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7. International Law, Politics, and the Rule of Law

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Abstract

International law has to struggle for the ideal of the good society so that it would be adequate, outside political selection, to commit oneself to international law so as to make certain oneself of the rightness of what one does. Existing international legal instruments are adjusted in various ways to new technological revolutions: through treaty amendment, adaptive interpretation, or new state behavior that results in customary international law. Hence, AI technology can be subsumed under general norms or provisions of international law or existing treaty instruments will be extended or reinterpreted to cover AI developments.

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Footnotes
1
Martti Koskenniemi, “The Police in the Temple. Order, Justice and the UN; A Dialectical View”, 5 EJIL (1995), pp. 325–348.
 
2
Martti Koskenniemi, “Repetition as Reform. Georges Abi-Saab’s Cour Ge′ne’ral”, 9 EJIL (1998), pp. 405–411.
 
3
Anne Orford, “the Destiny of International Law”, 17 LJIL (2004), pp. 441–476.
 
4
Immanuel Kant, “Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose”, in Hans Reiss (ed.), Political Writings (Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 41–53.
 
5
Martti Koskenniemi, “Between Commitment and Cynicism: Outline for a Theory of International Law as Practice”. In: Collection of Essays by Legal Advisers of States, Legal Advisers of International Organizations and Practitioners in the Field of International Law (United Nations, 1999), pp. 495–523.
 
6
J. Mark Ramseyer, Public Choice, available at http://​www.​law.​uchicago.​edu/​Lawecon/​index.​html
 
7
United Nations, United Nations Conference to Negotiate a Legally Binding Instrument to Prohibit Nuclear Weapons, Leading Towards Their Total Elimination (2017), https://​www.​un.​org/​disarmament/​publications/​library/​ptnw/​ Rebecca Crootof, Change Without Consent: How Customary International Law Modifies Treaties, 41 Yale J. Int. Law 65 (2016).
 
8
Tamar Megiddo, Knowledge Production, Big Data and Data-Driven Customary International Law (2019), https://​papers.​ssrn.​com/​abstract=​3497477 Ashley Deeks, High-Tech International Law, 88 George Wash. Law Rev. 575–653, 649 (2020).
 
9
David Kennedy, The Move to Institutions, 8 Cardozo L. Rev. 842, 988 (1987) (illustrating the critical legal school’s belief that the League of Nations system existed as an illusion to alleviate the frustration of a war fought in vain).
 
10
F.P. Walters, A History Of The League Of Nations 3 (1952) (the League of Nations is the “embodiment in constitutional form of mankind’s aspirations towards peace and towards a rationally organized world”). C.K. Webster & Sydney Herbert, The League Of Nations In Theory And Practice 301 (1933) (the League of Nations was primarily conceived as a “compact to maintain peace”); Alfred Zimmern, The League Of Nations And The Rule Of Law 1918–1935, 2 (Atheneum Publishers, 2d ed. 1969) (a security machinery to prevent the recurrence of another World War).
 
11
Alfred Zimmern, The League Of Nations And The Rule Of Law 1918–1935, 2 (Atheneum Publishers, 2d ed. 1969) (a security machinery to prevent the recurrence of another World War).
 
12
Martti Koskenniemi, The Police in the Temple—Order, Justice and the U.N.: A Dialectical View, 6 Eur. J. Int’l L. 325 (1995).
 
13
U.N. Charter art. 39 (“The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security.”).
 
14
For the situation in Rwanda S.C. Res. 929, U.N. Doc. S/RES/929 (June 22, 1994), or for the situation in Somalia S.C. Res. 733, U.N. Doc. S/RES/733 (Jan. 23, 1992); S.C. Res. 751, U.N. Doc. S/RES/751 (Apr. 24, 1992); S.C. Res. 794, U.N. Doc. S/RES/794 (Dec. 3, 1992).
 
15
Hans Kelsen, Principles Of International Law 58 (1952).
 
16
Jörg Kammerhofer, Kelsen—Which Kelsen? A Reapplication of the Pure Theory to International Law, 22 Leiden J. Int’l L. 225, 230–31 (2009) (discussing Kelsen’s interpretation that war exists as either “delict or sanction within positive international law”).
 
