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About this book

This book focuses on the Internet of Everything and related fields. The Internet of Everything adds connectivity and intelligence to just about every device, giving it special functions. The book provides a common platform for integrating information from heterogeneous sources. However, this can be quite reductive, as the Internet of Everything provides links not only among things, but also data, people, and business processes. The evolution of current sensor and device networks, with strong interactions between people and social environments, will have a dramatic impact on everything from city planning, first responders, the military and health.

Such a shared ecosystem will allow for the interaction between data, sensor inputs and heterogeneous systems. Semantics is a fundamental component of this since semantic technologies are able to provide the necessary bridge between different data representations, and to solve terminology incongruence.

Integrating data from distributed devices, sensor networks, social networks and biomedical instruments requires, first of all, the systematization of the current state of the art in such fields. Then, it is necessary to identify a common action thread to actually merge and homogenize standards and techniques applied in such a heterogeneous field. The exact requirements of an Internet of Everything environment need to be precisely identified and formally expressed, and finally, the role of modern computing paradigms, such as Cloud and Fog Computing, needs to be assessed with respect to the requirements expressed by an Internet of Everything ecosystem.

Table of Contents


Trends and Strategic Researches in Internet of Everything

Connected sensors and devices are a pervasive reality, as we interact more or less knowingly with smart items every day. While smart-phones represent the main Internet connected devices which people interact with during their daily lives, other intelligent items are at our disposal and they are so integrated with the environment that we fail to notice them. Animals too participate in this relatively new phenomenon, as the use of subcutaneous chips to identify and track them are widely used. In the modern era, where each item and living being (animal or human) is or can be connected to others and share data, the Internet of Everything has become a new buzz-world, and great attention has aroused for the huge variety of possible applications of such technologies, together with concerns regarding privacy and security. In this chapter we introduce the concept of Internet of Everything and we focus on some of the specific technological areas which fall under this wide category.
Beniamino Di Martino, Kuan-Ching Li, Laurence Tianruo Yang, Antonio Esposito

Towards an Integrated Internet of Things: Current Approaches and Challenges

With the diffusion of sensors and smart devices, and the advances in connection technologies, the Internet of Things (IoT) has become a very popular topic. Because of the creation and expansion of new and existing sensor networks, the need to define a common standard for sensors’ interfaces representation has arisen. Currently it is difficult to make different sensors and sensors’ networks interoperate seamlessly, since their interfaces are not always well specified or are not ready to be adapted immediately to one another. In this chapter we will introduce the main technologies currently available to define a machine readable and human comprehensible IoT API, and we will point out the several challenges which will derive from an automatic analysis and description of IoT interfaces. Security issues are also considered and discussed.
Beniamino Di Martino, Antonio Esposito, Stefania Nacchia, Salvatore Augusto Maisto

Energy Harvesting in Internet of Things

Powering billions of connected devices has been recognized as one of the biggest hurdles in the development of Internet of Things (IoT). With such a volume of tiny and ubiquitous smart physical objects in this new Internet paradigm, power cables or sizable battery packs are no longer a viable option to bring them online for years and decades. Energy harvesting, which enables devices to be self-sustaining, has been deemed a prominent solution to these constraints. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of IoT devices, from their roles and responsibilities, to the challenges of operating them autonomously in heterogeneous environments. The concepts, principles and design considerations for energy harvesting are introduced to aid researchers and practitioners to incorporate this key technology into their next applications.
Cheuk-Wang Yau, Tyrone Tai-On Kwok, Chi-Un Lei, Yu-Kwong Kwok

A Detailed Analysis of IoT Platform Architectures: Concepts, Similarities, and Differences

The IoT is gaining increasing attention. The overall aim is to interconnect the physical with the digital world. Therefore, the physical world is measured by sensors and translated into processible data, and data has to be translated into commands to be executed by actuators. Due to the growing interest in IoT, the number of platforms designed to support IoT has risen considerably. As a result of different approaches, standards, and use cases, there is a wide variety and heterogeneity of IoT platforms. This leads to difficulties in comprehending, selecting, and using appropriate platforms. In this work, we tackle these issues by conducting a detailed analysis of several state-of-the-art IoT platforms in order to foster the understanding of the (i) underlying concepts, (ii) similarities, and (iii) differences between them. We show that the various components of the different platforms can be mapped to an abstract reference architecture, and analyze the effectiveness of this mapping.
Jasmin Guth, Uwe Breitenbücher, Michael Falkenthal, Paul Fremantle, Oliver Kopp, Frank Leymann, Lukas Reinfurt

Fog Computing: A Taxonomy, Survey and Future Directions

In recent years, the number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices/sensors has increased to a great extent. To support the computational demand of real-time latency-sensitive applications of largely geo-distributed IoT devices/sensors, a new computing paradigm named “Fog computing” has been introduced. Generally, Fog computing resides closer to the IoT devices/sensors and extends the Cloud-based computing, storage and networking facilities. In this chapter, we comprehensively analyse the challenges in Fogs acting as an intermediate layer between IoT devices/sensors and Cloud datacentres and review the current developments in this field. We present a taxonomy of Fog computing according to the identified challenges and its key features. We also map the existing works to the taxonomy in order to identify current research gaps in the area of Fog computing. Moreover, based on the observations, we propose future directions for research.
Redowan Mahmud, Ramamohanarao Kotagiri, Rajkumar Buyya

