Skip to main content
Top
Published in: Mechanics of Composite Materials 5/2021

19-11-2021

Investigating the Effects that Alternative Turbine Engine Fuels have on the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite

Authors: T. Futch, G. Kim, R. Sterkenburg

Published in: Mechanics of Composite Materials | Issue 5/2021

Log in

Activate our intelligent search to find suitable subject content or patents.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

New commercial and military aircraft components are often manufactured using advanced composite materials. Fuel is stored in the wing and horizontal tail structures of aircraft for prolonged periods of time. The use of alternative turbine engine fuels as substitutes for such kerosene-based fuels as Jet-A is increasing steadily. However, the studies related to effects of the fuels on the composite structure of aircraft are limited in number. This research was meant to investigate the effects that contacting alternative turbine fuels might have on the mechanical properties of a composite structure. Three different test settings were prepared — 0 and 90° orientation tensile and a modified wedge ones. An IM7 8552 unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy prepreg was used to manufacture test specimens. They were soaked in various kinds of turbine engine fuels: neat Jet-A, 50/50 blend of Jet-A and hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) (Jet-A/HRJ), Fischer-Tropsch (FT), 50/50 blend of synthetic jet fuel S8 and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) (S8/FT), hydrogenated esters and fatty acids (HEFA) fuels, and synthesized iso-paraffin fuels (SIP) for a period of 45 days and then tested. The test data obtained were analyzed to detect any significant degradation of the mechanical properties of test specimens.

Dont have a licence yet? Then find out more about our products and how to get one now:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 390 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




 

