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This book constitutes the proceedings of the First International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering (ICETE), held at University College of Engineering and organised by the Alumni Association, University College of Engineering, Osmania University, in Hyderabad, India on 22–23 March 2019.

The proceedings of the ICETE are published in three volumes, covering seven areas: Biomedical, Civil, Computer Science, Electrical & Electronics, Electronics & Communication, Mechanical, and Mining Engineering. The 215 peer-reviewed papers from around the globe present the latest state-of-the-art research, and are useful to postgraduate students, researchers, academics and industry engineers working in the respective fields.

This volume presents state-of-the-art, technical contributions in the areas of civil, mechanical and mining engineering, discussing sustainable developments in fields such as water resource engineering, structural engineering, geotechnical and transportation engineering, mining engineering, production and industrial engineering, thermal engineering, design engineering, and production engineering.

### An Empirical Based Porous Flow Approach to Modelling Heterogeneous Traffic

The data required for the study was collected from YMCA road in Calicut city for frame based approach. Video-graphic technique was used for the data collection by the advantage over other data collection technique. For frame based approach video frames were taken approximately with a time lag of 3 s. From extracted data calculate the speed of vehicles, porous area, areal density, density and space headway of vehicles. From porous area data, pore space distribution function was determined by using easyfit5.5 software. The difficult was arises when extracting the traffic data from video frames. So for solving that problem on screen versus on ground distance graph was prepared. Best parameter to explaining the heterogeneous traffic system obtained as areal density rather than density measurement based on R-square value. The speed, areal-density model obtained was linearly decreasing relationship.

Seelam Srikanth

### Effect of Different Aggregates on Alkali Silica Reaction of Geopolymer Concrete

Geopolymer concrete (GPC) is an emerging environmental friendly construction material in present construction world. Extensive research related to strength and durability studies is being done on this material. But, it is required to check the mechanism of potential reactive aggregates with GPC. Alkali silica reaction (ASR) is one of the major problems with the aggregates. Volumetric expansion of silica gel produce internal stresses in the concrete and leads to strength loss, cracking and failure of the structure. In the present investigation three different types of aggregates were used with Fly ash and GGBS based Geopolymer as binder. Mechanical testing included the potential reactivity of aggregate and length change measurements as per ASTM: C1260-07 standards. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is used for petrographic analysis. It is observed that the alkali silica reaction in Fly ash and GGBS based geopolymer concrete is comparatively less than the OPC based concrete and the expansions are well below ASTM threshold.

D. Annapurna, Ravande Kishore, K. Anil

### Assessment of Aquifer Vulnerability of Nizamabad District, Telangana State, India Using GIS and Drastic Method

The precipitation falling on the surface earth, either it runoff over land to the stream or some part of it infiltrates into the ground. The part which moves into the ground either get transplanted by the plants and goes back to the atmosphere or some part of it percolated deep down and contributes water already inside the earth. The water which is existing below the ground surface is commonly called as ground water or subsurface water. Countries like India, most of the people use groundwater for drinking purpose. Due to increase of waste on earth surface which can effect groundwater quality. It can leads to contamination of groundwater. The present study is conducted to assess the groundwater vulnerability and prepare vulnerability map for Nizamabad district, Telangana state using DRASTIC model in ARC GIS 10.4.1 groundwater vulnerability map can be obtained by overlaying seven layers. Such as Depth of water level, Net Recharge, Aquifer Media, Soil Permeability, Topography, Impact of Vadose Zone and Hydraulic conductivity.

B. Ramakrishna, P. Rajasekhar, Shaik Vaheed

### Effect of Baffle Wall Parameters on the Modal Responses of Elevated Rectangular Water Tank

Sloshing phenomenon in liquid storage tanks subjected to earthquake excitations is of major concern. Baffles act as damping devices to reduce the sloshing motion of the fluid. The influence of baffle parameters like number, location and the dimensions plays vital role in the fluid-structure interaction system.In the present study, effect of baffles varying in number, size and location on model responses is investigated by finite element analysis in elevated rectangular storage tanks. Free vibration analysis is carried out to study the variation in Eigen values and sloshing heights in all the cases. Fluid structure interaction is considered in ANSYS software. For different water levels (tank empty condition, tank quarter full, tank half full and tank full) model responses are obtained, interpreted and presented.

Meghana Minnekanti, Mallika Alapati

### Bearing Capacity of Strip Footing on Reinforced Foundation Beds with Inclined Reinforcement

Usually reinforcement is arranged (placed) horizontal underneath the footings, to restrain developed tensile strains in soil, which in turn increase the reinforced sand bed shearing resistance by means of interfacial bond resistance and limited by tensile strength of its own. Present work analyses geotextile reinforced foundation bed with reinforcement placed inclined downward from edge of footing towards free end at an inclination varying from 0 to 10° and evaluated the normalized bearing capacity values. Sand bed reinforced with inclined reinforcement overlying clay is studied by computing enhancement in normalized bearing capacity against reinforced foundation bed with reinforcement placed horizontally. The variation of normalized bearing capacity with angle of shearing resistance of sand bed, length of reinforcement, sand bed density are studied. Sand bed reinforced with inclined reinforcement quantify the increase in bearing capacity when compared with conventional method of placing reinforcement horizontally.

P. Rajashekar Reddy, G. V. Narasimha Reddy, E. Saibaba Reddy

### Precise Survey Assistance for Civil Structures Using Survey Assist

Civil structures like bridges, railway tracks, dams, high rise buildings and even public facilities need regular surveys and reporting so as to timely address potential threats to avoid serious loss of life and property. Every organization performs survey of related structures from time to time. However, due to manual errors, corruption and other factors, inaccurate responses lead to delay or neglect of critical repairs leading to unfavorable events and loss of life and property. This paper presents a novel mobile app based framework to crowd source survey information from qualified individuals to act as an indicator for concerned authorities to take timely action. The app provides an informative dashboard with color coded geo locations dynamically driven from crowd sourced information. Authors envision that such an app in public domain will help concerned authorities to take time action against potential threats.

K. Surya Prakash, Kone Srimannarayana, Pradeep Kumar Kaatnam, Abhinav Dayal

### Ground Improvement Using Band Drains at Onshore Gas Terminal Near Kakinada (AP), India

The Paper presents the construction of a major Gas Processing Facility for Gujarat State Petrochemical Corporation (G S P C) at Mallavaram near Kakinada in AP State. The Project involves reclaiming of 15 ha of land for On - shore Gas Terminal (O G T); this included dredging of 1.5 million cubic m of sand from Godavari - Gautami River, hydraulic transporting over a distance of 4 km, depositing and reclaiming the land. The work was performed by Dharti Dredging & Infrastructure Limited (D D I L), and monitored by Engineers India Limited (E I L).Detailed Geo technical investigations were undertaken for designing Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD), to accelerate the vertical and radial consolidation of 12 m thick soft clay bed. Dissipation of pore water pressures was ascertained by using large scale Static Cone Penetration Tests (S C P T) in the field.The Paper also describes the modern technology in Ground Engineering, viz. Prefabricated Vertical Drains, wrapped in Geo textile filter jacket of non - woven, spun - bonded material, to retain fine particles, based on three – dimensional consolidation theory. This has considerably accelerated the settlements so as to ensure the safe construction of structures over the reclaimed land.

D. Babu Rao, D. Nageswara Rao

### New Light Weight Mortar for Structural Application: Assessment of Porosity, Strength and Morphology Properties

Over reliance on the conventional construction materials majorly contribute to the depletion of the natural sources, this also affects sustainability of the future generation. The natural aggregate sources are being explored at an alarming rate, therefore, the threat of depletion of the natural materials has inspired interest in sustainable construction materials, through utilization of solid wastes and local materials. In this study, an experimental insight on modified mortar, based on strength and microstructural properties, is provided, in an attempt to ascertain the suitability of ceramic industry wastes and laterite as a replacement for conventional aggregates. Various mix proportions were considered, also batching was done by weight when casting the mortar samples. The results showed that there was significant improvement in strength as the ceramic substitution for river sand was increased. However, increasing laterite content beyond 10% negates the strength development in the samples. Overall, the study has developed a suitable lightweight mortar, comprising of 10% ceramic powder, and 100% fine ceramic contents, with strength properties as that of the conventional mixes, and also ecofriendly for use.

Paul Awoyera, Ravindran Gobinath, Sandela Haripriya, Poongodi Kulandaisami

### Computing Redistribution Moments of Concrete Members in the Plastic Stage Using Linear Analysis: Short Review

Reinforced concrete members can utilize their load carrying capacity by the redistribution of moments. When sufficient rotation takes place in a reinforced concrete member a plastic hinge forms and the rotational capacity of this hinge determines the amount of redistribution that can occur in the member. Reinforced concrete exhibits different behaviours (elastic, elastoplastic and plastic) at different instances of load and this informs the different approaches in the analysis of reinforced concrete members. Of the different methods of analysis, linear elastic analysis with moment redistribution is the most used method in practice. Various studies on moment redistribution in reinforced concrete beams, hinge formation, linear analysis and code provisions have been reviewed, discussed and key findings have been presented in this study. A continuous beam was also analysed using linear elastic analysis and a moment redistribution of 20% from support to the beam spans was considered. The beam was also analysed considering the various loading combinations that gave the maximum effects at different beam segments.

Paul Awoyera, Ravindran Gobinath, Chinyere Nwankwo, Palanisamy Murthi, Annabathina Sivakrishna

### Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis

To determine the performance of structures facing earthquakes the method which is becoming increasingly significant is nonlinear dynamic analysis. To perform nonlinear dynamic analysis the method used here is incremental dynamic analysis. Range of structural response from elasticity to yielding is being covered and further extended up to dynamic instability. A 10 story reinforced concrete building frame structure was developed. The computational model was analyzed. For simulation software used is Opensees - Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulations. High Performance Computing facility of C-DAC is used for simulations. The results indicate the probability of yield and collapse of the structure when subjected to a series of earthquakes.

A. A. Waghmare, U. R. Kawade

### Evaluation of Coir Geotextile Mats to Enhance the Poor Subgrade Under Repeated Load for Low-Volume Roads

The construction of Low-volume roads (LVRs) roads over the poor subgrade soil is a challenging task. The poor subgrade is revealed as Black Cotton soil (BC). The presence of the clay and silt particular of BC soil possess seasonal changing behavior such as swelling, shrinkage, and settlement. Resulting in higher rut depth, fatigue, and settlement in LVRs. To arrest these problems many of the conventional techniques were adopted. But these techniques are neither economical nor eco-friendly. In the present study, an attempt was made with the two types of the coir geotextile mats to the reinforcement of BC soil under the repeated loading condition. This study is concluded that the use of coir geotextile mats is effective to reduce the deformation and more significant with morrum soil. And also indicate that the incorporation of the coir geotextile improved the performance and serviceability of the LVRs.