Challenges and Opportunities in Designing Smart Spaces

In the past decade, research in Internet of Things and related technologies such as Ubiquitous Computing has fueled the development of Smart Spaces. Smart space does not just mean interconnection of different devices in our surroundings but an environment where the devices respond to human behavior and needs. To achieve this vision, services that are based on user’s intents and their high-level goals should be provided. However, existing works mostly focus on providing context-awareness based services. In the past, smart space developers focused on providing technology-centric solutions but this approach failed to achieve wider market adoption of products as users either did not want the solutions at first place or they just could not understand how it worked. Therefore, researchers and smart space developers have now shifted towards the user-centric approach for developing smart spaces. It is non-trivial to develop user-centric smart spaces as developers have to consider factors such as user requirements, behavior etc. apart from usual technical challenges. In this work, we take a comprehensive look at the challenges in developing user-centric smart spaces for two different smart space scenarios: Smart Home and Smart Shopping. We give four user-centric criteria to compare these two smart spaces. At the end, we also provide some future research directions for developing Smart Spaces.
Yuvraj Sahni, Jiannong Cao, Jiaxing Shen

SMART-FI: Exploiting Open IoT Data from Smart Cities in the Future Internet Society

Smart Cities of the future have a potential to serve as a holistic platform for generating values from the abundance of currently untapped human, societal and ICT capital. Currently, Smart Cities are ever-stronger facing numerous challenges and a stringent need to optimize their urban processes, infrastructure and facilities, such as urban transportation and energy management. Unfortunately, at the moment, small portion of urban data is being exploited for gaining better insights and optimizing Smart City processes. In this chapter, we introduce a novel Smart City platform being developed in the context of SMART-FI project. The SMART-FI platform aims to facilitate analyzing, deploying, managing and interoperating Smart City data analytics services. Firstly, SMART-FI strives to enable collecting the data from a variety of sources, such as sensors and public data sources. Secondly, the platform provides mechanisms for homogenizing the data coming from various networks and protocols. Finally, it provides facilities to develop, deploy and orchestrate novel, added-value Smart City data analytic services. To demonstrate the practical feasibility of the proposed solutions and showcase their benefits for the variety of involved stakeholders, SMART-FI will be piloted in three cities: Malaga (Spain), Karlshamn (Sweden), and Malatya (Turkey).
Stefan Nastic, Javier Cubo, Malena Donato, Schahram Dustdar, Örjan Guthu. Mats Jonsson, Ömer Özdemir, Ernesto Pimentel, M. Serdar Yümlü

A Case for IoT Security Assurance

Today the proliferation of ubiquitous devices interacting with the external environment and connected by means of wired/wireless communication technologies points to the definition of a new vision of ICT called Internet of Things (IoT). In IoT, sensors and actuators, possibly embedded in more powerful devices, such as smartphones, interact with the surrounding environment. They collect information and supply it across networks to platforms where IoT applications are built. IoT services are then made available to final customers through these platforms. Needless to say, IoT scenario revolutionizes the concept of security, which becomes even more critical than before. Security protection must consider millions of devices that are under control of external entities, freshness and integrity of data that are produced by the latter devices, and heterogeneous environments and contexts that co-exist in the same IoT environment. These aspects make the need of a systematic way of assessing the quality and security of IoT systems evident, introducing the need of rethinking existing assurance methods to fit the IoT-based services. In this chapter, we discuss and analyze challenges in the design and development of assurance methods in IoT, focusing on traditional CIA properties, and provide a first process for the development of continuous assurance methods for IoT services. We also design a conceptual framework for IoT security assurance evaluation.
Claudio A. Ardagna, Ernesto Damiani, Julian Schütte, Philipp Stephanow

Study on IP Protection Techniques for Integrated Circuit in IOT Environment

The growth of electronic chip technique has led to frequent occurrence of intellectual property (IP) disputes. It seriously affects rapid and healthy development of semiconductor industry. To address the disputes, many IP protection methods are proposed in these years, such as IP watermarking. It is a novel technique to hide secrets in IP core to prove original ownership. This chapter focuses on two issues: how to hide secrets in IP circuit and how to authenticate IP ownership. Four types of IP watermarking methods will be concretely introduced in this chapter. (1) FPGA based IP watermarking technique. (2) FSM based IP watermarking technique. (3) DFT based IP watermarking technique. (4) Self-recoverable dual IP watermarking technique. The experiments show that the proposed schemes have low resource overhead by comparing with other schemes. Meanwhile the resistance to attacks of the watermark is encouraging as well.
Wei Liang, Jing Long, Dafang Zhang, Xiong Li, Yin Huang

Cyber Defence Capabilities in Complex Networks

This chapter presents a quick overview about the existing cyber Defence capabilities and cyber ranges in complex networks where operations testbeds meant to bring improvements in cyber security training. The current chapter gives a brief on the problem area where cyber developments within the Ministry of Defence (MoD) are introduced along with the test range. The research goal is introduced as well as the study limitations and desired results. The chapter ends with some recommendations and suggestions that the researcher came up with based on the results of the study for complex networks.
Dragoş Ionicǎ, Nirvana Popescu, Decebal Popescu, Florin Pop
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