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About this book

This book discusses the fundamental of bending actuation with a focus on ionic metal composites. It describes the applications of ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators, from conventional robotic systems to compliant micro robotic systems used to handle the miniature and fragile components during robotic micro assembly. It also presents mathematical modelings of actuators for engineering, biomedical, medical and environmental systems. The fundamental relation of IPMC actuators to the biomimetic systems are also included.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Metal-Organic Framework Composites IPMC Sensors and Actuators

Abstract
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a highly studied class of complex structured porous materials, containing different types of central metal ions attached to organic linkers, are used in various applications such as catalysis, separation, absorption, photochemistry, proton conductivity, biotechnology, magnetism and sensoristic science etc. The architectural structures of MOFs provide special properties as improved thermal and mechanical stabilities, high surface areas and large pore sizes to these materials. The need for new functionalities is to take into account that the fabrication methods must be robust, scalable, friendly to environment and cost-effective.
Bianca Maranescu, Aurelia Visa

Polysaccharide-Based Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Actuators

Abstract
Cellulose and chitosan are naturally abundant biopolymers which can be used as ion exchange polymers in various applications. Due to their useful characteristics, a lot of research has been done on using these materials as a base for obtaining ionic polymer metal composite actuators. The present chapter discusses numerous ways of combination between polysaccharide and various electrically conductive materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene in the presence or absence of different ionic liquids, and subsequent use of these materials to improve the actuation performance of the polysaccharide-based actuators. Though a lot of studies have been performed for obtaining optimal compositions and suitable methods in respect of polysaccharide-based ionic polymer metal composite actuators. There is still a niche to find the best composition structure and the most efficient and low-cost method of obtaining actuators in order to meet the needs of various industries. The search continues for actuators with enhanced mechanical, electrical and electroactive performance, with good durability and flexibility in processing.
A. Popa, A. Filimon, L. Lupa

Conducting Polymer Based Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Actuators

Abstract
Organic materials that mimic the mammalian skeleton muscles are of great interest in artificial actuators for applications such as robot legs, surgical instruments and Braille displays. These ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators are compact, lightweight, silent, strong and reliable. In this regard, conjugated or conducting polymeric materials are attractive as these offer the desired properties and their actuator operations are similar to biological muscles. This chapter focuses on four types of conjugated polymers: polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate as active materials in IMPC actuators. First, their chemical or electrochemical synthesis is described. Then, their actuators characteristics and performances are discussed and compared. In sum, this chapter aims to give the reader a good overview of the pros and cons in respect of each type of materials as well as their uses in actuators.
David Gendron

Role of Metal Ion Implantation on Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Membranes

Abstract
Due to the increasing need from the modern technologies and industrial applications, the diversity of electroactive materials, i.e. conductors, semiconductors, dielectrics with characteristics gradual evolution, imposes the development of a new generation of materials. Based on the new materials, horizons have opened towards the design of the new electronics generation with significant impact on the future technological systems. This chapter aims to investigate various types of polymeric ionic membranes used for high-performance ionic polymer–metal composites actuators, which exhibit a good deformation stability, and efficiency. Along with the material study, the role of metal ion implantation on ionic polymer metal composite membranes is also analyzed in order to overcome some disadvantages of the ionic polymer actuators and also to improve their stability, sustainability, and performance. Additionally, this chapter takes into account of the latest actuation models and control for designing of the engineering materials based on ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) and their use for integrated systems in soft sensors and actuators, as well as biomedical devices for friendly human applications.
Adina Maria Dobos, A. Filimon