17
Thomas M. Franck, Who Killed Article 2(4)? or: Changing Norms Governing the Use of Force by States, 64 AM. J. INT’L L. 809 (1970).
 
18
Louis Henkin, The Reports of the Death of Article 2(4) Are Greatly Exaggerated, 65 AM. J. INT’L L. 544, 544 (1971). Tom J. Farer, The Prospect for International Law and Order in the Wake of Iraq, 97 AM. J. INT’L L. 621, 622 (2003) (discussing that ideas of how states ought to behave can survive both “massive deviance” and an “almost total failure of application”).
 
19
Thomas M. Franck, What Happens Now? The United Nations After Iraq, 97 AM. J. INT’L L. 607, 607–08 (2003).
 
20
Military and Paramilitary Activities (Nicar. v. U.S.), 1986 I.C.J. 14, 99–100 (June 27).
 
21
Jane E. Stromseth, Law and Force After Iraq: A Transitional Moment, 97 AM. J. INT’L L. 628, 631–33 (2008).
 
22
Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States) Judgment of 26 June 1986 on Merits, [1986] ICJ Rep 14, at 153 (President Singh, Separate Opinion).
 
23
C. Tams, ‘The Use of Force against Terrorists’ (2009) 20 EJIL, 359 M. Koskenniemi, ‘The Police in the Temple. Order, Justice, and the UN: A Dialectical View’ (1995) 6 EJIL 326.
 
24
U.N. Int’l L. Comm’n, Articles on State Responsibility, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/SER.A/1996/Add.l (Part 2) (1996) http://​www.​lcil.​cam.​ac.​uk/​projects/​state_​responsibility_​document_​collection.​php#4 (containing the former Article 19 of the ILC which seems to indicate that only the prohibition of aggression is ius cogens); Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, G.A. Res. 56/83, U.N. GAOR, 56th Sess., U.N. Doc. A/56/589 (Jan. 28, 2002) (containing Article 27 of the Articles on State Responsibility, which excludes the invocation of circumstances precluding wrongfulness in case of violation of peremptory norms, if read in conjunction with Article 22, Article 27 seems to limit the peremptory character to the prohibition of aggression).
 
25
Antonio Cassese, Article 51, in La Charte Des Nations Unies, Commentaire Article Par Article 1357 (Jean-Pierre Cot et al. eds.) (2005). Cf. Raphaël van Steenberghe, Le Pacte de non-agression et de défense commune de l’Union africaine: entre unilatéralisme et responsabilité collective, 113 Revue Générale De Droit Int’l Pub. 125 (2009).
 
26
Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of its Thirty-second Session, 2 Y.B. INT’L L. COMM’N 169, 270 (1980) (stating that the Commission was unsure as to whether communications were made and whether they were operative).
 
27
Articles on State Responsibility (containing the former Article 19 which prohibits force except in the most serious of circumstances).
 
28
Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its thirty-second session, 35 GAOR Supp. (No. 10) at 27–28, U.N. Doc. A/35/10 (1980), reprinted in 2 Y.B. Int’l L. Comm’n 26 U.N. Doc A/CN.4/SER.A/1980/Add.l (Part 2) (discussing the ILC’s work of codifying the rules governing State responsibility).
 
29
Articles on State Responsibility, supra note 51, art. 50 (“Countermeasures shall not affect: (a) The obligation to refrain from the threat or use of force as embodied in the Charter of the United Nations; (b) Obligations for the protection of fundamental human rights; (c) Obligations of a humanitarian character prohibiting reprisals; (d) Other obligations under peremptory norms of general international law.”).
 
30
Prosper Weil, Le Droit International en Quête de son Identité, 237 Recueil Des Cours 9, 64–65 (1996).
 
31
Michael J. Glennon, How International Rules Die, 93 GEO. L.J. 939, 990–91 (2005).
 
32
Michael J. Glennon, Force and the Settlement of Political Disputes: Debate with Alain Pellet at the Colloquium of Topicality of the 1907 Hague Conference (Sept. 7, 2007), available at http://​ssrn.​com/​abstract=​1092212
 
33
Pierre d’Argent et al., Article 39, in La Charte Des Nations Unies: Commentaires Article Par Article 1133–70 (Jean-Pierre Cot et al. eds., 3d ed. 2005) (discussing the competence of the Security Council to determine threats against peace, breach of peace, and acts of aggression).
 