D. Harinder, S. Shankar

### Estimation of Maximum Magnitude (mmax) Considering Different Seismic Zones

The maximum magnitude of earthquake possible for a region is an important parameter is any seismological study. The maximum possible earthquake, mmax, in a particular region is required by the local municipal authority, insurance industry, disaster management organizations and seismologists. In this paper, the mmax value has been estimated using different methodologies presented in the literature. The area considered for this study is a circle of radius 500 km with centre as latitude 17.981 and longitude 79.533 (National Institute of Technology Warangal). The mmax value depends on the tectonic faults and the local seismicity. An earthquake catalogue was developed by assembling the earthquake events from the available sources from the year 1800 AD to 2016 AD. The foreshocks and aftershocks were removed from the main earthquake catalogue to have a Poisson distribution of the earthquake events. The study region was divided into four zones based on the past seismicity and the geology. The maximum possible earthquake magnitude, mmax, was estimated using different methodologies. The value of mmax for different seismic zones ranges from 5.18 to 6.73.

Mohammad Muzzaffar Khan, Teja Munaga, Gonavaram Kalyan Kumar

### Necessity of New Look for Equitable Water Sharing Among Basin States - Krishna Basin

Water is a vital basic human resource and essential for all activities right from drinking to Industrial needs. Being a scarce natural resource, the stress is more evident with increasing population and priorities. The evolution of law in water sharing began with absolute territorial sovereignty and shifted towards equitable utilization which is more divergent and complex. The earlier arrangements in river water sharing had traces of imperialistic and colonialistic perspective. The changes in the recent past are more in the nature of improvements in these approaches towards equitable utilization. The approach of various Water Dispute Tribunals constituted in India is unique to each Tribunal, leading to a variety of asymmetries and anomalies in resolution of disputes among States. The composition of Tribunals with involvement of Technical Experts and adopting uniformity in its adjudication are indispensable for better appreciation and acceptance the award. An attempt has been to dwell upon these aspects with a concern to address pertinent issues like migration of people and cause of health hazards with poor quality water resources etc., with practicable solution in the field of Irrigation engineering in a pragmatic manner.

S. Narasimha Rao, K. Venkata Narayana, N. Ravishankar

### A Comparative Study on the Performance of ANN, MLR and MNR in the Assessment of Slope Stability for Kalla - Coonoor Hill Road Stretch of Nilgiris

Artificial neural network (ANN), Multiple linear regression (MLR) and Multiple Non linear regression (MNR) analysis are known as Machine learning techniques which solves complex problems for which doesn’t have any standard algorithms. These methods forms their own rules of learning and solve the complex problems. Among the various problems affecting the hill system, slope instability’s are very important. These slope failures have been observed more frequently in recent days because of the tremendous developmental activities in hilly regions. Road networks play major role in the developmental activities of hill regions. Human interactions with the nature during the construction of roads, increases the landslide susceptibility. In present study, a road network between 76.806–76.874 E longitude and 11.334–11.351 N latitude passing through Nilgiri hills was considered for stability assessment. Assessment of slope-stability/landslide-susceptibility of the hills is a common geotechnical problem and it requires detailed information about several parameters such as slope inclination, height, shear strength, density, etc. Even though limit equilibrium methods (LEM) are most accurate methods for the estimation of slope stability, their application to analyze huge number of slopes especially for hilly regions are very tedious and time consuming. In order to minimize these problems associated with LEM, ANN, MLR and MNR are soft computing method which can solve these problems. There is often confusion in the selection of suitable method from these methods, for this all these methods are applied to Kalla - Coonoor Hill road stretch and then results are analyzed and find suitable method out these. A part from these their advantages and disadvantages of these alternative approaches are also discussed in this study.

Balendra Mouli Marrapu, Ravi Sankar Jakka

### Hydrologic Modeling with Transfer Function Based Approach: A Comparative Study over Godavari River Basin

Hydrologic modeling (HM), which involves forming a nexus between two important components of hydrologic cycle viz. rainfall and runoff, is one of the most important steps, which provides realistic inputs for water distribution policies. A plethora of HM methodologies, categorized as ‘conceptual’ and ‘empirical’, have been proposed to estimate the fraction of rainfall, which would be available as surface runoff. However, intensive data requirements, mathematical interpretations of complicated physical processes, and assumptions that are likely to get violated under changing climatic and land-use land cover conditions render the application of conceptual models a cumbersome task. Under such conditions, empirical models play a crucial role in estimating the runoff with minimal data availability. Here, we use two transfer function based approaches viz. linear regression (LR) and kernel regression (KR) for estimating runoff over Godavari river basin. We find that LR outperforms its non-parametric counterpart in capturing long-term properties of observed runoff.

Chaitanya Lakeshri, Kaustubh Salvi

### Study on Interaction of Reinforcing Strips Embedded in Cement Modified Marginal Backfill

Pull-out resistance of reinforcing materials is one of the internal stability criterions in Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) construction which is normally calculated taking the friction coefficient equal to tan(δ); δ being the angle of internal friction in case of rigid reinforcing materials. For flexible/extensible reinforcing strips, the friction coefficient cannot be directly taken and in this direction, several attempts have been made by various researchers to evaluate suitable pull-out parameters. Further, the complexity increases within the use of marginal backfill soils where suitable soils are not available. The present work aims at determining the pull-out parameters of different types of reinforcing materials embedded in marginal backfill soil without and with cement modification. The testing was carried out in laboratory using a test box. The pull-out factors F and α as suggested by FHWA were evaluated using the test data.

Pandu Kurre, Vineeth Reddy Karnati, Heeralal Mudavath

### Experimental Study on Interfacial Frictional Properties of Geogrid Reinforced Pond Ash

The performance of any reinforced soil structures is primarily governed by soil and geosynthetic interface friction mechanism. Nowadays, due to non- availability of suitable backfill materials, exploration has been started to find out alternative one. On other hand, pond ash which is a waste by-product generating from thermal power plants has many desirable engineering properties, encouraging to use as backfill material. In this connection, the present work is focused to find the interfacial frictional characteristics of pond ash reinforced with two biaxial geogrid materials by conducting the large scale direct shear test and pullout tests. From the test results, it is observed that the interface friction properties of two tests in terms of coefficient of interface friction ($$\text{C}_{\text{i}}$$) and pullout frictional factor ($$\text{f}^{*}$$) are in the range of 0.86 to 0.74 and 0.54 to 0.35 respectively.

Mogili Sudhakar, M. Heeralal, G. Kalyan Kumar, Pandu Kurre

### Resilient Modulus of Unsaturated Soil – A Comprehensive Review

Unsaturated soils are predominant in semi-arid regions which has the property to show moisture changes. Compacted pavement soil is in the unsaturated state thus exhibiting the tendency to weaken or strengthen with varying water content. With ever-changing vehicular loading condition, the necessity to utilize the dynamic behavior of pavement materials in the design of pavements have been validated in numerous research works. Thus the elastic moduli of pavement material have been incorporated as a key parameter in MEPDG. In-service condition all the compacted soil possess the ability to exhibit changes in strength with seasonal moisture variation. This paper is intended to summarize the findings and the necessity to understand the post-compaction moisture variation and their influence on the mechanical property of pavement materials. Furthermore, the importance to correlate suction and resilient modulus have not been into practice in many developing countries due to inadequate information. Hence, the present work aims to be a comprehensive reference to be updated on available correlation models.

A. G. Sharanya, M. Heera Lal, Pandu Kurre

### Effect of Eccentric Load on Footing Resting on Planar Geosynthetic Reinforcement

A structural foundation transmits all the loads from the super structure to the soil underneath safely. Due to earthquake or wind loading, the line of action of total load from the superstructure does not pass through the center of gravity of the footing resulting in eccentric loading. The compensation for reduction of the bearing capacity by increasing the size of footing is uneconomical. Geosynthetics can be used to improve the bearing capacity of the footing. In the present study a series of tests were conducted and comparative study is made when Geotextile (Fibertex G-100) is used as planar reinforcement to improve the bearing capacity of sand. Also the improvement of bearing capacity in accordance to eccentricity was studied. The test results indicate that there is significant improvement in the bearing capacity and reduction in the settlement by providing planar reinforcement until the eccentricity is 0.1 times the width of footing.

Pandu Kurre, M. Heeralal, T. S. D. Venkatesh

### Strength Investigation of Fly Ash Based Concrete Waste Steel Fibre and Polypropylene Fibre as Reinforcing Materials

The improper management of waste steel fibres causes a huge environmental damage. Proper utilization of these waste steel fibres can be done in civil engineering. Concrete obtained by adding these fibres is considered to show a good mechanical improvement of brittle matrix, moreover it is a promising candidate for both structural and non-structural applications. In the present work, as a continuation of research already performed in this field by the other authors, the post cracking performances of FRC (fibre reinforced concrete) were evaluated by means tests on flexural elements and slabs. All fresh and hardened concrete properties are estimated experimentally. By the means of flexural test the post-cracking behavior of SFRC is obtained. These specimens showed a good energy absorption and good residual strength after cracking. Moreover, cracks have an important role in concrete structures as they are the permeable components and have high risk of corrosion. Cracks make the structure aesthetically unacceptable and make structure weak. Cracks are considered to be neither harmful to structure nor affects its serviceability if they are in limited width. Hence it is important that crack width must be less and this is achieved by adding polypropylene fibres to concrete.This work examines the mechanical properties of concrete by using waste steel fibres from mechanical labs and recronS polypropylene fibres and flyash as replacement of cement. In this work cement was replaced by flyash by 20% of cement by weight in each mix, waste steel fibres with varying percentages like 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in the mix, and the combinations were tested and in the second case with same combinations 1% of polypropylene fibre is added and tested for workability, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength. In this study we observed that the strength was increased with increase in fibre content but workability decreased and optimum percentage of steel fibre was observed at 5% so super plasticizer has been used to increase workability and the effect of polypropylene was not on the strength but crack width reduced and observed controlled brittle failure.