Study on Time-Dependent Bending Response of IPMC Actuator

Abstract
Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators have considerable potential for a wide range of applications. Although IPMC actuators are widely studied for their electromechanical properties, most studies have been conducted at the ambient conditions. The electromechanical performance of IPMC actuators at higher temperature is still far from understood. IPMCs are polymer-based soft composites that can be designed as soft actuators and sensors. IPMC actuators have several unique properties, including low density, large bending strain, low noise, high resilience, and low operation voltage; which make their application more practical compare to many of their metal- or ceramic-based counterparts. This chapter is a summary of all recent findings and current state-of-the art manufacturing techniques, phenomenological laws and mechanical and electrical characteristics. The time dependent bending characteristics of IPMC actuators has been widely studied, experimentally, and theoretically, as artificial muscles for biomedical applications, biomimetic micro-robotics, and harsh environment tools. The first one of contents presents a brief summary of the fundamental properties and characteristics of IPMC. The following addresses in detail the electronic and electromechanical characteristics of IPMCs, the phenomenological Modelling of the underlying sensing and actuation mechanisms in IPMCs and the potential application areas for IPMCs.
Hyung-Man Kim, N. D. Vinh

Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite Membranes Methods of Preparation

Abstract
The ionic polymer-metal composite membranes are generally perfluorinated membranes such as Nafion and Flemion. These composites are mostly electroactive materials and they can be used as activators and sensors. The electrochemical-mechanical properties of ionic polymer-metal composites depend on many factors, such as the nature of the solvent, the morphology of the electrodes, and also other factors. This chapter provides general information about the preparation methods of the ionic polymer-metal composite membranes.
Fatma Aydin Unal, Hakan Burhan, Fatima Elmusa, Shukri Hersi, Fatih Sen

Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite Actuators Operable in Dry Conditions

Abstract
Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) have great applications, in terms of being utilized in areas, such as actuators, artificial muscles and more. These composite can also be used for robotics, biomedical and biomimetic applications. Among these applications, ionic polymer metal composite actuators are mostly preferred devices used in some applications, such as biomimetic robotics, biomedical devices, manipulation systems etc. For these types of actuators, ion-exchange polymer-metal composite (IPMC) is very attractive and active materials, and the synthesis and characterization conditions are very important parameters that should be thought. For this reason, this chapter provides information on ionic polymer metal composite actuators that can be operated under dry conditions.
Fatma Aydin Unal, Hakan Burhan, Sumeyye Karakus, Gizem Karaelioglu, Fatih Sen

Pressure Sensors Based on IPMC Actuator

Abstract
Pressure sensors provide information regarding with the magnitude and distribution of force along the interface. To characterize the force as a measurand, pressure sensors convert the force into especially electrical signals. Ionic polymer-metal composites have received great interest in pressure sensor technology apart from soft biomimetic actuator applications. In this chapter, we provide further insight into the IPMC materials in pressure sensor applications in terms of system design, working principle, and preparation. In addition, the current status of applications and markets of pressure sensors is described with reference to some published patents. Moreover, their historical evolution, various designs, and classification are also discussed.
Gokhan Topcu, Tugrul Guner, Mustafa M. Demir

Robotic Assemblies Based on IPMC Actuators

Abstract
Technology is progressing very fast and it renders us an assisting robotic hand in all the domains of life. Robotics for assembly automation is a proven way to reduce costs with improved speed and accuracy while handling automated assembly tasks. This chapter deals with the application of IPMC in robotic assemblies, their functionality and categories. Its also reveals the inevitability and significance of IPMC in this imminent robotic assistance field.
D. Josephine Selvarani Ruth

Design and Fabrication of Deformable Soft Gripper Using IPMC as Actuator

Abstract
This chapter encapsulates the design and fabrication paradigm of a soft compliant ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuated three-finger gripper material to polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS). The PDMS based IPMC actuated gripper has been designed in such a manner that it is capable of handling macro and micro objects. The selection of PDMS based finger for gripper design was ensured through experiments from four different PDMS finger designs. Maximum compliance of the PDMS finger is desirable for the gripper, keeping this as a criterion, one of the four fingers, has been selected for the presently reported three-finger gripper. In human hand, the proximal, intermediate and distal phalanges activate with each other in a synergistic way through inter-phalangeal articulations. This phenomenon is inculcated using PDMS for compliance in the finger and IPMC as muscle actuation. Overall specification of three finger gripper is reported in this chapter.
Srijan Bhattacharya, Bikash Bepari, Subhasis Bhaumik
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