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Leadership

weitere Buchkapitel

4. Überlegungen zur Ausgestaltung von Personalentwicklungsprogrammen

Ein Blick in den Verwaltungsalltag zeigt, dass die „Chefs in der Amtsstube“ über ihre Ausbildung hinaus qualifiziert werden. Führungskräfteentwicklung findet regelmäßig und flächendeckend statt. Diese Praxis ist zum einen das Ergebnis freiwilliger Leistungen von Verwaltungen. Sie erfolgt mit dem Ziel, Führungskräfte im Haus einfach „besser“ zu machen. Gleichzeitig ist sie direkte Folge des geltenden Tarif- und Beamtenrechts (§ 5 TVöD für den Bereich Verwaltung und Landesbeamtengesetze bzw. Laufbahnverordnungen). Beinah „klassisch“ sind beispielsweise Seminare zum Thema Kommunikation, zur Konfliktlösung oder zum Stressmanagement. Fortbildungsabteilungen und Studieninstitute bieten ganze Führungskräftereihen an (u. a. im Rahmen der Modularen Qualifizierung) oder vereinzelt Coaching. Hinzukommen Mitarbeitergespräche, Mitarbeiterbefragungen zum Führungsverhalten oder Potenzialanalysen. Auch sie werden genutzt, um Führungskräften Rückmeldungen zu geben und sie anschließend zu qualifizieren.

Christina Winners

3. Konsequenzen für die Anforderungen an Führungskräfte

Durch die Digitalisierung verändern sich die Anforderungen an die gesamte Belegschaft. Sowohl Fach- als auch Führungskräften werden neue Fähigkeiten und Verhaltensweisen abverlangt. Da Führungskräfte als Vorgesetzte, Vorbild und Multiplikatoren im Transformationsprozess eine zentrale Rolle spielen, ist davon auszugehen, dass die „Kompetenzsprünge“, die von ihnen gefordert werden, besonders groß ausfallen; ihr Selbstverständnis verändert sich substanziell. Insofern dürften auch die Trainingsmaßnahmen, die ggf. angeboten werden, um sie bei diesen Sprüngen zu unterstützen, entsprechend umfangreich ausfallen. Aus Personalentwicklungssicht (Budget- und Effizienzgründe) ist es deshalb zweckmäßig, die neuen Anforderungen an Führungskräfte zunächst genau zu beschreiben, wobei der Begriff Führungskraft hier vom Mitglied des Verwaltungsvorstandes bis zur Teamleitung reicht.

Christina Winners

Kapitel 8. Alejandro Aravena: Wie man die Ästhetik der Lücke aushält

Der chilenische Architekt Alejandro Aravena steht für einen unkonventionellen architektonischen Ansatz: jenen, Gebäude nur halb fertig zu stellen und die Bewohner selber mit Hand anlegen zu lassen. Dieses Modell sozialer Inklusion wird in diesem Kapitel als Strategie einer architektonischen Co-Kreation interpretiert. Ihr Potenzial für Unternehmen, die ihrerseits auf Co-Kreation setzen, wird analysiert. Es zeigt sich, dass Aravena in Sachen Kundenintegration eine Offenheit an den Tag legt, an der sich Unternehmen unterschiedlicher Branchen orientieren können – und sollten.

Alexander Gutzmer

The Multiplex Democratic State as a Response to Complexity and Uncertainty?

A Discussion in five Propositions

When we first thought about the contribution to this compendium in February 2020, we intended to look at Volker Schneider’s inauguration speech in 1998 at the University of Konstanz, when he accepted his Lehrstuhl für Materielle Staatstheorie and reflect on how the empirical reality has developed during the last 22 years with regard to his main discussion points. Alas, our world and how we looked at markets, networks and states and their interlinkages turned upside down in just a few days in March 2020. The Covid-19 pandemic, caused by a new Corona Virus, that first appeared in China in December 2019 hit the European states and societies heavily and by complete surprise.

Patrick Kenis, Jörg Raab

Netzwerke, Integrität und Verantwortungsethik Bemerkungen zu einem evidenten, aber unterforschten Zusammenhang

Jede empirische Methode in den Sozialwissenschaften macht bestimmte Segmente gesellschaftlicher Wirklichkeit sichtbar, während andere „ausgeblendet“, also implizit unsichtbar gemacht werden. Regressionsanalysen etwa bilden kausale Effekte ab, je größer dabei die Fallzahlen, umso besser, aber sie können keine kausalen Mechanismen nachweisen. Teilnehmende Beobachtung ermöglicht die vielzitierten „dichten Beschreibungen“, sie reicht aber schon aus forschungsökonomischen Gründen über wenige Fallstudien nicht hinaus und ist daher in ihrem Verallgemeinerungspotenzial begrenzt.

Wolfgang Seibel

Radio Indígena and Indigenous Mexican Farmworkers in Oxnard, California

This chapter documents the emergent digital strategies of Indigenous Mexican farmworkers from Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla (Mixtec and Zapotec) alongside the Mixteco/Indígena Community Organizing Project (MICOP) who worked to combine community radio with social media in Oxnard, California. It expands the scope of current Latina/o radio scholarship by examining the social media use of a community radio station complicating the self-promotional function attributed to radio’s use of social media. Analysis of Radio Indígena’s Facebook page shows a digital communication strategy where the mission of MICOP, the local community, online followers, and frequency modulation (FM) radio become increasingly visible and interwoven. In the process of communicating, the farmworker community gains experience with the politics, structure, and practice of digital communication that helps to address urgent community issues.

Carlos Jiménez

Practitioner Perspective. Digital Communication Strategies for Strengthening and Empowering Amazonian Peoples and Nationalities: Community Radio and the Quijos Nation

This chapter examines the strategies and challenges concerning radio and social media use for the Quijos Nationality, officially recognized by the Ecuadorian government in 2013 as an Indigenous nationality group. The chapter considers the use of digital communication tools in community Indigenous organization, understandings of territory, and communication processes concerning the empowerment and resurgence of the Quijos cultural and political project. The chapter reflects on the radio programming Kayu Ayllu Shinalla in Napo Province and the radio’s expansion via digital means. The chapter also critically discusses radio broadcasting for Amazonian communities and some of the networking strategies use to overcome the challenges of limited resources and promote the revitalization of Quijos culture.

Etsa Franklin Salvio Sharupi Tapuy

Indigenous Journalism in Ecuador: An Alternative Worldview

Indigenous communities have been using a variety of media as vehicles for internal and external communication for several decades in Ecuador. These include the development of radio, newspapers, blogs, websites, and social media production, in often precarious conditions, as a result of low or non-existent budgets. Much of the effort to analyze these developments in Ecuador has focused on community and intercultural media, ignoring the specificities of Indigenous media. This chapter considers Indigenous journalism as an emergent practice and form of communication that has played a significant role in Ecuador, directly confronting racist structures of corporate media and producing content based on collective community voices and Indigenous communication rituals. We examine the case of Red de Comunicadores Interculturales Bilingües del Ecuador (REDCI)/the Ecuadorian Network of Bilingual Intercultural Communicators, the first multimedia Indigenous news organization in Ecuador. To explore REDCI’s journalistic practices, we conducted ethnographic research and website content analysis in 2009–2011 and updated this with research into REDCI’s journalistic project in 2018–2019. Our main argument is that Indigenous journalists in Ecuador are creating counter-narratives to mainstream media, contributing to the empowerment of Indigenous peoples. The case of REDCI also makes it possible to rethink what it means to communicate from an Indigenous cosmovision, and in terms of who produces information, and how is it exchanged and circulated.

María Belén Albornoz, Gema Tabares Merino

Challenging Asymmetries of Power and Knowledge Through Learning Communities and Participatory Design in the Creation of Smart Grids in Wayúu Communities

This chapter presents a case study of the development and adoption of alternative energies (mainly solar and wind energy) by Indigenous Wayúu communities living in the La Guajira department in Colombia. From the perspective of Learning Communities (Lleras, Las comunidades de aprendizaje como ámbitos de construcción de mundo. In Manual de Iniciación Pedagógica al Pensamiento Complejo, 2003), this project was developed using a critical systemic approach. This methodology accounts for patterns of communication and interaction in a context of domination and its effects, and proposes the reconfiguration of these relationships through participatory design, based on the construction of vital meanings based on the Wayúu worldview. The process included two years of dialogic work (Bakhtin, Mikhail. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Esasys. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981) with the community as well as the use of spaces for open communication and citizen participation. Three relevant actors participated in the project: a private energy company (ISAGEN), research members of the Faculty of Engineering from the Universidad de los Andes (Colombia), and the Indigenous Wayúu community. The project demonstrates community empowerment through a proposal for sustainable energy, designed through this process of cultural recognition.

Javier Andrés Jiménez Becerra, Mónica Bustamante Salamanca, Ángel Gutiérrez Pérez

Kapitel 6. Der Einkaufsleiter als Erfolgsgarant

Dieses Kapitel ist dem Thema Leadership gewidmet. Eine Materialwirtschaftsabteilung kann nur dann ihre optimale Leistung abrufen, wenn in den Führungsebenen, also der Unternehmensspitze und der Einkaufsleitung, gute Arbeit geleistet wird. Man unterscheidet zwischen Fach- und Führungsaufgaben. Der Blick wird vor allem auf die Anforderungen an einen modernen Einkaufsleiter gerichtet – englisch teilweise CPO, Chief Procurement Officer, genannt, falls es sich um ein Vorstandsmitglied handelt. Er ist dafür verantwortlich, seine Mitarbeiter mit den passenden Projekten zu betrauen, sie intrinsisch zu Höchstleistungen zu motivieren und gleichzeitig Visionen und Strategien für ein funktionierendes, robustes Beschaffungssystem zu entwickeln und umzusetzen. Zu den Eigenschaften heutiger Führungskräfte gehören neben Managementkompetenzen auch Demut, Bescheidenheit und emotionale Intelligenz – ein autoritärer Führungsstil ist nicht mehr zeitgemäß. In diesem Zusammenhang werden Tipps zur Personalführung vorgestellt und erläutert, die ein entspanntes, geregeltes und zielorientiertes Miteinander ermöglichen – einer der wichtigsten lautet: Kommunikation ist eine Führungsaufgabe.

Guido Wenski

Methodenverzeichnis

Im Methodenverzeichnis werden die empfohlenen 49 Methoden zur Umsetzung bzw. Anwendung des Vorgehensmodells zur Geschäftsmodellinnovation, die in diesem Buch behandelt werden, aufgelistet. Zu jeder Methode bzw. zu jedem Modell wird eine Kurzbeschreibung und eine Referenz (Verweis auf die Seite dieses Buches, wo eine detaillierte Beschreibung vorzufinden ist) gegeben.

Herbert Jodlbauer

Vorgehensmodell zur Geschäftsmodellinovation

Geschäftsmodellinnovation ist viel mehr als das mechanische Abarbeiten eines Vorgehensmodells. Geschäftsmodellinnovation setzt voraus, dass alles Bestehende kritisch hinterfragt wird und mögliche Zukunftsszenarien des Unternehmens erkannt werden. Geschäftsmodellinnovation heißt, im Heute das einzuleiten, was Voraussetzung für den Erfolg des Unternehmens von Morgen ist. Geschäftsmodellinnovation rüttelt an den etablierten Grundfesten eines Unternehmens und kreiert in wesentlichen Aspekten ein „neues“ Unternehmen.Im Zentrum des Vorgehensmodells steht das Geschäftsmodell mit den vier Hauptelementen und den neun Elementen. Schritt für Schritt wird die Reife (vollständiger, kundenorientierter, durch Zielkunden intensiver getestet, strategiekonformer, wertschaffender, ertragsorientierter, valider, in sich stimmiger, konsistenter, abgestimmter, realistischer, umsetzbarer und auch bekannter) des Geschäftsmodells erhöht. Im Schritt „Initiierung“ erfolgt der Start der Entwicklung des neuen Geschäftsmodellinnovationsprozesses. Im Schritt „Ideengenerierung“ wird basierend auf erwarteten Entwicklungen (Trends, neue Technologien, rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen, …) und vorhandenen Marktkenntnissen (Bedürfnisse und Erwartungen der Zielkunden) durch Kreativitätstechniken, die spezifisch für die Geschäftsmodellinnovation entwickelt worden sind, die Grobstruktur des Geschäftsmodells konzipiert und das „Nutzenversprechen“ detailliert beschrieben. Im Schritt „Lebenszyklusanalyse“ wird unter Einbindung von ausgewählten Zielkunden eine Lebenszyklusanalyse durchgeführt, um eine erste kundenorientierte Rohfassung des bereits neun Elemente umfassenden Geschäftsmodells jeweils bezogen auf ein Zielkundensegment zu erhalten. Im Schritt „Wettbewerbsanalyse“ wird das Geschäftsmodell jeweils bezogen auf ein Zielkundensegment unter Berücksichtigung von Markt-, Umfeld- und Unternehmensbedingungen systematisch evaluiert, verbessert und verfeinert. Im Schritt „Zusammenführung“ werden die zielkundespezifischen Elemente zu einem vollständigen Geschäftsmodell für das gesamte Unternehmen zusammengeführt. Im letzten Schritt „Roadmap“ werden alle vorhandenen Schlüsselaktivitäten, -prozesse, -ressourcen, -steuerungselemente, -fähigkeiten, -technologien und -partner (inkl. Kanäle und Beziehungen) mit den für das neue Geschäftsmodell notwendigen Schlüsselentitäten verglichen und daraus eine Roadmap zur Bereitstellung der neuen noch fehlenden Wertschöpfungsstrukturen und Abbau (Restverwertung) eventuell nicht mehr erforderlicher Wertschöpfungsstrukturen erarbeitet.

Herbert Jodlbauer

Geschäftsmodellinnovation

Geschäftsmodellinnovation heißt: Erneuere das Geschäftsmodell mit dem Ziel, den Nutzen für die Zielkunden und den Wert (im Sinne einer verbesserten Ertragsmechanik) für das eigene Unternehmen zu erhöhen. Geschäftsmodellinnovation bedingt, dass zumindest das Nutzenversprechen (welchen Mehrwert schaffen wir für unsere Zielkunden) oder die Ertragsmechanik (welchen Mehrwert schaffen wir für unser Unternehmen) – besser aber beide Elemente – erneuert wird.Die Digitalisierung wird in vielen Geschäftsmodellinnovationsvorhaben Enabler und Treiber der Mehrwertschaffung für Kunden und Unternehmen sein. Integrierende Digitalisierung im Sinne von die Digitalisierung nützen, um Menschen, Dinge sowie Systeme zu verbinden, Kundenbedürfnisse mit dem Nutzenversprechen zu verknüpfen, Partner des Ecosystems zusammenzuführen oder übergreifende Prozesse zu synchronisieren, kann helfen, Geschäftsmodelle innovativ, nachhaltig und mehrwertschaffend zu entwickeln. Konkrete disruptive Innovationen könnten sein, siehe Jodlbauer 2018: Ersetzen von Materiellem durch digitale Dienstleistungen, Transformation vom Digitalen ins Materielle möglichst spät oder Erhöhung des digitalen Anteils im Kundenauftragsabwicklungsprozess, Betreibermodelle, Datenverwertung, Personalisierung oder On Demand WertangeboteDie Geschäftsmodellinnovation sollte nicht als starres Projekt mit fixen Meilensteinen gesehen werden. Vielmehr ist die Geschäftsmodellinnovation ein iterativer sowie inkrementeller Prozess, an dessen Anfang Kreativität, Querdenken und Agilitätsmethoden und gegen Ende Kognition, Planung und Projektmethoden im Vordergrund stehen sollen.

Herbert Jodlbauer

Geschäftsmodell

Ein Geschäftsmodell ist eine abstrakte, strukturierte sowie vereinfachte Darstellung eines Unternehmens. Es muss eine leicht verständliche Geschichte sein, die erklärt, wie ein Unternehmen Nutzen für Kunden schafft und dabei selbst Geld verdient, siehe Magretta (2002). Die Geschichte eines erfolgreichen Geschäftsmodells beschreibt einen besseren Lösungsweg für Kundenprobleme bzw. eine bessere Erfüllung von Aufgaben für Kunden als bereits existierende Alternativen, indem Mehrwert für bestimmte (bestehende oder neue) Kunden geschaffen wird und gleichzeitig nachhaltig Mehrwert für das eigene Unternehmen sichergestellt wird. Ein Geschäftsmodell beantwortet nachfolgende vier Hauptfragen, die bereits Peter Drucker, siehe Drucker (2018), lange bevor der Begriff Geschäftsmodell sich etablierte, gestellt hat: Wer sind unsere Kunden? Was tun wir unserem Kunden Gutes (Schaffung Mehrwert für den Kunden)? Wie verdienen wir damit Geld? Wie erbringen wir unsere Leistungen, Produkte und Dienstleistungen?Durch die Digitalisierung entstehen neue Kundenbedürfnisse bzw. können neue Bedürfnisse geweckt werden, neue (individualisierte, on Demand, online bereitgestellte, …) Wertangebote geschaffen werden, Kundenkanäle, Transaktions- sowie Zahlungsabwicklungen und die gesamte Leistungserstellung effizienter gestaltet werden und Kosten reduziert sowie Umsätze gesteigert werden. Ein zukunftsweisendes auf Digitalisierung aufbauendes Geschäftsmodell zeigt dazu den Weg für ein Unternehmen auf.

Herbert Jodlbauer

Kapitel 3. Das Ich als Schlüssel zur Transformation

Zunächst setzt das Führen in der Krise die Resilienz der Führungskräfte voraus. Ohne die psychische Widerstandsfähigkeit der Führenden wächst die Gefahr, dass Organisationen und ihr soziales Gefüge instabil werden. Umgekehrt gibt die innere Stabilität der Führung dem Gesamtsystem Halt und damit die Chance, selbst mehr Resilienz zu entwickeln.

Andreas Seitz

Chapter 3. The Chinese Enforcement System

In this chapter, I will discuss enforcement of the health and safety rules. In this context, enforcement refers to the powers to control, to supervise, to start legal procedures, to give orders to enterprises, and to impose penalties in case of workplace parties’ violations of health and safety rules. There has been a major increase of enforcement efforts by the Work Safety Administration in recent years. Although enforcement agencies are the main promoters of, and active participants in, enforcing the occupational health and safety rules, there is lack of a single and comprehensive public agency that deals with occupational health and safety issues.

Kai Liu

Chapter 8. Comparison

The comparison of the systems will focus on four main characteristics.

Kai Liu

Der Niedergang

Koppels mäzenatisches Engagement bis zum Kriegsende wurde oben beschrieben. Wie hatte es sich nach 1918 entwickelt? Eine übergreifende Antwort findet sich in dem archivierten Nachlass Koppel, mit einer undatierten Aufstellung über seine Stiftungsleistungen: „Mit Dotationen von insgesamt mehr als 4 Millionen Mark steht Koppel mit weitem Abstand an der Spitze der Mäzenaten, die seiner Zeit das finanzielle Fundament der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft gelegt haben. Andere Großindustrielle und Financiers und auch die vom Kaiser unmittelbar angesprochenen Angehörigen alter Fürstenhäuser haben sehr viel bescheidenere Beiträge beigesteuert. Die Kapitalien der Koppelschen Stiftungen hat die Inflation restlos verschlungen. Zu weiteren Spenden hat sich Koppel danach nicht mehr bereit gefunden, vielleicht auch nicht mehr in der Lage gesehen.“

Hans H. Lembke

Feature Selection for Community Evolution Prediction in Location-Based Social Network: Gowalla and Brightkite

Over the past years, there is a growing concern in analyzing social networks and modeling their dynamics at different scales. Most social networks are dynamic and evolve gradually. Also, the communities in these dynamic networks usually have changing members and could grow and shrink over time. Therefore, one of the central challenges is to predict the future orientation of community evolution using the community features mined at different time intervals. Though, both the massive size of data and the dynamic nature of the network make it difficult to efficiently calculate these features. In this paper, we suggest a new approach that studies the structural and temporal features of the network and identify the most important subset of community features in order to predict the future orientation of communities in dynamic social networks. Our framework is to select the significant features associated to a community – its structure and history that guides to precise community event evolution. Contrasting to common methods that result huge number of features at each time interval, our suggested approach demands identifying essential number of community features to adequately define if a community will continue stable or experience certain events like shrinking, splitting or merging. Our experiments on real world datasets confirms the efficiency of the suggested framework.