G. Swamy Yadav, N. Prabhanjan, G. Sahithi, G. Sangeetha, A. Srinivas, A. Siva Krishna

### Application of Statistics to the Analysis of Corrosion Data for Rebar in Metakaolin Concrete

The present paper reports the effect of chloride, sulphate and the combined chloride-sulphate solutions on the corrosion behaviour of rebar embedded in concretes made with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Metakaolin (MK). The corrosion test data collected on the reinforced slab specimens made with mix water contaminated with 5% sodium chloride, 2% magnesium sulphate and the combination of both salts. The corrosion performance was monitored for every 30 days throughout 180 days, in terms of corrosion rate values. The analysis of the obtained data was carried out as per the specifications given by ASTM G16-13. The analysis of the corrosion data includes the descriptive statistics of the Normal, Weibull lognormal, and Smallest Extreme Value probability distribution functions and the test of fit significance by the Anderson-Darling (AD) goodness of fit statistics. In addition, the analysis of variance was also carried out to determine the influence of each factor on the corrosion data. This detailed analysis of the test data is useful to carry out the further investigation on corrosivity of reinforcement bar exposed to aggressive environments or marine environment. The statistical analysis from the present dataset is helpful for further research on the MK and the effect of concomitant presence of chlorides and sulphates on the corrosivity of rebar embedded in concrete. In addition to this Analysis of Variance is also carried out on the obtained corrosion data to assess the effect of cementitious material type and salt type on corrosion data.

U. Raghu Babu, B. Kondraivendhan

### Earthquake Analysis of High-Rise Building with Floating Column

In present scenario construction of high rise building with floating column is a distinctive feature in urban India. As per IS: CODE-1893:2016 clause no-7.1, floating column construction is prohibited but there is no limitation and restriction for research work. The purpose of this research is to study seismic response of a building and to analyze and build the structure in which there will be less damages to the structure and its component under the excitation of earthquake. The paper deals with validation of the software has been done in relation to the literature and further matters have been decided and studied based on the validation result. Finite element-based software like Staad-Pro has been used, Equivalent static method and response spectrum method have been used for analysis. The results have been obtained in terms of base shear, displacement, storey drift, time period etc. Based on results it was concluded that triangular plate in floating column building reduces displacement and base shear of building.

Mohasinkhan N. Bargir, Ajim G. Mujawar

### A Review on the Recent Development of Ambient Cured Geopolymer Composites

Geopolymer composite is synthesized with aggregates and industrial by-products materials those are thriving in alumina and silica, energized using a powerful alkali solution. Geopolymer composites required high temperature curing for achieving higher strength which restricted the use in cast-in-situ work. This literature provides a condensed explanation on the recent development of the ambient cured Geopolymer composites. It has been observed that geopolymer composites contributed better physical properties viz. workability and mechanical parameters viz. compressive, split tensile and flexural strength along with the superior durability properties like sulfate and acid resistance, resistance to freezing and thawing, shrinkage, corrosion and water absorptions etc. compared to the cement composites in the ambient cured condition and also reduces the greenhouse gas production. In general, production of high strength geopolymer composites in the ambient cured condition requires concentration of sodium hydroxide 10–12 Molarity, alkali to binder ratio 0.35–0.5 and the ratio between sodium silicate and sodium hydroxides 1.5–2.5.

Mayank Gupta, N. H. Kulkarni

### A Case Study on Structural Assessment of Dudhgaon Grampanchayat Building by Using Non Destructive Testing

Structural Assessment is the overall health and performance check-up of the structure. This assessment gives an idea to repair and retrofitting measures required for the structure by which the service life of the structure can extended. The main criteria for assessment of any structure include the state of the building history, surrounding environment conditions, structural capacity, durability, and professional involvement in construction. RCC structure is often exposed to many types of damages and deteriorations due to different cause and exposure conditions during their life cycle.

### Analysis and Design of High-Rise Building Using Diagrid Structural System

Diagrid Structural System is defined as a system that consists of diagonal columns and horizontal members to mitigate and perform against lateral forces by making up a triangular model on the periphery of the building. Diagrid structural system provided by diagonals on the periphery is adopted in tall buildings due to its structural efficiency as result of its triangular configuration against both lateral loads and vertical loads. In this paper, analysis and design of Diagrid module is carried out by three manners innuendo Manual Calculation using stiffness method, ANSYS V12.1 software, and ETABS V9.6.0 software. A floor plan of 36 m by 36 m having six spans of 6 m, and 48 stories with typical storey height of 3.6 m is considered. ETABS software is used for Dynamic Analysis of total Diagrid building, and ANSYS software and Manual calculation are used for Static Analysis of Diagrid’s Diagonal Periphery. Analysis is performed as per IS:800-2007 and IS:1893-2002. Design wind speed is calculated as per IS:875-1987 Part-3, and specification of steel is taken as per IS:2062-2011. Comparison of analysis results in terms of Static and Dynamic control of Diagrid building, therefore Static Analysis is carried out to define Lateral Stiffness/Displacement of Diagrid’s Diagonal Periphery, and Dynamic Analysis is carried out to define Time History, Time Period, Storey Displacement, Storey Drift, Storey Shear, and Load Distribution in Diagrid.

### Engineered Cementitious Composites

Cementitious Composite (CC) is the mix of various materials, which in a combination form a composite, which would help in bonding of various components in the structure. It is combination used from ancient times and still used in the construction industry. In this paper, we have tried to modify the mix to get better results for the composite as CC plays a vital role in strength of building. It may be any component, masonry, concrete, etc. presence of CC helps in capacity of building with provision of proper bonding in two elements of the structure in a form of connection. Therefore, it is necessary to have a proper CC for the construction. As usually failure in the structure occurs usually through the CC itself, failure may be in connection, failure in bonding in two elements or structural component, etc. In this paper, we are discussing the results obtained of the prepared Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC), which we found to have higher strength with a Lower Cost and Lower Carbon-Emission as well as higher ductility. This would help in making the structures more durable for the lateral shocks due to seismic loads.

Yogesh Biyani, L. G. Patil, C. N. Kurhe

### Influence of Metakaolin on Stone Waste Aggregate Concrete

The present paper reports the utilization of industrial stone waste in construction works as coarse aggregate. The black stone waste (BSW) aggregates collected from the stone industry was used as coarse aggregate by replacing the natural aggregate with different replacement levels of 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. In addition, this work also investigates the influence of Metakaolin (MK) on the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of concretes made with BSW aggregates. BSW aggregate concrete mixtures were prepared the replacement of cement with MK in the replacement levels of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Results have shown that, the addition of MK involve to increase the mechanical properties of black stone aggregate concrete. The optimum strength results were obtained at 10% MK replacement level. Beyond the replacement level of 50% of natural aggregate with BSW aggregate MK blended concretes the strength results were lessened as compared to that of the concrete made with natural coarse aggregate (i.e. 0% BSW aggregate).

Sakevalla Vinay Babu, U. Raghu Babu, N. Venkata Ramana, P. Pavithra

### Rapid Hardening on the Strength Gain Admixture on Behavior of Concrete with Replacement of Binary Cementitious Materials

The construction industry is being changing rapidly; this change brings in many new technologies with respect to composition, handling, mixing, etc. The laboratory experimental investigation promulgated to achieve the rapid hardening on replacing low calcium fly ash 0–15%, slag (GGBS) 0–25% of replacement of the OPC, stone dust 0–50% is replaced to river sand along with rapid hardening admixture and also inclusion of crimped steel fiber to obtain the maximum strength gain during the first seven days normal curing followed by four hours hot air oven curing for various mixes. Both the destructive test (DT) and the non-destructive test (NDT) were being performed.

R. Kiranmai, A. Rohita Susheela, S. Rajkumar, G. Asheesh, V. M. Sounthararajan

### Evaluation of Pullout Resistance of Reinforcing Strips Embedded in Cement Modified Marginal Backfill of Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) Walls

Pull–out resistance of reinforcing materials is one of the internal stability criterions in Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) construction. The pull–out resistance is normally calculated taking the friction coefficient equal to tan(δ); δ being the angle of internal friction in case of rigid reinforcing materials. For flexible/extensible reinforcing strips, the friction coefficient cannot be directly taken and in this direction, several attempts have been made by various researchers to evaluate suitable pull–out parameters. Further, the complexity increases within the use of marginal backfill soils wherever, suitable soils are not available. The present work is an effort to determine the pull–out parameters of different types of reinforcing materials embedded in marginal backfill soil without and with cement modification. The testing was carried out in laboratory using a test box and in the field by constructing model embankments. The pull–out factors F* and α as suggested by FHWA were evaluated using the test data and compared them with those obtained using conventional sand backfill.

Pandu Kurre, Gannavaram Venkat Praveen

### Identification of Artificial Recharge Zones Using GIS

Water is one of the most dynamic and important resources of the world. Hence, it needs special attention towards its conservation. Fresh water is mainly obtained either from surface source or as a ground water. Artificial recharge is the most appropriate practice, which traps the unused surface runoff which leads to increase the groundwater recharge. The present study aims to identify artificial recharge zones. Formation of different thematic layers such as soil, slope, land use, drainage and geomorphology were carried out by using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS). These maps were combined in GIS tool to categorise artificial recharge zones. The knowledge-based weightage was assigned. These thematic maps were used for weighted overlay analysis and the final map was prepared showing artificial recharge zones which are categorised as good, moderate and poor. The information regarding groundwater recharge zones is useful for locating water harvesting structures.

K. A. Patil, Noopur D. Khatik, Shriman N. Jirapure

### Seismic Analysis and Design of Mass and Stiffness Irregular R.C. Building Frames with Different Code

From past seismic hazardous it is conclude that many structures are fails during seismic activity. So it is important to determine seismic response of such structures during earthquakes. It is necessary to determine how the structure behave during earthquake. The structure having mass and stiffness irregularity and what is the effect of these irregularities on structure by carry out the response spectrum analysis is the objective of the research. After the analysis compare the results of regular and irregular structure.

Nishant C. Chandanshive, Santosh S. Mohite

### Assessment of Spatial Interpolation Techniques on Groundwater Contamination

The selected study area, Mettupalayam, India is an important trading hub and transit center for hill products. The hydrochemistry of the groundwater is deteriorated in the past years, but the literature revealed that the groundwater pollution in the study area was not concentrated. Sixty-two discrete locations were selected in the study area. The ground water samples were collected, and the Electrical Conductivity is analyzed, as it is the important irrigation parameter. The spatial interpolation technique such as Spline, Inverse Distance Weightage (IDW) and Kriging is used to predict the value of unknown location, from the known sample location. Cross validation is performed using univariate statistical analysis for the predicted surface to choose the best model. The evaluation of interpolation method by univariate statistical analysis indicated the Root Mean Square Error is least in Kriging method; it indicates Kriging as the best method for interpolating surfaces followed by IDW and Spline.

