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2024 | Book

Investigation of Innovative Water Injection Strategies for Gasoline Engines by Means of a 3D-CFD Virtual Engine Test Bench

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About this book

This book focuses on the investigation of innovative engine technologies that can improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines and reduce their environmental impact. In particular, water injection is examined as a means of improving engine behavior. The possible combination of water injection with renewable fuels is also a topic of the book. The results of this experimental and numerical research show positive results that can be used for further research and development of engines.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Introduction
Abstract
A strong commitment moves the future development of internal combustion engines towards sustainability and decarbonization of the automotive sector. Figure 1.1 provides a clear overview of the current scenario regarding worldwide regulations for tailpipe pollutants and CO2 emissions limits and targets for light-duty vehicles powered by gasoline engines. Regarding the emission cap for CO, total HC, NOx, PNC, and PM, this will be further exacerbated in the future, according to the proposal for the new Euro 7 emission standards [2].
Edoardo Rossi
Chapter 2. Fundamentals of CFD Simulations for ICEs Development
Abstract
To manage the complexity of future engine development, a proper combination of different development tools is required so that a more comprehensive investigation of numerous concept ideas within a limited financial and short temporal framework can be performed. As a matter of fact, a combination of quantitatively fewer but more targeted and high-quality investigations on the engine test bench with comprehensive numerical simulations offers various advantages [37].
Edoardo Rossi
Chapter 3. 3D-CFD Simulation Environment: the Virtual Test Bench
Abstract
The numerical investigations within the presented work were carried out with the 3D-CFD simulation tool QuickSim, a tool specifically designed for 3D-CFD simulations of internal combustion engines. In this chapter, the main features and methodology guidelines adopted in this simulation environment are presented, with particular focus on the elements that are instrumental to the work. A detailed description of the methodology and models of QuickSim can be found in [18].
Edoardo Rossi
Chapter 4. Experimental Spray Analysis and 3D-CFD Injection Model Calibration
Abstract
In order to characterize the spray obtained during injection events from the investigated fluids and injectors, and to gather sufficient experimental data for proper calibration and validation of 3D-CFD injection simulations, a complete spray analysis including high-speed video imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was performed. The measurements were conducted in a constant volume test chamber under a variety of injection conditions, including variations in injection pressure and chamber pressure. To assess the validity of the measurements, not only water was tested, but also two different types of fuel, which were also investigated at the engine test bench and in 3D-CFD engine simulations, i.e. a commercial E10 fuel and the eFuel POSYN, previously described in Chapter 1.2.
Edoardo Rossi
Chapter 5. Applicability of Water Injection in Combination with an eFuel
Abstract
This chapter investigates the possible coexistence and combined application of water injection and the adoption of eFuels in a GDI engine. The goal is to assess the advantages or disadvantages that the adoption of the eFuel POSYN in combination with water injection strategies can bring, with respect to the same strategies applied in combination with a commercial gasoline E10. Several water injection configurations have been tested for both fuels, including DWI and IWI.
Edoardo Rossi
Chapter 6. Water-in-Fuel Emulsions at the Virtual Engine Test Bench
Abstract
This chapter is dedicated to the analysis of Direct water-in-fuel emulsion injection (DEI) and its effectiveness related to other water injection strategies, including direct and indirect water injection, at the single-cylinder research engine already described in previous chapters. The starting point of the numerical investigation is the modeling of the emulsions and its implementation in the simulation environment in the virtual engine test bench. The fuel considered for the preparation of emulsions and for all the investigations in water injection is a commercial Super Plus 98 (SP98).
Edoardo Rossi
Chapter 7. Water Injection at the 3-Cylinder Virtual Engine Test Bench
Abstract
The 3D-CFD investigations at the 3-cylinder virtual engine test bench were conducted to validate on the full multi-cylinder engine the optimized water injection strategies studied at the single-cylinder engine. In particular, two different high-load operating points are considered, as listed in Table 7.1. The first operating point, OP 5 in the table, is a knock-limited operating point at 2500 rpm and 22 bar IMEP at stoichiometric conditions, and the second operating point, OP 6, is a full load point at high engine speed at 5500 rpm and 20 bar IMEP also operated at stoichiometric conditions.
Edoardo Rossi
Chapter 8. Conclusion and Outlook
Abstract
Water injection has been proven to be a very promising technology to improve the efficiency of downsized turbocharged spark-ignition engines, overcoming the limiting factors in terms of knock phenomena and excessive turbine inlet temperatures, and extending the engine map range with stoichiometric operations. Several studies found in literature illustrate the potential of water injection and its limitations with conventional applications of indirect and direct water injection, also combined with additional technologies aimed to improve engine efficiency, such as Miller valve strategy, increased compression ratio and EGR.
Edoardo Rossi
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Investigation of Innovative Water Injection Strategies for Gasoline Engines by Means of a 3D-CFD Virtual Engine Test Bench
Author
Edoardo Rossi
Copyright Year
2024
Electronic ISBN
978-3-658-44941-4
Print ISBN
978-3-658-44940-7
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-44941-4

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