Loubna Boujlaleb, Ali Idarrou, Driss Mammass

6. Challenges for the Future and the Role of Industrial Policy

The chapter summarizes the key ideas and issues described in previous chapters.The chapter offers a description of the kind of future we can envisage in the world healthcare industry, based on China’s growing role. Challenges and issues to be solved by China are considered. Key aspects discussed include: accessibility of services and imbalances/disparities affecting the Chinese healthcare system; pollution; innovation; the trade war with the US. Considerations are also inspired by the recent coronavirus diffusion, which has highlighted pitfalls and strengths of the Chinese healthcare system.

Marco R. Di Tommaso, Francesca Spigarelli, Elisa Barbieri, Lauretta Rubini

1. Orientation to Change Leadership

This chapter offers an orientation to Change Leadership as a domain of study. We provide an overview of the two parts of the book. Change leadership is required to effectively implement strategic objectives, with a specific focus on getting buy-in and taking people along on the change journey. We explain our research method and how to utilise the worksheets.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

13. Ninth Enabler

Evaluate

While the Eighth Enabler, Execute, made certain that the change plans are actually executed and that new habits are entrenched, this chapter on the Ninth Enabler, pays attention to evaluation. We offer practical tools to enable change leaders to initiate the process of receiving feedback from stakeholders regarding the way in which the change process was implemented and how it could be improved. The importance of continuous monitoring and evaluation is shared in this chapter. We share the benefits and discipline of evaluations throughout a change process, specifically establishing which lessons were learned to improve the next change process. We give examples of pertinent questions that must be asked of a change process. Neuroscience offers insight that evaluation could trigger a fear response and change leaders could benefit from taking this potential response into account. The continuous improvement process, enabled through regular evaluation, enables an ability to implement successful changes that improve over time.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

10. Sixth Enabler

Engage

This chapter focuses on the Sixth Enabler: Engage, by identifying various stakeholder groups, whose engagement is essential to the successful implementation of the change process. We offer various models and frameworks to categorise these stakeholder groups. For example, identifying the relative support for the change process, due to stakeholder groups’ interest in and power over the change process. We share practical tips to elicit stakeholder engagement, for instance, by asking them questions about solutions regarding the change process, for them to derive their own insights. We explain the importance of role modelling the appropriate behaviour during change processes, by linking the knowledge of mirror neurons.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

11. Seventh Enabler

Embark

In this chapter, we pay attention to the Seventh Enabler: Embarking. Identification of potential risks associated with implementing the change is an important element of this enabler. We offer exercises to systematically identify forces against the change and those people or things that are conducive to the implementation of the change. In this chapter, the resistance to change receives attention, as well as formulating a detailed communication strategy. Several tools offer the opportunity to systematically plan the when, what, how of executing the change process, for specific team members. When team members deliver actions, aligned to strategy on specific agreed upon dates, real progress towards implementation is evident.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

12. Eighth Enabler

Executex

While the previous enabler paid attention to formulating the change plans when embarking on the change, this chapter Eighth Enabler focuses on the actual execution of these change plans and in particular, centring on entrenching the new way of doing in the culture of the organisation. We emphasise the cascading of the change strategy lower down in the organisation, requiring diverse, cross-functional teams to indeed execute relevant actions. This chapter highlights the forming of a habit as well as how to change habits on the individual level. Change leaders must take notice of this chapter, because they must be role models to others due to their own ability to change habits. The insight into how difficult it is and how much dedication and attention are required to change habits also assists change leaders in having empathy with others who are struggling to truly change behaviour.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

14. Tenth Enabler

Exit

In this chapter, the final enabler receives attention. We advocate in this Tenth Enabler, Exit, for consolidation and celebration of milestones and creation of a sense of completion, before embarking on the next change processes. We discuss complicated bereavement to illustrate the difficulties that human beings experience with separation from things, institutions or people that they had become attached to. This Tenth Enabler, Exit symbolises an ending of an existing process and movement to a new change process, with hopefully even greater opportunities and an enlarging scale of impact. Change leaders will benefit from taking note of the importance of making an ending and thanking people personally who supported them through change processes, prior to exciting. We highlight specific examples of how change leaders had made successful exits and how it assisted their organisations, when a successor had been identified in advance and the baton had been successfully handed over.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

2. Leadership of Change

In this chapter, we discuss traditional change models, such as Lewin’s three-phase unfreezing model and Kotter’s eight steps. We also focus on misconceptions about change leadership, for example around top managements’ role, positioning of change leadership and styles of leadership. We differentiate between change and transformation and position this volume within the process change domain. The complexity of emerging markets renders our in-depth attention. We differentiate between frontier and emerging markets. The relevance of emerging markets for change leadership is discussed.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

15. Conclusion and Future Research

This final chapter focuses on an overview of our Ten Enablers model. We invite change leaders to decide on at least one action that they could take to move their change processes forward. This chapter emphasises that the final, Tenth Enabler should link with the First Enabler, Ethos. For example, the wisdom gained through the reflection in Enabler 1, offers input on the pace of change and when the next wave of change should be introduced. The learning points from the previous wave of change, assists the next wave to be more effective. We refer back to the helix model to illustrate the continuous waves of change. Emerging change in complexity science also receives attention as the next wave in our personal learning journey as change leaders.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

3. Introduction to Neuroscience and Change

This chapter introduces neuroscience and explains the relevance to change leadership. We explain the field of neuroscience, discuss the basics of brain anatomy and the principles of brain functioning. Our focus is on the normal functioning of the brain and the nervous system. For example, we share how self-directed neuroplasticity works and how it facilitates change. The important neurotransmitters and their impact on motivation and fight, flight or freeze receive attention in this chapter. We highlight the SCARF model of David Rock of NeuroLeadership and the application in the context of organisational change. We conclude with how reference to neuroscience knowledge can be applied in the Ten Enablers Model.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

4. The Ten Enablers Model

In this chapter, we offer the explanation of The Ten Enablers Model. The illustration of the ten enablers serves as a guide to empower change leaders to approach the process of change in a systematic manner. We start with the foundation of Ethos (Enabler 1), which focuses on the common good and not the enrichment of a selected few individuals or groups. Ego Mastery (Enabler 2) is essential for change leaders to remain centred, balanced and energised throughout the marathon of implementing change processes. Enablers 3 and 4, Explore and Eureka are focused on the context or external environment. Effective change leadership thus entails analysing external variables, such as the Political, Economic, Technological, Legislation and Environmental dynamics in the context. A systemic view of the organisation within its particular context serves the change leader in identifying past, present and future trends with hindsight, insight and foresight as aspects of contextual intelligence.This analysis leads to identifying opportunities—a Eureka! moment, which represents a mind shift or insight into what is required for the organisation to flourish in its environment. The insight is Envisioned (Enabler 5) as an ideal future that represents the business case for the change. Engagement (Enabler 6) of stakeholders to share in the vision is essential to build commitment, prior to Embarking (Enabler 7) on the change. Planning the change process in detail with its critical path; as well as roles and responsibilities; with milestones and delivery dates are crucial in this phase to enable the Execution (Enabler 8) of actions. This enabler represents the typical management cycle of setting goals and monitoring goal achievement. The next enabler is Evaluating (Enabler 9) the progress of the change process to capture lessons learned and prevent the same mistakes in future change processes. Finally, change leaders have to Exit (Enabler 10) and allow their successors to lead.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

7. Third Enabler: Explore

This chapter emphasises the benefits of exploring the environment. We offer a systematic process to go about analysing the immediate organisational environment, by identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats and the larger industrial environment, with a competitor analysis. Change leaders must investigate their context to identify business opportunities and therefore they need to look at the bigger picture. Neuroscience reveals that the brain experiences a positive response when a person is exposed to novel ideas. This chapter discusses the implications of our brains that look for new information. The emerging market featured in this chapter is China, which is the best performing emerging market. We discuss the implications of the Chinese historical and cultural background for exploring business opportunities with Chinese companies.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

8. Fourth Enabler

Eureka Moments

This chapter builds on the previous chapter that focused on exploration of opportunities, as change leaders have to identify an opportunity and how to go about moving from the current reality to capitalise on the opportunity. Change leaders must develop a mental model or picture in their own minds about the changes that they want to propel or instigate. The chapter takes change leaders through a process to facilitate their Eureka moments and offer tips on how to facilitate others to reach insights and hopefully shifting mindsets or changing paradigms. These Eureka moments build commitment in employees to support the change process. We discuss the link between Eureka moments and innovation in organisations. Russia is an emerging market in this chapter, which receives attention, because Russia has experienced significant paradigm shifts in their history with the end of the Soviet Union.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

5. First Enabler

Ethos

This chapter and the subsequent nine chapters are structured according to an orientation to the enabler, consisting of references to relevant current literature, relating the enabler specifically to emerging markets; followed by practical application examples, tips and exercises. We relate insight into neuroscience to each enabler and offer survey items as a measurement of the enabler. The conclusion links to the subsequent enablers. Enabler 1 entails establishing the ethos in the situation, that is assessing the character or beliefs and customs of the people and institution where the change process will be implemented. We consider Ethos as the moral compass that will ensure that we do what is right for the greater good. Several tools are described to assist change leaders in clarifying their own and their company’s values. We explain the waves of change experienced in South Africa as background to change leaders doing business in South Africa or those who are building alliances with South African companies.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

6. Second Enabler

Ego Mastery

For leaders to overcome their egotistical needs and transcend to the common good, ego mastery is required. This chapter, therefore, offers practical exercises on self-awareness, self-reflection and mindfulness to improve ego mastery. Change leaders who are indeed able to master their egos, demonstrate self-directed leadership that makes independent decisions from their own convictions. This chapter pays attention to change leaders’ maintenance of their own energy. The dangers of burnout and depression, as well as possible treatments are important focus areas in this chapter. The elements of ego mastery are also linked to the relevant neuroscience facts and their implications. The chapter highlights India and the example of Gandhi’s role modelling and the ultimate influence on British colonial rule.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

9. Fifth Enabler

Envision

This chapter pays attention to the Fifth Enabler: Envision. We discuss the process of envisioning, for example to start with the vision of the future and the quantifying the vision, then to calculate the costs and the risk involved in changing, as well as the risk of maintaining the status quo by not changing. If there is not enough dissatisfaction with the status quo, there might not be enough energy to sustain the process of achieving the vision. We focus on the contribution of neuroscience in understanding the uniquely human characteristic to imagine the future. For example, the same parts of the brain are activated whether we are imagining or actually participating in an event. The emerging market featured in this chapter is Brazil.

Caren Brenda Scheepers, Sonja Swart

4. The Globalization of the Industry: Chinese Inward and Outward FDIs

This chapter describes how Western and domestic firms are competing in the various sub-segments of the Chinese market. The analysis begins with the impact of China’s Open Door policy and of Foreign Direct Investments in China by Western multinationals. Then, we consider China’s Go Global strategy and recent trends in Chinese expansion abroad via greenfield and non-greenfield investments. Some interesting cases are analysed in a bid to understand the motives behind the growing integration of the Chinese healthcare industry in the global value chain. This chapter also addresses the challenges for Chinese firms on the global market, as well as the opportunities that China’s healthcare industry can bring to foreign investors.

Marco R. Di Tommaso, Francesca Spigarelli, Elisa Barbieri, Lauretta Rubini

1. On Health Production and Demand: And Why an Effective Health Industry is Vital for China (and the Rest of the World)

The chapter explores the intertwined relation between health and economic growth. In China, improvements in the health status of the population have powered the economic growth experienced by the country following the launch of the open door policy. Conversely, the emergence of a Chinese middle class and the improvement of economic conditions for a substantial proportion of the population have led to an increased demand for healthcare and to an improvement in people’s health. However, these improvements have not been homogeneous across the country, which still shows large inequalities between rural and urban areas and among provinces and where the “acceptable” level of health varies. The health industry, comprising healthcare providers, financiers and producers, plays a pivotal role, also in the light of the new technologies and of the availability of Big Data, whose handling can allow to design increasingly personalized treatments. The Chinese health industry has been showing steady signs of improvements, but there still are margins for improvement, especially in the light of recent spread of Covid-19, with externalities overcoming the national boundaries.

Marco R. Di Tommaso, Francesca Spigarelli, Elisa Barbieri, Lauretta Rubini

2. The Rise of China as a Global Player in the Healthcare Industry

The chapter describes the trajectory of Chinese economy along the 40 years of reforms started by Deng Xiaoping. The goal is to better understand the changes and evolution of demand and supply of healthcare goods and services in China in the light of the impressive Chinese growth and economic development. Beside the Open Door and Go Global policies, a specific attention is paid to the New Normal and Xi Jinping’s economics. The Made in China 2025 Plan and the Belt and Road Initiative are examined as a combined set of industrial policies that are turning China into a world-class innovation-oriented economy. The case of healthcare industries is analysed in the light of those policies, in order to introduce the following chapters, where healthcare industries are examined in detail. After a brief depiction of the Chinese healthcare context in terms of both demand and supply, some data about word trade of healthcare goods are examined, to better frame the actual competitive position of China compared to other Western countries.

Marco R. Di Tommaso, Francesca Spigarelli, Elisa Barbieri, Lauretta Rubini

Chapter 9. Fog-IoT Environment in Smart Healthcare: A Case Study for Student Stress Monitoring

Fog computing disseminates computing system which incorporates the cloud computing model to fully support the vision of internet of things (IoT). In the course of the most recent couple of years, the internet of things (IoT) opens the portal to developments that encourage communication among things as well as among people known as the man to machine (M2M) interface. Concentrating on medicinal services space, IoT devices, for example, therapeutic sensors, visual sensors, cameras, as well as remote sensor systems, are driving the developmental pattern. Toward this way, the part anticipates strengthening the amalgamation of fog computing in the medicinal services area. Convinced by the equivalent creative methods, our work features the latest IoT-aware student-centered stress management system for student stress indexing in a specific context. The work proposes to utilize the temporal dynamic Bayesian network (TDBN) model to depict the event of stress as conventional or sporadic by readings through physiological means congregated from medicinal devices at the fog layer. Constructed from four parameters, especially leaf node confirmations, outstanding tasks at hand, context, and understudy well-being quality are employed for the stress computation, and decisions are made well into the shape of a warning generator equipment with provision of moment-sensitive information to caregivers or respondents. Experimentation is aimed on both fog and cloud layers on stress-related datasets that illustrate the usefulness and accuracy of the TDBN model in our proposed system. The final experiments bear witness that the BBN classifier overweighed the group by attaining an accuracy value of 95.5% and specificity of 97.3%, whereas J48, Random forest, and SVM have accomplished an exactness of 85.2%, 87.9%, and 90.8%, separately. However, if sensitivity and f-measure would occur, the BBN classifier beats other classifier models individually with 95.5% and 92.9% values for the same. Also, we evaluated our proposed method with seven states of the artworks, and again, our method leads the list in terms of its promised performance. The work also offers a gentle touch in the literature review form on the recent novel techniques and methods, including deep learning for complex heterogeneous healthcare sensor data, which act as a supporting hand for fog computing.

Tawseef Ayoub Shaikh, Rashid Ali

8. Leadership und Innovation II – Selbstführung

Aufgrund knapper werdender Ressourcen ist es für Führungs-, aber auch für Fachkräfte zunehmend wichtiger, sich selbst effektiv zu führen. Zentrale Elemente in unterschiedlichen Modellen zur Selbstführung sind mentale, körperliche, emotionale und spirituelle Ressourcen, die eine umfassende Selbstführung – und dadurch auch eine nachhaltige Kreativität – ermöglichen. Da es in verschiedenen Kulturen und Zeitepochen erfolgreich angewandt wurde, wird zunächst das sogenannte Medizinrad vorgestellt, welche die oben genannten Ressourcen beschreibt. In einer aktuellen Variante werden dieselben Ressourcen im Modell des Unternehmensathleten integriert, um die Leistungsfähigkeit von Mitarbeiter*innen in Organisationen sicherzustellen. In diesem Modell werden auch zahlreiche Interventionen zur Steigerung der mentalen, körperlichen, emotionalen und spirituellen Ressourcen vorgestellt. Das Kapitel schließt ab mit weiteren empirischen Befunden zur Sicherung und Stärkung der vier Ressourcen.

Jens Rowold

9. Führung und Innovation – Cross-Cultural Leadership

Immer mehr Arbeitsteams setzen sich aus Mitarbeiter*innen mit unterschiedlichem kulturellen Hintergrund zusammen und die Anzahl ins Ausland entsandter Führungskräfte steigt stetig. Folglich wird die Untersuchung von Führung im internationalen Kontext zunehmend wichtiger. Gleichzeitig gewinnt die Frage danach, ob es Unterschiede hinsichtlich des Innovationsklimas in einzelnen Ländern und Kulturkreisen gibt, an Bedeutung für die Unternehmensführung und eine internationale Wirtschaftsentwicklung. Das vorliegende Kapitel gibt einen Einblick in den aktuellen Stand der Forschung. Zunächst wird erläutert, welche Auffassungen es von Innovation und Kultur im Sinne der Führungsforschung gibt. Daran anschließend werden die Zusammenhänge in einem Modell sowie empirische Studien zu Einflüssen von Führung auf Innovationsprozesse im interkulturellen Kontext vorgestellt.

Ute Poethke, Olena Kryshko

3. Eigenschaften der Arbeit

Arbeitsbezogene Tätigkeiten lassen sich hinsichtlich verschiedenster Merkmale wie bspw. Aufgabenvielfalt, -komplexität, -autonomie oder Beanspruchung beschreiben und charakterisieren. Ziel des vorliegenden Kapitels ist es, mögliche Wege und Herangehensweisen zur Beschreibung und Charakterisierung von Arbeitstätigkeiten vorzustellen und abzugrenzen. Im Anschluss daran werden die identifizierten Charakteristika auf Basis empirischer Befunde ausführlich hinsichtlich ihres innovationshemmenden bzw. -fördernden Einflusses behandelt.

Kai C. Bormann, Ute Poethke, Kai N. Klasmeier

7. Leadership und Innovation – Überblick

Für Unternehmen spielt das Thema Innovation eine immer wichtigere Rolle. Dynamische Märkte, große Konkurrenz und der Kampf um jede*n potenzielle*n Kund*in zwingen Unternehmen dazu, ihre Produkte den aktuellen Bedürfnissen des/der Kund*in immer wieder anzupassen. Verschiedene Faktoren wirken sich positiv auf die Entstehung von Innovationen bzw. auf innovatives Verhalten von Mitarbeiter*innen aus. Die transformationale Führung hat sich dabei als besonders effektives Führungsverhalten herausgestellt. Im folgenden Kapitel sollen empirische Ergebnisse und praktische Beispiele für erfolgreiche Innovationen vorgestellt werden.

Carina Cohrs, Sarah Lange, Julia Nogga

Assessment of Greenhouse Gases and Perception of Communities on Emissions from the Largest Dumpsite in Africa

Human quest for survival and improved quality of life has led to uncontrolled consumption patterns with numerous unfavourable environmental behaviours. We are generating more waste than we can handle especially in developing economies with low citizenry’s level of awareness, poor waste management and technological skills. Africa is one of such regions having numerous municipal solid waste landfills and open dumpsites which generate major greenhouse gases (GHGs) during anaerobic decomposition within many communities. The largest of such in Africa is the 103 acres landfill located on the outskirts of Lagos with surrounding communities. This is a major contributor to climate change with methane having global warming potential 25–30 times more effectiveness than carbon dioxide. This study is an attempt to assess major GHGs emissions, detectable within 12 selected locations from communities bordering Olushosun waste dumpsite. In addition to this, the perception of 348 respondents (213 male and 135 female), living or working within the adjourning communities of the dumpsite, was assessed on GHGs and odour emitting from the site. Gamma Air Quality device was employed for the detection of GHGs, and methane and carbon dioxide were the only GHGs detectable as well as carbon monoxide. The demographic data of respondents were found to be heterogeneous, about 90% says they are aware of the existence of the dumpsite, 85% claimed to significantly perceive the bad odour, 27% have previous knowledge of the existence of methane within the site but only 41% of the samples are willing to use it for cooking while 71% are willing to tap methane from the site for other domestic uses such as electricity generation. Other relevant analyses are reported, implications for climate change impact, climate change education and risk assessment are drawn, and conclusions and recommendations were made.