G. Shyamala, B. Arun Kumar, S. Manvitha, T. Vinay Raj

### Sustainability Concepts in the Design of Tall Structures

Construction industry is a rapid growing industry with various new technologies coming into practice. Sustainability concept is also a call for the present generation as many natural resources are getting exhausted. Thus the new era of development of Tall Structures with respect to Sustainability concept is being studied by concentrating on the Structural systems that can be adopted for construction of the same. In the present study we have considered two different 3D RC frame structural systems i.e., normal Beam-Column structural system and Outrigger structural system. The following two systems were modelled in ETABS 15.2 software in seismic zone V with three different heights that is 150 m (50 storeys), 240 m (80 storeys) and 300 m (100 storeys). Response spectrum analysis is carried out considering Earthquake forces and the results are tabulated for maximum storey displacement and maximum storey drift. Then finally the structural system which is sustainable in construction of Tall structures is identified.

Prashant Sunagar, Aravind Bhashyam, B. R. Neel, Abhishek Kumar Chaurasiya

### Spontaneous Combustion of Coal and Correlation with Its Intrinsic Properties Using Adiabatic Oxidation Method

Self-heating of coal promotes spontaneous combustion during mining, transportation, storage, handling and milling processes leading to risk of fires and consequent loss of calorific value of fuel. Adiabatic oxidation method was adopted in this investigation whereby spontaneous heating potential was measured according to total temperature rise (TTR) of coal sample versus time. Aim of this study was to investigate correlation of intrinsic properties of coal and its propensity for spontaneous combustion. Tests were conducted on 14 coal samples at an initial temperature of 40 ℃ to mimic typical conditions in coal storage and handling plant. A correlation of the TTR values with the proximate and ultimate analyses of the coal samples has been obtained.

Ravi Varma Rambha

### Extraction of Electricity from Blast Induced Ground Vibration Waves – Case Study

Generation of Electrical Energy has become a basic aspect in Power System because of increase in demand from the electrical community. Power can be generated in a different number of ways. Numerous developments were made in power generation technology for the generation of electricity, but those are all dependent on conventional sources. Generation of Electrical Energy using Piezo Sensors will efficiently convert unwanted vibrations into direct electricity. It is also evident that obtained electrical energy will be in the par with the input vibration intensity from the research studies.

Raghu Chandra Garimella, Rama Sastry Vedala

### Evolution of the Probability Distribution Function of Shovel – Dumper Combination in Opencast Coal Mine Using ANN and RWB

This article presents a new analytic calculation for the shovel – dumper combination in opencast coal mine evolution of the one and two galaxy probability distribution function (PDF). To develop a nonparametric PDF for a combination of shovel and dumper in a opencast coal mine, the historical breakdown data such as time between failure (TBF) of a shovel and dumpers were collected from the mine. Based on the collected TBF, Weibull parameters such as the shape parameter (β), scale parameter (η) and location parameter (γ) were calculated under the K-S test (Kolmogorov–Smirnov test). A Weibull distribution model has been developed to obtain the one and two galaxy probability distribution function (PDF) for a collected failure data of shovel-dumper system using Reliability Isograph Workbench (RWB). Also, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model has been developed to predict the PDF for the same shovel-dumper system and compared with the actual obtained value of Reliability Isograph Workbench (RWB). It was found that the values of RMSE and R2 were 0.00068 & 0.9465 for PDF. The statistical results showed that the proposed Reliability Isograph Workbench and ANN model successfully predicts PDF for the shovel-dumper system.

N. S. Harish Kumar, R. P. Choudhary, Ch. S. N. Murthy

### Temperature Measurement During Rotary Drilling of Rocks - A Statistical Approach

This paper discusses a statistical analysis to measure the temperature during rotary drilling of fine-grained sandstone (pink) using embedded thermocouple method. The regression models consist of three input variables such as diameter of the bit, rpm and rate of penetration for different depth of thermocouples. Experimental test were conducted in computer numerical control (CNC) vertical machining centre. The measured temperature has been applied to study the influencing parameter using statistical technique. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the percentage contribution ratio of each operational parameters on temperature (output response). The most influencing parameter for temperature is rate of penetration with a percentage contribution of 71.32%, followed by drill bit diameter and spindle speed which contribute 19.27% and 2.99% respectively. The ANOVA and regression models for temperature give p-values of less than 0.05. Hence the predicted regression models are statistically significant and good predictive capabilities with acceptable accuracy.

Vijay Kumar Shankar, B. M. Kunar, Ch. S. N. Murthy

### Safety in Coal Mines in India-Its Perspective

Mining is a hazardous industry as the working places are always moving ahead, strata conditions and environment are always changing from day to day. Mining industry growth is linked with safety and sustainable minerals development in mines. Always employees should be encouraged for participation at all levels to promote pro-active safety culture awareness up to grass root level. Various initiatives are to be taken on continual basis at all levels to translate the vision of “Zero Harm Potential (ZHP)” into a reality. Mining accounts for only 1% of World Employment but it accounts for 7% of fatal accidents at work place. Companies have to identify work places of hazards and risks in each mining operations, prepare a risk assessment and Safety Management Plan for every mine. Accident rate in mines came down but still it is high as compare to foreign countries. This paper is focused on safety management in coal mines in India for sustainable development.

K. Srihari, A. Sandeep Kumar

### Reliability Analysis of LHD Machine - A Case Study

In the present global scenario, survival of the industry is more critical unless it produces their intended targets. Accomplishment of expected rate of production levels are depends on the performance of equipment. Hence, it is very important to predict the maintenance schedules for replacement or repair actions of the defective parts. Keeping in view, every industry is constantly looking for enhancement equipment life. Reliability analysis is one of the well appropriated techniques used to estimate the life of the equipment. In this paper, performance of Load-Haul-Dumper (LHD) has been analyzed. Renewal process approach has been utilized for reliability investigation. Best fit distribution of data sets were made by the utilization of Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test. Parametric estimation of theoretical probability distributions was done by utilizing Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE) method. Reliability of each individual sub-system has been computed according to the best fit distribution. In addition to that, reliability based preventive maintenance (PM) time schedules were calculated for the expected 90% reliability level. The possible recommendations were suggested for improvement of reliability level.

J. BalaRaju, M. Govinda Raj, Ch. S. N. Murthy

### Emerging Mining Trends: Preparing Future Mining Professionals

The present-day mining operations are increasingly questioned by various stakeholders i.e. government regulators, non-government organizations, investors, environmentalists, land affected people, consumers etc., on account of unsustainable, inefficient, poor planning & implementation practices. Mining companies cannot succeed in the future unless they adopt business risk management principles, implement change management with the emerging digital technologies for transparency and sustainability of operations to renew the confidence of consumers and regulators. In this changing climate, the new generation of mining and other engineers are expected to embrace the emerging digital technologies i.e. real-time data acquisition, improved data analysis, reporting and enhanced process monitoring covering different aspects right from exploration, planning, project execution, production and marketing. This paper focuses on the need for training mining professionals to face the technological challenges that are pertinent to the mining industry in the rapidly changing global commodity markets.

### Prediction of Energy Efficiency of Main Transportation System Used in Underground Coal Mines – A Statistical Approach

Transport in underground mines i.e. belt conveyor is used for carrying extracted materials from one station to other. Transportation involves energy as its main consumer. An efficient energy system adapted for transporting extracted materials can minimize energy losses, hence resulting in reduced cost of energy. Energy to transportation is provided by means of an electric motor, the efficiency of the electric motor depend on load carried by the system, the length and height to which the material has to be delivered. The present study was carried on the energy efficiency of three different transportation systems in GDK-1&3 incline underground mine, The Singareni Collieries Company Limited, Ramagundam. The present study was carried out considering two cases with first, load varying from 20% to 100% keeping conveyor speed constant. Secondly, with 20% fixed loading and varying the conveyor speed from 1 m/s to 2 m/s. Estimation of the energy efficiency for a unique electric motor was estimated considering both the cases which involved three different lengths and heights. It was observed that with a constant conveyor speed of 2 m/s and filling rate varying from 27.775 kg/m to 5.555 kg/m, the amount of increase in efficiency was found to be 23.92%, 18.75% and 5.25% for Gantry, 5L and Surface conveyors respectively. Also with a constant filling rate of 5.555 kg/m and conveyor speed varying from 1 m/s to 2 m/s, the amount of decrease in efficiency was found to be 13.63%, 11.52% and 1.64% for Gantry, 5L and Surface conveyors respectively. Further a prediction study was carried on the energy efficiency based on the input parameters load, length and height. The model gives an R2 value 87% which is significant.

N. V. Sarathbabu Goriparti, Ch. S. N. Murthy, M. Aruna

### Shortcomings of Vibrating Screen and Corrective Measures: A Review

Screening is a process of separating two or more materials of size ranging from fine to coarse of different shapes, particle sizes and densities. The conventional vibrating screen is widely used in mineral and mining industries for performing sizing operation. This paper will be on the review of the various shortcomings of the conventional vibrating screen. The review was carried out through literature survey and plant visit. The paper also involves the remedial measures to be taken to overcome the shortcomings of the conventional vibrating screen. Some of the corrective measures are reduction in number of components also reduces overall screen load, angular velocities, stress, wear or damages to the screen, screen replacement, downtime and overall cost of production. The circular vibrating motion provided to the screen will give larger amplitude and stroke length of the screen which increases screening efficiency. The overall outcome of remedial action will lead to improved screening efficiency. This paper also provides the idea for the optimization of the vibrating screen design which can reduce the power consumption, friction and also provide high screening output.

S. Bharath Kumar, Harsha Vardhan, M. Govinda Raj, Marutiram Kaza, Rameshwar Sah, H. Harish

### Quantification of Rock Strength Using the Mechanical Drilling Parameters

The estimation of rock strength is most often required for the preliminary stage of rock engineering projects. The determination of rock strength properties in the laboratory is reliable, but the availability of a number of fine quality core samples for lab testing is very difficult. In this study, an attempt is made to investigate the usability of variations of thrust developed at the rock-bit interface and vibration frequency generated in the drilling machine head for estimation of rock strength during the rotary drilling. The variation of thrust and vibration frequency during drilling is measured using sophisticated digital type drilling dynamometer and data acquisition system (DAQ) with accelerometer sensor respectively. The second order regression models were developed to predict the rock strength such as uniaxial compressive strength considering the machine operating parameters and measured variables. The evaluation of the prediction ability of the developed models was checked using the three performance indices known as VAF, RMSE, and MAPE. The results revealed that the approached method is highly efficient for estimation of rock strength during rotary drilling.

