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About this book

The book highlights three types of technologies being developed for autonomous solution of navigation problems. These technologies are based on the polarization structure, ultra-broadband and the fluctuation characteristics (slow and fast) of the radiolocation signals. The book presents the problems of intrinsic thermal radio emission polarization and change in radio waves polarization when they are reflected from objects with non-linear properties.
The purpose of this book is to develop the foundations for creating autonomous radionavigation systems to provide aviation with navigation systems that will substantially increase its capabilities, specifically acting where satellite technologies do not work. The book is intended for specialists involved in the development and operation of aviation-technical complexes, as well as for specialists of national aviation regulators and ICAO experts dealing with the problems of improving flight safety.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Polarization Structure of the Autonomous Radionavigation Systems Signals

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Radiophysical Provision of Radio Polarimetric Navigation Systems

Abstract
The electromagnetic field, as a carrier of information about the objects under study, is a field of interrelated vector values—the electric (electric vector \( \vec{E} \)) and magnetic (magnetic vector \( \vec{H} \)) field intensity.
Kozlov A. I., Logvin A. I., Sarychev V. A., Shatrakov Y. G., Zavalishin O. I.

Chapter 2. Analysis of the Signals’ Polarization of Radiopolarimetric Navigation Systems Using Coordinate Components

Abstract
In Sect. 1.​2, a four-dimensional vector \(\vec{E} = \left( {x_{1} x_{2} x_{3} x_{4} } \right)^{\text{T}}\) defined by Eqs. (1.​21)–(1.​22) is introduced as one of the possible representations of radio wave polarization. The use of vector \(\vec{E}\) is convenient, firstly, because the consideration is conducted in the real domain and, secondly, because it is easy to build correct mathematical models of real physical processes for it. However, the use of the vector \(\vec{E}\) is suitable to carry out when the researcher has a good computing technique.
Kozlov A. I., Logvin A. I., Sarychev V. A., Shatrakov Y. G., Zavalishin O. I.

Chapter 3. Analysis of the Signal Polarization State of Navigation Systems Based on Energy Characteristics

Abstract
As it was mentioned in Sect. 1.​2.​, one of the ways to describe the polarization state of radio waves is to use the coherence matrix K, which is defined with an Eq. (1.​19), obtained as a result of multiplying the matrix-column.
Kozlov A. I., Logvin A. I., Sarychev V. A., Shatrakov Y. G., Zavalishin O. I.

Chapter 4. Analysis of the Signal Polarization of Navigation Systems in the Plane of Geometrical Parameters

Abstract
In Sect. 1.​2, the concept of the phasor p was introduced by the relation (1.11), as the ratio of complex amplitudes \(E_{y}\) and \(E_{x}\).
Kozlov A. I., Logvin A. I., Sarychev V. A., Shatrakov Y. G., Zavalishin O. I.

Chapter 5. Graphic Representations of the Signal Polarization State in Navigation Systems

Abstract
In Sect. 1.​1, the Poincaré sphere and the Poincaré plane were introduced as a means for representing the polarization state of the wave. From the algebraic point of view, the Poincaré sphere represents the mapping of the group of rotations of Jones vectors in the space of their stereographic projections. The radio wave polarization is represented on this sphere by a certain point P (Fig. 1.​5), the position of which is uniquely determined by the angles \(2\alpha ,2\beta\) or \(2\gamma ,2\delta\), or Cartesian coordinates \(S_{1} ,S_{2} ,S_{3}\) (Stokes parameters).
Kozlov A. I., Logvin A. I., Sarychev V. A., Shatrakov Y. G., Zavalishin O. I.

Transformation of the Polarization Structure of the Scattered and Eigen Emission of Navigation Observation Objects

Frontmatter

Chapter 6. Scattering Matrix and Its Basic Properties

Abstract
The structural representations for the field existing outside the scatterer are based on the division of the observed total field \( \vec{E}_{{\Sigma} } \) into the incident \( \vec{E}_{u} \) and scattered \( \vec{E}_{p} \), i.e., \( \vec{E}_{{\Sigma} } = \vec{E}_{u} + \vec{E}_{p} \).
Kozlov A. I., Logvin A. I., Sarychev V. A., Shatrakov Y. G., Zavalishin O. I.

Chapter 7. Own Radio Emission and Scattering of Radio Waves

Abstract
When analyzing the energy characteristics of the reflected signal, the so-called Graves matrix is most convenient.
Kozlov A. I., Logvin A. I., Sarychev V. A., Shatrakov Y. G., Zavalishin O. I.

Chapter 8. Scattering of Polarized Radio Waves from Surface Structures and Backgrounds of Navigational Observation

Abstract
It is important to know polarization characteristics of radio waves reflected from underlying covers, when solving the issues of remote sounding. Here first and foremost, learning the scattering parameters of exposed areas on the surface plays the most important role. It is clear that if electrophysical properties of such areas (salt content, humidity, soil composition, etc.) are changed, the basic electrodynamic characteristic of the surface—its complex dielectric constant ε—would change. The change in the complex dielectric constant leads to changes in the reflective characteristics of the underlying surface, i.e., its scattering parameters.
Kozlov A. I., Logvin A. I., Sarychev V. A., Shatrakov Y. G., Zavalishin O. I.

Radiopolarimetry of Autonomous Navigation Systems

Frontmatter

Chapter 9. Radiolocation in Radio Polarimetry Navigation Systems

Abstract
One of the focus areas for radar monitoring tasks is to obtain non-coordinate target information. Such focus area implies tasks of target discrimination and evaluation of its geometric characteristics. Both tasks involve availability of information on scattering properties of radar targets due to their types. In particular, the solution of these tasks is based on the use of information on statistical characteristics of radar signal reflected from targets. Besides, it is necessary to be aware of the functional connection between parameters of scattered RF emission of radar targets and their physical, chemical, and electrical parameters. This task was solved in Chap. 1.
Kozlov A. I., Logvin A. I., Sarychev V. A., Shatrakov Y. G., Zavalishin O. I.

Chapter 10. Scattering Matrix as a Tool to Display Information on Visual Targets

Abstract
Previously, we considered the impact of the reflectance profile on the scattering matrix elements of the reflecting surface. As was shown, the impact of the geometric characteristics comes down to a certain multiplier depending on the geometry of an irradiated area.
Kozlov A. I., Logvin A. I., Sarychev V. A., Shatrakov Y. G., Zavalishin O. I.

Chapter 11. Enhancing Radar Station Functionalities to Delineate Linear Dimensions of Extended Visual Targets for Incoherent Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves

Abstract
Complexity of the problem related to radar target identification and (as a particular case) determination of its configuration and respective geometrical dimensions is primarily connected with the fact that a target detected by surveillance radar which dimensions are smaller than that of the respective resolution element is interpreted as a point target (a point that according to Euclid has no length, width, or height).
Kozlov A. I., Logvin A. I., Sarychev V. A., Shatrakov Y. G., Zavalishin O. I.

Chapter 12. Enhancing Radar Station Functionalities to Delineate and Estimate Linear Dimensions of Extended Visual Targets for Coherent Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves

Abstract
Phase center position of the radar target for coherent scattering. Let N HL be at a certain area of the flat surface S radiated by an electromagnetic wave emitted by the antenna A (Fig. 12.1) located at the point with coordinates (x, y, z) (the area dimensions are determined by the width of the antenna A directivity diagram).
Kozlov A. I., Logvin A. I., Sarychev V. A., Shatrakov Y. G., Zavalishin O. I.

Backmatter

Additional information