Michael A. Ahove, Olasunkanmi M. Ojowuro, Chinenye L. Okafor

Chapter 13. Gateway, Fast Lane, or Early Exit? Tourism and Hospitality as a First Employer of Norwegian Youth

Hospitality and tourism employment are gateways into working life for young people, but international evidence is mounting that the tourism youth employment experience is increasingly fast, furious, and short. Formal apprenticeship systems are one possibility for the tourism industry to attract and train a stable and competent workforce, but there are signs that this model may be aging. In response to this perspective, this chapter interrogates a Norwegian dataset pertaining to apprenticeship entrants’ first encounters, expectations, and experiences in the industry. We find, by examining the newcomer socialisation literature, that both apprentices’ experiences, and their expectations, are leading to undesirable outcomes. We conclude that this is discordant with the industry’s developmental duty of care responsibilities and the symbiotic relationship it has enjoyed with young workers.

Åse Helene Bakkevig Dagsland, Richard N. S. Robinson, Matthew L. Brenner

Chapter 16. Sustainable Tourism Employment, the Concept of Decent Work, and Sweden

This chapter considers the sustainability of tourism employment in Sweden. Examining current understandings of tourism employment through discussions of sustainable human resource management and decent work (following the Sustainable Development Goals, specifically Goal 8), the chapter asks if tourism employment can be sustainable. The chapter reiterates that there remains a lack of empirically grounded, relevant literature on the sustainability of tourism employment and utilises data from a qualitative systematic review of literature to explore these issues in relation to Sweden. The chapter finishes with positive examples of sustainable initiatives from the Swedish tourism industry but concludes that without meaningful engagement at many scales and with many stakeholders, the sustainability of tourism employment, and the capacity for decent work in tourism, remains dubious.

Tara Duncan, Anna Gudmundsson Hillman, Jörgen Elbe

Chapter 11. Managerial Practices of Co-creation and Psychosocial Work Outcomes

This chapter contributes to knowledge about managerial practices related to co-creation and how these practices are connected to psychosocial work outcomes. The analysis identifies six particular practices that managers in different service companies apply to their work, these are: (1) conditioning for flexibility in co-creation; (2) fostering co-creation competence among staff, (3) mediating social support from customers, (4) providing a safe space to ventilate emotions, (5) moderating multicultural dialogue, and (6) “getting them to see the whole [service chain]”. These findings are discussed in the light of Nordic leadership and the ethical challenges of providing decent and meaningful work in tourism.

Olga Gjerald, Trude Furunes

Chapter 18. Battling the Past: Social, Economic, and Political Challenges to Indigenous Tourism Employment

Arctic explorers have traditionally viewed the North as unexplored frontier, minimizing the role of Indigenous inhabitants. Today, despite exponential growth in Northern tourism, Indigenous peoples are minimally and under-employed, continuing a troubling pattern of economic and social marginalization. In categorizing the challenges to Indigenous employment in the tourism industry identified through a case study literature review, three themes of obstacles emerge: economic and socially extractive practices, contentious social norms, and legal obstacles. The rhetorical content and historical, political, and economic components are each examined, and five considerations for tourism development given to promote employment equity. As the Arctic continues to garner international interest, the ‘Nordic case’ reveals the need for sustainable and inclusive tourism employment across circumpolar states and for Northern futures.

Ellen A. Ahlness

Chapter 4. Tourism Work: Public Management of the Tourism Workforce in Finland

The chapter is built on the basis of the public management of tourism workforce in Finland and it provides an overview on how project-based development is used as a tool in answering the challenges the industry faces in terms of finding skilled employees. The chapter considers also the structural challenges that cause the lack of skilled tourism workforce in Finland. The national tourism policy in a Finnish context is explored through development projects. Project MatkailuDiili is introduced as an example of a public initiative to tackle the challenges. The way tourism work is presented has an impact on the acquisition of skilled workforce and close attention should be paid to how the industry is discussed by public instances.

Anu Harju-Myllyaho, Maria Hakkarainen, Mari Vähäkuopus

Chapter 20. Tourism Employment in Nordic Countries: Trends, Practices and Opportunities

In this chapter, we review and comment on some of the common themes that have threaded their way throughout the text. We highlight similarities and differences in areas pertinent to tourism employment such as decent work, different facets of migration, youth employment and education, the precarity of tourism work and employment relations. The chapter culminates in a loose agenda for future research distinguishing between avenues in existing areas of research where further detailed work may lead to new insights, and new areas of research that present themselves given developments in the macro-environment (e.g. socio-political changes or technological developments).

Andreas Walmsley, Kajsa Åberg, Petra Blinnikka, Gunnar Thór Jóhannesson

Chapter 12. Seasonal Workers as Innovation Triggers

The authors discuss innovation potential in tourism industries and ski resorts in light of migrant seasonal workers. It is argued that seasonal workers may on given occasions be highly important for innovation, in contrast to dominant perceptions of employees in tourism. This is due to some segments of seasonal workers’ unique position as boundary spanners between destinations and communities of practice. One premise for this is that lifestyle work motives and dedication to leisure activities dominates their decision to take on seasonal work. Seasonal workers’ mobilities between destinations render them a role as “vehicles of knowledge flows” and their work position as front-line personnel as well as good knowledge of customer needs, gives them opportunity to disclose weak product elements and transfer knowledge between destinations.

Birgitta Ericsson, Kjell Overvåg, Cecilia Möller

Chapter 10. Employee Motivation and Satisfaction Practices: A Case from Iceland

This chapter sheds light on some of the human resource (HR) challenges that are related to job satisfaction and motivation among front desk hotel employees in Iceland. It reviews which employee motivation and satisfaction practices are being used, and how employees and managers view the role of the HR department dealing with these challenges. Findings, based on interviews with both managers and employees from a hotel chain in Iceland, suggest that the HR department seems somewhat distant from the mundane work. There is no universal approach or system in place to monitor or manage job satisfaction and motivation that applies to all hotels within the chain and the practices that are applied are developed mostly by individual hotel’s management rather than centrally.

Magnus Asgeirsson, Paulína Neshybová, Brynjar Thor Thorsteinsson, Ester Gústavsdóttir

Chapter 4. Digital Transformation in SMEs—Lean Management + Industry 4.0

Digital transformation will considerably change the technical production environment and the way of working in the industry. This change will take place primarily in the larger conglomerates, but will soon affect small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In Germany, particularly SMEs are of high importance, as they constitute a substantial part of the overall firm population. The initiative Industry 4.0, based on the high-tech strategy of the German federal government, is also a research platform focused on driving the digital transformation process in the German industry. As digital transformation is not only a technical but also a managerial and cultural challenge, many companies have already formulated some strategic digital transformation ideas. In practice, however, only selected and very innovative (often larger companies) have implemented first solutions. These solutions often concentrate on production improvement as cost reduction, flexibility, and quality. The creation of new products and particularly new business models is still a distant prospect. Due to the specific cultural and managerial framework, most SMEs are especially challenged. The digital transformation process in these companies requires substantial changes in leadership and management behavior as well as conduct. Hence, a structured holistic change project, using established methods of the Lean Management Approach, is a prerequisite for a successful digital transformation process. Lean management and Industry 4.0 form a compulsory symbiosis.

Rudolf Jerrentrup

Chapter 1. Germany’s Industry 4.0 Guiding China’s Development Based on the Perspective of Cyber Physical Systems

The implementation of Germany’s Industry 4.0 strategy policy is well grounded, layer upon layer in domestic industry, market system, the legal system, etc. Germany is fully aware of the economic and social significance of the Cyber Physical System (CPS) and the significance of its support for the full and free development of the people. Hence, the CPS builds the core of Industry 4.0. The content of the Made in China 2025 strategy lacks the overall framework for the implementation of the policies and the understanding of the importance of building CPS. As a guiding strategy for national progress, it is necessary to attach great importance to the development of CPS, which is of essential significance to China’s economic power, cultural power and the happiness of its citizens.

Yang Yanhong, Wang Yuzhen

Chapter 14. Development Strategy of Coal Science and Technology Financing in Shanxi

The “revolution of coal” of Shanxi province needs the support of coal science and technology. Science and technology financing is an important tool to promote the development of coal science and technology. Based on the analysis of the connotation of science and technology financing, the integration of science and technology financing and the coal industry, and the foundation of the development of Shanxi province’s science and technology financing, this chapter puts forward that Shanxi province should take the innovation of the whole coal industry chain as the objective and take environment construction, system construction and platform construction as the starting point. The government’s policy guidance function and financial leverage is actively given play, to mobilize a variety of scientific research platforms, i.e. large coal enterprises, to carry out the coal science and technology research initiative and financial institutions to support the initiative of coal science and technology innovation, and vigorously promote the quality of coal science and technology. With these means, the forces of transformation can be productive. This chapter also makes suggestions for a solution to the difficult problems in the implementation of coal science and technology financing.

Zhang Wenlong

Chapter 8. An Effective Path to Made in China 2025—Sharing Economy Mode

Based on the change of international industry trends, the Chinese government has made a major strategic plan to comprehensively improve the quality of the Chinese manufacturing industry. China’s manufacturing industry is the main body of Chinese national economy. In the process of stepping into manufacturing power, this article recommends the government to stick to the Internet Plus plan, to introduce sharing economy and to develop the principal enterprises’ leadership and core competence in order to achieve rapid progress in innovation, production and business mode as well as to achieve participation of many parties in the creation of value.

Zhang Ping, Sun Xi

2. The Necessity of Reforming Chinese Legislation on PFIPs

PFIPs have brought many benefits since they began to be used in China in the 1980s.1 During this development period, however, some of the challenges facing PFIPs have also become apparent. Many of these challenges could be avoided or remedied through the reformation or improvement of laws. Therefore, it is necessary to reform the Chinese laws on PFIPs. Chinese policies and the Chinese market have also developed and matured. Therefore, it is the proper time to reform and improve the Chinese laws on PFIPs to catch up with international developments in the use of PFIPs and facilitate their use in China.

Shuang Liang

Chapter 8. Popular Power

The strategies presented in this book (Chapters 3–8) are ordered by the advocates’ levels of engagement with formal players in policymaking. They started in Chapter 3 with the public lobbyingLobbying strategy, in which advocates lobby elected representatives and other government officials, with little to no public engagementCivic or citizen engagement (public engagement). The final strategy defined in this chapter represents the opposite end of the spectrum.

Sheldon Gen, Amy Conley Wright

Chapter 3. Public Lobbying

In the morning of his first day at a new job as executive director of a regional theater arts nonprofit, Brad Erickson received a phone message marked urgent. The message wasn’t even addressed to him by name, because he was new to the post. It was from the California Arts Council, an arts advocacy organization, asking Erickson to contact key state legislators to defend the state’s arts budget against massive cuts.

Sheldon Gen, Amy Conley Wright

Chapter 9. Considerations for Strategic Policy Advocacy

The preceding chapters have illustrated that a limited set of tactics can be utilized in a variety of ways, depending on the viewpoint of the advocates. The six strategies described in this book identify unique viewpoints of nonprofit organizations on the processes of policy change and how they seek to influence those processes.

Sheldon Gen, Amy Conley Wright

Chapter 5. Inside-Outside

For decades leading to 2013, California’s system for financing primary and secondary education was the twisted outcome of lawsuits, ballot initiatives, and legislative fixes that started in the 1970s with the landmark Serrano v. Priest cases. Those cases rightfully concluded that the quality of public education in California’s districts may not be based upon local property values, but instead must be substantially equal across the state.

Sheldon Gen, Amy Conley Wright

Chapter 4. Institutional Partnership

To Jessica Gunderson, summer slide isn’t a children’s playground structure. It’s a pernicious problem affecting students from low-income communities, and it was a main target of her work when she was the policy director for Partnership for Children & Youth (PCY). Summer slide refers to the well-established pattern of learning gains during the school year followed by learning losses during the summer when students are separated from academic settings (Perry et al. in Summer Learning–A Smart Investment for California School Districts. Policy Analysis for California Education, Stanford, CA, 2018). This learning loss disproportionately affects students from lower-income communities whose access to summer camps and other enrichment programs is less than those from wealthier neighborhoods.

Sheldon Gen, Amy Conley Wright

Chapter 7. Indirect Pressure

Tiffany Schauer was an environmental attorney for over ten years, including five with the US Environmental Protection Agency, through the mid-1990s. During those early years of her career, she discovered that “the attacks on environmental regulatory standards and enforcement program funding decisions are not occurring in statehouses and legislative sessions, where the glare of public attention would be too great.

Sheldon Gen, Amy Conley Wright

Chapter 2. Tactics and Strategies

This chapter introduces the concepts of tactics and strategies used in policy advocacy, and discusses how the strategies and case studies presented in the following chapters of the book were derived. Policy advocacy strategies are comprehensive, long-range approaches to policy change, while tactics are the specific advocacy activities employed within the strategies intended to achieve specific outcomes.

Sheldon Gen, Amy Conley Wright

Chapter 1. Nonprofit Policy Advocacy in the United States

Kate Kendell had spent most of her career advocating for civil rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people.

Sheldon Gen, Amy Conley Wright

Chapter 1. Introduction

The purpose of the first chapter of this book is to give a general introduction to the Chinese energy sector and electricity industry. The position of the two is placed in a global context. In addition, the fuel source competition of this sector and industry is also outlined.

Ma Xiaoying, Malcolm Abbott

14. Neustart für eine moderne Personalarbeit

Dieser Beitrag der Human Resources-Experten von Roland Berger beschäftigt sich mit den veränderten Anforderungen an die Personalarbeit und dem daraus resultierenden Zwang zur Neuausrichtung der Human Resources-Abteilungen. Hierbei wird zunächst beschrieben, welche Faktoren die moderne Personalarbeit prägen und inwiefern dadurch das in den meisten Unternehmen etablierte Drei-Säulen-Modell der HR-Arbeit an seine Grenzen stößt. Wie das Konzept weiterentwickelt werden kann, zeigen die Autoren anhand von vier Archetypen moderner HR Operating-Modelle, die sie im Detail vorstellen. Wie sich aus einzelnen Elementen dieser verschiedenen Archetypen eine für das eigene Unternehmen optimierte HR aufbauen lässt, verdeutlicht zum Abschluss das Praxisbeispiel eines DAX30-Konzerns, der seine HR passend zur Unternehmensstrategie komplett neu ausgerichtet hat.

Fabian Huhle, Tom Gellrich, Andreas Stocker, Fabian Englert

13. Die digitale Transformation und ihre Konsequenzen für HR-Leader

Dieser Artikel setzt sich mit den Konsequenzen der digitalen Transformation und den daraus resultierenden Herausforderungen für das Personalmanagement und HR-Leader auseinander. Aufbauend auf der Darstellung der Notwendigkeit für ein neues, ganzheitliches Personalmanagement, wird der mehrdimensionale Bezugsrahmen für diese Weiterentwicklung dargestellt. Hierauf wird mit dem Transformation Organization & People (TOP) Modell ein neuer Denk- und Handlungsrahmen für die Personalarbeit vorgestellt und granular diskutiert. In Ableitung dessen wird vertiefter aufgezeigt, warum und wie neue, beziehungsweise redefinierte Kompetenzen auf den Organisationserfolg wirken. Dies wird beispielhaft anhand der Kompetenzen Delivering Results, Influencing Collaboratively, Developing Talent und Driving Change dargestellt. Auf dieser Basis werden die Relevanz und der messbare Einfluss von Potenzial auf die Kompetenzausprägungen und zugleich die vier Potenzialdimensionen Curiosity, Insight, Engagement und Determination beschrieben. Abschließend wird aufgezeigt, welche Konsequenzen hieraus auf das Personalmanagement insgesamt und spezifisch für HR-Leader resultieren.

Jörg K. Ritter, René Sadowski

2. Agile Organisationsentwicklung bei TRUMPF: Herausforderungen, Erfahrungen, Erkenntnisse

Willkommen in der „VUKA“-Welt: In einem von Volatilität, Unsicherheit, Komplexität und Ambivalenz geprägten Umfeld können agile Entwicklungsmethoden erfolgsversprechend sein. Allerdings bedeutet „agil machen“ nicht automatisch „agil sein“. Insbesondere dann, wenn ganze Organisationen sich auf Agilität ausrichten wollen, ist es entscheidend, neben dem Aufbau von Methodenkompetenz den Wandel in Köpfen und in den Herzen der Menschen nicht zu vernachlässigen. In diesem Beitrag legen wir zunächst dar, wie sich aus den Herausforderungen der VUKA-Welt die Schaffung einer agilen Organisationsstruktur motiviert. Dann beschreiben wir im Detail, wie die TruConnect-Software-Entwicklung bei TRUMPF, auf jahrelanger Erfahrung mit Scrum aufbauend, die ganze Abteilung konsequent agil aufgestellt hat. Schließlich gehen wir darauf ein, welche Herausforderungen den Weg zur agilen Organisation säumen und welche Erkenntnisse wir aus der tagtäglichen Arbeit mit über zwanzig Scrum-Teams in einer nach agilen Prinzipien aufgebauten Organisation bisher gesammelt haben.

Heiko Schröder, Juliane Pilster

The Role of Predictive Data Analytics in Retailing

Large information analytics is a new practice in business analytics today. However, later modern overviews locate that huge information investigation may neglect to meet business wants as a result of the absence of business context and cluster arranged framework. In this paper, we present an objective situated large information investigation system for better business choices, which comprises a theoretical model which associates a business side and a major information side, setting data around the information; a case-based assessment technique which empowers to center the best arrangements; a procedure on the best way to utilize the proposed structure; and an associated device which is a constant enormous information examination stage. In this structure, issues against business objectives of the present procedure and answers for the future procedure are expressly estimated in the reasonable model and approved on genuine large information utilizing huge inquiries or enormous information examination. As an exact examination, a shipment choice process is utilized to indicate how the system can bolster better business choices as far as extensive understanding both on business and information investigation, high need and quick choices.

Mohammed Juned Shaikh Shabbir, C. M. Mankar

Waldo Tobler (1931–2018): Analytical Cartographer and Regional Scientist

In this chapter, Arthur Getis discusses Waldo Rudolph Tobler, one of the world’s leading cartographers, who specialized in mathematical representations of the Earth’s surface. Tobler was among the first to use computers in cartographic and geographic research. He was the inventor of novel and unusual map projections, including a hyper-elliptical, equal area projection that became popular for its ease of use. In one of his publications he made a casual statement about observable earth characteristics: Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things. This became known as Tobler’s First Law of Geography. Its profundity comes from his awakening in many scholars the importance of a spatial or distance-related perspective of the world around them.

Arthur Getis

Rolf Funck (1930–2015): Developing Regional Science in Europe

Rolf Funck was an important contributor to the Regional Science Association’s institutional transformation into the current Regional Science Association International, and he played a key role in the early advancement of regional science in Europe. He guided the development of the annual European Congresses and successfully transplanted, from North America, the idea of regional science Summer Institutes. In this chapter, Daniela Constantin reflects on Funck’s role in the organizational service of regional science in Europe and worldwide, as well as his scholarship’s scientific impact on regional science theory and practice. Funck will be remembered for pioneering contributions to regional growth modelling, to regional competition theory, to understanding the role of cultural activities as a source of competitiveness in urban regions, and to East-West European integration.

Daniela-Luminita Constantin

Philip Sargant Florence (1890–1982): Pioneer Planning Analyst

In this chapter, Peter Batey assesses the career of Philip Sargant Florence, who was exceptional among economists in having wide interests in applied social science and in promoting interdisciplinary works. Although his name may not be familiar to today’s regional scientists, his ideas on, e.g., measuring spatial industrial concentration—including inventing the location quotient and the coefficient of specialization—have endured. Unlike many contemporaries, Sargent Florence was not interested in pure economic theory, preferring realistic economics and basing generalizations on actual observations. In presenting convincing evidence of how the social sciences—especially geography, economics, and sociology—could benefit urban and regional planning practice, Sargent Florence was an important figure in preparing the ground for the development of the regional science movement in the 1950s and 1960s.

