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About this book

This book introduces readers to environmental background investigation, pollution source intensity evaluation and risk assessment approaches used at three main types of groundwater-contaminated sites: municipal domestic waste landfills, hazardous waste landfills and oil-contaminated sites. In addition, typical contaminated sites throughout China are examined to demonstrate how these approaches can be applied for their investigation, assessment and restoration. By reading this book, readers will gain a deeper understanding of the restoration and management of typical groundwater-contaminated sites.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The environmental impacts of contaminated sites on soil and groundwater have attracted increasing attention worldwide and emerged as an important bottleneck for the sustainable development of human society. According to the nationwide investigations of groundwater contamination conducted by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment and the China Geological Survey in recent years, municipal domestic waste landfills, hazardous waste landfills, and oil-contaminated sites have become typical sources of groundwater contamination that pose a serious threat to the surrounding ecological environment. This chapter first introduces the concept of groundwater contaminated sites, then introduces the history of groundwater contaminated site surveys and assessments in China and the world, and finally points out the problems and development trends of groundwater contaminated site surveys and assessments in China.
Beidou Xi, Juan Li, Yang Wang, Chenning Deng, Xiang Li, Yan Ma, Yanna Xiong

Chapter 2. Environmental Background Investigation of Groundwater Contamination Sites

Abstract
It is necessary to identify target sites before carrying out the environmental background investigation of contaminated sites. Which it comes to specific groundwater contamination site, the environmental background investigation covers the hydrogeological environment of the site and its surrounding areas and the characterization of groundwater contaminants in the site, laying the foundation for comprehensive investigation and assessment. This chapter expounds the process and content of investigation into three kinds of typical groundwater contamination sites: MSWLFs, HWLFs and OCS.
Beidou Xi, Juan Li, Yang Wang, Chenning Deng, Xiang Li, Yan Ma, Yanna Xiong

Chapter 3. Rating and Evaluation of Pollution Source Intensity for Typical Groundwater Contamination Sites

Abstract
Pollution source intensity evaluation for typical groundwater contamination sites clarifies groundwater pollution load and lays the foundation for groundwater risk assessment. The variety of pollution sources leads to differences in the process of pollution and in the types, migration pathways and enrichment areas of pollutants. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically examine the whole process of groundwater contamination specific to source, pathway and receptor, and to develop a methodology for rating and evaluating pollution source intensity of major groundwater contamination sites, which takes into account pollution sources, vadose zone and aquifer characteristics.
Beidou Xi, Juan Li, Yang Wang, Chenning Deng, Xiang Li, Yan Ma, Yanna Xiong

Chapter 4. Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination Sites

Abstract
The risk assessment of groundwater contamination sites addresses key issues such as the necessity and the target value of remediation. Based on basic site environmental investigation and pollution source intensity evaluation, human health risks and eco-environmental risks should be assessed to identify the risk of groundwater contamination sites, paving the foundation for site risk management. The risk assessment of groundwater contamination sites encompasses health risk assessment and groundwater pollution risk assessment, which targets human health and groundwater quality respectively.
Beidou Xi, Juan Li, Yang Wang, Chenning Deng, Xiang Li, Yan Ma, Yanna Xiong

Chapter 5. Application Cases

Abstract
We selected 13 typical sites in Central China, North China, South China, East China, Southwest China, and Northwest China to conduct groundwater environmental surveys and risk assessments. These sites include hazardous waste landfills, municipal solid waste landfills, and oil-contaminated sites. Due to the different hydrogeological conditions in different regions, the methods used in the evaluation are also different.
Beidou Xi, Juan Li, Yang Wang, Chenning Deng, Xiang Li, Yan Ma, Yanna Xiong
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