C. R. Lakshminarayana, Anup K. Tripathi, Samir K. Pal

### Evaluation of Whole Body Vibration of Heavy Earth Moving Machinery Operators

Operators of Heavy Earth Moving Machinery (HEMM) performing routine tasks in surface mines are highly vulnerable to whole body vibration (WBV) due to their continuous exposure to vibration. In the present study seventeen types of machinery were considered for the evaluation of the operator’s exposure to WBV. The measurements were made by placing the triaxial seat pad accelerometer on operator’s seat-surface as well as at the seat-back. Among these machinery one shovel, two front-end loaders, three drills, one grader and one water sprinkler were found to have RMS values in the severe zone as per ISO2631-1:1997 standards for seat-surface measurements. Similarly, for the seat-back measurements, one front-end loader, two drills, one grader and one water sprinkler were experienced the highest RMS value. For both seat-surface and seat-back measurements, Z-axis (i.e. vertical direction) was found to be a prominent axis for most of the machinery.

Jeripotula Sandeep Kumar, Mangalpady Aruna, Mandela Govinda Raj

### Assessment and Prediction of Specific Energy Using Rock Brittleness in Rock Cutting

In this study, we used picks with point attack angles of 45°, 50°, 55°, and 65° and 45°, 55°, and 65° attack angles in rock cutting experiments. The main objective is to estimate specific energy during the cutting process based on rock brittleness and study the influence of attack angle on specific energy. From the experimental data, we compared the obtained results using multiple linear regressions and ANOVA to predict the specific energy and found that the model developed were statistically significant. R2 of the brittleness B4 is 0.79 in comparision with R2 of density, UCS, BTS and abrasivity as 0.74, 0.83, 0.84 and 0.73. Specific energy not only be predicted from density, UCS, BTS, abrasivity, it can also be predicted using rock brittleness.

Vijaya Raghavan, Ch. S. N. Murthy

### Numerical Investigation on Factors Affecting the Performance of Roof Bolts for Continuous Miner Working

Optimum support design of roof bolts based on axial load of the bolt plays the major role for effective development of coal seam with continuous miner. Axial load on the roof bolts gives a clear understanding of the behaviour of roof bolts in different working conditions. Therefore, estimation of axial load on the bolts is important for supporting the immediate roof, helps in higher production, productivity and safety. By using the software FLAC 3D, the axial load for different gallery widths and working depths was estimated. From the simulation results, it was observed that for shallow depths of 100 and 200 m, the axial load acting on the bolt is 15% of the bolt capacity at gallery widths of 4 m and 5 m. Whereas for moderate depths 300 m and 400 m, its value is found to be 75% at gallery widths 6 m and 7 m. But, for deeper depths of 500 m and more, its values reaches maximum capacity of roof bolts.Also, the roof convergence in junction, for moderate and deeper depths is 80 mm to 150 mm, whereas for shallow depths its value is 10–25 mm, at 6 m, 7 m and 8 m gallery widths.

K. M. Tejeswaran, Ch. S. N. Murthy, B. M. Kunar

### Modelling of Biogas Fueled HCCI Engine for Various Inlet Conditions

A common technique for using biogas in a compression ignition (CI) engine is to blend it with air in the intake manifold, injecting a small quantity of diethyl ether during suction stroke and compress this mixture and ignite it by self-ignition temperature. This is called as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode. This paper evaluates the effects of various intake conditions such as methane fraction, compression ratio, diethyl ether energy fraction, intake temperature and equivalence ratio on output parameters of maximum cylinder pressure, in-cylinder temperature and indicated thermal efficiency using single zone modelling. The modelling result is validated with the experimental data. The increase in compression ratio, diethyl ether energy fraction and intake temperature increase cylinder pressure and in-cylinder temperature.

Nihal Mishra, Shubham Mitra, Abhishek Thapliyal, Aniket Mahajan, M. Feroskhan

### Studies on Pitting Corrosion of Pulsed Electrodeposited Nanocomposite Coating

Present work pertains to studies on the effect of pulsed current waveforms of rectangular and triangular in the formation of nickel metal matrix and Zirconium titanium oxide nanocomposite coating and its pitting corrosion behaviour. Zirconium titanium oxide nanoparticles are synthesized via sol-gel route and characterized by XRD and FESEM with EDAX. Pulsed electrodeposition was carried out using nickel electrolyte watts bath with suspended Zirconium titanium oxide nanoparticles on the mild steel substrate. Surface morphology of the coating was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Phase identification and particle size were determined using X-ray diffraction. Potentiodynamic polarization test was used for studying pitting corrosion behaviour of nanocomposite coating. The hardness of the coating was measured with Vickers hardness testing. The results have shown that the rectangular wave pulse at 50% duty cycle produced higher hardness and it may be due to the finer grain size of the deposited coating obtained with the rectangular waveform. Increased duty cycle variable from 10% to 50% in both the waveform enhanced the peak current density leading to higher hardness of the coating. The highest corrosion resistance was obtained with the triangular waveform with a relaxation time of 10% duty cycle at 10 Hz frequency. Hence present work established that a waveform and duty cycle of pulsed currents strongly influences the corrosion behaviour of nanocomposite coating.

### Effect of Condenser Coil Profile and Subcooling on Performance of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System

The objective of paper is to analyze the performance of the Vapour Compression Refrigeration (VCR) system by change the profile of condenser coil and with sub cooling system. An experiment is conducted on VCR system with different condenser profiles and also with sub cooling system at steady state evaporator temperature and calculated mass flow rate of refrigerant, refrigeration effect, works done and COP. From results of experiment, Refrigeration Effect in case of helical coiled condenser is increased by 3 kJ compared to straight coiled condenser and Refrigeration Effect in case of helical coiled condenser with sub-cooling is increased by 15.3% compared to helical coiled condenser without sub-cooling. COP in case of helical coiled condenser is increased by 20% compared to straight coiled condenser and COP in case of helical coiled condenser with sub-cooling is increased by 9.7% compared to helical coiled condenser without sub-cooling.

Sreedhar Vullloju, K. Krishna Reddy, Madhu Kumar Patil

### Criteria for Drop-in Replacement of Existing Refrigerant with an Alternative Refrigerant

In the present work, criteria for substituting working refrigerant with alternative refrigerant is given through R134a being replaced with ternary mixtures of R134a/hydrocarbons. Thermodynamic properties were compared theoretically using REFPROP software for five refrigerant mixtures. Investigations have been carried out for different operating temperatures in the range of 50 °C to −20 °C. The criterion is established by analyzing the thermophysical properties of refrigerant mixtures and comparing saturation pressures. The procedure to select a drop-in replacement with maximum COP is discussed against comparison of volumetric cooling capacity of the ternary mixtures.

Srinivas Pendyala, R. Prattipati

### Analysis of Characteristics of Launcher Missile System and Its Optimization to Reduce Tip-Off Effect During Launch

This paper focuses on analyzing the motion characteristics of the launcher missile system and locations of interactions between missile shoes and launch rail. The deviation of direction of the thrust force from flight axis of the missile is known as thrust misalignment. And the deviation of direction of the missile is known as tipoff rate. The main objective of this paper is to analyze characteristics of launcher missile system and its optimization to reduce tipoff rate. The analysis is performed by modeling and simulating the launcher missile system using CAD package and ADAMS software.

P. Ravinder Reddy, A. Dhanalaxmi, M. Rakesh, G. Chandramouli

### Performance Analysis of a Horizontal Axis Wind Lens Wind Turbine

In reaction turbines, the main purpose of draft turbine is to increase the available net head and to increase the efficiency. By using the same principle in the case of a wind turbine, we can significantly improve the performance. As we all know that, the power generated by a wind turbine is always directly proportional to the cube of wind velocity at the inlet. If we try to increase inlet velocity by capturing and concentrating locally, there is a significant increase in the output power of a wind turbine. This is to be done by using wind lens technology, which comprises of inlet shroud, diffuser and brim. According to Betz limit, the maximum possible limit of efficiency for any horizontal axis wind turbine is 59.3% [1–3]. But, recent studies had shown that the maximum power coefficient from horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) using wind lens technology can be increased beyond the Betz limit.This study compares the maximum efficiency possible from a horizontal axis wind turbine without diffuser and that with diffuser enclosed around a turbine. A numerical simulation is done for the same model using ANSYS CFX with different inlet conditions. The geometry of the diffuser is optimized for the maximum possible efficiency. From this study it is found that a diffuser of divergence angle 8° around wind turbine operated at an optimum wind velocity of 2 m/s (for the chosen wind turbine model) gives the power coefficient of 0.6 which is greater than Betz limit.

P. Usha Sri, Chirla Jeevesh

### Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Electrochemical Micro Machining Process Parameters for Al 7075 T6 Alloy

Electro Chemical Micro Machining (ECMM) is a non-conventional machining technique. The machine is an advanced description of ECM where machining is limited to much smaller area on the workpiece to create high aspect ratio holes, shapes and to machine metals of high hardness. In this paper the optimal values and influence of process parameters on ECMM while machining Al 7075 T6 Alloy are presented by using Grey relation analysis and ANNOVA. The optimum combination levels are presented based on higher MMR and lower value of OC and confirmation tests were carried out to confirm the prediction. To know the effect of NaNO3 on anode EDAX APEX™ analysis has been carried out. Experimental results are in close conformity with the developed model. The optimal process parameters for maximum MRR and minimum OC were determined as machining voltage at 6 V, electrolyte concentration at 30 g/l and frequency at 40 Hz.

K. Samson Praveen Kumar, G. Jaya Chandra Reddy

### Galactic Cosmic Energy - A Novel Mode of Energy Harvesting

Due to the exhaustion of conventional energy resources, cosmic energy stands as one of the possibilities that could provide energy for future generations on the planet earth. The cosmic rays are loaded with high energy particles like protons, alpha particles, and other ionized elements. The paper sheds light on the availability of cosmic energy surrounding the earth and intends to theoretically establish a possible way to harvest cosmic energy to meet the energy requirements.

