Skip to main content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Wireless Personal Communications 2/2022

03-06-2022

Investigations on the Design of Compact Flexible Wearable Fractal Patch Antenna for Body Area Networks Applications

Authors: Vikas Jain, Balwinder S. Dhaliwal

Published in: Wireless Personal Communications | Issue 2/2022

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

In this research work, the authors have presented the design of a compact flexible wearable fractal patch antenna used for body area networks (BAN) applications in the 2.45 GHz ISM band. For the size miniaturization of the antenna the crown fractal patch antenna geometry has been used. Five flexible substrate materials namely denim, polythene foam, cotton cloth, felt and fleece have been analysed as the substrates of the antenna and the antenna size miniaturization ranging from 24.1 to 29.7% has been achieved. The denim substrate based antenna occupies the minimum area as compared to that of all the other four designed antennas; hence, the denim substrate based antenna has been fabricated and experimentally tested. The measured parameters of the antenna show good agreement with the simulated values. The proposed fabricated denim substrate based antenna has also been analyzed for bending effect evaluation and it has been found that the horizontal and vertical bending up to the bending radius of 45 mm of the antenna does not significantly affect the performance of the antenna. The equivalent circuit analysis of the proposed antenna has been presented and the theoretical, simulated, and experimental results have been found in good agreement.
Literature
1.
go back to reference Kissi, C., Sarestoniemi, M., Kumpuniemi, T., Kumpuniemi, T., Myllymaki, S., Sonkki, M., Srifi, M. N., Jantunen, H., & Pokalaza-Raez, C. (2019). Reflector-backed antenna for UWB medical applications with on-body investigations. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2019(15), 1–17. CrossRef Kissi, C., Sarestoniemi, M., Kumpuniemi, T., Kumpuniemi, T., Myllymaki, S., Sonkki, M., Srifi, M. N., Jantunen, H., & Pokalaza-Raez, C. (2019). Reflector-backed antenna for UWB medical applications with on-body investigations. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2019(15), 1–17. CrossRef
2.
go back to reference Bhattacharjee, S., Maity, S., Chaudhuri, S. R. B., & Mitra, M. (2019). A compact dual-band dual-polarized omnidirectional antenna for on-body applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 67(8), 5044–5053. CrossRef Bhattacharjee, S., Maity, S., Chaudhuri, S. R. B., & Mitra, M. (2019). A compact dual-band dual-polarized omnidirectional antenna for on-body applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 67(8), 5044–5053. CrossRef
3.
go back to reference Doddipalli, S., Kothari, A., & Peshwe, P. (2017). A low profile ultrawide band monopole antenna for wearable applications. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2017(10), 1–9. CrossRef Doddipalli, S., Kothari, A., & Peshwe, P. (2017). A low profile ultrawide band monopole antenna for wearable applications. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2017(10), 1–9. CrossRef
4.
go back to reference El-Atrash, M., Abdalla, M. A., & Elhennawy, H. M. (2019). A wearable dual-band low profile high gain low SAR antenna AMC-backed for WBAN applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 67(10), 6378–6388. CrossRef El-Atrash, M., Abdalla, M. A., & Elhennawy, H. M. (2019). A wearable dual-band low profile high gain low SAR antenna AMC-backed for WBAN applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 67(10), 6378–6388. CrossRef
5.
go back to reference Faisal, F., Amin, Y., Cho, Y., & Yoo, H. (2019). Compact and flexible novel wideband flower-shaped CPW-fed antennas for high data wireless applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 67(6), 4184–4188. CrossRef Faisal, F., Amin, Y., Cho, Y., & Yoo, H. (2019). Compact and flexible novel wideband flower-shaped CPW-fed antennas for high data wireless applications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 67(6), 4184–4188. CrossRef
