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2024 | Book

Internet of Things for Sustainable Community Development

Wireless Communications, Sensing, and Systems

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About this book

This updated book presents research on how Internet of Things plays a part in shaping the future of our communities. The author shows how the research and education ecosystem promoting impactful solutions-oriented science can help citizenry, government, industry, and other stakeholders to work collaboratively in order to make informed, socially-responsible, science-based decisions. The author also provides updated data on how communities can address complex, interconnected socio-environmental challenges. This book addresses the key inter-related challenges in areas such as the environment, climate change, mining, energy, agro-economic, water, and forestry that are limiting the development of a sustainable and resilient society -- each of these challenges are tied back to IoT based solutions.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Internet of Things for Sustainable Community Development: Introduction and Overview
Abstract
The two-thirds of the city-dwelling world population by 2050 poses numerous global challenges in the infrastructure and natural resource management domains (e.g., water and food scarcity, increasing global temperatures, and energy issues). The Internet of Things (IoT) with integrated sensing and communication capabilities has the strong potential for the robust, sustainable, and informed resource management in the urban and rural communities. In this chapter, the vital concepts of sustainable community development are discussed. The IoT and sustainability interactions are explained with emphasis on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and communication technologies. Moreover, IoT opportunities and challenges are discussed in the context of sustainable community development.
Abdul Salam
Chapter 2. Internet of Things for Environmental Sustainability and Climate Change
Abstract
Our world is vulnerable to climate change risks such as glacier retreat, rising temperatures, more variable and intense weather events (e.g., floods, droughts, and frosts), deteriorating mountain ecosystems, soil degradation, and increasing water scarcity. However, there are big gaps in our understanding of changes in regional climate and how these changes will impact human and natural systems, making it difficult to anticipate, plan, and adapt to the coming changes. The IoT paradigm in this area can enhance our understanding of regional climate by using technology solutions while providing the dynamic climate elements based on integrated environmental sensing and communications that are necessary to support climate change impact assessments in each of the related areas (e.g., environmental quality and monitoring, sustainable energy, agricultural systems, cultural preservation, and sustainable mining). In the IoT in Environmental Sustainability and Climate Change chapter, a framework for informed creation, interpretation, and use of climate change projections and for continued innovations in climate and environmental science driven by key societal and economic stakeholders is presented. In addition, the IoT cyberinfrastructure to support the development of continued innovations in climate and environmental science is discussed.
Abdul Salam
Chapter 3. Internet of Things in Agricultural Innovation and Security
Abstract
The agricultural Internet of Things (Ag-IoT) paradigm has tremendous potential in transparent integration of underground soil sensing, farm machinery, and sensor-guided irrigation systems with the complex social network of growers, agronomists, crop consultants, and advisors. The aim of the IoT in agricultural innovation and security chapter is to present agricultural IoT research and paradigm to promote sustainable production of safe, healthy, and profitable crop and animal agricultural products. This chapter covers the IoT platform to test optimized management strategies, engage farmer and industry groups, and investigate new and traditional technology drivers that will enhance resilience of the farmers to the socio-environmental changes. A review of state-of-the-art communication architectures and underlying sensing technologies and communication mechanisms is presented with coverage of recent advances in the theory and applications of wireless underground communications. Major challenges in Ag-IoT design and implementation are also discussed.
Abdul Salam
Chapter 4. Internet of Things for Water Sustainability
Abstract
Water is a finite resource. The issue of sustainable withdrawal of freshwater is a vital concern being faced by the community. There is a strong connection between the energy, food, and water which is referred to as the water-food-energy nexus. The agricultural industry and municipalities are struggling to meet the demand of water supply. This situation is particularly exacerbated in the developing countries. The projected increase in the world population requires more freshwater resources. New technologies are being developed to reduce water usage in the field of agriculture (e.g., sensor-guided autonomous irrigation management systems). Agricultural water withdrawal is also impacting ground and surface water resources. Although the importance of reduction in water usage cannot be overemphasized, major efforts for sustainable water are directed toward the novel technology development for cleaning and recycling. Moreover, currently, energy technologies require abundant water for energy production. Therefore, energy sustainability is inextricably linked to water sustainability. The water sustainability IoT has a strong potential to solve many challenges in the water-food-energy nexus. In this chapter, the architecture of IoT for water sustainability is presented. An in-depth coverage of sensing and communication technologies and water systems is also provided.