34
U.N. Charter art. 39 (“The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security.”). S.C. Res. 326, U.N. Doc. S/RES/326 (Feb. 2, 1973) (addressing what the Security Council deemed to be “provocative and aggressive acts” committed by Southern Rhodesia against other countries, including Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, and Zambia); S.C. Res. 387, U.N. Doc. S/RES/387 (Mar. 31, 1976) (regarding the acts of aggression committed by South Africa against other countries in southern Africa); S.C. Res. 405, U.N. Doc. S/RES/405 (Apr. 14, 1977) (regarding the acts of armed aggression committed by mercenaries against Benin); S.C. Res. 573, U.N. Doc. S/RES/573 (Oct. 4, 1985) (regarding the acts of aggression committed by Israel against Tunisia); S.C. Res. 611, U.N. Doc. S/RES/611 (Apr. 25, 1988) (condemning the acts of aggression committed by Israel against Tunisia); S.C. Res. 667, U.N. Doc. S/RES/667 (Sept. 16, 1990) (regarding the acts of aggression committed by Iraq against diplomatic premises and personnel in Kuwait).
 
35
Concerning resolutions pertaining to the situation in Kosovo, S.C. Res. 1160, U.N. Doc. S/RES/1160 (Mar. 31, 1998); S.C. Res. 1199, U.N. Doc. S/RES/1199 (Sept. 23, 1998); S.C. Res. 1203, U.N. Doc. S/RES/1203 (Oct. 24, 1998); S.C. Res. 1239, U.N. Doc. S/RES/1239 (May 14, 1999); S.C. Res. 1244, U.N. Doc. S/RES/1244 (June 10, 1999). For the situation in Darfur, S.C. Res. 1593, U.N. Doc. S/RES/1593 (Mar. 31, 2005).
 
36
H.L.A. Hart, The Concept Of Law 193–94 (1961).
 
37
see Kenneth E. Himma, Hart and Austin Together Again for the First Time: Coercive Enforcement and the Theory of Legal Obligation 17 (SSRN Working Papers, 2006), http://​papers.​ssrn.​com/​sol3/​papers.​cfm?​abstract_​id=​727465
 
38
Pierre d’Argent, Which Law Through Which War? Law Through War Revisited, 52 Buff. L. Rev. 635 (2004).
 
39
Corfu Channel (Gr. Brit., N. Ir. v. Alb.), 1949 I.C.J. 4, 35 (Apr. 9) (stating that the alleged “right of intervention” is a “manifestation of a policy of force” which “cannot … find a place in international law”).
 
40
Military and Paramilitary Activities (Nicar. v. U.S.), 1986 I.C.J. 14, 97–101, paras. 184–90 (June 27) (holding that customary international law requires the non-use of force).
 
41
B. Martenczuk, “The Security Council, the International Court and Judicial Review: What Lessons from Lockerbie?” European Journal of International Law 10, no. 31999, pp. 517–47.
 
42
P. Klein, Le droit international à l’épreuve du terrorisme, 321 Recueil Des Cours 203 (2006) (assessing the legal problems pertaining to the use of force in the context of the fight against terrorism).
 
43
P. Klein, Le droit international à l’épreuve du terrorisme, 321 Recueil Des Cours 203 (2006) (assessing the legal problems pertaining to the use of force in the context of the fight against terrorism).
 
44
Kosovo And The International Community: A Legal Assessment (Christian Tomuschat ed., 2002) (examining the future of Kosovo in light of the Security Council resolution 1244 of 1999 and the Stability Pact adopted to ensure economic recovery of the entire region).
 
45
Richard A. Falk, What Future for the U.N. Charter System of War Prevention?, 97 Am. J. Int’l L. 590 (2003) (describing the United States’ circumvention of the U.N.’s prohibition of force in Iraq).
 
46
John Yoo, International Law and the War in Iraq, 97 Am. J. Int’l L. 563 (2003) (reconciling the war in Iraq with the principles of international law).
 
47
Anthony C. Arend & Robert J. Beck, International Law And The Use Of Force: Beyond The U.N. Charter Paradigm 180 (Routledge 1993) (“While it is easy to count the times that a particular norm is violated, it is quite difficult to identify the times when a norm exerted a controlling influence, when states refrained from forcible action because of Article 2(4)‘s proscription.”).
 