6.
go back to reference Ma, Z. H., Chen, J. X., Chen, P., & Jiang, Y. F. (2021). Design of planar microstrip ultra wide band circularly polarized antenna loaded by annular-ring slot. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2021(10), 1–10. Ma, Z. H., Chen, J. X., Chen, P., & Jiang, Y. F. (2021). Design of planar microstrip ultra wide band circularly polarized antenna loaded by annular-ring slot. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2021(10), 1–10.
7.
go back to reference Arif, A., Zubair, M., Ali, M., Khan, M. U., & Mehmood, M. Q. (2019). A compact low- profile fractal antenna for wearable on-body WBAN application. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letter, 18(5), 981–985. CrossRef Arif, A., Zubair, M., Ali, M., Khan, M. U., & Mehmood, M. Q. (2019). A compact low- profile fractal antenna for wearable on-body WBAN application. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letter, 18(5), 981–985. CrossRef
8.
go back to reference Costanzo, S., Venneri, F., Massa, G. D., Borgia, A., Costanzo, A., & Raffo, A. (2016). Fractal reflect array antennas: State of art and new opportunities. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2016(9), 1–17. CrossRef Costanzo, S., Venneri, F., Massa, G. D., Borgia, A., Costanzo, A., & Raffo, A. (2016). Fractal reflect array antennas: State of art and new opportunities. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2016(9), 1–17. CrossRef
9.
go back to reference Dhaliwal, B. S., & Pattnaik, S. S. (2017). BFO-ANN ensemble hybrid algorithm to design compact fractal antenna for rectenna system. Neural Computing and Applications, 28(1), 5917–5928. Dhaliwal, B. S., & Pattnaik, S. S. (2017). BFO-ANN ensemble hybrid algorithm to design compact fractal antenna for rectenna system. Neural Computing and Applications, 28(1), 5917–5928.
10.
go back to reference Monne, M. A., Lan, X., & Chen, M. Y. (2018). Material selection and fabrication processes for flexible conformal antennas. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2018(1), 1–14. Monne, M. A., Lan, X., & Chen, M. Y. (2018). Material selection and fabrication processes for flexible conformal antennas. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2018(1), 1–14.
11.
go back to reference Mokhtari-Koushyar, F., Grubb, P. M., Chen, M. Y., & Chen, R. (2019). A miniaturized tree-shaped fractal antenna printed on a flexible substrate: A lightweight and low-profile candidate with a small footprint for space borne and wearable applications. IEEE Antennas Propagation Magazine, 61(3), 60–66. CrossRef Mokhtari-Koushyar, F., Grubb, P. M., Chen, M. Y., & Chen, R. (2019). A miniaturized tree-shaped fractal antenna printed on a flexible substrate: A lightweight and low-profile candidate with a small footprint for space borne and wearable applications. IEEE Antennas Propagation Magazine, 61(3), 60–66. CrossRef
12.
go back to reference Thangaselvi, E., & Meena alias Jeyanthi, K. (2018). Implementation of flexible denim nickel copper rip stop textile antenna for medical application. Cluster Computing, 22(1), 635–645. Thangaselvi, E., & Meena alias Jeyanthi, K. (2018). Implementation of flexible denim nickel copper rip stop textile antenna for medical application. Cluster Computing, 22(1), 635–645.
13.
go back to reference Joshi, M. P., Joshi, J. G., & Pattnaik, S. S. (2019). Hexagonal slotted wearable microstrip patch antenna for body area network. In Proceeding of IEEE Pune Section International Conference. Joshi, M. P., Joshi, J. G., & Pattnaik, S. S. (2019). Hexagonal slotted wearable microstrip patch antenna for body area network. In Proceeding of IEEE Pune Section International Conference.
14.