Uma Maheshwar Vanamala, Laasya Priya Nidamarty

### Infrared Heating - A New Green Technology for Process Intensification in Drying of Purslane Leaves to Reduce the Thermal Losses

The drying or dehydration of foods is highly important method for the food industry and offers many possibilities for ingredient development with lesser water activity and products with longer shelf life to consumers. The principle of this process is reducing the water content in order to avoid or slow down food spoilage by microorganisms. But foods being biological in composition the contents are more sensitive to heat, as conventional drying methods (conduction/convection) takes longer duration for drying, probability of losing some nutrients is very high. Using an alternative thermal source like infrared heating (radiation) we can reduce the losses during drying by decreasing the process time. Heating by infrared radiation has advantages over conventional heating methods, including time of heating, uniformity in heating, less thermal losses, no migration of solute in food matrix, convenience in handling and operation, and less energy consumption. This present study emphasizes on aspects of infrared heating and its higher drying rates, in turn lesser drying times of purslane leaves and possibilities of reducing the nutrient losses (iron, calcium) and retention of colour using a graphical representation in comparison with conventional tray drying method at 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C. In tray drying the duration of drying period decreased from 990 to 270 min, where as in infrared drying the duration of drying decreased from 100 to 35 min when the temperature of drying was altered from 50 °C to 70 °C. With the change in the drying temperature from 50 °C to 70 °C, iron content decreased from 1.599 mg to 1.338 mg per 100 gm and calcium content decreased from 61.23 to 52.56 mg per 100 gm during tray drying where as in infrared drying iron content decreased from 1.78 mg to 1.49 mg and calcium content decreased from 64.17 to 58.44 mg per 100 gm of sample. With the increase in the temperature, brightness decreased and the samples became lighter. The greenness of the samples decreased and yellowness of the samples increased with the increase in the temperature. Infrared radiation could able retain more color than the conventional method of tray drying.

D. Kodandaram Reddy, Kavita Waghray, S. V. Sathyanarayana

### Grey Relational Analysis of EDM Process Parameters for Incoloy-800

This project focuses on electrical discharge machining (EDM) which is a non-conventional machining process used in almost all manufacturing industries but finding the optimum process parameters is really a complex task mainly for alloys. It is known that the demand for alloy materials having unique properties is increasing but machining of these alloys using traditional method is becoming tough. So EDM is used in this project for machining alloy material and few statistical techniques were used to find out the parameters which has high impact on output. The techniques were implemented to improve Material Removal Rate (MRR) and to decrease Electrode Wear Rate (EWR) and Surface Roughness (SR). In this study, the experiments were conducted on INCOLOY- 800 using copper electrode according to L9 orthogonal array to analyse the effect of input machining parameters viz. current (Ip), pulse on-time (Ton), pulse off-time (Toff) and flushing pressure (Fp) over the responses of MRR, EWR and SR. In this project, effect of machining process parameters viz. current, pulse-on time, pulse-off time and servo-voltage for machining Incoloy-800 using copper electrode in die sinking EDM was investigated. Experiments were performed in three levels by varying the machining process parameters. This statistical technique helps in conducting experiments economically by limiting the number of experiments. Optimization of input parameters for achieving better output responses was performed using Grey Relational Analysis and found that experiment 9’s parameters are highly influencing the output responses.

M. JagadeeswaraRao, Riyaaz Uddien Shaik, K. Buschaiah

### Computation of Kinematic Redundancy and Its Workspace in RRRR Planar Kinematic Chain

A kinematic chain is an assembly of rigid bodies connected by joints to provide desired motion which gives the mathematical model for mechanical systems such as robotic arms and manipulators. In these systems, links are constrained by their connections to other links. The main issue in industrial robots is to determine its ergonomics and have a better workspace maneuverability, on the same concern in this paper a model of robotic manipulator with RRRR planar kinematic chain is used to determine the workspace of its redundant links and the relationship between its various joint parameters with different end-effector positions is observed using Matlab. This kind of study can be used to efficiently manage workspace by motion planning and avoid redundant paths for robots to successfully perform any desired task with versatility.

Shravan Anand Komakula

### Physio-Mechanical Properties and Thermal Analysis of Furcreo Foetedo Mediopicta (ffm) Fibers: Its Potential Application as Reinforcement in Making of Composites

In the past few decades, vegetable fibers became the viable alternative to petroleum-based fibers in composite industry, due to their renewability, biodegradability and eco-friendly properties. In the present work, a new leaf fiber extracted from Furcraea Foetida Mediopicto (ffm) plant, has been characterized and reported. Morphological, physical, mechanical and thermal properties of ffm fiber were examined by performing comprehensive characterization. Findings revealed that ffm fibers have an average low density and better mechanical properties compared to other fibers. Micro structural examination revealed the cross-section of the ffm fiber is the honeycomb structure. XRD analysis indicated the 49.7% crystalline content of ffm fiber. TG and DTA analysis revealed that ffm fibers are thermally stable up to 360 ℃. Present investigation, indicates that ffm fibers are highly suitable as reinforcement agents in polymeric matrices for various light weight-medium load-thermal insulation applications.

Pathan Yasin, M. Venkataramana, Shashidhar K. Kudari

### Computational Analysis of Cavitation Structures on a Ship Propeller

Cavitation phenomenon is an unpredictable issue and intriguing subject in fluid dynamics and the investigation of cavitation structures around a ship propeller in a cavitation water tunnel for experimentation is a very complicated and consumes lot of time. In the present paper the consequences of cavitation structures at design and off design testing conditions are predicted by utilizing RANS equations in ANSYS CFX. A complete three dimensional ship propeller is demonstrated to simulate cavitation on screw propeller. From the literature, it is evident that, the most severe off design operating conditions is not accurately anticipated. In this paper computational analysis were carried out on various cavitation numbers at both designed and off designing conditions, to validate the experimental results. From these results, we have observed that, cavitating structures, and tip vortex formation on the blades were observed with good accuracy by competing with experimental results.

C. Syamsundar, P. Usha Sri

### Heat Transfer in Food Crop Dryer Using Halogen Lamp

Drying of food crop during post harvesting is essential to remove the moisture content. Moisture removal is required to preserve the food crop from spoilage due to micro-organisms. Moisture removal depends on the design of the dryer and the heat distribution inside the dryer. Present work is the experimental investigation to obtain uniform temperatures in a crop dryer by distribution of heat using hot air at various positions in the chamber and using halogen lamp at different wattage. Usage of two halogen lamps in the opposite sides of the chamber is observed to get more variable and higher temperatures in the chamber with lower power input.

### Progressive Damage Analysis of Laminated Composites

Laminate composites are used widely in diverse fields because of the ubiquitous advantages it provides compared to others. These materials are susceptible to developing of micro cracks which will change the global response of material thus creating high stresses and heightened damage in the other part. To precisely predict its life and practical applications, considering material strength and its capability to resist damage is important. This paper intends in finding out optimum conditions for minimum damage progression. A flat plate with stress concentrations in form of cut-outs made up of Epoxycarbon UD (Prepreg) and [45 0 −45 90]s layup has been modelled; progressive failure analysis under uni-axial tension loading is performed. Comparison of failure criteria is done and ultimately Hashin failure criteria is chosen for static analysis with different layups, cut-out shapes, sizes, orientations and multiple cut-outs. The observations are noted and outcomes are compared.

Yashasvi Achanta, P. Ramesh Babu, D. Sandeep

### Optimization of Pecking Order Layout with Job Shop Scheduling as Constraint: An Approach of Metaheuristics

Globally experts and researchers believe that litheness play a critical role in industrial sector. Exclusively connected with tiny lot size production because litheness flexible is a vital part to be include in arrangement of racks in layout design among the manufacturing segment. With regards to such conditions, considering NP hard dual objective issues is, commonly, a very cumbersome task. In this paper, authors addressed about a population based metaheuristics like differential evolution (DE) and sheep flock method (SFM) for cracking Pecking order layout design issues in flexible lot arrangement environment. The originators concentrated on double target advancement of which essential goal is worried about the adaptable occupation (FJSP) planning issue, the following goal concentrated on Pecking request Layout issues where removing the demand of machines with in lead-ins of ladder to restrain hard and fast transportation cost and amassing lead time of vocations on machines. The execution of the estimation (SFM and DE) is checked by benchmark issues. Finally, it is contemplated that SFM outfits perfect results when differentiated with DE.

K. Mallikarjuna, V. Veeranna, K. Hemachandrareddy

### Experimental and Simulation Study in Deep Drawing of Circular Cups for Determination of LDR

Still today, the analysis and design of deep drawing is an art rather than science. In this paper, an attempt was made to study the deep drawing process for experimental determination of Limiting Drawing Ratio (LDR) and justify the results with simulations. The use of FE simulation software can predict sheet metal forming process such as deep drawing and also enhances the efficiency by reducing development time and cost. The deep drawing experimental tests were carried out, using the tool setup ingeniously developed in the lab and mounted on universal testing machine. The AA6111 aluminum alloy sheet blanks of different sizes were drawn using optimum forming conditions established through Taguchi design of experiments. The drawn cups were tested for wrinkling and cracks, if any and determined the LDR by considering the maximum size of the blank successfully drawn without these defects. The LDR found in this study for AA6111 was 1.8325. The simulation tests were conducted using the FE code Pam-Stamp and are in good agreement with the experimentally drawn cups when inspected for wrinkles and cracks. The forming limit diagram in each test shows that the strains were within safe limit for the successfully drawn cups and exceeded the limit in case of fractured and/or wrinkled cups.

A. C. Sekhara Reddy, S. Rajesham, T. Mahender

### Free Vibration Analysis of Pre-stressed Membrane Using Element Free Galerkin Method

Vibration analysis of pre-stressed membrane is studied using element free Galerkin method (EFGM). The discrete system of equations is derived from the governing equations of thin plates with in-plane loads, by incorporating the moving least square interpolations into the variational weak form. Essential boundary conditions are applied using scaled transformation method. A bi-axially pre-stressed homogeneous membrane is analyzed using EFGM and results obtained are compared with that obtained from a commercial finite element package and also with the analytical solutions. A convergence study of the frequency obtained using EFGM is compared with that obtained using different element types in finite element method (FEM), for different modes. It is observed that, both FEM and EFGM show satisfactory results in lower modes of vibration, and in higher modes EFGM gives better results compared to FEM.

K. R. Unnikrishnan, I. R. Praveen Krishna, C. O. Arun

### Xylitol Based Phase Change Material with Graphene Nano Platelets as Fillers for Thermal Energy Management

Graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) with few layers were prepared via expanded graphite derived from exfoliation and, then solution-phase exfoliation. GNPs consist of 7–12 distinguishable graphene layers and possess lateral sizes in the range of 2–6 μ. An attempt was made to exploit the thermal properties of GNP as filler to ameliorate thermo physical properties of xylitol. Such ultrathin 2-D structured GNP could able to increase thermal conductivity by 38% with the addition of low concentration associated with a reasonable enthalpy of fusion. Phase change materials find application in a medium temperature range such as thermal energy storage of solar energy, direct contact heat storage in heat exchangers, thermal energy storage in spacecraft systems, cooling of engines and compact electronic appliances.