48
Military and Paramilitary Activities (Nicar, v. U.S.), 1986 I.C.J. 14, para. 186 (June 27) (noting that a state’s use of rules and exceptions to rules to defend its use of force confirms rather than weakens the rule); U.K. Foreign Secretary, Iraq: Legal Basis for the Use of Force, 2003 Brit. Y.B. Int’l L. 793, 793–96 (describing the use of force following the liberation of Iraq).
 
49
Gilbert Kreijger, Iraq Invasion Had No Legal Backing: Dutch Report, Reuters, Jan. 12, 2010, at 1, http://​www.​reuters.​com/​assets/​print?​aid =USTRE60B3A620100112 (reporting on the Dutch government’s support of a United States led invasion of Iraq that had no legal backing).
 
50
Olivier Corten, Le Droit Contre La Guerre: L’interdiction Du Recours À La Force En Droit International Contemporain (Pedone 2008) (claiming that the rule prohibiting the use of force has undergone significant change since September 11, 2001).
 
51
Nikolas Sturchler, The Threat of Force in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
 
52
Jutta Brunnée and Stephen J. Toope, Legitimacy and Legality in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
 
53
Brian Tamanaha, Law as a Means to an End: Threat to the Rule of Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
 
54
Fortin, Katharine, Accountability of Non-State Armed Groups (2017, Oxford University Press).
 
55
Krieger, Heike (ed.), Inducing Compliance with International Humanitarian Law: Lessons from the African Great Lakes Region (2015, Cambridge University Press); Alston, Philip and Ryan Goodman, International Human Rights. (2012, Oxford University Press).
 
56
Kube, Sebastian and Christian Traxler, “The interaction of legal and social norm enforcement”, (2011) Journal of Public Economic Theory, 13(5) 639–660.
 
57
Fazal, Tanisha, Wars of Law: Unintended Consequences in the Regulation of Armed Conflict (2018, Cornell University Press).
 
58
Jean d’Aspremont, “Do Non-State Actors Strengthen or Weaken International Law? The Story of a Liberal Symbiosis” in Krieger, Heike, Georg Nolte, Georg, and Andreas Zimmermann (eds), The International Rule of law – Rise or Decline? – Approaching current foundational challenges (2019, Oxford University Press).
 
59
Clapham, Andrew, Human Rights Obligations of Non-State Actors (2006, Oxford University Press). The Geneva Conventions’ Common Article 3, in addition to other Protocols expanded the reach of international law regarding non-state armed groups’ obligations. Human rights treaties, such as the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict (OPAC), also cover non-state actors’ restraints in behavior during wartime.
 
60
Annyssa Bellal, Gilles Giacca, and Stuart Casey-Maslen, “International law and armed non-state actors in Afghanistan”, (2011) International Review of the Red Cross, 93(881): 47–79.
 
61
Morse, Julia, “Blacklists, Market Enforcement, and the Global Regime to Combat Terrorist Financing”, (2019) International Organization, 73(3): 511–545.
 
62
Jo, Hyeran, Rise and Decline of International Rule of Law: Case of Non-State Armed Actors, Working Paper Series, No. 39, Berlin Potsdam Research Group “The International Rule of Law – Rise or Decline?”, Berlin, September 2019. Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede, Simon Hug, Livia I. Schubiger and Julian Wucherpfennig, “International Conventions and Non-State Actors: Selection, Signaling and Reputation Effects”, (2018) Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(2): 346–380; Fazal, Tanisha and Margarita Konaev, “Homelands versus Minelands: Why do Armed Groups Commit to the Laws of War?”, (2019) Journal of Global Security Studies, 4(2): 149–168.
 
63
Salehyan, Idean, David Siroky, and Reed Wood, “External Rebel Sponsorship and Civilian Abuse: A PrincipalAgent Analysis of Wartime Atrocities”, (2014) International Organization, 68(3):633–661. Jo, Hyeran and Joowon Yi, “Engaging Rebels: Humanitarian Engagement in Conflict Zones and the Case of United Nations Action Plans”, (2019) Manuscript, Texas A&M University.
 
64
Turku, Helga, The Destruction of Cultural Property as a Weapon of War: ISIS in Syria and Iraq (2018, Palgrave Macmillan).
 