Peter Batey

Genpachiro Konno (1906–1996), Yasuhiko Oishi (1922–2014), and Hirotada Kohno (1932–): The Three Great Fathers of Japanese Regional Science

In this first of two chapters dealing with the international growth of regional science, Yoshiro Higano assesses the contributions of Genpachiro Konno, Yasuhiko Oishi, and Hirotada Kohno to leading the development of regional science in Japan. These Great Minds each served decade-long terms as Presidents of the Japan Section of the Regional Science Association (RSA), followed by terms as Presidents of the RSA, or its successor, the Regional Science Association International. Highly principled, strong scholars, they advocated for public policy based on scientific study. Committed to large national projects, including express highways, they realized the value of regional science and interpreted it to fit the exigencies of their times. Together, Konno, Oishi, and Kohno led the creation of a uniquely Japanese brand of regional science.

Yoshiro Higano

Edward Louis Ullman (1912–1976): Establishing the Bases of Regional Science

In this chapter, David Plane discusses the career of Edward Ullman, an American geographer who helped shape the early development of regional science. Ullman was among the pioneers of a more analytical and policy-relevant approach to the discipline of geography, and his three ‘bases of spatial interaction’ are now among its core concepts. An active participant in the formative years of regional science professional organizations, he made major contributions in three areas that remain at the heart of regional science: transportation networks and flows, cities and settlement systems, and the economic structure and development of regions. Ullman’s work blended theory, empirical data, mapping, and traditional geographic description of regions. The bases he laid down for works in regional science live on to the present day.

David Plane

Chapter 4. Measuring the Quality of Non-financial Risk-Related Disclosure

In the chapter we introduce the main research question of the book, namely, RQ: Does quality mandatory NF risk disclosure affect investors’ decisions? The answer to the research question requires a context in which to carry out the research (we justified the choice of Italy in the previous section), the analytical framework for NF risk-related disclosure to employ and an adequate methodology to measure quality NF risk disclosure. As for the framework for the mandatory NF risk disclosure, we focus on the NF risk disclosure categories as provided by the EU Directive implemented by the Legislative Decree 254/2016, preceded by a brief illustration of the other main existing frameworks of NF risk disclosure. As for the methodology, we focus on the most widely used method to measure narrative disclosure, the content analysis, focusing on the main approach that can be followed by researchers to content analyse corporate documents, that is, mechanistic and interpretive content analysis, also presenting the main empirical studies employing automated and manual content analysis. The last sections of the chapter are devoted to the concept of quality of disclosure and how it can be operationalized, to end with the self-constructed quality disclosure index used in our research to measure the mandatory NF risk-related information disclosure.

Stefania Veltri

Chapter 3. Capitalistic Accumulation

Capitalistic accumulation lies in the constant reinvestment of profit. It continues to fuel the supply of goods as long as demand grows in proportion. Competition amongst the producers of goods drives them to boost productivity through innovation and increasing mechanisation. History shows three ways to accomplish accumulation. One, technologically backward, is based on low wages and produces poverty. Another (the most common) is mechanised, keeps wages low and is exposed to underconsumption. The third, which emerged only in the eighteenth century and with the welfare state, bases increase in productivity on high wages, and thus avoids saturation. Increasing wealth gives rise to the productive middle classes, which carry civilisation forward.

Cosimo Perrotta

Chapter 5. National Citizenship in a Mobile Europe: They Are Changing!

This chapter emphasises that mobility within the European Union (EU) can and likely to transform the perceptions of young citizens about their national citizenship. Most importantly, the original focus group evidence with young and highly educated citizens suggests that EU mobility reinforces the significance of inclusive national frames for notions of citizenship and turn some of the banal aspects of the dimensions of national citizenship more tangible. By comparison, stayers are likely to take it for granted that local and national policies dominate their everyday lives, transposing this knowledge to make sense of EU politics—in the one-off cases it was deemed as relevant. The chapter thus cautions against adopting overly progressive anticipations for the characteristics of mobile national citizenship.

Nora Siklodi

Chapter 2. Citizenship, Free Movement and the EU

This chapter makes a case for re-embedding the study of mobile European citizenship in the field of citizenship studies. In particular, the chapter considers the prevalence of the three key themes as apparent in citizenship studies debates, including the changing significance of distinct models of citizenship, related community building processes (including processes of differentiation and exclusion) and the dimensions of citizenship, namely identity, rights and participation. It applies these themes to the Swedish, UK and EU examples before turning to the anticipated role of intra-EU mobility, especially learning mobility in EU citizenship. The chapter ends with a conceptual framework about the dimensions of citizenship, which is used for the analysis of data in the remainder of the book.

Nora Siklodi

Open Access

9. Rollen und Verantwortlichkeiten für erfolgreiche Social-Business-Anwendungen

Handlungsempfehlungen für eine erfolgreiche Umsetzung in Unternehmen

Der Einsatz von Social Business bietet große Potenziale für Unternehmen, ist jedoch kein Selbstläufer. Um auf Dauer von Social Business profitieren zu können, müssen deshalb von Beginn an erfolgskritische Fragestellungen adressiert und geeignete Lösungen gefunden werden. So ergab eine Studie, die im Rahmen des vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) geförderten Projekts SB:Digital durchgeführt wurde, dass die dort befragten Unternehmen klar definierte Rollen und Verantwortlichkeiten sowie die Sicherstellung der Akzeptanz der Mitarbeitenden als die wichtigsten Erfolgsfaktoren für Social Business ansehen. Innerhalb des Projekts SB:Digital wurde deshalb ein Referenzmodell entwickelt, das Unternehmen bei der Entwicklung und Umsetzung von Social-Business-Anwendungen unterstützt und dabei methodische und praktische Hilfestellungen bietet. Eine wichtige Funktion innerhalb des Referenzmodells nehmen klar definierte Rollen und Verantwortlichkeiten ein, welche im vorliegenden Beitrag vorgestellt werden.

Christian Schiller, Thomas Meiren

Studying the Weaponization of Social Media: Case Studies of Anti-NATO Disinformation Campaigns

Social media provides a fertile ground for any user to find or share information about various events with others. At the same time, social media is not always used for benign purposes. With the availability of inexpensive and ubiquitous mass communication tools, disseminating false information and propaganda is both convenient and effective. In this research, we studied Online Deviant Groups (ODGs) that conduct cyber propaganda campaigns in order to achieve strategic and political goals, influence mass thinking, and steer behaviors or perspectives about an event. We provide case studies in which various disinformation and propaganda swamped social media during two NATO exercises in 2015. We demonstrate ODGs’ capability to spread anti-NATO propaganda using a highly sophisticated and well-coordinated social media campaign. In particular, blogs were used as virtual spaces where narratives are framed. And, to generate discourse, web traffic was driven to these virtual spaces via other social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and VKontakte. By further examining the information flows within the social media networks, we identify sources of mis/disinformation and their reach, i.e., how far and how quickly the mis/disinformation could travel and consequently detect manipulation. The chapter presents an in-depth examination of the information networks using social network analysis (SNA) and social cyber forensics (SCF) based methodologies to identify prominent information brokers, leading coordinators, and information competitors who seek to further their own agenda. Through SCF tools, e.g., Maltego, we extract metadata associated with disinformation-riddled websites. The extracted metadata helps in uncovering the implicit relations among various ODGs. We further collected the social network of various ODGs (i.e., their friends and followers) and their communication network (i.e., network depicting the flow of information such as tweets, retweets, mentions, and hyperlinks). SNA helped us identify influential users and powerful groups responsible for coordinating the various disinformation campaigns. One of the key research findings is the vitality of the link between blogs and other social media platforms to examine disinformation campaigns.

Katrin Galeano, Rick Galeano, Samer Al-Khateeb, Nitin Agarwal

Chapter 6. Reading and Resisting: The Lady/Elaine in Young People’s Literature

This chapter begins by comparing retellings for young people from early and late in the twentieth century to demonstrate the influence of patriarchal vs feminist metanarratives on the Lady/Elaine story. The latter part of the chapter analyzes Marjorie Richardson’s “Launcelot’s Tower,” L. M. Montgomery’s Anne of Green Gables, Felicity Pulman’s Shalott series, and Meg Cabot’s Avalon High. These texts depict young women reading the Lady/Elaine to model ways to engage with cultural and social constructions of femininity, providing textual moments that are sites of resistance to cultural norms.

Ann F. Howey

Chapter 3. Singing Her Own Song: The Lady/Elaine in Music

This chapter illustrates Lady/Elaine music’s possibilities for resisting gender ideologies as they affect expression of agency and desire. It reviews music’s role in disseminating Tennyson’s poetry and examines the material conditions surrounding the production and performance of music. It analyzes Victorian parlor songs based on Elaine’s “Song of Love and Death,” two late twentieth-century versions of “The Lady of Shalott” by Loreena McKennitt and by David Kronemyer and Krysia Kristianne, and then two twentieth-century musical versions of Elaine’s letter to Lancelot by A. Favara and by Heather Dale. The chapter thus demonstrates the way technological, social, and aesthetic changes in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have affected the adaptation of Tennyson’s poetry into song, and it explores the extent to which musical compositions celebrate Elaine’s agency, desire, and voice.

Ann F. Howey

Chapter 5. Reaching Out to Somalia

In August 2011, the famine’s escalating death toll in Somalia was pointing to a new humanitarian catastrophe. In this devastating situation, Turkey not only spoke out but decided to take the initiative in helping Somalia. On August 19, the Mogadishu Airport received the first visit to Somalia from a non-African state leader in nearly two decades. President Erdoğan, then Prime Minister, visited Mogadishu with two planeloads of people despite all the security warnings against travel. The primary goal of the visit was to raise awareness of the humanitarian disaster in Sub-Saharan Africa and to encourage an altruistic conscience on the part of the rest of the world. Turkey’s visit to Somalia was deemed an influential step to improving the perception of the forsaken country. Once the Turkish delegation had witnessed the fundamental problems, the dimensions of Turkey’s cooperation were expanded. Turkey, on different occasions, reiterated its commitment to solving the chronic underlying problems that had led to the hardships that Somalia had suffered. A broad literature confirms that Turkey has a special place in the eyes of the Somali people, which diverges from their perception of traditional assistance providers. In this context, this chapter explains not only what Turkey has done in Somalia, but also how it has done it, and thereby has made a major difference.

Hatice Karahan

Chapter 11. Contemporary Footprints on the Silk Road

Turkey was the first state to recognize the independence of Turkic countries that separated from the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. Common historical and cultural ties encouraged the late President Turgut Özal to establish TİKA to contribute to the development process of these countries. Turkey’s cooperation in Central Asia and Caucasia later evolved into a multidimensional framework during Erdoğan’s time in office. This framework is principally centered on reinforcing regional collaboration, development, stability, and peace. Within this context, Turkey has established strong partnerships in the region. This chapter mainly covers Turkey’s cooperation with Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan, as part of its regional perspective.

Hatice Karahan

Chapter 4. Turkey’s International Cooperation Perspective: A Framework

Along with its notable economic growth and extended foreign policy in the 2000s during AK Party governments, Turkey expanded the scope of its international cooperation and reached out to a number of countries. In this period, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s support as a state leader for international assistance activities broke new ground in the reorganization of relevant public institutions in the country. The triangle of TİKA-AFAD-Kızılay, which has also been backed by NGOs, has enabled Turkey to reach out to people in hardship from the Philippines to Pakistan and from Palestine to Arakan. The generosity of the country toward the Syrian people serves as the most striking example in that regard, highlighting Turkey’s adoption of the humanitarian imperative. Within this period, Turkey also significantly increased its contributions to the development stories of many partner countries. As a result of these efforts, Turkey’s position as a leading actor in development cooperation markedly increased within the international community. OECD burden sharing indicators for 2018 reveal that Turkey, as an upper-middle-income country, recorded the highest ratio of official development assistance to national income, within the OECD league. In light of these salient facts, the main pillars of the Turkish cooperation perspective are discussed in this chapter with details.

Hatice Karahan

Chapter 7. Embracing the Syrians

Since 2010, the worsening humanitarian disaster and violence in Syria have made the Syrian civil war a regional and even a global issue. Turkey, as a neighbor to Syria, has been extensively exposed to a number of problems created by the war. While reacting strongly to the rising violence in the neighboring country, Turkey also opened its doors to the Syrian people who were desperately trying to cross the borders to escape death. As a result of this policy, Turkey has been harboring 3.6 million Syrians and since 2014 has also been the world’s largest refugee host country. In addition to its altruistic approach, Turkey’s political response to the crisis in Syria has been twofold: “at the table” to foster peace and “on the field” to ensure security. In this framework, this chapter details how Turkey has been dealing with the worst humanitarian crisis since World War II by setting an altruistic and moral example to the international community.

Hatice Karahan

Chapter 12. Cooperation in the Black Sea Basin

Despite all the diversity in its history and social fabric, the Black Sea region has managed to find common ground, especially toward the end of the twentieth century. In 1992, the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) concept—initially a Turkish idea—developed progressively into a common project among eleven states, and, in 2004, the number became twelve. The BSEC era has seen the relations among member countries appreciably revive, and the strategic role of the long-neglected Black Sea basin in bridging continents has been considered increasingly important. In this setting, Turkey has notably enriched its cooperation with the member countries, with the main policy of boosting solidarity to enhance the development and stability of the region. Within this framework, this chapter examines Turkey’s development cooperation with two BSEC members, Moldova and Georgia, in the 2000s and 2010s.

Hatice Karahan

Chapter 9. Turkey in the Heart of Asia: The Case of Afghanistan

The long-drawn-out chaos in Afghanistan will indisputably go down in history as one of the most profound turbulences of the modern world. Since the early 1980s, Afghanistan has lost millions of its people as casualties and refugees, and poverty has plagued the lives of Afghans in the war-torn country. Given that the proportion of people in the population who are under 45 years old is 88 percent, the concept of a peaceful Afghanistan exists in the memories of just a small segment of the society. In this setting, in line with its own increase in economic development and international presence, Turkey has provided significant support to Afghanistan, not only in the areas of security and defense, but also in terms of humanitarian and development assistance. Turkey has implemented a large multifaceted cooperation program in Afghanistan, which has contributed considerably to the welfare of Afghan people across the country in the last fifteen years. Turkey’s overall success with Afghanistan as a partner serves as a valuable case study that should inspire the international community. This chapter presents Turkey’s holistic cooperation program for Afghanistan.

Hatice Karahan

Chapter 1. Introduction: Why the Quest for a New International Aid Architecture?

While the international community has carried out aid activities for decades, the fact that humanitarian problems in certain regions have grown increasingly permanent and vicious warrants a serious re-examination. Hence, the growing role of emerging economies in humanitarian and development assistance deserves a closer look to discover the dynamism they have recently brought to the international cooperation agenda. In this context, understanding the ingredients of Turkey’s rising performance in the 2000s and 2010s would make a significant value-added contribution to the international development cooperation architecture. This chapter provides an introduction to the issue by summarizing the flow of the book.

Hatice Karahan

Chapter Four:. Look Back

All four problems are based on the operation of subtraction, the computation of differences. A practical scenario is the measurement of length. Suppose we align a marked ruler against a line segment. If the left endpoint corresponds to the marking of 3 cm and the right endpoint corresponds to the marking of 7 cm, then the length of the segment is 7 − 3 = 4 cm. We consider a related problem.

Peter Winkler

Chapter 8. Lending a Helping Hand to Arakan

The Arakanese Muslims (Rohingya), considered by the UN to be the world’s most persecuted minority, were subjected to horrific ethnic cleansing in August 2017. In those critical days, the Republic of Turkey, in a forceful move, called for Bangladesh to “open its doors.” The decisive difference in Turkey’s response from that of others was its generosity in offering to assume any and all costs Bangladesh would face as a consequence of this action. Throughout this process, Turkey has also continued its intensive efforts toward finding a diplomatic solution to the problem. The Turkish Republic’s efforts for the Rohingya people have primarily been to assist the hundreds of thousands taking refuge in Bangladesh. However, Turkey has also continued its efforts at cooperation and activities within the Myanmar borders. This chapter covers the details of Turkey’s humanitarian and diplomatic actions for the persecuted Rohingya in the 2010s.

Hatice Karahan

Open Access

Automated Text Analysis for Intelligence Purposes: A Psychological Operations Case Study

With the availability of an abundance of data through the Internet, the premises to solve some intelligence analysis tasks have changed for the better. The study presented herein sets out to examine whether and how a data-driven approach can contribute to solve intelligence tasks. During a full day observational study, an ordinary military intelligence unit was divided into two uniform teams. Each team was independently asked to solve the same realistic intelligence analysis task. Both teams were allowed to use their ordinary set of tools, but in addition one team was also given access to a novel text analysis prototype tool specifically designed to support data-driven intelligence analysis of social media data. The results, obtained from the case study with a high ecological validity, suggest that the prototype tool provided valuable insights by bringing forth information from a more diverse set of sources, specifically from private citizens that would not have been easily discovered otherwise. Also, regardless of its objective contribution, the capabilities and the usage of the tool were embraced and subjectively perceived as useful by all involved analysts.

Stefan Varga, Joel Brynielsson, Andreas Horndahl, Magnus Rosell

Open Access

Chapter 1. Health Information Technology as Premise for Data Science in Global Health: A Discussion of Opportunities and Challenges

Background Healthcare systems function as an important component and a contributing factor in global health. The application of information technology (IT) in healthcare systems function as a basis for the utilization of data science, which—in its practical application—not only provides opportunities to increase the quality of care, improve efficiency, and decrease costs but also buries the risk of hindering existing workflows, decreasing staff satisfaction, and further siloing access to patient data. Methods Three different applications of health information technology (HIT), applied in the context of data science, will be examined in this chapter with regard to their opportunities and challenges for the system and, as a result of this, for global health. Results Electronic health records, health information exchange, and artificial intelligence have great potential to alleviate some of healthcare systems’ greatest burdens and make modern medicine more evidence-based, yet their successful implementation yields a multidisciplinary approach, constant development and evaluation, and collaboration amongst all stakeholders. Conclusions Stakeholders and implementers must consider the opportunities and challenges that come with the planning, implementation, and maintenance of HIT in order to minimize negative impacts and leverage its full potential for an overall improvement of global health.

Louis Agha-Mir-Salim, Raymond Francis Sarmiento

Open Access

Chapter 3. Developing Local Innovation Capacity to Drive Global Health Improvements

In global health, innovation often comes from “outside-in”: industrialized countries develop new drugs, devices, or services, and export them to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Syed et al. in Global Health 9:36, 2013). Yet there is a growing recognition that there is real potential for “bi-directional flow of knowledge, ideas, skills and innovation” (Syed et al. 2013). To generate sustainable impact at scale, high-income countries should further encourage this local innovation capacity. One way to do so is to export more than just finished products to LMICs, but also the knowledge, processes, and cultural mindset that support repeated success in new product and service development.

Christopher Moses

Open Access

Chapter 5. Funding Global Health Projects

Clinicians and engineers are improving medical practice and healthcare care delivery in low and middle-income countries (LMIC’s) through research and innovation using data science and technology. One of the major barriers to translating their ideas into practice is the lack of financial resources. Without adequate funding, many of the critical issues regarding the development, implementation, and impact of technology innovations—including whether there is an actual improvement in clinical outcomes—cannot be adequately evaluated and addressed. While securing funding is a challenge for everyone, researchers and innovators in LMIC’s often lack training and experience in proposal writing to support their work.

Katharine Morley, Michael Morley, Andrea Beratarrechea

Open Access

Chapter 18. A Practical Approach to Digital Transformation: A Guide to Health Institutions in Developing Countries

Most healthcare organizations, at the local, national, and international levels aspire to commence their digital transformation but are at a loss on how to start the process. This chapter presents a practical approach that begins with laying down the foundations for strong governance to guide institutions towards this complex process. The approach begins with Governance (G)—setting clear decision-making structures and strategic directives to the whole enterprise. This is followed by adoption of Frameworks (F) that provide a common reference for all stakeholders as they undergo their respective changes. Because almost all healthcare data are sensitive and should be kept confidential, Ethical (E) processes must be in place to ensure that patients are safe and that their welfare is of the utmost priority. Data governance (D) then comes into play providing clear guidelines, systems, and structures in the management of data. Once these aforementioned fundamentals are in place, cloud and compliance (C) capabilities should be available to ensure that a secure infrastructure is in place to store, process, and protect large volumes of information. This elastic infrastructure enables the accumulation of big data (B) at a rate faster than what most analytical tools can manage in real-time opening up opportunities for visualizing information. With this tremendous amounts of data, the prerequisits are laid out for Artificial Intelligence (A) and new insights, previously unknown, can be discovered and used for creating new products and services for the enterprise and as input for decision-making for improved governance.