Abdul Salam
Chapter 5. Internet of Things for Sustainable Forestry
Abstract
Forests and grasslands play an important role in water and air purification, in prevention of soil erosion, and in provision of habitat to wildlife. Internet of Things has a tremendous potential to play a vital role in the forest ecosystem management and stability. The conservation of species and habitats, timber production, prevention of forest soil degradation, and forest fire prediction, mitigation, and control can be attained through forest management using Internet of Things. The use and adoption of IoT in forest ecosystem management is challenging due to many factors. Vast geographical areas and limited resources in terms of budget and equipment are some of the limiting factors. In digital forestry, IoT deployment offers effective operations, control, and forecasts for soil erosion, fires, and undesirable depositions. In this chapter, IoT sensing and communication applications are presented for digital forestry systems. Different IoT systems for digital forest monitoring applications are also discussed.
Abdul Salam
Chapter 6. Internet of Things in Sustainable Energy Systems
Abstract
Our planet has abundant renewable and conventional energy resources, but technological capability and capacity gaps coupled with water-energy needs limit the benefits of these resources to citizens. Through IoT technology solutions and state-of-the-art IoT sensing and communication approaches, sustainable energy-related research and innovation can bring a revolution in this area. Moreover, by the leveraging current infrastructure, including renewable energy technologies, microgrids, and power-to-gas (P2G) hydrogen systems, the Internet of Things in sustainable energy systems can address challenges in energy security to the community, with a minimal trade-off to environment and culture. In this chapter, the IoT in sustainable energy systems approaches, methodologies, scenarios, and tools is presented with a detailed discussion of different sensing and communication techniques. This IoT approach in energy systems is envisioned to enhance the bidirectional interchange of network services in grid by using Internet of Things that will result in enhanced system resilience, reliable data flow, and connectivity optimization. Moreover, sustainable energy IoT research challenges and innovation opportunities are also discussed to address the complex energy needs of our community and promote a strong energy sector economy.
Abdul Salam
Chapter 7. Internet of Things for Sustainable Human Health
Abstract
The sustainable health IoT has the strong potential to bring tremendous improvements in human health and well-being through sensing, and monitoring of health impacts across the whole spectrum of climate change. The sustainable health IoT enables development of a systems approach in the area of human health and ecosystem. It allows integration of broader health sub-areas in a bigger archetype for improving sustainability in health in the realm of social, economic, and environmental sectors. This integration provides a powerful health IoT framework for sustainable health and community goals in the wake of changing climate. In this chapter, a detailed description of climate-related health impacts on human health is provided. The sensing, communications, and monitoring technologies are discussed. The impact of key environmental and human health factors on the development of new IoT technologies also is analyzed.
Abdul Salam
Chapter 8. Internet of Things for Sustainable Mining
Abstract
The sustainable mining Internet of Things deals with the applications of IoT technology to the coupled needs of sustainable recovery of metals and a healthy environment for a thriving planet. In this chapter, the IoT architecture and technology is presented to support development of a digital mining platform emphasizing the exploration of rock-fluid-environment interactions to develop extraction methods with maximum economic benefit while maintaining and preserving both water quantity and quality, soil, and, ultimately, human health. New perspectives are provided for IoT applications in developing new mineral resources, improved management of tailings, and monitoring and mitigating contamination from mining. Moreover, tools to assess the environmental and social impacts of mining including the demands on dwindling freshwater resources and the cutting-edge technologies that could be leveraged to develop the state-of-the-art sustainable mining IoT paradigm are also discussed.
Abdul Salam
Chapter 9. Internet of Things in Water Management and Treatment
Abstract
The goal of the water security IoT chapter is to present a comprehensive and integrated IoT-based approach to environmental quality and monitoring by generating new knowledge and innovative approaches that focus on sustainable resource management. Mainly, this chapter focuses on IoT applications in wastewater and stormwater, and the human and environmental consequences of water contaminants and their treatment. The IoT applications using sensors for sewer and stormwater monitoring across networked landscapes, water quality assessment, treatment, and sustainable management are introduced. The studies of rate limitations in biophysical and geochemical processes that support the ecosystem services related to water quality are presented. The applications of IoT solutions based on these discoveries are also discussed.