65
See Opinion 1 of the Arbitration Commission, 31 ILM (1991), pp. 1494–1497 and the EU Declaration on the Recognition of New States in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, 16 December 1991, ibid. pp. 1485–1487. See further the discussion in Martti Koskenniemi, “National Self-Determination Today: Problems of Legal Theory and Practice”, 43 ICLQ (1994), pp. 241–269.
 
66
Davic Raic, Statehood and the Law of Self-Determination (The Hague, Kluwer, 2002).
 
67
ICJ: Burkina Faso–Mali Boundary Case, Reports 1986, p. 565 (para. 20).
 
68
Tuomas Kuokkanen, “International Law and the Expropriation of Natural Resources”, XI FYBIL (2000). Eyeal Benvenisti, Sharing Transboundary Resources. International Law and Optimal Resource Use (Cambridge University Press, 2002). Martti Koskenniemi, “Breach of Treaty or Non-Compliance? Reflexions on the Enforcement of the Montreal Protocol”, 3 Yearbook of International Environmental Law (1992), pp. 123–162.
 
69
Vera Gowlland-Debbas, UN Sanctions and International Law: An Overview, in United Nations Sanctions And International Law 1 (Vera Gowlland-Debbas ed., 2001) (discussing the debate over the legitimacy and longterm effects of economic sanctions on states).
 
70
Jean d’Aspremont, Post-Conflict Administrations as Democracy-Building Instruments, 9 CHI. J. INT’L L. 1, 1 (2008) (discussing the use of international organizations to create or reconstruct democratic states); Jean d’Aspremont, Regulating Statehood: The Kosovo Status Settlement, 20 Leiden J. Int’l L. 649, 649 (2007) (arguing that the “proposed regulation of [the] statehood” of Kosovo surpassed past international involvement in the reconstruction of States). S.C. Res. 955, U.N. Doc. S/RES/955 (Nov. 8, 1994) (describing the establishment of the ICTR); S.C. Res. 827, U.N. Doc. S/RES/827 (May 25, 1993) (describing the establishment of the ICTY). S.C. Res. 1757, U.N. Doc. S/RES/1757 (May 30, 2007) (describing the creation of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon). S.C. Res. 1333, U.N. Doc. S/RES/1333 (Dec. 19, 2000) (declaring international opposition to the Taliban); S.C. Res. 1135, U.N. Doc. S/RES/1135 (Oct. 29, 1997) (declaring international opposition to the members of the UNITA in Angola).
 
71
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court art. 13, July 17, 1998, 2187 U.N.T.S. 90 (establishing an “independent permanent International Criminal Court … with jurisdiction over the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole”).
 
72
Press Conference, United Nations, Special Working Group on the Crime of Aggression (Feb. 13, 2009), http://​www.​un.​org/​News/​briefings/​docs/​2009/​090213_​ICC.​doc.​htm (discussing the I.C.C.’s jurisdiction over the crime of aggression). Niels Blokker, The Crime of Aggression and the United Nations Security Council, 20 LEIDEN J. INT’L L. 867, 886–87 (2007) (discussing the debate over the Security Council’s role in determining I.C.C. jurisdiction, and rejecting the view that the determination of whether there has been a crime of aggression should be left exclusively to the Security Council).
 
73
Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order, G.A. Res. 3201 (S-VI), U.N. Doc. A/RES/3201 (S-VI) (May 1, 1974) (defining a new economic order to promote principles of justice and equity among states); Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, G.A. Res. 1514 (XV), U.N. GAOR, 15th Sess., Supp. No. 16, at 66, U.N. Doc. A/4684 (Dec. 14, 1960) (prohibiting colonialism in recognition of individual rights to equality and self-determination); Request for an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice on the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons, G.A. Res. 49/75, U.N. Doc. A/RES/49/75 (Dec. 15, 1994) (promoting disarmament and requesting that the I.C.J. review the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons).
 
74
Ian Clark, Legitimacy in International Society 1975 Oxford: Oxford University Press. Christine D. Gray, International Law and the Use of Force, 2008 3rd. ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
 
75
Michael Glennon, Why the Security Council Failed, 82 Foreign Aff. 16, 34 (2003) (claiming that States will be able to maintain order without the help of the Security Council).
 