Alvin B. Marcelo

Open Access

Chapter 2. An Introduction to Design Thinking and an Application to the Challenges of Frail, Older Adults

Design thinking is a valuable, iterative process to utilize when building an innovation. Rather than starting from a singular novel technology in search of a problem, the design thinking approach begins with assessing the environment, users, and stakeholders, attempting to identify alternative strategies and solutions. This process generally leads to a more holistic and sustainable intervention, improving outcomes and adoption. This chapter provides a primer to design thinking, as well an introductory toolkit to begin applying the approach to your innovations.

Tony Gallanis

Open Access

Chapter 23. Data Science in Global Health—Highlighting the Burdens of Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer in the MENA Region Using Open Source Data and Spatial Analysis

Cervical cancer is a top driver of death and disability across the MENA region with at least 7,601 deaths annually. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer are caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract. HPV infection can be prevented by widespread uptake of the HPV vaccine and progression to cervical cancer can be averted with regular HPV and cervical cancer screenings. Sadly, these effective interventions are not in broad use on a national and regional level in the MENA region. We developed a data-driven digital map that integrates multiple data sources about HPV vaccination and cervical cancer incidence and mortality for countries in the MENA region. The use of different data sources from international and national organisations offers integrative and comprehensive information about the epidemiological status of these preventable diseases and the current policy-effectiveness at the national level. Our platform is a one-stop analytical online application that can help policymakers in their decision-making and ease the process required to combine different data sources into a comprehensive platform.

Melek Somai, Sylvia Levy, Zied Mhirsi

8. Soziale Designvarianten im Coaching

Im vorhergehenden Kapitel wurde der Zusammenhang der Interventionsebenen (Architektur, Design und Methoden) grundsätzlich dargelegt. In diesem Kapitel sollen einige typische, in der Praxis eine prominente Rolle spielende, soziale Designvarianten im Coaching ausführlicher beleuchtet werden.

Thomas Webers

12. Problemreflexion

Die vornehmliche Aufgabe des Coachs im systemischen Verständnis ist es nicht, eine Diagnose zu stellen und anschließend die entsprechende Intervention zu planen. Auch Diagnostik ist als Koproduktion zu verstehen – und damit ist der Übergang zwischen Diagnostik und Intervention fließend. Das Arbeiten mit Hypothesen dient dazu, Muster zu explorieren, zu verstören und die Handlungsmöglichkeiten der Klienten u. a. durch Perspektivenwechsel zu erweitern. Gleichwohl sind im Business-Kontext inhaltlich Themen relevant, die der Coach beherrschen muss, will er den Klienten hilfreich begleiten.

Thomas Webers

13. Ressourcenorientierung

Die Reflexion von Ressourcen, deren Anforderungsbezug sowie die Arbeit im Lösungsfokus gehört zu den Spezifika systemischen Denkens. Die lösungsfokussierte Kurzzeittherapie, der Hypnosystemische Ansatz, aber auch Erkenntnisse aus der Positiven Psychologie bilden einen tragfähigen konzeptionellen Rahmen. Der Fokus auf Ressourcen darf aber nicht individualistisch enggeführt werden. Es gilt, Ressourcen gleichfalls im Arbeitskontext zu lokalisieren und an einer guten Passung von Ressourcen und Anforderungen zu arbeiten.

Thomas Webers

11. Selbstreflexion und motivationale Klärung

Der Coach regt den Klienten zur intensiven Selbstreflexion an. Diese kann für den Klienten nicht nur kognitiv erhellend sein, sondern fordert ihn auch emotional. Eine oberflächliche Zielklärung kann nicht tragfähig sein, wenn die tiefer liegende Motivation und die persönlichen Werte außer Acht gelassen werden.

Thomas Webers

Diverse Legal Classes and Cultures: Challenges and Opportunities—Danish Report

This chapter takes the multiculturalization of the legal auditoria as a starting point, and starts out with a historical overview from the perspective of the University of Copenhagen. Due to lack of studies in the field, it is to a large degree based on the personal experience of the author in teaching multicultural classes (international and Erasmus students as well as immigrant Muslim students in Denmark and elsewhere) and comparing ‘extraordinary places’ such as Africa, Greenland, and China. At least at the Faculty of Law of the University of Copenhagen (UCPH), internationalization and globalization may have led to a decreased interest in comparative law among ordinary students, while it has at the same time brought new differences into the classroom. Comparative law has been linked to legal culture in (parts of) the Nordic area, and the contextual approach and a need for a more flexible methodology has been emphasized. The growth of students with an immigrant background and an experience with Muslim legal culture(s) is clearly felt at UCPH in the twenty-first century, and it might give rise to new legal and comparative questions and demands, which are at present unmet, as well as to sensitivities, which have been felt in politics and (symbolic) laws. The article suggests that a ‘pop up’ approach to concrete comparative issues, fields and topics may be one amongst other ways to secure future interest in comparative law amongst students.

Hanne Petersen

Chapter 1. In Support of Innovative Partnerships for Crime Prevention: The Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation Program

This chapter serves as the introduction to a set of cases that describe the planning, implementation, and assessment of a federally funded and locally administered crime prevention program: the Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation (BCJI) program. The BCJI program emerged in 2012 as part of a suite of three federal programs known as the Neighborhood Revitalization Initiative (NRI). This three-pronged initiative sought to link federal support to improvements in affordable housing crime prevention and a decrease in poverty through investments in education, training, and targeted incentives for private development in designated areas. While the BCJI program represented a new type of federal anti-crime program, it shares much in common with other programs that have come before it, many with similar theories as to the causes of crime, as well as a clear set of prescriptions toward its reduction and prevention. This chapter offers a description of the BCJI program; the history of federal efforts in support of local crime reduction; a concise review of the relevant theories that drive the programs’ preferred set of intervention points; and a summary of nine local case studies, followed by a final chapter that describes the technical assistance challenges in building locally informed, innovative, and comprehensive crime prevention programs.

Robert J. Stokes, Charlotte Gill

Chapter 6. Cleveland, Ohio: A Community Law Enforcement Partnership for Sustainable Neighborhood Change

We describe the implementation and outcomes of a Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation (BCJI) program in the Mt. Pleasant neighborhood in Cleveland, Ohio, which took place from 2014 to 2017. The key elements of the strategy included (1) identifying a high-crime-, violence-, and gang-involved neighborhood that would benefit from BCJI resources; (2) implementing intelligence-led policing strategies known to be effective in reducing firearm violence; (3) involving community members and organizations in planning, implementation, and sustainability efforts; and (4) selecting a target area small enough so that effective intervention could realize neighborhood change and improved safety. Originally, the proposed activities were law enforcement driven and community complemented, but the planning process soon reversed that focus so that activities as implemented became more community driven with intelligence-led policing activities supporting those efforts. Existing and new strategies implemented in the target neighborhood are discussed in detail. Evidence of BCJI impact and outcomes are presented via police data citywide and from the target area and from a youth survey about their perceptions of law enforcement. Challenges to implementation and evaluation and opportunities for future directions are also discussed.

Daniel J. Flannery, Liuhong Yang, Mark I. Singer, Michael Walker

Chapter 10. Applying the ACTION Framework to BCJI in Tucson, Arizona

The Tucson BCJI case, known as THRIVE in the 05, is focused on a cluster of small neighborhoods near the urban core of Tucson, Arizona. The THRIVE in the 05 community is known for its unique history and cultural vitality. Despite its unique historical character, the THRIVE in the 05 community currently faces many challenges that limit opportunities for community and economic development, including crime. In this chapter, we describe the THRIVE in the 05 planning and assessment phase process and outcomes and the application of the ACTION framework - a research framework that was developed to guide research and planning efforts. The ACTION framework is made up of four domains: assess, connect, transform, and in our neighborhood. Each of these domains is grounded in an overarching principle of shared expertise among community partners (i.e., those individuals who live in or otherwise have stake in the target community) and researchers. The principle of shared expertise recognizes that community members and research partners each bring unique expertise, skills, and experiences to the table that strengthen the research design. In terms of process, this translates into joint decision-making and ensuring that both entities have equal power to share perspectives and knowledge. Ultimately, this results in action-focused research that optimizes scientific rigor and community authenticity, leading to the co-creation of intervention strategies to address community concerns in meaningful and sustainable ways.

Mary Ellen Brown, Katie Cotter Stalker

Chapter 4. Improving Community Governance to Reduce Crime: The Case of the Philadelphia’s Mantua BCJI Program

This chapter reports on the Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation (BCJI) program in Philadelphia. The research locale, the Mantua neighborhood located in West Philadelphia, received a BCJI grant in 2012 that ran until 2016. This work is focused on new governance organization that emerged from a set of federal grant programs known as the Neighborhood Revitalization Initiative pursued under the Obama Administration. The stated aims of the BCJI program involved building the organizational capacity of the community to be effective planning and problem-solving agents. Increased community capacity would then be leveraged to reduce the number of criminogenic places in Mantua by first determining – through a geographically focused, data-driven effort – the nature of crime, violence, and disorder in the community. Programs developed in the planning process included crime prevention through environmental design efforts, police-led hot spot interventions, a block leadership program, and youth-focused safety and engagement programming. Reporting on both process and selected outcome results, this chapter reports on the problems and prospects of a community organizational effort around the policy issue of crime. Research utilized a mixed-method approach, including systematic observation, focus groups, GIS analysis of crime, and personal interviews.

Robert J. Stokes

Chapter 9. Unfamiliar Waters: Expectations Versus Reality for a Newly Minted Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation Grant Research Partner in the City of St. Louis

The City of St. Louis, Missouri, received a Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation Planning and Implementation Grant in 2015 to support place-based and person-focused strategies intended to enhance safety in two neighborhoods, Carr Square and Columbus Square. This chapter focuses on our work as the research partner in this grant. We begin by providing an overview of the site and grant activities, describing its progression from planning through implementation. We then outline our understanding of the role of research partner and how this evolved over the duration of the grant. As part of this discussion, the ways in which the reality of our work sometimes diverged from expectations are highlighted. Next, we describe some of the challenges we faced while serving in an unfamiliar, nontraditional research role and working in a deindustrialized city struggling to transform itself. While lengthy bureaucratic processes, issues with resident engagement, and problems sustaining a relationship with the police made implementation difficult, our position as researchers, external to city government, positioned us to assist our partners with addressing some of these issues. At the same time, the assistance of our partners was critical for carrying out our activities. It is our hope that the ideas presented here can help future research partners navigate, what may be for them, unfamiliar waters.

Lee Ann Slocum, Cherrell Green, Thomas Owen Baker

Chapter 3. A Community-Based Response to the Opioid-Epidemic-Linked Crime in Dayton, Ohio

The Dayton, OH, Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation Program (BCJI) site embarked on a multi-sector partnership effort focused on the reduction of opioid addiction, overdose deaths, and property crime directly associated with opioid users in the target neighborhood. Within the context of a broader effort, a community-based, non-arrest strategy directed at opioid addicts was developed, utilizing a motivational interviewing program intervention. The planned set of program interventions had two effects: first, more opioid addicts entered treatment as a result of the community engagement effort. Second, information gleaned from the ongoing dialogue with addicts helped accelerate several community-based efforts. These included opening a site for medication-assisted treatment and a newly formed collaboration between the police department and a local community service organization that expanded outreach to those who had been saved by naloxone treatment after an overdose. The BCJI program in Dayton reinforced the idea that crime reduction must be embedded in a community collaboration. The BCJI process enabled a shared policy and program space in which participants could bring their contacts, knowledge, and skills together. The final set of program innovations plied in Dayton exemplified the goals and aspirations of the BCJI program.

Brian John, Amanda Arrington, Jan LePore-Jentelson, Richard Stock

Chapter 8. “Harmony in the Hills”: Peaks and Valleys in the Berea, KY, Rural BCJI Program

The Berea, KY, Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation (BCJI) program, funded in FY 2015, was one of BCJI’s few completely rural sites. The program was intended to empower and mobilize local communities to develop evidence-informed approaches to reducing youth crime in three counties in Appalachian Kentucky. The program was grounded in criminological theories of crime and place, as well as extensive qualitative cultural research and storytelling with local communities to uncover their perceptions of crime and safety, youth development, and ideas for change. However, despite substantial community buy-in and a robust planning phase, implementation could not be completed due to a “course correction” in the goals of the BCJI program, which was at odds with the strategies our communities proposed. Nonetheless, we learned a number of valuable lessons throughout the process about how to apply community-led, data-driven, place-based crime prevention strategies in rural settings, which have been largely neglected in traditional criminological research. In this chapter we describe the unique challenges of applying BCJI principles to a rural community and the successes and pitfalls of our program. We conclude with recommendations for rural community- and place-based research and practice.

Jenna Meglen, Charlotte Gill

Chapter 11. National Support for Collaborative Approaches to Neighborhood Safety: Developing a Technical Assistance Approach for the Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation Program

This chapter describes the evolution of federal policy intervention that informed the BCJI program through a review of the history of prior federal, locally-supportive programming in community safety. It also offers a review of the purpose and role of technical assistance in this BCJI context, with a special focus on LISC’s public safety and justice model. Third, an organizational framework is developed around the four pillars of the BCJI program, which include data-driven decision-making, cross-sector partnerships, community engagement, and program sustainability. Within these pillars, examples of the challenges and successes of early adopters of the BCJI program are discussed. The fourth and final section will offer a set of conclusions and recommendations for future interactions of this program.

Matt Perkins

Chapter 5. Building a “Beautiful Safe Place for Youth”: The Story of an Effective Community-Research-Practice Partnership in Rainier Beach, Seattle

Translational criminology—the practice and process of bringing research evidence into strategies and decision-making in the criminal justice field—is growing in importance. However, there remain significant barriers to the development and sustainability of evidence-based policy and practice. In the United States, federal funding initiatives like the Bureau of Justice Assistance’s Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation (BCJI) program have provided the impetus to further translational criminology efforts by promoting sustainable, data-driven partnerships between researchers, police and local government agencies, community organizations, and residents. In this chapter, we describe the factors needed to develop a successful partnership through a case study of the Seattle, WA BCJI program, Rainier Beach: A Beautiful Safe Place for Youth (ABSPY). We begin with a discussion of the literature on translational criminology, including barriers to and facilitators of successful translation. We then describe the history, characteristics, and key stakeholders of ABSPY and how we built an approach that reflects best practices in researcher-practitioner partnerships. We conclude with lessons learned and recommendations for sustaining similar efforts in collaborations between communities, local governments, and academics.

Charlotte Gill, Claudia Gross Shader

Chapter 14. The Contribution of Sports Clubs to Public Welfare in European Societies. A Cross-National Comparative Perspective

This chapter presents the results from a cross-national comparative analysis of European sports clubs’ contribution to public welfare and offers potential explanations for the similarities and differences identified. The analysis reveals how sports clubs make a significant contribution to public welfare with regard to the four functions examined: health promotion, social integration, democracy and voluntary work. However, the contribution of sports clubs to these functions can mainly be understood as side effects to the activities offered by clubs. Sports clubs’ contribution to public welfare is in many respects relatively similar, but the analysis also identifies significant differences between countries. Potential explanations for the similarities and differences identified are examined at different levels of analysis. At the macro level (societal level), explanations pertaining to the historical origin and political opportunity structure for sports clubs are discussed. At the meso level (sports club level), potential explanations regarding the constitutive elements and typical features, the organisational capacity as well as the structural characteristics of sports clubs are discussed. At the micro level (member level), potential explanations pertaining to the social background as well as motivation and engagement of members are discussed. The chapter ends with five awareness points to enhance sports clubs’ contribution to public welfare.

Karsten Elmose-Østerlund, Bjarne Ibsen, Siegfried Nagel, Jeroen Scheerder

Chapter 5. England: A Long Tradition, Adapting to Changing Circumstances

This chapter integrates results of the SIVSCE project survey of clubs and club members in England with other recent research. Results are from the SIVSCE surveys, unless otherwise indicated. The English context is naturally very similar to that of the UK’s other home nations – Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, whilst the findings from this project have revealed some similar club sport trends in England, Germany, Belgium (Flanders), Netherlands and Denmark. For example, the bigger clubs in each of these countries appear to be increasing in size and recruiting more volunteers, whilst the smaller clubs are losing volunteers. This chapter interprets these findings by highlighting the broader contextual factors of history, state policy and wealth distribution. It also considers the apparent trend away from collective club-based sports participation towards more individual and informal sports participation and the policy implications of this regarding sport’s role in delivering change in our communities. Nevertheless, this chapter clearly illustrates that sports clubs in England, as in other European countries, are almost entirely reliant on volunteers for governance and delivery roles. Clubs in England, such as the case studies later referred to, have retained a strong egalitarian ethos, which encourages volunteering and enhances social inclusion.

Geoff Nichols, Matthew James

Chapter 7. Hungary: Potentials for Civil Initiatives in Sports

The social functions of sports clubs were influenced by the changes in sports realised as part of the centrally driven policy efforts to develop sports since 2010. Along these and other changes that Hungarian sports went through before, sports clubs remained the traditional and basic units of the Hungarian sports sector even today. Their role in providing sporting opportunities for the public cannot be underestimated. Sports clubs, however, went through a professionalisation process as well, their daily operation became more business-like, and growth of paid personnel was noticeable. In this chapter, the four functions of sports clubs treated in this book such as health promotion, social integration, democracy and voluntary work are discussed.Even though sports clubs in Hungary undoubtable contribute to public welfare in these areas, some challenges may also be mentioned as inequalities and limitations are still measured. It seems that clubs’ services to society in Hungary and, through that, in Europe are valuable; however, special initiatives and programmes for targeting underrepresented groups could be beneficial. Therefore, sports clubs in Hungary hide an unrealised potential in further integrating not only vulnerable groups but also societal segments presently inactive in sports and physical activities.

Szilvia Perényi

Chapter 8. Personified Continents in Public Places: Internationalism, Art, and Geography in Late Nineteenth Century Paris

This paper examines the yet unexplored relationships between internationalism, art, and geography by discussing the two cases of Paris, in the late nineteenth century. Using a landscape-as-text approach and the concepts of scale jumping and imaginative geographies, I focused here on the female statues representing the continents. Late nineteenth century Paris was characterized as the site where occurred a host of projects and events promoting internationalism by means of some kind of scale jumping. The world’s fairs and international congresses were typical events concerning internationalism, especially a hegemonic one. The erection of Les Quatre Parties du Monde was virtually linked to the debates and assertions surrounding the selection of the prime meridian, which was one of the themes at the two Paris international geographical congresses: the Congrès International des Sciences Géographiques in 1875, and the Congrès International de Géographie Commerciale in 1878. The physiognomies of Les Quatre Parties du Monde delivered an apparent message of the supremacy of Europe over others, and the fountain and statues were intended to symbolize the Paris meridian itself and to assert its status as the starting point for the calculation of the world’s longitude. The group of Les Six Continents was stemmed from the sort of hegemonic internationalism and imaginative geographies that found themselves at the 1878 Paris International Universal Exposition. While the appearances of Les Six Continents indicated a linear progress from primitive Oceania to civilized Europe, their arrangement at the inaugural ceremony at the Palais du Trocadéro, signified the historical and geographical centrality of the Mediterranean world. Both Les Quatre Parties du Monde and Les Six Continents could be taken as the descendants of the title page of Ortelius’ first world atlas. The practice to erect the statues of the continents could be regarded as a geographical practice, and these statues could also be understood as a different kind of geo-body.

