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2021 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

7. International Trade of Used and Retread Tires

Author: Michikazu Kojima

Published in: International Trade of Secondhand Goods

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

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Abstract

Used tires are traded internationally. Some are subject to direct reuse, whereas others become cores for retread tires, which are also traded internationally. Such international trade contributes to improved resource efficiency and reduced transportation costs in the importing countries. However, importing worn-out used tires may pose a safety problem. The international trade of used tires can transfer mosquitos, which are vectors for disease, to other countries, thereby spreading mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue fever. This chapter reviews the trade statistics for used and retread tires since 1990 and identifies factors that affect trade flows. The important factors are income level, trade restriction, car inspection system, and road condition. The impacts of these factors differ according to the type of tire. The effectiveness, justification, and impact of trade restrictions are also discussed. In addition, appropriate trade policies on used and retread tires are discussed from the viewpoints of global resource efficiency and safety.

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Footnotes
1
Yamamoto (1995) explains the developments of commodity classification.
 
2
UN Comtrade covers three trade statistics codes: Harmonized Commodity Description Coding System (HS), Standard International Trade Classification (SITC), and Broad Economic Category (BEC). SITC and HS have been revised a number of times. Among these codes, HS has separately recorded used and retread tires from its first (accepted in 1985) to fourth (accepted in 2006) revised editions. SITC classified used and retread tires under categories such as “tires, not elsewhere specified,” together with “tires of agricultural machines,” and “vehicles of construction machinery” until its second revised edition (accepted in 1975). Also, BEC classifies used and retread tires using the same code, which cover parts of transportation equipment and accessories.
 
3
Linda Yulisman 2015 “Govt Aims High in Boosting Domestic Use” Jakarta Post May 13, 2015. https://​media.​neliti.​com/​media/​publications/​36461-ID-strategi-pengembangan-bisnis-pada-pt-grand-prix-indoagung.​pdf.
 
4
CNN Indonesia “Ban Bulkanisir Wajib SNI, untuk Apaa?” August 1, 2019. https://​www.​cnnindonesia.​com/​teknologi/​20190730094821-384-416654/​pemerintah-ingin-ban-vulkanisir-wajib-sni, viewed on August 6, 2019.
 
Literature
go back to reference Fernandes, Monica R. and S. Santos. 2013. “Rubbers for More Sustainable Retreading” Rubber World Vol. 246, No. 6. Fernandes, Monica R. and S. Santos. 2013. “Rubbers for More Sustainable Retreading” Rubber World Vol. 246, No. 6.
go back to reference Kojima, Michikazu. 2014. “Remanufacturing and International Trade” in Michikazu Kojima(ed.) International Reused and Developing Countries: Transboundary Transaction of Used Goods [In Japanese], Institute of Developing Economies. Kojima, Michikazu. 2014. “Remanufacturing and International Trade” in Michikazu Kojima(ed.) International Reused and Developing Countries: Transboundary Transaction of Used Goods [In Japanese], Institute of Developing Economies.
go back to reference Kojima, Michikazu. 2017. “Remanufacturing and Trade Regulation” Procedia CIRP Vol. 61, pp. 641–644. Kojima, Michikazu. 2017. “Remanufacturing and Trade Regulation” Procedia CIRP Vol. 61, pp. 641–644.
go back to reference Oomoto Shoten Kikaku. 2016. Annual Book on Tire, [in Japanese] RK Tsushin Sha. Oomoto Shoten Kikaku. 2016. Annual Book on Tire, [in Japanese] RK Tsushin Sha.
go back to reference Reiter P, and Sprenger D. 1987. “The used tire trade: a mechanism for the worldwide dispersal of container breeding mosquitoes” Journal of American Mosquito Control Association, Vol. 3, No. 3, 494–501. Reiter P, and Sprenger D. 1987. “The used tire trade: a mechanism for the worldwide dispersal of container breeding mosquitoes” Journal of American Mosquito Control Association, Vol. 3, No. 3, 494–501.
go back to reference NNA Asia. 2017. “Domestic standards for retreading tires will be applied to passenger cars,” [in Japanese] March 29, 2017. NNA Asia. 2017. “Domestic standards for retreading tires will be applied to passenger cars,” [in Japanese] March 29, 2017.
go back to reference Tandoko, Cynthia. 2015. “Strategi Pengembangan Bisinis Pada PT Grand Prix Indoagung” AGORA Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 631–638. Tandoko, Cynthia. 2015. “Strategi Pengembangan Bisinis Pada PT Grand Prix Indoagung” AGORA Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 631–638.
go back to reference Japan Automobile Transport Technology Association (ed.). 1976. Handbook of Automobile Tire [in Japanese], Kokumin Kagaku sha. Japan Automobile Transport Technology Association (ed.). 1976. Handbook of Automobile Tire [in Japanese], Kokumin Kagaku sha.
go back to reference Yamamoto, Yasuko. 1995. “Commodity Classifications in Trade Statistics,” Soshichi Kinoshita and Yosuke Noda (ed.) World Trade Data System: Arrangement and its Application, I.D.E. Statistical Data Series No. 67, Institute of Developing Economies. Yamamoto, Yasuko. 1995. “Commodity Classifications in Trade Statistics,” Soshichi Kinoshita and Yosuke Noda (ed.) World Trade Data System: Arrangement and its Application, I.D.E. Statistical Data Series No. 67, Institute of Developing Economies.
Metadata
Title
International Trade of Used and Retread Tires
Author
Michikazu Kojima
Copyright Year
2021
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-55579-5_7

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