76
Eyal Benvenisti, Coalitions of the Willing and the Evolution of Informal International Law, in Coalitions Of The Willing: Avantgarde Or Threat? 1 (Christian Calliess et al. eds., 2007).
 
77
Prosecutor v. Tadic, Case No. IT-94-1-T, Decision on the Defence Motion on Jurisdiction, para. 24 (Aug. 10, 2005) (discussing the discretion of the Security Council to determine the existence of a threat to, or a breach of, the peace). Contra Prosecutor v. Tadic, Case No. IT-94-1-AR-72, Decision on the Defence Motion for Interlocutory Appeal on Jurisdiction, para. 29 (Oct. 2, 1995).
 
78
Jennifer L. Beard, The Political Economy of Desire: Law, Development and the Nation (Abingdon: Routledge-Cavendish, 2007).
 
79
Don Herzog, Without Foundations: Justification in Political Theory (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985) George Steinmetz (ed.), The Politics of Method in the Human Sciences: Positivism and Its Epistemological Others (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005).
 
80
Martti Koskenniemi, ‘The Politics of International Law’ (1990) 1 European Journal of International Law 4.
 
81
Jacques Derrida and Giovanna Borradori, ‘Autoimmunity: Real and Symbolic Suicides, A Dialogue with Jacques Derrida’ in Giovanna Borradori (ed.), Philosophy in a Time of Terror: Dialogues with Jürgen Habermas and Jacques Derrida (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003) 85–137. John Caputo (ed.), Deconstruction in a Nutshell: A Conversation with Jacques Derrida (New York: Fordham University Press, 1997) 9.
 
82
John Caputo (ed.), Deconstruction in a Nutshell: A Conversation with Jacques Derrida (New York: Fordham University Press, 1997) 9.
 
83
Antonio Gramsci, Selections from Political Writings (1910–1920), ed. by Quintin Hoare and trans. by John Mathews (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1977).
 
84
Antony Anghie, Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
 
85
Anne-Marie Slaughter, ‘The Liberal Agenda for Peace: International Relations Theory and the Future of the United Nations’ (1994) 4 Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 377, 379.
 
86
Thomas Franck, ‘The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance’ (1992) 86 American Journal of International Law 46.
 
87
Yves Dezalay and Bryant Garth, Global Prescriptions: The Production, Exportation and Importation of New Legal Orthodoxy (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002).
 
88
Martti Koskenniemi, ‘The Future of Statehood’ (1991) 32 Harvard International Law Journal 397.
 
89
M. Roscini, ‘Threats of Armed Force and Contemporary International Law’, (2007) 54 Neth. ILRev. 229; N. Stürchler, The Threat of Force in International Law, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009); D. Kritsiotis, ‘Close Encounters of a Sovereign Kind’, (2009) 20 EJIL, 299.
 
90
Corfu Channel (United Kingdom v. Albania), Merits, Judgment of 9 April 1949, [1949] ICJ Rep. 9 M.W. Reisman, ‘Criteria for the Lawful Use of Force in International Law’, (1985) 10 Yale J.I.L. 279, at 281.
 
91
Nicholas Tsagourias, The prohibition of threats of force available, http://​ssrn.​com/​abstract=​2074015 P28.
 
92
J. Brunnée and S.J. Toope, Legitimacy and Legality in International Law: An Interactional Account (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
 
93
Martti Koskenniemi, From Apology to Utopia, 2009 Cambridge University Press p. 584 (arguing that ‘social meaning is generated by individual psychologies, while what those psychologies produce is conditioned by the material conditions in which they are formed.’). Martti Koskenniemi, ‘The Politics of International Law - 20 Years Later’, The European Journal of International Law 20 (2009), 10.
 
94
C. Schmitt, The Nomos of the Earth: In the International Law of the Jus Publicum Europaeum ([1950], 2003) Chaps III and IV.
 
95
W. W. Burke-White, ‘Power Shifts in International Law: Structural Realignment and Substantive Pluralism’ (2015) 56 Harvard International Law Journal, 1–80, at 77. M. Koskenniemi, ‘Human Rights-so 90s’ Public lecture 3 March 2014, Public International Law at Oxford, available at: https://​www.​youtube.​com/​watch?​v=​9hFdZRYZhkg
 
96
Gillian K. Hadfield, Barry R. Weingast, Privatizing Law: Is Rule of Law an Equilibrium Without Private Ordering? Legal Studies Research Papers Series No. 17-24e at: https://​ssrn.​com/​abstract=​3057093 at 6.
 
