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2016 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

2. Kritikalität und Positionalität: Was ist kritisch für wen – und weshalb?

Authors: Prof. Dr. Rainer Walz, M.A. Miriam Bodenheimer, Dr. Carsten Gandenberger

Published in: Kritische Metalle in der Großen Transformation

Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

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Zusammenfassung

Das, was als kritisch angesehen wird, hängt immer auch von der Betrachtungsperspektive und vom gewählten Zeithorizont inklusive der impliziten oder expliziten Zukunftserwartungen ab. Fünf unterschiedliche Sichtweisen werden unterschieden: Aus naturwissenschaftlich-technischer Sicht geraten Metalle mit spezifischen Funktionseigenschaften in den Fokus. Aus Umweltsicht ist der Metallverbrauch per se kritisch, da er entlang der Wertschöpfungsketten zu Umweltbelastungen führt. Aus wirtschaftlicher Sicht rohstoffimportierender Industrieländer werden jene Metalle als kritisch eingestuft, die schwer zu substituieren sind und bei denen die Angebotssituation zudem durch Marktmacht und Staatseinfluss gekennzeichnet sind. Aus entwicklungspolitischer Sicht wird in Rohstoffvorräten eine Chance für die ökonomische Entwicklung von Entwicklungsländern gesehen. Aus außenpolitischer Sicht ist die hohe Anzahl von Konflikten anzuführen, in deren Kontext Ressourcen eine Rolle spielen. Die aus den unterschiedlichen Sichtweisen in den Vordergrund gerückten Metalle sind zwar nicht identisch, weisen aber erhebliche Schnittmengen auf. Mit den Kritikalitätskonzeptionen, der Diskussion um die Ergänzung der LCAs um weitere Aspekte des Ressourcenverbrauchs und um soziale Sachverhalte sowie dem Aufbau von Zertifizierungssystemen sind erste Schritte zu einer Institutionalisierung dieser Sichtweisen in Bewertungsschemata erfolgt.
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Metadata
Title
Kritikalität und Positionalität: Was ist kritisch für wen – und weshalb?
Authors
Prof. Dr. Rainer Walz
M.A. Miriam Bodenheimer
Dr. Carsten Gandenberger
Copyright Year
2016
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44839-7_2