Praveen Kumar Varadaraj, Sandeep D., Ravi Kiran N., Balaji Padya, P. K. Jain

### Orbital Volume Analysis of Midfacial Fractures Using Additive Manufacturing Technologies

Midfacial fractures occur in a variety of patterns. For doctors to understand the severity of these fractures, it is important for them to identify the types of fracture and its clinical relevance. This complexity can be solved by having a three-dimensional physical model using Additive Manufacturing (AM) Technology. The aim of this paper is to do Orbital volume analysis of Midfacial fractures by 3D Printing medical models of the skull using Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) process. The methodology involves collection of Pre-Operative and Post-Operative CT scan images of the patient in DICOM format and converting it to 3D CAD model using InVesalius medical imaging software. The generated 3D CAD model is saved in .STL format and is then transferred to Flashforge FDM machine for printing Pre-Operative and Post-Operative 3D medical models. Measurements are taken on both Pre-Operative and Post-Operative 3D printed medical models at fixed landmarks to calculate the Orbital volume. These values are compared with Unfractured orbit of skull to find out the percentage of restoration.

L. Siva Rama Krishna, Shiva Dharshan Vanapalli, Sriram Venkatesh, Abhinand Potturi

### Parametric Optimization During Wire EDM Taper Cutting on AISI D2 Steel Using Desirability Function

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) has become very popular non-traditional process of machining. Taper cut WEDM involves making surfaces of sloping, this is essential in machining tools with angles included. AISI D2 steel with Mo and Cr has a variety of applications in engineering. This paper aims to study the effect of taper angle, wire feed and wire tension on the responses such as cutting time, angular error and surface roughness and also find the optimum values of each variable that achieve optimum cutting conditions. Central Composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology was used to design the experiments and five values of each of the three variables are taken. In order to combine the responses and the parameters in one model regression model has been generated. For each response separate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was calculated and the optimization was performed using desirability function. Results show that the most significant parameter is taper angle and the optimized parameter levels of the machining are taper angle 6°, wire feed 5.624 mm/min and wire tension 7.886 g respectively.

K. L. Uday Kiran, Sanar Zuhair Abbas, K. Saraswathamma, G. Chandra Mohan Reddy, A. M. K. Prasad

### Extraction of Coordinate Points for the Numerical Simulation of Single Point Incremental Forming Using Microsoft Excel

The aim of the present paper is to define tool-path in CAM package and extract the coordinate points from G-code for numerical simulation of Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF). The Truncated Cone, Truncated Pyramid, and Hyperbola were the parts used to define the tool-path in Mastercam environment. The G-code created from the Truncated Cone and Truncated Pyramid were the samples in the extraction of X, Y, and Z coordinate points. Extraction of the coordinate points was conducted by using Microsoft Excel commands. The paper shows that Excel commands can automatically extract coordinate points from a huge table of alphanumeric mixed string data. Finally, the extracted coordinate points were defined for the Numerical Simulation of SPIF and that works successfully.

### A Review on Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) Fabricated Components of Ti6AL4V and Steels

Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) is vibrantly emerging Additive manufacturing (AM) process in which large scale industrial metal components and intricate geometrical structures are manufactured, by layer by layer deposition. Factors like significant reduction in the material wastage, very high rate of metal deposition, capable of fabricating large complex geometries at very low cost of production are the reasons for the tremendous growth of the WAAM process technology in the manufacturing sector. Near net shape manufacturing capability of WAAM has extremely reduced the buy-to-fly ratios of the aviation components when compared to traditional manufacturing thus flagging WAAM as the best alternative to subtractive manufacturing for high cost material components. In spite of huge advantages of WAAM, the major process concerns/issues like Heat accumulation, residual stresses, intricate thermal history and rapid solidification which significantly influence the microstructure evolution of the fabricated component pose challenges to the WAAM process. This study reviews the current research on WAAM process covering the frequently used feed stock materials and covers the widespread overview of the metallurgical and the mechanical properties of WAAM fabricated components, optimal parameters, simulated methods of reducing the heat accumulation, grain refinement processes and the heat treatments for fabricated components for the required microstructures.

P. Satish Kumar, L. Suvarna Raju, L. Siva Rama Krishna

### Towards Modeling of Polymer Injection Molding Process – Approaches for Evaluation of the Processing Conditions, Control Factors and Optimization

The main goal of injection molding process is to generate complex geometries using least amount of input energy, based on an understanding of a methodical perceptive of process mechanisms. The modeling approaches would contain numerical methods, analytical tools and parametric investigations. In this paper, the challenges including vital reasons for imprecision in the prediction, development of routine evaluation measures in spite of process setting variations, and research lines to facilitate the most efficient combination of control factors aiming at optimization are explored. It is anticipated that deformation trends at real circumstances could be predicted for its overall minimization and a physical relationship with control variables such as working temperature and system pressure would be developed at all process conditions.

Vishnuprasad Pattali, P. Govindan, M. P. Vipindas

### Design of Sequential Electro-Pneumatic System

This paper provides an automation methodology related to Pneumatic structures to transform the existing conventional drilling machines into automatic drilling machines. The automation technique entails numerous pneumatic devices, pneumatic systems and also some electric and electronic devices. The automation strategy, whilst implanted is believed to bring about reduced cycle time, expenses, improved product high-quality and increase in productivity. By considering a specific undertaking of drilling holes, it is discovered from the existing investigation that by using the technique of conversion the output charge increases four times as compared to that of conventional form of machines.

Nagashiva Mutyam, T. S. S. Siva Saikumar, Bhanumurthy Soppari

### Factors Influencing Hydrodynamic Entry Length in Helical Coils

Friction factor in the entrance region is higher than in fully developed flow and is essential in accounting for pressure drop. Due to geometry of helical coils, centrifugal force destroys the symmetry of velocity profile and the maximum velocity is shifted towards outer side. Turbulent flow in helical coil is numerically studied for different orientations of the coil. System parameters such as coil diameter, pipe diameter, pitch, pressure, flow etc. are varied and the change in entry length is observed. It is found that orientation, pressure and density of fluid has no effect on the developing region while geometrical changes and flow influence the hydrodynamic entry length.

R. Prattipati, N. Koganti, Srinivas Pendyala

### Formability Analysis on the Gas Formed Aluminum Coated Magnesium Alloys in Conical Dies

Superplasticity is a unique material property by which a polycrystalline material exhibits very high tensile elongation in all directions prior to failure. The paper presents the geometrical modelling of the depth of form from the displaced air volume from the gas blow forming die. The formability of the material could be understood and the time required for forming could be estimated for different pressures of the gas. The variation in sheet thickness with constant strain rate during forming is calculated for different arc thickness. The plotted graphs of the geometrical model are compared with the computational results performed in MSC MARC MENTAT. The variation in sheet thickness of the Magnesium alloy sheets coated with aluminum alloy into a conical die is investigated experimentally. The thickness variation of the formed shows a close agreement with the theoretical and computational models.

J. Kandasamy, M. Ranjith Kumar

### Investigation of Back Rake Angle on Machining of Al 6061 and Development of Regression Model for Resultant Force

Aluminium alloys are immensely used for many applications in Engineering Industry and Domestic appliances because of its availability, light in weight and relatively less in cost. Aluminium and its alloys have importance in automobile and aerospace applications because of their high strength to weight ratio. The current paper deals with the investigation of machining of Al 6061series with the machining parameters like spindle speed (SS), tool feed (TF), radial depth of cut (RDOC) and back rake angle (BRA). The input machining parameters/factors are correlated to output parameter/factor i.e. resultant machining force (RMF) and a regression model in linear form is developed.

B. Suresh Kumar Reddy, A. Krishnaiah, S. Gajanana

### Machining Characteristics of Electro Discharge Machining on NIMONIC 80A by Response Surface Methodology

The paper investigates the effect of different machining parameters such as Current (A), Pulse ON time (Ton) and Pulse OFF time (Toff) of the Die-sink EDM process on NIMONIC 80A which influence the three major machining characteristics: Material Removal Rate (MRR), Tool Wear Rate (TWR) and Radial overcut (ROC). The experiment is executed and analysed as per Box Behnken Design (BBD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). After conducting the experiments, Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and optimization using desirability function were performed. Regression equation was developed to show a relationship of the influences of machining parameters on characteristics. This research results show that Current and Pulse ON time are the main important parameters for MRR and the Current is a major parameter for TWR and ROC. The optimize parameters where highest value of MRR and lowest value of TWR and ROC is Current 3 A, Pulse ON time 900 µs and Pulse OFF time 51 µs with the desirability value 0.988.

G. Vishnu Pramod Teja, K. Saraswathamma, T. S. R. V. Padmalatha

### Laser Machining of Polymer Materials – Experimental Investigations - Process Challenges and Strategies

Machining of polymeric materials using laser techniques results in poor dimensional accuracy and machined surface quality. However, laser processing has substantial favorable effects such as high material removal rate. This paper presents an investigation into the existing challenges, possible solutions and strategies for carrying out experimental research on polymer materials. It is evident that The laser source and fundamental wavelength plays an important role in controlling the energy for the material removal action. Speed and laser power are the two key parameters for controlling the quality of machined surfaces. Two-pass method is a novel strategy to improve dimensional accuracy of features. The application of low frequency vibrations in the range 12–24 Hz improves laser machining speed.

R. K. Vishnulal, P. Govindan, M. P. Vipindas

### Assessment of Dimensional Accuracy of Reproducibility of Cadaver Skull by FDM Additive Manufacturing

The skull is a complex structure and multidimensional in nature, so for surgeons operating skull injuries is a difficult. In recent years, Additive Manufacturing is popularly known as 3D printing technology where objects can be produced in 3 dimensional formats is playing a vital role in biomedical field and especially in complex surgeries. 3D printing technology helps the surgeon to visualize the injuries on a 3D physical model. The aim of this research work is assessment of dimensional accuracy of reproducibility of cadaver skull by FDM additive manufacturing process. In this paper a cadaver skull is subjected to 3D scanning, the scanned data is obtained in .STL format. This file is then imported into Simplify 3D software which is 3D printing machine interface software for printing skull. The skull is 3D printed using Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D-Printing process. To assess the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed skull, fixed land marks are taken on cadaver and 3D printed skull with reference to standard journal. These land marks are divided into four regions (craniofacial, mid face, orbital, skull base). The distance between land marks are measured by Digital Vernier Calipers. These measurements help in assessing the dimensional accuracy of cadaver skull with 3D printed skull.