Toshiyuki Shimazu

Chapter 7. “Our Field Is the World”: Geographical Societies in International Comparison, 1821–1914

As associations for the promotion and dissemination of geographical knowledge, Geographical Societies were the institutional basis of geography for the larger part of the “long” nineteenth century. Before 1914, up to 170 such Societies existed in all inhabited continents. Most historiographical research has focused on Geographical Societies in capital cities and/or dealt with them as being inside the “containers” of their respective nation-states, and as if they existed and operated in independence and isolation from one another. By contrast, in a research project launched in 2015/16 at the Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography (IfL), Leipzig, within the framework of the Leipzig Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 1199 “Processes of Spatialization under the Global Condition”, we seek to identify connections and draw comparisons among 34 Geographical Societies from all continents and of 13 languages, including Societies from minor cities and countries. Our data comes from the Societies’ yearly journals, which we record with a standardized method that we have developed. From a Society’s proceedings, we gather, rather qualitatively, its organizational structure including its networking with other Geographical Societies; from the geographical articles in its journal, we gather, rather quantitatively through codes, the Society’s subjects (e.g. “physical geography”: “geology”; or “human geography”: “economy”), and world areas (e.g. “Africa, West”, or “Polar Regions, South”) of interest. For each Society, we thus obtain a profile reflecting its structure, activities, interests and evolution. Each profile may be explained by the Society’s local and historical context (e.g. French colonialism; Czech nationalism), and further understood through the theoretical concepts of our Collaborative Research Centre: each Society “spatialized” the world into certain “spatial formats”, which then made up a certain “spatial order”. By negotiating modes of dealing with a globalized world, the Geographical Societies thus contributed to the professionalization of geography.

Maximilian Georg, Ute Wardenga

Chapter 12. Switzerland: Autonomous Sports Clubs as Contributors to Public Welfare

About 20% of the Swiss population practise sports in a club, and the nearly 19,000 sports clubs are a core element of the Swiss sports landscape and can contribute to public welfare. Sports clubs are accredited with various socio-political functions, although there are no far-reaching sports policy programmes – except Youth and Sport. The results of this chapter demonstrate that sports clubs can promote public health, social integration and democratic decision-making, particularly through voluntary work by the members.Sports club members usually practise sports regularly. Thus, sports clubs can contribute to individual as well as to public health, even though sports clubs frequently have no specific focus on health promotion. There is considerable evidence that sports clubs are able to contribute to social integration, since they usually promote goals such as openness and conviviality and most members identify with their club and have social networks and friendships. The principle of bottom-up democratic decision-making ensures that the sports programmes fit the interests of the members. Therefore, sports clubs can promote democratic involvement and active citizenship. Particularly volunteering in sports clubs gives people the opportunity to engage for society and therefore can contribute to social cohesion and trust in Swiss society.

Siegfried Nagel, Pascal Stegmann, Rahel Bürgi, Markus Lamprecht

Chapter 1. China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Introduction and Overview

This chapter reviews how China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is evolving. It begins with a discussion of the historical, economic, and geopolitical contexts in which the initiative was rolled out by Beijing in 2013. Through the BRI, China seeks to expand its diplomatic manoeuvring space, reclaim its past glory, provide infrastructure finance to neighbouring countries, and revive its slowing economy. By discussing, among others, the scope and the coordination financing mechanisms of the BRI, this chapter explains how the initiative is being implemented by the Chinese government. The broader trade and investment relations between China and three Asian sub-regions of interest, namely, East and Southeast Asia, South Asia and Central Asia are provided. The major achievements of the BRI to date are also highlighted. The chapter concludes with an overview of the structure of the book.

Pradumna B. Rana, Xianbai Ji

Chapter 2. Proliferating Major Power Infrastructure Initiatives

This chapter compares the BRI with parallel infrastructure development and financing initiatives championed by other major world powers partly in response to China’s launch of the BRI. These include Japan’s Expanded Partnership for Quality Infrastructure (EPQI), various India-led initiatives in South Asia and beyond, the United States’ infrastructure vision for the Indo-Pacific region, and the European Union’s Strategy on Connecting Europe and Asia. It finds that in terms of ambition, scale, and scope, the BRI is in a class of its own. Japan’s EPQI is a credible alternative source of high-quality infrastructure financing. India occupies a central position in relation to regional connectivity and economic cooperation in South Asia. In contrast, the initiatives of the United States and the European Union are less concrete so far.

Pradumna B. Rana, Xianbai Ji

Chapter 7. BRI and Central Asia

The BRI has transformed Central Asia from a land-locked and ‘forgotten’ region to a land of economic opportunities. With the initiation of the BRI by China in 2013, the volume of intra-regional international trade and the inflow of foreign investment into the region have surged. The number of China-Europe trains transiting through Central Asia has also increased significantly. In addition to connectivity, the BRI has contributed to industrialisation and financial sector development in the Central Asian region. On the other hand, the BRI could lead to debt distress in several countries, with Tajikistan being particularly vulnerable. The BRI may have also aggravated Sinophobia in several Central Asian Republics. The BRI has to navigate a complex geopolitical environment in Central Asia. If implemented improperly, BRI infrastructure projects could worsen the region’s pre-existing geopolitical fault lines.

Pradumna B. Rana, Xianbai Ji

Open Access

Chapter 10. Compilation for Real-Time Systems a Decade After Predator

On the occasion of Peter Marwedel’s 70th anniversary, this article provides a survey over a decade of research in the field of compiler techniques for real-time systems. Ten years ago, during the EU-funded project Predator, it was him who led the work package on compilers. As will be shown in this survey, the work done in this domain had such a fundamental character that it laid the ground for follow-up research that lasts since the end of Predator until today. This article particularly emphasizes results achieved in the challenging areas of scheduling-aware optimization of multi-task systems, of analysis and optimization of Multi-Processor Systems on Chip, and of predictable multi-objective optimizations.

Heiko Falk, Shashank Jadhav, Arno Luppold, Kateryna Muts, Dominic Oehlert, Nina Piontek, Mikko Roth

Open Access

Chapter 1. Peter Marwedel and the Department of Computer Science of the TU Dortmund University

A seventieth birthday is an appropriate occasion to look back on the life path so far. In the following, this is done for Professor Peter Marwedel from the perspective of the Department of Computer Science of TU Dortmund University, where he spent the essential time of his professional life.

Gernot Fink, Heinrich Müller

Open Access

EXASTEEL: Towards a Virtual Laboratory for the Multiscale Simulation of Dual-Phase Steel Using High-Performance Computing

We present a numerical two-scale simulation approach of the Nakajima test for dual-phase steel using the software package FE2TI, a highly scalable implementation of the well known homogenization method FE2. We consider the incorporation of contact constraints using the penalty method as well as the sample sheet geometries and adequate boundary conditions. Additional software features such as a simple load step strategy and prediction of an initial value by linear extrapolation are introduced.The macroscopic material behavior of dual-phase steel strongly depends on its microstructure and has to be incorporated for an accurate solution. For a reasonable computational effort, the concept of statistically similar representative volume elements (SSRVEs) is presented. Furthermore, the highly scalable nonlinear domain decomposition methods NL-FETI-DP and nonlinear BDDC are introduced and weak scaling results are shown. These methods can be used, e.g., for the solution of the microscopic problems. Additionally, some remarks on sparse direct solvers are given, especially to PARDISO. Finally, we come up with a computationally derived Forming Limit Curve (FLC).

Axel Klawonn, Martin Lanser, Matthias Uran, Oliver Rheinbach, Stephan Köhler, Jörg Schröder, Lisa Scheunemann, Dominik Brands, Daniel Balzani, Ashutosh Gandhi, Gerhard Wellein, Markus Wittmann, Olaf Schenk, Radim Janalík

Open Access

Chapter 8. Minimisation: The Pizza Charter

Media scholars have observed that mainstream newspapers trivialise and denigrate efforts at ensuring press accountability, in a bid to protect their self-interest (McChesney, The political economy of media: Enduring issues, emerging dilemmas. New York: NYU Press, 2008, p. 451). It is this trivialisation and denigration of attempts at reforming media policy that is referred to as the strategy of minimisation (Thomas and Finneman, Who watches the watchdog? Journalism Studies, 15(2), 172–186, 2014). In the media reform debate that arose from the News of the World phone hacking scandal and the Leveson Inquiry, the strategy of minimisation manifested in a number of ways: (1) playing down the cross-party Royal Charter on press regulation, (2) playing down the Leveson Inquiry, (3) playing down the scandal, (4) in a discourse of “unfair” treatment of the press and (5) critiquing critics of the press’ position. All these were geared towards protecting the neoliberal interpretation of press freedom.

Binakuromo Ogbebor

9. Hackathons

A series of well-organized corporate hackathons enrich the stream of ideas within the organization and bring significant cultural improvement—they promote collaboration, sharing, and a multidisciplinary approach to problem-solving. Organizing a successful corporate hackathon though can be challenging and costly. This chapter presents the options and provides guidance, best practices, and ideas on how to define and run great hackathons in a streamlined fashion. It explains how to make them more inclusive and describes how to measure success.

George Krasadakis

7. The Always-On Ideas ChannelIdeas channel

The innovation function needs to be always-on, able to capture signals, and react with opportunities. In this mode, innovators are encouraged to submit ideas regardless of their relevance to predefined innovation paths. Innovation consumers, such as product, client, and project teams, simply discover ideas, just-in-time in alignment with their context. This chapter introduces a blueprint of a modern ideation channel that introduces automation and various improvements. It describes how advanced technologies such as natural language processing and AI-powered recommender systems can make ideation more efficient and impactful—through effective evaluation, distribution, and discovery of ideas.

George Krasadakis

6. Managing Ideas

A modern innovation function is powered by a stream of ideas. The ability of the organization to properly handle ideas—spot the high-potential ones and act upon—can bring competitive advantages and opportunities for differentiation – in the form of products, features, services, or business models and monetization strategies. This chapter introduces an agile approach in idea management—a process that treats ideas as everlasting, reusable innovation assets. It also presents a scoring model for assessing ideas—a set of criteria that can be used to quantify the potential of business ideas for the organization.

George Krasadakis

1. Innovation (Re) Defined

Innovation is an overused term. There are hundreds of definitions available, coming from various angles and different disciplines; some refer to the process; others focus on the outcome. This chapter examines the meaning of the term “innovation” from various standpoints and explains its relationship with novelty and invention. It presents how innovation can be classified based on its purpose, intensity, and style and introduces new definitions to describe innovation as it happens—seen from within the corporation.

George Krasadakis

3. Fixing the Innovation CultureInnovation culture

Improving the culture of innovation is not easy as it usually reflects the organizational structure and attitude, the leadership style along with certain perceptions, and established behaviors—elements that cannot be easily controlled or influenced. This chapter provides practical guidance on how to bootstrap the cultural transformation through a series of small, inexpensive improvements targeting popular innovation blockers such as bureaucracy and insufficient communication patterns. The proposed approach is based on cycles that measure the state of innovation in the organization, inspire people to engage, demonstrate the value of innovation, and provide the right enablers.

George Krasadakis

4. A Framework for InnovationInnovation framework

Innovative corporations are distinguished by their enhanced ability to listen to the market, spot problems worth solving, and respond fast, by pursuing validated ideas and innovation opportunities. This chapter introduces the innovation framework as a set of foundational capabilities that empower the organization to enter this continuous innovation mode. It presents the key components—the technologies, services, teams, and artifacts—and explains their importance as part of the foundation of a modern innovation function.

George Krasadakis

10. From Ideas to Opportunities

The ability of an organization to efficiently validate ideas is a success factor for innovation—it increases the chances of finding high-potential innovation opportunities. This chapter introduces the notion of rapid prototyping as the means for testing promising business ideas. It presents the rapid prototyping toolkit and the makerspace as the base for ad hoc prototyping and experimentation initiatives and introduces the concept of the prototype factory as a streamlined, prototype development and validation service.

George Krasadakis

2. The Culture of InnovationInnovation culture

A healthy culture is one of the most crucial success factors for corporate innovation: it unites people through a system of shared values and inspires them to innovate and collaborate effectively toward a bold purpose. This chapter defines the innovation culture and presents its core values, namely trust, safety, openness, purposefulness, curiosity, and healthy competition. It explains how they set the basis for the formation of a collective innovation mindset and then presents the most frequent innovation blockers—what prevents people from engaging with innovation.

George Krasadakis

12. Measuring Innovation

Measuring corporate innovation is not straightforward—it requires a holistic view and a deep understanding of the performance of every major component of the innovation function. This chapter introduces an analytical framework aiming to provide a consistent and accurate measurement of innovation and its performance. With this framework, corporate leaders obtain instant insights regarding the current state of the innovation function through a single performance scorecard consisting of just five scores.

George Krasadakis

13. The Innovation Transformation ProgramInnovation transformation program

Innovation tansformation programs are complex as they attempt to bring multiple changes across the layers and the foundations of the organization. This chapter assembles all the work streams, projects, communication initiatives, and events into a single plan reflecting their importance and internal dependencies. It explains how to design and execute an ambitious innovation transformation program, which allows starting “small” but also iterating fast, in an agile way. Every iteration enhances the innovation capability of the organization, improves its culture, and measures the impact and the progress of the program.

George Krasadakis

Chapter 3. Political Candidates’ Discussions on Twitter During Election Season: A Network Approach

This chapter investigates how political candidates utilize Twitter to communicate with each other to better understand the role Twitter plays in facilitating public debate. Taking a communication network approach, Vergeer uses the 2012 Dutch national election to provide insight into how political candidates interact on Twitter and describe the structure of the candidates’ online communication network. Results regarding candidate interaction on Twitter are mixed: most candidates only tweet occasionally, and while reciprocity was observed it often only occurred between party members, especially incumbents. While Twitter thus provides political candidates with the opportunity to conduct interparty discussions, it appears that few do and that Twitter is mainly used as a broadcasting platform. As such, candidates do not use the full democratic potential of the platform.

Maurice Vergeer

Chapter 10. Bros Before Donald Trump: Resisting and Replicating Hegemonic Ideologies in the #BROTUS Memes After the 2016 Election

Carrying out a rhetorical analysis of the #BROTUS memes that circulated on Twitter after the 2016 presidential election, this chapter examines how these memes challenge and replicate extant ideologies, blurring the lines between information and entertainment as well as private and public spheres. Findings show that, in spite of their humorous and banal content, memes can allow for the expression of resistance and the channeling of affect. At the same time, the authors point out that while the memes challenge the ideologies embodied by the Trump campaign, they also replicate some of the same values and beliefs. The #BROTUS memes show how Twitter serves as a vernacular sphere of political engagement while their popularity in part still relies on the same dominant ideologies they aim to resist.

Roberta Chevrette, Christopher M. Duerringer

Chapter 14. Mirror, Bridge or Stone? Female Owners of Firms in Spain During the Second Half of the Long Nineteenth Century

This chapter investigates the roles played by female partners in Spanish firms during the past decades of the long nineteenth century and how legal structures and business survival strategies affected the participation of women in firms. It uses data sets created from the Book of Firms of the Mercantile Register, which contains descriptions of founding owners of all registered firms from 1886. Hernández Nicolás and Martínez-Rodríguez statistically analyse the characteristics of female partners, finding that many of them were widows. They discuss the range of roles played by these women by dividing them into three metaphorical categories: mirror, stone or bridge.

Carmen María Hernández-Nicolás, Susana Martínez-Rodríguez

Chapter 8. In the Business of Piracy: Entrepreneurial Women Among Chinese Pirates in the Mid-Nineteenth Century

The success of Zheng Yi Sao, perhaps the most successful pirate chieftainess in history, shows that women in South China participated, sometimes prominently, in piracy. This chapter shows that women’s involvement in Chinese piracy continued after Zheng Yi Sao’s surrender in 1810. The British colonisation of Hong Kong and the opening of treaty ports to foreign trade in 1842 produced new opportunities for women and Chinese pirates. Through the case studies of Mrs Bigfoot, Ng Akew and Liu Laijiao, Kwan explores the interactions between women and Chinese pirates. The chapter argues that these women engaged in the business of piracy, profiting from association with pirates. Piracy provided entrepreneurial opportunities for women, marginalised by Chinese society, to advance and improve themselves in mid-nineteenth-century South China.

C. Nathan Kwan

Role of the TPC in the Cloud Age

In recent year the TPC Technology Conference on Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking (TPCTC) series have had significant influence in defining industry standards. The 11th TPC Technology Conference on Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking (TPCTC 2019) organized an industry panel on the “Role of the TPC in the Cloud Age”. This paper summaries the panel discussions.

Alain Crolotte, Feifei Li, Meikel Poess, Peter Boncz, Raghunath Nambiar

Bitcoin’s Deviations from Satoshi’s World

After several years of the proposal and implementation of Bitcoin by Satoshi Nakamoto, people in the world were enthusiastic about crypto-assets. However, the market prices of crypto-assets are too unstable to use as a payment method. After many cyber-attack incidents, the confidence in the security of crypto-asset exchanges has also been compromised. Satoshi proposed Bitcoin to realize anonymous payment to protect individual privacy. Actual crypto-assets have changed from the original concept. The main reason for this deviation was the reality that ordinary investors cannot manage their secret keys securely. In this chapter, the reasons for this deviation are investigated.

Naoyuki Iwashita

Socioemotional Wealth and Financial Performance and Their Impact on Innovation Initiatives in Mexican Family Businesses: A Case Study

This work contributes to understanding the connection between family firms’ goals and interests with the resources and competences they use to carry out entrepreneurial actions connected mainly with innovation. To examine this issue, the authors conducted an explorative-descriptive case study that included two Mexican family firms. The results show that it is possible to find an alignment between financial performance and socioemotional wealth (SEW) and the different types of resources and competences that a family firm displays to reach them. Also, the firm’s entrepreneurial orientation (EO) may serve to moderate this alignment.

Jorge A. Duran-Encalada, Jose A. Vazquez-Villalpando

Non-economic Organizational Performance of SMEs: Is There a Rationale for a Cognitive Entrepreneur?

This chapter contributes to the literature on entrepreneurship and small business management by testing the relationship between the non-economic organizational performance and the individual entrepreneurship capacity and by providing new insights about the need for promoting a truly cognitive entrepreneur. Toward the use of individual data relative to the founder or owner of SMEs, we assess the relationships between the non-economic performance of Portuguese SMEs and three types of capital: human, social, and organizational. It uses collaborators’ satisfaction as a metrics for non-economic performance and provides new insights for improving SMEs’ performance. The results provided the identification of four principal factors, which include all the types of individual capital considered in the analysis. The estimation of logistic regressions points out that only two factors present significant influences on the non-economic performance of SMEs. On the one hand, in terms of the factor 3, although it is capable of influencing negatively, in global terms, the non-economic performance of SMEs, it can be enhanced that interdepartmental meetings have a significant and positive influence on non-economic performance of SMEs. On the other hand, the analysis of the factor 4 reveals equally a global negative influence, although the human capital and cognitive variables that represent the entrepreneur’s intuition and competences of human resources are capable of influencing positively the behavior of the answer variable concerning non-economic performance of SMEs.

João Leitão, Mário Franco

Strategic Entrepreneurship and Its Effect on Human Capital and Employee Retention

Our knowledge of strategic entrepreneurship continues to grow. However, this knowledge remains more limited in the context of strategic entrepreneurship effects on human capital and employee retention. Herein, the contribution of strategic management and entrepreneurship to strategic entrepreneurship is examined. Building on previous models a conceptual framework of strategic entrepreneurship is proposed to extend our understanding of its effect on human capital and employee retention as well as the human capital and employee retention impact on strategic entrepreneurship. Therefore, the model incorporates human capital and employee retention that effects strategic entrepreneurship and its outcomes in terms of value creation and generation of wealth.

Claudine Kearney

The Impact of Innovative Working Behaviour on Employees’ Working Performance

The aim of this chapter is to identify the relationship and the impact of innovative working behaviour (IWB) of employees on their performance. With innovative working behaviour, we are trying to analyse the initiative taken from employees for improving work and the effects over working performance (WP). Employees with a higher level of innovative behaviour are expected to be star performers in their working place. An organisation needs to increase the awareness of the importance of innovative working behaviour of their employee in working activity. The sample includes 214 respondents from the private and public sector in Macedonia. Based on our findings, we provide some useful recommendation to organisations to raise the awareness of innovation that comes from employee side. The chapter ends with study limitations and future research directions.