go back to reference Amsaveni, A., Bharathi, M., & Swaminathan, J. N. (2019). Design and performance analysis of low SAR hexagonal slot antenna using cotton substrate. Microsystem Technologies, 25(6), 2273–2278. CrossRef Amsaveni, A., Bharathi, M., & Swaminathan, J. N. (2019). Design and performance analysis of low SAR hexagonal slot antenna using cotton substrate. Microsystem Technologies, 25(6), 2273–2278. CrossRef
15.
go back to reference Giman, F. N., Soh, P. J., Jamlos, M. F., Lago, H., Al-Hadi, A. A., Abdulmalek, M., & Abdulaziz, N. (2017). Conformal dual-band textile antenna with metasurface for WBAN application. Applied Physics A, 123(1), 1–7. CrossRef Giman, F. N., Soh, P. J., Jamlos, M. F., Lago, H., Al-Hadi, A. A., Abdulmalek, M., & Abdulaziz, N. (2017). Conformal dual-band textile antenna with metasurface for WBAN application. Applied Physics A, 123(1), 1–7. CrossRef
16.
go back to reference Jalil, M. E., Rahim, M. K. A., Samsuri, N. A., Dewan, R., & Kamardin, K. (2017). Flexible ultra-wideband antenna incorporated with metamaterial structures: multiple notches for chipless RIFD application. Applied Physics A, 123(1), 48. CrossRef Jalil, M. E., Rahim, M. K. A., Samsuri, N. A., Dewan, R., & Kamardin, K. (2017). Flexible ultra-wideband antenna incorporated with metamaterial structures: multiple notches for chipless RIFD application. Applied Physics A, 123(1), 48. CrossRef
17.
go back to reference Balanis, C. A. (2010). Antenna theory: Analysis and design. Wiley. Balanis, C. A. (2010). Antenna theory: Analysis and design. Wiley.
18.
go back to reference Paracha, K. N., Rahim, S. K. A., Soh, P. J., Kamarudin, M. R., Tan, K. G., Lo, Y. C., & Islam, T. (2019). A low profile, dual-band, dual polarized antenna for indoor/outdoor wearable application. IEEE Access, 7, 33277–33288. CrossRef Paracha, K. N., Rahim, S. K. A., Soh, P. J., Kamarudin, M. R., Tan, K. G., Lo, Y. C., & Islam, T. (2019). A low profile, dual-band, dual polarized antenna for indoor/outdoor wearable application. IEEE Access, 7, 33277–33288. CrossRef
19.
go back to reference Ramli, M. N., Soh, P. J., Jamlos, M. F., Lago, H., Aziz, N. M., & Al-Hadi, A. A. (2017). Dual-band wearable fluidic antenna with metasurface embedded in a PDMS substrate. Applied Physics A, 123(1), 1–7. CrossRef Ramli, M. N., Soh, P. J., Jamlos, M. F., Lago, H., Aziz, N. M., & Al-Hadi, A. A. (2017). Dual-band wearable fluidic antenna with metasurface embedded in a PDMS substrate. Applied Physics A, 123(1), 1–7. CrossRef
20.
go back to reference Meena, M. L., Kumar, M., Parmar, G., & Meena, R. S. (2016). Design analysis and modelling of directional UWB antenna with elliptical slotted ground structure for applications in C- & X- bands. Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, 63, 193–207. CrossRef Meena, M. L., Kumar, M., Parmar, G., & Meena, R. S. (2016). Design analysis and modelling of directional UWB antenna with elliptical slotted ground structure for applications in C- & X- bands. Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, 63, 193–207. CrossRef
21.
go back to reference Joshi, M. P., Joshi, J. G., & Pattnaik, S. S. (2020). Stub loaded rectangular ring shaped tri-band monopole antenna for wireless applications. International Journal of Advances in Microwave Technology, 5(2), 227–233. CrossRef Joshi, M. P., Joshi, J. G., & Pattnaik, S. S. (2020). Stub loaded rectangular ring shaped tri-band monopole antenna for wireless applications. International Journal of Advances in Microwave Technology, 5(2), 227–233. CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Investigations on the Design of Compact Flexible Wearable Fractal Patch Antenna for Body Area Networks Applications
Authors
Vikas Jain
Balwinder S. Dhaliwal
Publication date
03-06-2022
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Wireless Personal Communications / Issue 2/2022
Print ISSN: 0929-6212
Electronic ISSN: 1572-834X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-022-09800-0

Other articles of this Issue 2/2022

Wireless Personal Communications 2/2022 Go to the issue