L. Siva Rama Krishna, Uday Kumar Balasany, Sri Ram Venkatesh, Abhinand Potturi

### Evaluation of Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Friction Welded AISI 4140 Grade Steel Pipes

The present research work aims to investigate the microstructural and mechanical properties of AISI 4140 low alloy steel grade pipes in friction welded form both in as-received and reheating to 860 °C, oil quenching and followed by tempering at 520 °C (RQT) conditions. All the welds were subjected to post weld annealing at 600 °C. The weld zone primarily consists of fully plastically deformed zone (FPDZ), partially deformed zone (PDZ) and unaffected base metal (BM). Dynamically recrystallized microstructure was observed in both the sides of weld interface of FPDZ in the present investigation. The microstructure in FPDZ of RQT showed tempered martensite and small amounts of ferrite where as in as-received condition showed acicular ferrite and some amount of martensitic structure. In RQT condition, the micro hardness of the welds is higher than as-received condition. Generally FPDZ showed higher hardness than PDZ. RQT samples show a noticeable increase in the strength of joints as compared to that of as-received samples.

S. K. Abdul Khadeer, P. Ramesh Babu, K. Surender Rao, A. Seshu Kumar

### Effect of Aluminum Powder Suspended Dielectric and Silver Coated Copper Electrode on Electrical Discharge Machining Characteristics of Inconel 718

In accordance to the analyzed performances, the Powder mixed Electric Discharge Machining (PEDM) is learnt to be most often encountered choice for machining hard materials. Complex geometries of hard materials are machined with higher accuracy than with conventional processes. This paper focuses on deducing the effects of Aluminum powder suspended dielectric and Silver coated electrode on Material removal Rate (MRR) and Tool Wear Rate (TWR) of Inconel 718 by varying current as well as pulse on time. And, from these studies, it has been clearly evidenced an improvement in MRR and reduction in TWR with the addition of Aluminum powder to dielectric and Silver coating to the Copper electrode.

N. Hima Varsha, K. Saraswathamma

### Investigation of the Process Parameters on Hot Rolling of Al 7178-SiC Metal Matrix

Rolling process is more important processes in manufacturing. Hot rolling is mainly used to produce sheet metal or cross section such as aerospace structure and automotive parts etc.. In present study Al 7178 was taken as matrix metal and silicon carbide powder (40 µm size) is selected as reinforcement to produced to composites with 3%, 6% and 9% of Sic with stir casting process. The metal matrix were fed to Hot rolling. In this investigation influence of the process parameters such that thickness of rolling plate, speed of rollers, percentage of a thickness reduction and temperature of rolling plate during Hot rolling process. Taguchi method of design experiments were conducted to optimise the process parameters which effect on properties of AL 7178 metal matrix.

M. Nagarjuna, S. Gajanana, A. Krishnaiah

### Sensitivity Study of the Parameters Affecting Pressure Recovery in a Two Stage Jet Pipe Electro Hydraulic Servo Valve

Jet Pipe Electro Hydraulic Servo Valves are widely used in Aerospace applications owing to their fast response and working fluid contamination tolerance. Pressure recovery that is the pressure drop across the spool valve ends is to be maximized to reduce the first stage losses. Recovery is affected by various parameters such as jet pipe and receiver tube dimensions and their relative positioning. This paper presents sensitivity study of these affecting parameters using Taguchi method to appropriately decide the allowance manufacturing tolerances for acceptable valve performance.

Madhusudhan Raju, I. R. Shivakumar, L. Siva Rama Krishna, D. Sandeep

### Computational Modeling and Analysis of Intake Taper Manifold of an Internal Combustion Engine

The intake manifold is a key part of an i.c engine to feed the input air. It maybe a casting or fabricated of relatively light material. The air passes through the passage and enters into cylinder, due to bent cross-section the velocity of intake air is optimum. In order to improve the velocity of air entering in to cylinder chamber, it is proposed that the helical intake manifold with different pitches and taper at exit in the place of existing manifold, due to this the swirl motion generated in the intake helical manifold leads to increase the velocity of air which is entering into cylinder such that it may help to increase the combustion efficiency of the engine.

T. Sreedhar, B. Nageswara Rao, K. Mourya Balaji, K. Jagan Mohan Reddy, K. V. Surya Harshith

### Evaluation of Wear Rate of Different Liner Materials Used in Bunkers and Silos Using Dry Abrasion Wear Test

One of the serious causes for materials failure is Wear. It affects the reliability and lifetime of material leading to a number of economic losses. The containers used for the storage of bulk solids are usually called Bins, Bunkers, Silos or Tanks. Wearing of metal is one of major problems that occur during material discharge from silos. To minimize damage of metal, liners are used which are replaceable and prevents the equipment from material wear out. Generally Stainless Steel 304 is being used as liner material for bunkers because of its high strength, high corrosion resistance and high toughness. In this paper we have considered UHMWPE and Cast Nylon as Liner materials because of their high toughness, good wear resistance and low coefficient of friction. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the wear rate on different liner materials like SS 304, Mild Steel, UHMWPE, and Cast Nylon using dry abrasion tester by varying Load and Speed.

D. Venkateshwarlu, Sriram Venkatesh, K. Saraswathamma, Swetha Bhagirathi Sanganabhatla, Shiva Dharshan Vanapalli

### Experimental Investigation on Maraging Steel Metal Deposition Using DMLS Process

Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process is one of the Additive manufacturing technologies utilized to deposit metal powder by scanning of high laser power to fabricate customized and complex parts which cannot be produced by traditional manufacturing processes. During DMLS, powder is fused by laser beam and forms a solid part layer-by-layer. The mechanical and physical properties of parts fabricated by DMLS mainly depend on the process parameters, properties of powder, scanning scheme, and the direction of building. In this investigation hardness, surface roughness, tensile strength and impact strength of Maraging steel were studied. These properties of different samples were analyzed before and after heat treatment.

D. Apparao, M. V. Jagannadha Raju

### Intra-ply Damage Modeling of Low-Velocity Impact on Composite Laminates

This paper deals with the intra-ply damage modeling of graphite/epoxy composite laminates subjected to the low-velocity impact loads. In this work, a cross ply laminate of dimensions 80 × 80 × 2.1 mm with stacking sequence [0/90/0/90/0] is subjected to impact by a rigid impactor of mass 6.5 kgs. The finite element simulation carried out using perfectly elastic, 3-D Hashin damage and 3-D Damage meso-level (3-D DML) models. Fiber and matrix failure modes are considered in both the damage models. User subroutine (VUMAT) was implemented for damage models and analysis was carried on ABAQUSTM software. The force and displacement-time response are computed at 5J and 10J of impact energies. The effect of damage models on force and displacement-time response with change in impact energy are presented. Comparing the maximum forces and displacement-time response, 3-D DML model shows close agreement, whereas the 3-D Hashin model underpredicts the maximum force and overpredicts the maximum displacement with the literature.

Y. Sharath Chandra Mouli, C. S. Upadhyay, P. M. Mohite

### Static and Fatigue Analysis of Leaf Spring with EPDM Rubber Sandwiched Between the Steel Leaves

A leaf spring is a simple and basic type of suspension system commonly used in heavy-duty vehicles. To provide a better suspension in heavy-duty vehicles leaf spring design plays a crucial role. In this work, a new idea of leaf spring proposed with EPDM rubber sandwiched between the steel leaves. EPDM is a synthetic rubber and exhibits a hyperelastic nature. This new leaf spring modelled, static and fatigue analysis performed using design and analysis software packages. The objective of this paper is not only to obtain the fatigue life of semi-elliptical leaf springs but also deflection, stress, strain, and strain energy results. The static and fatigue analysis results of current and new leaf springs compared.

R. Naresh, V. B. S. Rajendra Prasad, G. Venkata Rao

### Modelling of Surface Roughness and Tool Wear Rate During Turning of AISI 202 Stainless Steel

In several industries, Stainless Steel has been used as an engineering material, for example in the automotive, aerospace and aerospace industries, where surface finishing is the most important factor. The aim of this work is to predict surface roughness and tool wear rate by developing mathematical models using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and to study the effect of cutting speed, feed and cutting depth on surface roughness and tool wear rate using TiAlN and TiAlN+TiN coated carbide tool bits during CNC Turning on 202 stainless steel. The results were compared in the MINITAB software for analysis. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of these response variables was examined to determine a regression equation with the machining parameters as independent variables.

Nagaveni Thallapalli, Vinay Kumar Goud Balne, T. S. R. V. Padmalatha

### Estimation of the Grain Size Number and Microstructure Analysis of AA6061 Alloy Flow Formed Tubes

Flow forming process is a chipless metal forming process used for the production of high accuracy axi-symmetrical cylindrical components. During this process there is an increase in tube length and decrease in thickness without any change in internal diameter. Generally forming is performed with a single roller or three rollers over a rotating mandrel and the present work is with three roller setup. The work material is plastically deformed in the radial direction by compression due the rollers and made to flow in an axial direction and the thickness reduction is achieved with single pass. The AA6061 aluminum alloy, usually used in defense components is considered for flow forming. The mechanical properties of this alloy are dependent on the rate at which the alloy is heated and quenched. Solution treatment has been carried out at 400 °C for 2 h followed by quenching in water. Microstructure of the finished product has been studied by using SEM and grain size is estimated for different reduction ratios and stagger distance using the intercept method.

G. Venkateshwarlu, K. Ramesh Kumar, G. Gopi, T. A. Janardhan Reddy

### Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil Using a Heterogeneous Catalyst

Depletion of fossil fuel and environmental pollution has stimulated the search for alternative sources of energy. Among various alternative sources of energy, biodiesel prepared from suitable plant seed oil proves promising. In the present study, biodiesel has been prepared from non-edible Jatropha oil using CaO as a heterogeneous catalyst for making it cost competitive and popular in the market. Owing to the high FFA content, a sulphuric acid pretreatment step was used to lower the FFA content. With the optimum reaction parameters: molar ratio of oil to alcohol 1:09, catalyst 2.5 wt%, temperature 65 °C, time 120 min and speed 800 rpm, a maximum yield of 92% and conversion of 98.48% obtained for the transesterification process. Excellent quality biodiesel is obtained and the physic-chemical properties fall within the ASTM limits.

Santosh Kumar Dash

### Effect of Compression Ratio and Injection Timing on the Performance of a B20 Biodiesel Blend Fueled Diesel Engine

B20 biodiesel blend has already proved an optimal blend in terms of power output. However, for reducing carbon footprint and improving energy efficiency, it is necessary to adjust minor engine operating parameters. Jatropha is being widely cultivated in India as suitable non-edible feedstock for biofuel production. The present study deals with evaluating the brake thermal efficiency of a diesel engine of power output 5.2 kW at constant speed 1500 rpm fueled with B20 blend of Jatropha biodiesel by modifying the CR and IT of the engine. It is observed that with increasing CR the BTE significantly increases irrespective of ITs. It is also seen that the combination of higher CR and retarded IT offers best results for thermal efficiency.

Santosh Kumar Dash, Pradip Lingfa, Dharmeswar Dash