Besar Berisha, Veland Ramadani, Shqipe Gërguri-Rashiti, Ramo Palalić

CEO’s Entrepreneurial Profile and Survival of Internationalised Wine Sector SMEs in Portuguese Region of Ribatejo

This study highlights the importance of the CEO’s entrepreneurial profile, unveiling its importance for the survival and internationalisation of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the wine sector in the Portuguese region of Ribatejo. Evidence shows that CEOs, as individuals with a global mentality, are extremely alert and always ready to seek international opportunities to obtain additional benefits. To do so, they have to overcome different barriers in the course of the internationalisation process, determining the decision-making mechanisms that involve different modes of entry into new markets, always bearing in mind the sources of competitive advantage, in order to ensure greater financial sustainability and responsible profit sharing in the future. The empirical approach makes use of a qualitative methodology, based on interviews with the CEOs of two wine companies located in the Portuguese region of Ribatejo. This study provides important implications for strategic business process management aimed at overcoming obstacles to the internationalisation of wine-growing SMEs, through the choice of adequate entry modes.

Rui Centeno Martins, João Leitão

Human Capital and Entrepreneurial Intentions in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Historical phenomenon of human capital is being discussed through centuries. This important pillar in socioeconomic development is necessary to be monitored, analyzed, and debated by every country. So is for Bosnia and Herzegovina. The chapter tries to explain human capital from students’ perspective in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The current situation of human capital in Bosnia and Herzegovina is investigated and discussed. Based on the theoretical background, the study explores the main pillars of human capital depicted by an exploratory case study of students population, from the International University of Sarajevo. Several exciting insights were derived from the research, which are elaborated further as the study implications, recommendations, and the future work. Limitations, as well as other study phenomena, are also discussed.

Ramo Palalić, Azra Bičo, Veland Ramadani, Léo-Paul Dana

Links and Demographic Comparisons to Conflict Management and Counterproductive Work Behavior

According to contemporary theory in Management Science, conflicts are inevitable and necessary for organizations, indeed. Managing conflicts shows clearly differences between good and perfect managers and entrepreneurs. In this respect, conflict management styles are emerging as a meaningful tool for dealing with the counterproductive work behaviors which are anti-innovative behaviors. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of conflict management on counterproductive work behavior and also make demographic comparisons to these variables. The sample is composed of 200 white-collar employees. Data were collected through survey technique with convenience sampling method and analyzed via statistical package programs. Results show that conflict management styles, integrating, dominating, and compromising, have significant effect on counterproductive work behavior dimensions. Integrating reduces organizational deviance, dominating increases interpersonal deviance, and compromising reduces both interpersonal and organizational deviance. Besides, perceptions about conflict management and counterproductive work behavior vary depending on demographic characteristics. Integrating is perceived mostly by female participants in comparison with males. Dominating is perceived mostly by private sector employees in comparison with public ones. Younger employees perceive conflict management and its two dimensions, obliging and compromising, more than their elders. Males are in tendency to behave counterproductive in comparison with females. Counterproductive work behavior and its one-dimensional, organizational deviance are performed less by younger employees and more by employees educated at post-graduate degree.

Mustafa Fedai Çavuş, Alptekin Develi, Seda Güğerçin

Chapter 3. Theoretical Perspectives and Context of Learning and Development Effectiveness in Organisations

There are numerous theoretical perspectives that researchers have used to study the effectiveness of training in organisations. We describe and evaluate four theoretical perspectives (universalistic, contingency, configurational and architectural) that researchers have used to explain training effectiveness. We then evaluate a selection of theoretical perspectives including human capital theory, the resource-based view, the behavioural approach, social exchange theory, the behavioural approach, ability-motivation-opportunity theory and attribution theory, each of which suggests different reasons for a link between training and effectiveness. The chapter concludes with a discussion of external and internal contextual factors that shape training effectiveness in organisations.

Thomas N. Garavan, Fergal O’Brien, James Duggan, Claire Gubbins, Yanqing Lai, Ronan Carbery, Sinead Heneghan, Ronnie Lannon, Maura Sheehan, Kirsteen Grant

Chapter 4. A Model of Learning and Development Effectiveness in Organisations

This chapter presents an open system informed model of training effectiveness in organisations. The model is composed of inputs, process components and outputs. The inputs consist of macro external inputs, internal micro-level inputs and training design inputs. The process elements of the model consist of three components: individual and organisational reactions to training, individual and organisational learning outcomes, and individual and organisational-level training transfer factors. The outputs component of the model consists of emergence enablers, collective human resource outcomes, operational performance outcomes and financial outcomes. The chapter summarises the literature on each component of the model.

Thomas N. Garavan, Fergal O’Brien, James Duggan, Claire Gubbins, Yanqing Lai, Ronan Carbery, Sinead Heneghan, Ronnie Lannon, Maura Sheehan, Kirsteen Grant

Chapter 5. The Current State of Research on Training Effectiveness

This chapter addresses the current state of research on training effectiveness in organisations. It summarises the key findings on what we know about training effectiveness, the research emphasis given to different components of the model, and how research informs the ways in which organisations should approach learning and development to maximise effectiveness. The chapter highlights the role of training needs analysis, the types of attendance policies that should be used, the most effective design of training delivery to maximise effectiveness, the relative effectiveness of training methods, the organisation of training content, the importance of learning or training transfer, and the types of outcomes that are derived from learning and development.

Thomas N. Garavan, Fergal O’Brien, James Duggan, Claire Gubbins, Yanqing Lai, Ronan Carbery, Sinead Heneghan, Ronnie Lannon, Maura Sheehan, Kirsteen Grant

Chapter 6. Suggestions for Research and Practice

This chapter summarises the research on the effectiveness of learning and development in organisations. It makes research recommendations of the content of effectiveness research, recommendations for research design, and recommendations for practice. It summarises key gaps in the research base, as well as highlighting practice recommendations that learning and development specialists can implement to enhance the overall effectiveness of these activities in contributing to organisational performance.

Thomas N. Garavan, Fergal O’Brien, James Duggan, Claire Gubbins, Yanqing Lai, Ronan Carbery, Sinead Heneghan, Ronnie Lannon, Maura Sheehan, Kirsteen Grant

The Innovative Performance of Family Businesses: An Essay About Intellectual Capital and Absorptive Capacity

The personal characteristics of the members, the organizational relationships, and the internal procedures need to be managed. Knowledge needs to be acquired, assimilated, transformed, and applied to create organizational value. Then, the relationship between intellectual capital and the absorptive capacity are fundamental. Family businesses, those governed and/or managed by members of the same family throughout the generations, represent more than half of the existing organizations, reaching figures close to 90% in some locations. There is a gap in the research about intellectual capital and the absorptive capacity of a family business; thus it must be explored deeply. The objective of this essay is to relate the previous evidence about the intellectual capital and the absorptive capacity of family businesses for innovative performance, identify previous results and the gap in the literature, present a conceptual model, and propose an agenda for future research. This essay was developed through a literature review. Then, this study contributes to original insights on the role of intellectual capital and absorption capacity in the innovative performance of family businesses.

Raysa Geaquinto Rocha, João Leitão

Who’s Winning the “Survivor” Race? Gazelle or Non-Gazelle Startups

High-growth firms are of particular interest for academics and policymakers due to their serious contributions to the economy, job market, and knowledge creation. Previous studies have majorly focused on firm growth rates, their persistence over time, and their determinants. Nevertheless, open research windows still remain in predicting what sort of companies will grow or even survive and in understanding the inconsistency of high-growth levels. The complexity of the relationship macroeconomic environment, high-growth regimes and firm capabilities deserves further research efforts. Here we will focus on the microeconomic determinants of startups’ survival, namely, the founder’s attributes and the firm’ characteristics and capabilities, and their relation with business survival, contrasting gazelle and non-gazelle startups. To address this, we use a Cox proportional hazard model, for a sample of 4919 firms, collected from the Kauffman Foundation Survey. Results reveal that the main entrepreneur and entrepreneurial-level determinants of firm survival are the founders’ college education, IP activity, firms’ small- and medium-size, and the gazelle condition impact on the firms’ chances of survival. Taken these all together and including the moderating effect of startup capitalization, results point to the fact that owners’ work experience and the small- and medium-sized companies as well as the companies’ R&D activities moderated by capitalization access increases the chances of firm survival. Crisis spurs firms’ exit, nonetheless startups pursuing a competitive advantage strategy and the moderating effect of startup capital on their internal R&D activities increase the chances of survival.

Dina Pereira, João Leitão, Rui Baptista

Online-recruiting as an element of the development of Kazakhstan within the framework of the program “Kazakhstan 2050”

With the rapid development of Internet technologies and a comprehensive process of globalization, the Republic of Kazakhstan does not stand aside and follows global development trends. Thus, the Tax Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, approved in 2018, implies the most convenient taxation conditions for entrepreneurs, whose main activities can be attributed to electronic entrepreneurship. This step should have been expected from the government, since, firstly, an increasing number of Kazakhstanis have access to the Internet, about 74.6% of the country’s population, according to the World Economic Forum, and secondly, Kazakhstanis are showing increasing confidence in online shopping, which is manifested in the amounts spent and, as a result, the constant growth of the e-commerce market.

Ernest Sirotin, Adina Musrepova, Dauren T. Askarov

Analysis of Current Kyrgyz Higher Education Based on Lean Principles

The Kyrgyz higher education system failed to compete with the entire world, except a few undeveloped countries. According to Webometrics ranking system, the world rank of the best university of the country is 4799. Yet, there is no single university in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings database.

Hans-Christian Brauweiler, Zhyldyzbek Zhakshylykov

Experience of introducing digitalization into the economy of foreign countries

The United States is one of the world leaders in the digital economy, which refers to “the economy, which mainly operates with the use of digital technologies, especially electronic transactions carried out using the Internet”.

I. Kh. Tuseeva, A. A. Azhibaeva, Dauren T. Askarov

Cyber-Crime - A strong growing Riskcategory: Prevention, Protection, Defense, Limitation of Loss

Today, in the days of the “Internet of Things”, full-fledged connectivity, smart homes and so on our society – businesses, work environment, government, private homes – is dependent on electronic networks and information systems for many aspects of life. The chance and sometimes easiness to enter into these information systems in order to draw on information from other people or businesses with criminal intend threatens citizens, businesses, governments and critical infrastructures: The evolution of information and communication technology has led to the development of criminal activities by using the internet resp. computers or computer networks: cybercrime.

Hans-Christian Brauweiler

Digitization of the Health and Education Sectors in the Palestinian Society, in View of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

Policy- and strategy-makers, governments, and societies, in general, are facing nowadays, worldwide, a stage of transformation towards the digitization era through information and communications’ technology (ICT). People today, around the world, have access to mobile phones more than to life’s necessary basics, such as electricity and water. In addition, the amount of information generated globally is expanding exponentially at exceptional rates, as a result of the benefits offered by the ICT.

Hilmi S. Salem

3. Female Genital Mutilation

In this chapter we will discuss female genital mutilation (FGM). We will begin by defining what FGM is and detail its history. We will then explore its worldwide prevalence, its impact, relevant legislation including a discussion of notable FGM prosecutions, and finally, we will explore responses to FGM.

Gerry Campbell, Karl A. Roberts, Neelam Sarkaria

Kapitel 6. Ausbildungswege zum Change Manager

Change Management lässt sich erlernen. Am Ende dieses Buchs sind im Literaturverzeichnis Grundlagenbücher verzeichnet, die einen ersten Einblick ins Thema bieten. Teilweise setzen die Werke verschiedene Schwerpunkte, wie zum Beispiel auf Change Communication oder Change-Management-Tools.

Markus Kaiser, Nicole Schwertner

5. Perspektivwechsel: Wenn Unternehmen in die Personal Brand ihrer Mitarbeiter investieren

Die kollektive Wahrnehmung einer Organisation und deren Dienstleistung wird nicht mehr nur über einen bekannten Firmennamen bestimmt. Das Image eines Unternehmens wird vor allem durch die Unternehmenslenker und Mitarbeiter geschmiedet, die in der Öffentlichkeit sichtbar werden. Insbesondere mit der breiten Nutzung von Social Media, verbunden mit der Forderung nach mehr Transparenz durch diverse Stakeholder, müssen Unternehmen heute einen Spagat meistern, der nicht ganz einfach ist.

Marina Zayats

3. Den Kern der eigenen Digital Personal Brand erarbeiten

Jeder Mensch hat einen individuellen Fingerabdruck, eine individuelle DNA. Genauso hat jeder Mensch auch ein Arsenal an Fähigkeiten, Wissen, Erfahrungen, Kontakten und mehr, die ihn einzigartig machen. Dieses Superkräfte-Portfolio ist von Mensch zu Mensch sehr unterschiedlich. Dennoch höre ich von meinen Workshop-Teilnehmern am Anfang des Tages häufig: „Diese Fähigkeit hat doch fast jeder“, „es gibt nichts, worin ich herausragend gut bin“ oder „ich bin ein Generalist“. Wenn wir uns einzelne Aspekte unseres Superkräfte-Portfolios anschauen, dann gibt es sehr sicher jemanden, der genauso so smart programmieren oder genauso so gut Vertrauen zu anderen aufbauen kann. Zwei Menschen können jedoch nicht das identische Superkräfte-Portfolio haben. Die Mischung an Fähigkeiten, Wissen, Erfahrungen, Stärken etc. ist immer individuell. Zumal jede einzelne Fähigkeit zusätzlich unseren persönlichen Fingerabdruck trägt, unsere Persönlichkeit.

Marina Zayats

Chapter 11. Administrative Silence in Croatia: Between Fiction and Reality

The chapter presents and analyzes the legal framework as well as the administrative and judicial practice with regard to the administrative silence. Starting from the historical development of the institute and attitudes of legal scholarship, the paper explores the issue of timelines of administrative procedure, followed by the presentation and analysis of procedural steps, requirements, and consequences of the public authorities’ failure to act in accordance with the deadlines in administrative procedure. A special emphasis is given to the forms of remedying the failure of public authority to respond in timely manner to the request of the party through administrative appealAdministrative appeal procedure and administrative dispute. The empirical part consists of the overview of the incidence of silence of administration in cases initiated by the request for access to information, as well as an overview of the administrative disputes on the grounds of administrative silence.

Marko Šikić, Anamarija Musa, Bosiljka Britvić Vetma

Chapter 1. Introduction: Regional Diversity, Decentralization, and Conflict in and around Ukraine

Despite a decreasing number of interstate wars, the contemporary era is marked by the rise in ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and identity conflicts within states, often leading to the establishment of de-facto states. An important feature of such conflicts is a foreign support to one of the conflicting parties. Most commonly, the international community seeks to address conflicts through territorial self-governance (TSG) arrangements (e.g. federalization, decentralization). In this vein, this introductory chapter offers insights into the state of research regarding the application of the TSG as a conflict-mitigation tool, and explains the relevance of the Ukrainian case to the TSG study in the context of intense foreign engagement. It also introduces each chapter of the volume and explains its contribution to the wider literature.

Maryna Rabinovych, Hanna Shelest

Chapter 5. The Domestic Dimension of Defining Uncontrolled Territories and Its Value for Conflict Transformation in Moldova, Georgia, and Ukraine

The issue of uncontrolled territories in Moldova (Transnistria), Georgia (Abkhazia and South Ossetia), and since 2014 Ukraine (the separate districts of Donetsk and Luhansk regions) has been featured in numerous international law studies. However, not much attention has been paid to definitions of the respective territories in the domestic law of the “maternal” states. To fill this gap, the chapter compares Moldova’s, Georgia’s, and Ukraine’s approaches to defining uncontrolled territories, and explores their value for conflict transformation. The author finds that domestic laws on uncontrolled territories perform numerous important functions with regard to the conflict transformation: leaving the space open or opening up the space for international talks on conflict settlement; defining “red lines” a “maternal state” may not cross in the context of international peace talks; promoting a particular qualification of the uncontrolled territories under international law; and promoting or hindering conflict transformation through different forms of cooperation.

Maryna Rabinovych

Chapter 6. The Reintegration of Donbas Through Reconstruction and Accountability. An International Law Perspective

This chapter focuses on the conflict in Eastern Ukraine from the international law perspective. It focuses on a design of the legal and political toolkit to be applied in the process of Donbas’ reintegration, which shall eventually lead to the final liquidation of the so-called “DPR” and “LPR” as “proto-states”, products of the Russian aggression. An analysis of the prospects of the restoration of the Ukrainian jurisdiction over seized territories zooms in on Russia’s accountability for supporting “rebels” in Eastern Ukraine, as well as a personal responsibility of the involved individuals. Based on the respective analysis, the chapter sets a proposal for a two-fold approach to reintegration efforts to be applied by Kyiv, combining post-conflict reconstruction (with the potential deployment of the UN peacekeeping mission), aimed at delivering justice in retributive and restorative dimensions, with the latter component emphasizing an accommodation of the regional diversity and the truth-telling practices.

Tomasz Lachowski

Chapter 9. Decentralization and a Risk of Local Elite Capture in Ukraine

The most notable element of Ukraine’s decentralization reform is a merging of municipalities into amalgamated territorial communities (ATCs). While the implementation of the reform is slower and more chaotic than anticipated, the reform has widely been hailed as one of the country’s biggest success stories since the Euromaidan Revolution. Scholarly literature on decentralization acknowledges its potential to, among other things, increase popular participation, improve service delivery, and strengthen legitimacy, but also warns of the “dangers of decentralization,” including local elite capture. This chapter argues that there is substantial reason to assume that there is a real risk of elite capture in the current decentralization reform, and suggests that not enough is being done by the central government to mitigate this risk.

Max Bader

Chapter 8. The Dark Side of Decentralization Reform in Ukraine: Deterring or Facilitating Russia-Sponsored Separatism?

This chapter argues that Ukraine’s decentralization process can carry as many risks to the state’s unity as Russia’s ambition to federalize Ukraine. In particular, the author looks at how “fake” territorial communities and special economic zones promoted by regional elites with an assistance of the pro-Russian NGO “Ukrainian Choice” and Russian “curators” distort the vocabulary and tools of the decentralization reform to establish a parallel system of power, and destabilize Ukraine’s constitutional order. The transition period leading up to the completion of the reform offers a window of opportunity to sow separatism. In fact, the link created between the reform and the granting of “special status” to Donbas as part of the Minsk process postpones, indefinitely, the decentralization-related constitutional amendments (including the institution of prefects as a form of state oversight over local government bodies). Thus, the author assesses possible threats to Ukraine’s national security associated with offering autonomy to Donbas.

Jaroslava Barbieri

Chapter 2. Regionalism in Ukraine: Historic Evolution, Regional Claim-Making, and Centre–Periphery Conflict Resolution

This chapter examines the historical constitution of the present territory of Ukraine and its administrative-territorial system, identity and regional cleavages and the evolution and dynamics of claim-making and center-periphery contention related to them in different regions, namely Transcarpathia, Crimea and Donbas, since the late 1980s. It examines different forms of accommodation of claims such as an asymmetric state structure in the case of Crimean autonomy, power devolution, free economic zones, subsidies and budget disbursements, power-sharing at the national level, and local and regional legislation on historical memory and languages. Beyond the widely acknowledged role of external intervention in the escalation of conflict in eastern Ukraine in 2014, the chapter focuses on the long-term nonviolent contention related to regional cleavages prior to the escalation of the conflict and political exclusion. The chapter shows that while there has been an increasing identification with Ukrainian citizenship and support for decentralization since 2014, important regional differences in terms of historical memories, attitudes to the Euromaidan, and the nature of the ongoing conflict remain and may be loci of vulnerability to future regional mobilizations. The effect of the ongoing reforms in decentralization and democratic governance on the resolution of center–periphery conflicts and the accommodation of regional claims remains to be seen.

Oksana Myshlovska

Chapter 9. The Environmental Dimension of the “Brazilian Blue Amazon”: Environmental Rights and Duties on the Continental Shelf

Up to now, this work has raised questions ranging from the possibility of legally delineating the outer limits of the continental shelf, to the legal conflicts which may arise from the extension of a coastal state’s marine environmental jurisdiction over the seafloor. To states delineating their outer continental shelves, an extended maritime area implies not only prospects of wealth and enlarged sovereign rights, but also increased responsibilities over those areas. A reasonable next step, in line with the original research plan, is to scrutinize a particular state’s legal and institutional framework in place for the management of the maritime spaces under national jurisdiction. That state is Brazil, and the maritime zones under examination are the domestically labelled “Brazilian Blue Amazon”, with stark emphasis on the continental shelf within and beyond 200 nm.

Victor Alencar Mayer Feitosa Ventura

Chapter 6. Creeping Jurisdiction in the Law of the Sea: Threat to Navigational Freedoms or Stand Against “Spoliative Jurisdiction”?

