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2020 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

5. Ion Transport and Stability Issues in Organic–Inorganic Perovskite Materials

Authors: Monojit Bag, Priya Srivastava

Published in: Revolution of Perovskite

Publisher: Springer Singapore

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Abstract

Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites materials have gained a lot of attention due to its unprecedented growth within a decade in optoelectronic device applications. However, stability of the hybrid perovskite materials especially under sunlight and heat remains one of the major threats for potential commercialization. There are numerous reports on improved photo and thermal stability of the perovskite materials, but the ultimate goal is not yet achieved. The migration of ions in these materials under illumination and in the presence of heat is the root cause of photo and thermal instability. In this chapter, some of the major pathways and mechanism related to the ion migration is discussed. The presence of ionic defects/vacancies is responsible for ion migration. However, the activation energy barrier for the migration of ions/vacancies depends on multiple factors, such as nature of ions, crystal structure and migration pathways. Some of the proposed mechanism of vacancy-mediated ion migration is also discussed. The migration of ions can be quasi-reversible as some of the migrated ions get stuck at the grain boundary or at the perovskite/charge transport layer interface. The charge transport in these materials therefore gets modulated with the ionic conductivity. As the perovskite active layer gets degraded, the ionic conductivity increases, mainly due to the increased vacancies. There have been some experimental evidences that the activation energy barrier gets reduced upon heating due to lattice expansion. Therefore, the choice of perovskite is important as the lattice expansion can be minimized by some combinatorial approach of mixed halide as well as mixed cationic perovskite materials. It is evident from the experiment as well as from the first-principles density-functional theory that the crystal structure with fewer defects not only has superior optoelectronic properties but also has improved stability under adverse environmental condition. Therefore, the key research of perovskite-based optoelectronic devices should be focused on the synthesis of defect-free large crystals with reduced ion migration.
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Metadata
Title
Ion Transport and Stability Issues in Organic–Inorganic Perovskite Materials
Authors
Monojit Bag
Priya Srivastava
Copyright Year
2020
Publisher
Springer Singapore
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1267-4_5