repeated error data points and effectively display possible errors with different algorithms, an integrated error detection method is proposed by reasonably assembling four algorithms.
Dewang Chen, Ruijun Cheng

Chapter 6. Data Reduction

Abstract
Because satellite positioning has many advantages, such as low cost, good real-time performance and no accumulative error (Blomenhofer in Acta Astronaut 54:965–968, 2004 [1]), it is widely used in automobile navigation (Skog and Handel in IEEE Trans Int Transp Syst 10(1):4–21, 2009 [2]) and electronic map software (Zhang et al. in IEEE Trans Int Transp Syst 9(4):666–677, 2008 [3]). In addition, satellite positioning technology is also applied to train positioning and tracking by replacing the track circuit and radio frequency positioning technology that have been used in the past (Santos et al. in IEEE Trans Int Transp Syst 6(2):244–258, 2005 [4]). The adoption of satellite positioning technology can greatly reduce the installation and maintenance costs of the wayside equipment (Raymond et al. in Railway Gaz Int 160(12):835–837, 2004 [5].
Dewang Chen, Ruijun Cheng

Chapter 7. Multiple GPS Track Information Fusion

Abstract
GPS is a new generation space satellite navigation and positioning system developed by the US army, navy, and air force in the 1970s. Its main purpose is to provide real-time, all-weather, and global navigation services in land, sea, and air. GPS consists of 24 working satellites, which are located 20–200 km above the earth’s surface and distributed evenly on six orbital planes (four for each orbital plane), with an orbital inclination of 55°. In addition, there are three active backup satellites in orbit. The distribution of satellites allows more than four satellites to be observed anywhere in the world at any time and can store navigation information in the satellite.
Dewang Chen, Ruijun Cheng

Chapter 8. Object-Oriented Digital Track Map of Train Control System Based on Graph Theory

Abstract
With the modernization of transportation technology, the original paper maps and train positioning methods are more and more difficult to meet the technical requirements. Electronic map and navigation, computer graphics, database, geographic information system, and other advanced technology combine the geographical position and the relevant properties. According to the actual needs, the positioning information is output to the user accurately, truthfully, and visually, so as to meet the user’s requirements for spatial information.
Dewang Chen, Ruijun Cheng

Chapter 9. Summary and Future Research

Abstract
The completion and opening of the Qinghai–Tibet railway shorten the space and time gap between the Qinghai–Tibet region and other parts of the country and promote the integration of this region into the national market. The change of transportation and information conditions will directly drive the development of local agriculture and animal husbandry and improve the ability of relevant industries to resist risks and disasters. After the Qinghai–Tibet railway is put into operation, it is expected that 75% of the freight volume will be borne by the railway in the future. According to the designed transportation capacity of the Qinghai–Tibet railway, the one-way transportation capacity of the Qinghai–Tibet railway is more than 40 times of the current automobile freight transportation capacity of the whole region of Tibet. The opening of the Qinghai–Tibet railway will reduce the transportation cost by more than half, thus thoroughly breaking the bottleneck of Qinghai–Tibet transportation and greatly alleviating the situation of tight transport capacity.
Dewang Chen, Ruijun Cheng
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