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Literature
1.
go back to reference N. Guermazi, A. B. Tarjem, I. Ksouri, and H. F. Ayedi, “On the durability of FRP composites for aircraft structures in hygrothermal conditioning,” Composites Part B: Engineering, 85, 294-304 (2016).CrossRef N. Guermazi, A. B. Tarjem, I. Ksouri, and H. F. Ayedi, “On the durability of FRP composites for aircraft structures in hygrothermal conditioning,” Composites Part B: Engineering, 85, 294-304 (2016).CrossRef
2.
go back to reference X. He, “A review of finite element analysis of adhesively bonded joints,” International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 31, No. 4, 248-264 (2011).CrossRef X. He, “A review of finite element analysis of adhesively bonded joints,” International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 31, No. 4, 248-264 (2011).CrossRef
3.
go back to reference M. D. Banea and L. F. da Silva, “Adhesively bonded joints in composite materials: an overview,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications, 223, No. 1, 1-8 (2009).CrossRef M. D. Banea and L. F. da Silva, “Adhesively bonded joints in composite materials: an overview,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications, 223, No. 1, 1-8 (2009).CrossRef
4.
go back to reference N. Yilmaz and A. Atmanli, “Sustainable alternative fuels in aviation,” Energy, 140, 1378-1386 (2017).CrossRef N. Yilmaz and A. Atmanli, “Sustainable alternative fuels in aviation,” Energy, 140, 1378-1386 (2017).CrossRef
5.
go back to reference M. R. McWilliams, “Ensuring surety of supply through sustainable aviation fuels,” Air & Space Power Journal, 31, No. 1, 81-86 (2017). M. R. McWilliams, “Ensuring surety of supply through sustainable aviation fuels,” Air & Space Power Journal, 31, No. 1, 81-86 (2017).
6.
go back to reference B. Song, X. Wang, and H. Zhang, “The aircraft composite integral fuel tank fire safety performance analysis and shrinkage ratio simulation calculation,” Procedia Engineering., 52, 320-324 (2013).CrossRef B. Song, X. Wang, and H. Zhang, “The aircraft composite integral fuel tank fire safety performance analysis and shrinkage ratio simulation calculation,” Procedia Engineering., 52, 320-324 (2013).CrossRef
7.
go back to reference F. Wang, S. Jia, Y. Wang, and Z. Yue, “Impact response study on covering cap of aircraft big-size integral fuel tank,” Applied Composite Materials, 23, No. 5, 953-972 (2016).CrossRef F. Wang, S. Jia, Y. Wang, and Z. Yue, “Impact response study on covering cap of aircraft big-size integral fuel tank,” Applied Composite Materials, 23, No. 5, 953-972 (2016).CrossRef
8.
go back to reference G. Kim and R. Sterkenburg, “Investigating the effects aviation fluids have on the flatwise compressive strength of Nomex® honeycomb core material,” Journal of Sandwich Structures & Materials, 1099636219836645 (2019). G. Kim and R. Sterkenburg, “Investigating the effects aviation fluids have on the flatwise compressive strength of Nomex® honeycomb core material,” Journal of Sandwich Structures & Materials, 1099636219836645 (2019).
9.
go back to reference Y. Aoki, K. Yamada, and T. Ishikawa, “Effects of water absorption and temperature on compression after impact (cal) strength of CFRP laminates,” in: 16th International Conference on Composite Materials, Tokyo, Japan (2007). Y. Aoki, K. Yamada, and T. Ishikawa, “Effects of water absorption and temperature on compression after impact (cal) strength of CFRP laminates,” in: 16th International Conference on Composite Materials, Tokyo, Japan (2007).
10.
go back to reference D. J. Kumar, A. K. Singh, and R. P. Singh, “Accelerated environmental degradation of fiber reinforced composites by boiling water,” Processing, Properties and Performance of Composite Materials, 4, 2652-2658 (2008). D. J. Kumar, A. K. Singh, and R. P. Singh, “Accelerated environmental degradation of fiber reinforced composites by boiling water,” Processing, Properties and Performance of Composite Materials, 4, 2652-2658 (2008).
11.
go back to reference Y. Zhong and S. C. Joshi, “Initiation of structural defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites under hydrothermal environments,” Journal of Composite Materials, 50, No. 8, 1085-1097 (2016).CrossRef Y. Zhong and S. C. Joshi, “Initiation of structural defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites under hydrothermal environments,” Journal of Composite Materials, 50, No. 8, 1085-1097 (2016).CrossRef
12.
go back to reference J. Meng and Y. Wang, “A review on artificial aging behaviors of fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composites,” in : Proceeding of the International Symposium on Materials Application and Engineering (SAME 2016), Chiang Mai, Thailand (2016). J. Meng and Y. Wang, “A review on artificial aging behaviors of fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composites,” in : Proceeding of the International Symposium on Materials Application and Engineering (SAME 2016), Chiang Mai, Thailand (2016).
13.
go back to reference X. J. Lv, Q. Zhang, X. F. Li, and G. J. Xie, “Study of the influence of immersion on the carbon fiber/epoxy composites,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 27, No. 6, 659-666 (2008).CrossRef X. J. Lv, Q. Zhang, X. F. Li, and G. J. Xie, “Study of the influence of immersion on the carbon fiber/epoxy composites,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 27, No. 6, 659-666 (2008).CrossRef
14.
go back to reference G. Kim, R. Sterkenburg, and W. Tsutsui, “Investigating the effects of fluid intrusion on Nomex® honeycomb sandwich structures with carbon fiber facesheets,” Composite Structures, 206, 535-549 (2018).CrossRef G. Kim, R. Sterkenburg, and W. Tsutsui, “Investigating the effects of fluid intrusion on Nomex® honeycomb sandwich structures with carbon fiber facesheets,” Composite Structures, 206, 535-549 (2018).CrossRef
15.
go back to reference C. Khoury, R. Sterkenburg, P. Wang, and S. Dubikovsky, “Investigating the effects of deicing fluids on the structural properties of bonded composites aircraft structures,” in: Proceedings of the 7th Asian-Australian Conference on Composite Materials, Taipei, Taiwan (2010). C. Khoury, R. Sterkenburg, P. Wang, and S. Dubikovsky, “Investigating the effects of deicing fluids on the structural properties of bonded composites aircraft structures,” in: Proceedings of the 7th Asian-Australian Conference on Composite Materials, Taipei, Taiwan (2010).
16.
go back to reference A. Kremmel, D. Danzler, P. Wang, and R. Sterkenburg, “Investigating the chemical resistance of adhesively bonded composite material Joints in the presence of various fluids found in or around aircraft structures,” in: Proceedings of the 2011 ATEC Conference, Orlando, Florida (2011). A. Kremmel, D. Danzler, P. Wang, and R. Sterkenburg, “Investigating the chemical resistance of adhesively bonded composite material Joints in the presence of various fluids found in or around aircraft structures,” in: Proceedings of the 2011 ATEC Conference, Orlando, Florida (2011).
17.
go back to reference R. Sterkenburg, C. Khoury, P. Wang, and S. Dubikovsky, “Investigating the effects of fluids on carbon fiber aircraft structures,” in: Proceedings of the 2011 SAMPE Technical Conference, Long Beach, California (2011). R. Sterkenburg, C. Khoury, P. Wang, and S. Dubikovsky, “Investigating the effects of fluids on carbon fiber aircraft structures,” in: Proceedings of the 2011 SAMPE Technical Conference, Long Beach, California (2011).
18.
go back to reference C. Moses, Comparative Evaluation of Semi-synthetic Jet Fuels [Report], Universal Technology Corporation, New Braunfels, TX, USA (2008). C. Moses, Comparative Evaluation of Semi-synthetic Jet Fuels [Report], Universal Technology Corporation, New Braunfels, TX, USA (2008).
19.
go back to reference S. G. Taghavi, Moisture Effects on High-performance Polymer Composites [Master’s Thesis], University of Toronto, Canada (2000). S. G. Taghavi, Moisture Effects on High-performance Polymer Composites [Master’s Thesis], University of Toronto, Canada (2000).
20.
go back to reference M. Condruz, A. Paraschiv, C. Puşcaşu, and I. S. Vintilă, “Tensile behavior of humid aged advanced composites for helicopter external fuel tank development,” in: Proceeding of the 13th National Congress on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (NCTAM 2017), Sofia, Bulgaria (2017). M. Condruz, A. Paraschiv, C. Puşcaşu, and I. S. Vintilă, “Tensile behavior of humid aged advanced composites for helicopter external fuel tank development,” in: Proceeding of the 13th National Congress on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (NCTAM 2017), Sofia, Bulgaria (2017).
21.
go back to reference N. Genanu, “Study the effect of immersion in gasoline and kerosene on fatigue behavior for epoxy composites reinforcement with glass fiber,” in: The Fifth Scientific Conference of University of Wasit, Al-Kut City, Wasit, Iraq (2011). N. Genanu, “Study the effect of immersion in gasoline and kerosene on fatigue behavior for epoxy composites reinforcement with glass fiber,” in: The Fifth Scientific Conference of University of Wasit, Al-Kut City, Wasit, Iraq (2011).
Metadata
Title
Investigating the Effects that Alternative Turbine Engine Fuels have on the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite
Authors
T. Futch
G. Kim
R. Sterkenburg
Publication date
19-11-2021
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Mechanics of Composite Materials / Issue 5/2021
Print ISSN: 0191-5665
Electronic ISSN: 1573-8922
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11029-021-09982-x

Other articles of this Issue 5/2021

Mechanics of Composite Materials 5/2021 Go to the issue

Premium Partners