Despite increasing environmental awareness regarding ocean affairs, the law of the sea is comprised of rules which embody the attempt to prioritize economic interests of states, in vague and general terms. Prevailing rule is “abstention from unjustifiable interferences” on the rights of other states, the underpinning philosophy of freedom of the seas. In this context, this book dedicates an item to discuss the long-established customary and treaty norms which praise navigational freedoms as unshakable, fully aware that the affirmation of coastal states’ right to protect the marine environment in areas within national jurisdiction (to the detriment of freedom of the seas) is likely to face some degree of rejection by parcels of the international community. Should the book provoke questions marks on the current balance of rights and duties between coastal and other states on the continental shelf, it will have achieved its intention.

Victor Alencar Mayer Feitosa Ventura

Chapter 12. The European Union’s Northern Window—A New View on the World

The Arctic is dramatically warming up. This not only badly affects the region and its people, but also has significant consequences for the whole European Union—beyond the fact that part of the Arctic is in the EU. Hence, addressing climate change, a major challenge for the Arctic, is a key priority for the EU in general and for its Arctic policy in particular. Also, given the growing environmental, economic, social and political implications of the changing Arctic, the European Union has developed its own Arctic Policy, through a 2016 Joint Communication, which is an integral part of the EU Global Strategy. The EU is well aware of the fact that the warming up of the Arctic is creating new economic opportunities, permitting easier access to the rich natural resources of the Arctic region and is opening up new sea lanes. It seeks to counteract climate change, promote sustainable development, engage in all relevant regional and multilateral fora—most obviously the Arctic Council, engage with all Arctic and relevant non-Arctic States, and interact with the People of the Arctic. The Union’s overarching key objective is to keep the Arctic as a zone of low tension, peace, constructive dialogue and cooperation. Indeed, maintaining a safe, stable, sustainable and prosperous Arctic is of manifest strategic importance to the EU, as it is for the region itself and its people, as well as for the rest of the world.

Marie-Anne Coninsx

Chapter 13. The European Union’s New Climate Change Diplomacy: Innovating in Foreign Policy

Fighting climate change constitutes an area in which the EU has shown considerable global leadership over the last decades. The EU has a mandate to represent its Member States internationally on climate affairs and is equipped with economic and diplomatic instruments essential in climate action. Given the urgency of climate action and the disengagement of some main polluters, in recent years the EU sought to consolidate its position as an international climate actor. In order to achieve this goal, the EU resorted to a set of foreign policy instruments meant to engage key climate players, such as China, but also American states and cities (to compensate for the lack of climate action at the US federal level). In the use of these instruments the EU showed creativity, flexibility, and ability to innovate diplomatically.

Alexandra-Maria Bocse

Chapter 15. The European Union’s Post-Lisbon Foreign Policy Ten Years On

A decade on from the implementation of the Lisbon Treaty is a good moment to take stock of progress made on EU foreign policy and the Lisbon Treaty’s innovations. Has a decade of cooperation fostered trust among the EU Member States, as liberal institutionalism would posit it should have done? The balance sheet is mitigated. Decisions are still mostly taken by unanimity, so EU actorness depends on unity. The 2016 Global Strategy tempered idealistic aspirations with ‘principled pragmatism’ but progress has been made on the values agenda. There is clear resolve to strengthen European defence capabilities. There have been few foreign policy successes. The Lisbon Treaty reforms have embedded new institutions, prompted more strategic thinking and encouraged more joined-up policymaking, but the challenge of fostering Member State unity remains.

Karen E. Smith

Chapter 2. Championing Multilateralism

The European Union’s history, its evolution, its methodology, and the challenges it faces all militate in favour of a multilateral approach. The EU’s foreign policy for long evolved out of the projection of coordinated and gradually integrated domestic policies such as agriculture and trade. As a major trade power and development aid donor with an extensive geopolitical reach, the EU has increasingly brought its multilateral instincts effectively to bear in contexts such as the Paris climate change agreement. The multilateral system and hence also the European Union face particular but different challenges regarding the evolving foreign policy stances of the Russian Federation and China.

Christian Leffler

Chapter 4. Values and Interests in Post-Lisbon European Union Foreign Policy

The European Union has a Treaty-based duty to propagate its own values beyond its borders and pursue a holistic approach in its external relations. The establishment of the European External Action Service has brought the values and interests agendas together, particularly through the ‘merger’ of the Community and inter-governmental foreign policy pillars. EU foreign policy, including the values agenda, works best with Member State buy-in, and hence the engagement of Member States’ diplomacy alongside the Union’s. The High Representative-led initiative to broker a Syrian peace deal illustrates both the limits and the potential of the EU’s values-and-interests approach in the future.

Patrick Costello

Chapter 5. Working Together for a Safer World

Significant developments have been taking place in the field of European security and defence, particularly since the 2016 adoption of the Global Strategy, with a view to improving the EU’s capacity to defend and promote its values. These developments have taken place against the backdrop of an increasingly challenging international environment. The EU has addressed these challenges through the enhancement of existing instruments and the development of new ones, from the European Defence Fund through to the Civilian Compact. NATO’s role in collective defence is enshrined in the Treaties and the Union will continue to work in partnership and champion the multilateral framework, while strengthening its own strategic autonomy.

Pedro A. Serrano de Haro

Chapter 7. The Growing Role of the European Parliament as an EU Foreign Policy Actor

The European Parliament has developed important foreign policy powers through, variously, its role as co-legislator in areas that are part of EU external action (trade, cooperation with third countries, humanitarian aid) or internal policies with external dimensions, its assent powers regarding international agreements between the EU and third parties, and its budgetary powers, including for CFSP administrative and operational expenditure, but also through its agenda-setting powers as a political actor, its scrutiny powers, particularly in relation to policy implementation, and through its evermore extensive parliamentary diplomacy activities. The Parliament seeks continued institutional autonomy and defends its prerogatives but also promotes the need for a more integrated overall approach to EU foreign and security policy that includes a parliamentary pillar.

Myriam Goinard

Star Schema-Based Data Warehouse Model for Education System Using Mondrian and Pentaho

Multiple strategic challenges are being faced by educational institutions across the globe which is of interest to both researchers and decision-makers. These challenges can be successfully addressed by analyzing the vast amount of data stored in multiple, unorganized, and unstructured operational databases in the educational institutes. Practitioners, researchers, and students would need data warehousing techniques to be able to utilize the knowledge stored in different archives. Data warehousing techniques include assimilating disparate sources of data, analysis of the requirements, designing the data, development, implementation, and deployment of the data. In this paper, a data warehouse (DW) for solving operational challenges of the center of higher education has been developed, which encompasses system design, ETL data processing, and online analytical processing analysis. The designing of this model is done using Mondrian and Pentaho business intelligence tool.

Sweta Suman, Pallavi Khajuria, Siddhaling Urolagin

Chapter 7. Heart Beats Brain: Measuring Moral Beliefs Through E-mail Analysis

Moral beliefs are at the heart of governing a person’s behavior. In this paper, we introduce a way to automatically measure a person’s moral values through hidden “honest” signals in the person’s e-mail communication. We measured the e-mail behavior of 26 users through their e-mail interaction, calculating their seven “honest signals of collaboration” (strong leadership, balanced contribution, rotating leadership, responsiveness, honest sentiment, shared context and social capital). These honest signals—in other words, how they answered their e-mails—explained 70% of their moral values measured with the moral foundations survey. In particular, the more positive and less emotional they were in their language, the more they cared about others. We verified the results with a larger e-mail dataset of 655 employees of a services firm, where structural and temporal honest signals explained 67% of emotionality.

Peter A. Gloor, Andrea Fronzetti Colladon

Chapter 8. Identifying Virtual Tribes by Their Language in Enterprise Email Archives

The rise of online social networks has created novel opportunities to analyze people by their hidden “honest” traits. In this paper we suggest automatic grouping of employees into virtual tribes based on their language and values. Tribes are groups of people homogenous within themselves and heterogenous to other groups. In this project we identify members of digital virtual tribes by the words they use in their everyday language, characterizing email users by applying four macro-categories based on their belief systems (alternative realities, personality, recreation, and ideology) developed in earlier research. Each macro-category is divided into four orthogonal categories, for instance “Alternative Realities” includes the categories “Fatherlanders”, “Treehuggers”, “Nerds”, and “Spiritualists”. We use the Tribefinder tool to analyze two email archives, the individual mailbox of an active academic and corporate consultant, and the Enron email archive. We found tribes for each user and analyzed the communication habits of each tribe, showing that members of different tribes significantly differ in how they communicate by email. This demonstrates the applicability of our approach to distinguish members of different virtual tribes by either language used or email communication structure and dynamics.

Lee Morgan, Peter A. Gloor

Chapter 1. A Definition Problem

This chapter focuses on unveiling the origins of the term, followed by the myriad evolving historic city frameworks, some of them going from intelligent city, to industrial city, to information city, to smart city, to ubiquitous city, as well as other variations that exist even today and ends with a summary and exploration of the different attempts made to define the smart city.

José A. LugoSantiago

Chapter 3. Is There Such a Thing as the Smart City 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0?

As people begin to think about city futures and have become more aware of private commercial interests, the smart city discourse has been changing. The citizen is beginning to demand more control, and as this happens, a new shaping of the narrative begins to point to a future that is lined up to the old smart city narrative. This is the smart city 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0, covered in this chapter. This chapter analyzes that discourse in light of the review of the literature and searches for a better answer for the futures (in plural) of cities.

José A. LugoSantiago

Chapter 10. Foresight City

This chapter argues that we can form new images of the future and use these images to create collective futures. The chapter explores the citizen as co-creator and introduces Foresight City. Diving deeper, this chapter identifies three distinct ways of thinking in Foresight City, along with its four dimensions, principles of interconnectedness, and future awareness acquisition methods that explore city futures (open, unknown, hidden, and blind). The chapter culminates with a discussion of the citizen’s foresight process.

José A. LugoSantiago

Chapter 11. Leadership Practices in Foresight City

This chapter delineates a model for strategic foresight. This chapter discusses the nine leadership foresight practices of Foresight City. The nine persistent practices create untethered thinking and pull cities forward into the image of the future they want to become. These practices are divided into three domains: Understanding, Anticipating, and Shaping the Future. These three domains are fed and refreshed by a two-element sustainment band.

José A. LugoSantiago

Chapter 4. Imaging the Future of Smart Cities

This chapter focuses on unveiling the origins of the term, followed by the myriad evolving historic city frameworks, some of them going from intelligent city, to industrial city, to information city, to smart city, to ubiquitous city, as well as other variations that exist even today and ends with a summary and exploration of the different attempts made to define the smart city.

José A. LugoSantiago

Chapter 7. Notek City

The third city of the future scenario is Notek City. This interview with Mayor Alcand D. Levant, Mayor of Notek City, occurred on August 27, 2049. This is a city under reconstruction. Once the place of great thinkers and technological prowess, it is now the site of sorrow due to the collapse of its economic and social systems. Perhaps this collapse was the consequence of an over-reliance on technology. Maybe it was a disregard for the environment. Or maybe, it was both! The mayor shares his feel for the city, how did the city evolve to what it has become, and the work ahead for its citizens.

José A. LugoSantiago

Chapter 12. Virtual Tribes: Analyzing Attitudes Toward the LGBT Movement by Applying Machine Learning on Twitter Data

In this paper, we investigate the application of machine learning techniques in the context of social media. Specifically, we aim at drawing conclusions from users’ Twitter behavior and language to users’ attitudes toward the LGBT movement. By using an adjusted procedure of the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) process, we create a prediction model for investigating and identifying those attitudes. Furthermore, we formulate step-by-step instructions for its deployment. We provide the reader with a theoretical background for our research domain and describe the methods that we use. Results show that there are two groups of contrary attitudes toward the LGBT community and that the language and behavior of users in the groups, respectively, differ from each other. Also, we identify word analyses as a valuable means for prediction. We also apply our model on another dataset to investigate its interspersion with the previously identified groups and demonstrate its effectiveness for predicting attitudes of a single actor on Twitter. Finally, we critically assess our findings and propose further fields of investigation in this area.

Moritz Bittner, David Dettmar, Diego Morejon Jaramillo, Maximilian Johannes Valta

Chapter 13. Digital Coworker: Human-AI Collaboration in Work Environment, on the Example of Virtual Assistants for Management Professions

Dominant opinion in the general public is that work automation will presumably hold negative societal implications, such as job loss, which often causes fear and misunderstanding. Contrarily to such an attitude, the approach we took in this paper is that people will experience rather positive effects of work automation, thanks to collaboration with artificial intelligence using virtual assistants. The quantitative experimental study was a business problem simulation. Participants were asked to perform tasks of a marketing manager in order to prepare a marketing campaign for a new product. Control group participants performed these tasks on their own, while experimental group participants did them in collaboration with a virtual chatbot-like assistant created specifically for this simulation. A total of 20 people participated in the study. A relevant difference in performance was observed between the groups, n = 20, t(18) = 5.25, p < 0.001. Participants collaborating with a virtual assistant achieved a 57% higher productivity (measured by tasks done) than those working on their own. Furthermore, in a post-study survery they assessed their productivity higher and were more satisfied with their performance. Results confirmed the hypothesis, proving that human-AI collaboration increased productivity within the studied sample.

Konrad Sowa, Aleksandra Przegalinska

Fintech, Overcoming Friction and New Models of Financial Regulation

The development of new technologies by financial service providers is not new; banks, for instance, have always utilized technology to improve front- and back-office operations. The historical significance of fintech does not derive from the use of technology per se, but the leveraging of the distinct properties of digital technologies by non-traditional actors to offer consumers a better experience of financial services. More specifically, the goal of overcoming ‘friction’ in the user experience is here identified as the core feature driving many recent developments in a fintech context. This chapter explores the implications of such an account for incumbent financial institutions and regulators. From the perspective of incumbents, this new emphasis on the consumer experience requires banks and other financial institutions to organize-for-innovation. New capacities and a shift in mindset are needed to deliver a different kind of user experience, and two effective strategies for incumbents are explored. First, adopting more decentralized forms of organization and governance—what we refer to as ‘decentralized ecosystems’—that are better placed to innovate and overcome friction. Second, adopting a more strategic approach to venturing, i.e., purchasing start-ups from the fintech sector and integrating their innovations into incumbent operations. From a regulatory perspective, this requires a greater willingness on the part of regulators and other policymakers to foster experimentation in financial services. As such, the goal of regulation needs to shift from a traditional focus on managing systemic risk to more dynamic models that seek to facilitate responsible innovation and the delivery of a better-quality user experience. This can be achieved, for example, by state regulators working together—partnering—with incumbents and start-ups in the financial service ecosystems of the future via regulatory sandboxes and other similar schemes. Regulatory developments in Asia and Europe provide some evidence that policymakers recognize the need for such a shift in emphasis. However, doubts remain about whether they have gone far enough in pursuing this goal and that the full benefits of the fintech revolution have been realized.

Mark Fenwick, Erik P. M. Vermeulen

Chapter 2. Research Gaps and Research Questions

Strategic partnerships in the sport context are discussed from different theoretical views, most notably from a marketing/brand management, strategic management, strategic alliance, or financial perspective. Accordingly, different terminologies are used ranging from “co-branding partnerships” (e.g., Kahuni et al., 2009; Motion et al., 2003; Simonin & Ruth, 1998), “strategic partnerships” (e.g., Adam & Hovemann, 2018; Urriolagoitia & Planellas, 2007; Groscuth, 2005), “strategic relationships” (Farrelly, 2010), “strategic alliances” (e.g., Morgan et al., 2014; Hecox, 2007; Farrelly & Quester, 2005a), and “(strategic) investors” (e.g., Welling & Westhoff, 2018; Leister, 2017; Rentz, 2015). However, these terms are mostly used synonymously.

Tobias Duffner

Chapter 17. Leadership Resilience in Collaborative Practice Projects in Mental Healthcare in Sabah, Malaysia

The issue of sustainability is a problem for many people trying to lead projects, but it is particularly the case for informal leaders, who rely on influence rather than power. This chapter attempts to answer questions about what makes a resilient leader in collaborative projects in a low resource setting and explores leadership in three community-based collaborative practice projects in mental health. The projects discussed in this chapter are ‘passion projects’ that were initiated and managed by the leaders themselves and had not been ordered or commissioned by people above them in the hierarchy. Resources and influence had to be gained, rather than coming automatically. This chapter will explore how collaborative behaviours, motivation towards commons goals and values, autonomy, power and influence, access to resources, relatedness and personal connections and the motivation to collaborate influenced their leadership. We will also return to the concept of ‘distributed leadership’, which was discussed in the previous book (Shoesmith, Sawatan, Abdullah, & Fyfe, 2016) and consider whether the leadership seen in these projects was a function of the individuals or an emergent property of the networks of which they were part.

Wendy Diana Shoesmith, Loo Jiann Lin, Sue Fyfe

Chapter 16. Interprofessional Collaborative Leadership in Health Care Teams: From Theorising to Measurement

It has long been presented that leadership roles in health care are held by individualsIndividual who have a formal title and responsibility to hire, to monitor, and to evaluate those under their direct supervision. Theories of leadership have usually considered describing a leader as an individualIndividual who has some characteristics that are associated with leading or using skills to guide others. More recently, leadership scholars have challenged this view in light of the shifting trends towards team based practice in organisations and in particular health care settings. Since the early twenty-first century a shift in viewing the leader as working with followers through a relational perspective is being proposed.

Carole Orchard, Margot Rykhoff, Erin Sinclair

Chapter 8. Developing an Australia Wide Approach to IPE Leadership and Sustainability

AustraliaAustralia is a country and a continent. Whilst health standards are ranked amongst the best in the world, its immense size and distributed population creates unique challenges for the delivery of integrated health and social careSocial care services.

Monica Moran, Dawn Forman, Maree O’Keefe, Carole Steketee, Gary D. Rogers, Roger Dunston

Chapter 14. Building and Sustaining Student Leadership in IPE: Experience with the Knowledge and Skills Exchange

In this chapter, we share our experience of establishing‚ growing and sustaining the Knowledge and Skills Exchange (KASE)‚ a highly successful student-led IPE society at the University of Birmingham‚ UK. We offer ‘how-to’ guidance to others hoping to start a similar initiative‚ highlight important considerations for aspiring student leaders and faculty keen to support them; and reflect on the benefits and challenges we have experienced. We discuss how our experience has influenced our professional practice‚ both as newly qualified clinicians and as academic faculty‚ and share our vision for the student-led IPE societies of the future.

Emily Audet, Christine Hirsch, Kalyaani Vickneswaran, Mehmuna Ayub, Mahisa Arain, Travis Norton, Sharon Buckley

Chapter 6. The Resurgence of the Global Research Interprofessional Network

This chapter describes the development of the global interprofessional research network (IPR.Global) from its roots in the Global Research Interprofessional NetworkGlobal Research Interprofessional Network (GRIN) (GRIN) and the In-2-Theory network.

Hossein Khalili

Chapter 15. Building and Sustaining Patient and Community Partnerships in Interprofessional Education

Trends in health care such as consumerism, the increased need for chronic care, and more involvement of patients in decision-making, provide powerful reasons to involve patients in the education of health professionals. In order for students to acquire the knowledge, skills, and especially the attitudes and behaviours, to put collaborative patient-centred care into practice, patients must become a core part of interprofessional education. We describe factors that have sustained the work of the Patient & Community Partnership for Education unit at the University of British Columbia, Canada, from university and community perspectives. Our key messages are the importance of relationships at different levels; long term commitment leading to other opportunities for involvement of the community and academy; reciprocity (mutual benefits); and the importance of creating positive experiences.

Angela Towle, William Godolphin, Cathy Kline, Darren Lauscher

Chapter 7. Qatar—Sustaining Interprofessional Collaboration in Collaborative Partnership with Other Universities

The State of Qatar, an oil and gas rich nation, is a sovereign Arab state situated in the Arabian Gulf Region of the Middle East. The country’s population has grown significantly in the last twenty years, due to the large expatriate influx to the country, with a current estimated population of around 2.8 million, predominantly Arab, Indian, Nepali and Filipino (Forstenlechner & Rutledge in Middle East Policy, 18:25–43, 2011; World Population Review, 2019).

Alla El-Awaisi
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