97
M. Dillon and J. Reid, ‘Global Liberal Governance: Biopolitics, Security and War’ (2001) 30 Millennium Journal of International Studies 42.
 
98
N. Wheeler, Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society (Oxford Publishing, 2000). A. Peters, ‘Global Constitutionalism Revisited’ (2005) 5 International Legal Theory 39.
 
99
M. Weller, ‘Permanent Imminence of Armed Attacks: Resolution 2249 (2015) and the Right to Self Defence Against Designated Terrorist Groups’, EJIL Talk! November 25, 2015. Available at: http://​www.​ejiltalk.​org/​permanent-imminence-of-armed-attacks-Resolution2249-2015-and-the-right-to-self-defence-against-designated-terrorist-groups; D. Akande and M. Milanovic, ‘The Constructive Ambiguity of the Security Council’s ISIS Resolution’ EJIL Talk! November 21, 2015. Available at: http://​www.​ejiltalk.​org/​the-constructive-ambiguityof-the-security-councils-isis-resolution. Y. Dinstein, War, Aggression, and Self-Defence (2011).
 
100
The Crisis in Ukraine, Special Issue, (2015)16 German Law Journal 3.
 
101
SC Res 1973, 17 March 2011. 21 SC Res 2213, 27 March 2015. D. Kritsiotis, ‘Humanitarian Intervention’, in R. Robertson and J. A. Scholet (eds.) Encyclopedia of Globalization Vol. 2 (2007) 583–587); D. Kennedy, The Dark Sides of Virtue: Reassessing International Humanitarianism (2004); N. Krisch, ‘Review Essay. Legality, Morality and the Dilemma of Humanitarian Intervention after Kosovo’ (2002) 13 EJIL; S. Chesterman, Just War or Just Peace? Humanitarian Intervention and International Law (2001).
 
102
C. Stahn ‘Between Law-breaking and Law-making: Syria, Humanitarian Intervention and “What the Law Ought to Be”’(2014) 19 Journal of Conflict & Security Law 1.
 
103
E. Wilmhurst (ed.), Principles of International Law on Self-Defence set out by Chatham House (2005), at 12.
 
104
The Sanremo Handbook on Rules of Engagement (November 9 2009) at 5. Available at: http://​www.​iihl.​org/​wp-content/​uploads/​2015/​12/​ROE-HANDBOOK-ENGLISH.​pdf D. Dyzenhaus, ‘Schmitt v Dicey: Are States of Emergency Inside or Outside the Legal Order’ (2008) 27 Cardozo Law Review 2005, at 2006.
 
105
John Jackson, The World Trading System 111 (2d ed. 1997) (“One way to explore the questions raised above is to compare two techniques of modern diplomacy: a ‘rule-oriented’ technique and a ‘power-oriented technique.’”); see also, J. Lacarte-Muró & P. Gappah, Developing Countries and the WTO Legal and Dispute Settlement System: A View from the Bench, 3 J. Int’l Econ. L. 395, 401 (2000) (arguing that “right perseveres over might”); James Bacchus, Might Unmakes Right: The American Assault on the Role of Law in World Trade, CIGI Papers No. 173 (May 2018).
 
106
Erik Voeten, International Judicial Independence, in Interdisciplinary Perspectives On International Law And International Relations: The State Of The Art 421 (Jeffrey L. Dunoff & Mark A. Pollack eds., 2012).
 
107
Graham Allison, Destined For War: Can America And China Escape Thucydides Trap? (2018).
 
108
Joseph Raz, The Authority of Law: Essays on Law and Morality 214–19 (1979) (listing eight principles).
 
109
Martin Krygier, The Rule of Law: Legality, Teleology, Sociology, in Relocating The Rule Of Law 45, 60 (Gianluigi Palombella & Neil Walker eds., 2009).
 
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Metadata
Title
International Law, Politics, and the Rule of Law
Author
Georgios I. Zekos
Copyright Year
2022
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-94736-1_7

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