Abdul Salam
Chapter 10. Internet of Things for Sustainability: Perspectives in Privacy, Cybersecurity, and Future Trends
Abstract
In the sustainability IoT, the cybersecurity risks to things, sensors, and monitoring systems are distinct from the conventional networking systems in many aspects. The interaction of sustainability IoT with the physical world phenomena (e.g., weather, climate, water, and oceans) is mostly not found in the modern information technology systems. Accordingly, actuation, the ability of these devices to make changes in real world based on sensing and monitoring, requires special consideration in terms of privacy and security. Moreover, the energy efficiency, safety, power, and performance requirements of these devices distinguish them from conventional computer systems. In this chapter, the cybersecurity approaches toward sustainability IoT are discussed in detail. The sustainability IoT risk categorization, risk mitigation goals, and implementation aspects are analyzed. The openness paradox and data dichotomy between privacy and sharing are analyzed. Accordingly, the IoT technology and security standard development activities are highlighted. The perspectives on opportunities and challenges in IoT for sustainability are given. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of sustainability IoT cybersecurity case studies.
Abdul Salam
Chapter 11. Medium Access in Internet of Things
Abstract
In this chapter, the medium access control, connectivity, and diversity reception approaches are discussed for wireless underground communications. The connectivity and interference models are studied for ad hoc and hybrid networks. The topology control mechanisms for maintaining network connectivity are explored for maximizing network capacity under the physical models (e.g., the protocol interference model and physical interference model). Moreover, the underground diversity is examined for 3W-Rake receiver and coherent detection along with experimental evaluation. Finally, the chapter is concluded with comprehensive analysis of performance of equalization techniques.
Abdul Salam
Chapter 12. IoT in Hyperspectral Space: Terrestrial Integration Network
Abstract
A standard aerial-space-terrestrial integrated network consists of three layers: a space-based network made up of satellites in different orbits, an aerial network made up of aircraft, and a ground-based network made up of satellite ground stations, mobile satellite terminals, and terrestrial cellular mobile networks. Vast space coverage, vast line of sight, and low-loss transmission are all advantages that the space-terrestrial integrated network can fully utilize to provide seamless high-speed mobile coverage in global 3D space. A high-throughput satellite system called the 5G-defined space-terrestrial integrated network uses mm-wave or microwave bands to deliver 100 Mbps/s broadband services through the deployment of centralized point beams (Salam (J Sensor Actuator Netw 8(3):41, 2019)).
Abdul Salam
Chapter 13. IoT in Cyber-Physical Systems
Abstract
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are conveniently used in precision agriculture to gather field and crop information without any over-the-surface footprint that could interfere with other farming activities. However, the underground medium is a challenging medium for wireless communications because of the attenuation caused by soil and its time-varying properties. This research presents long-term soil moisture measurements and radio communication evaluations. Analysis of the impacts of field conditions on wireless underground communication is provided. Additionally, the detection capabilities of the sensor networks are expanded to a cyber-physical system using a cloud-based controller that determines the appropriate water application level.
Abdul Salam
Chapter 14. IoT in Adaptive Control Systems
Abstract
The adaptive control systems for soil-air communication, the three-wave channel model, and the channel model that consider propagation, multi-path, soil composition, water content, and burial depth provide guidance on how to improve the communication in the underground channel. One way to validate the existing models is through empirical studies. The outdoor WUSN testbed used in this research provides real-life scenario such as changing weather conditions, crop rotation, and irrigation and fertigation events to which sensors and transceivers are exposed. Another situation that is interesting to study is the effect of sudden changes in soil moisture caused by events like irrigation and a storm in wireless communication. As the soil becomes wet, the communication between the sensor network and the control system will be altered because of the water content. The analysis of measurements and communication packages captured during a prolonged period of time will provide a better understanding on wireless communication in underground settings.
Abdul Salam
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Internet of Things for Sustainable Community Development
Author
Abdul Salam
Copyright Year
2024
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-62162-8
Print ISBN
978-3-031-62161-1
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-62162-8

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