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6. Putting Process Optimisation in Practice

The concrete implementation of process optimisation is illustrated on the basis of successful improvement projects from practice. The improvement methods described in Chap. 3 and the tools presented in Chap. 4 are applied systematically. An interesting insight into the daily work of a manager for Kaizen is provided through the interview with Stephan Spada, in which a practical example clearly demonstrates the structured procedure.

Martin Hofmann

3. Process Improvement Methods

Improvement management is not a recent movement, but is based on a long tradition. Over time, different methods such as Kaizen, Six Sigma, business reengineering or various agile methods such as Scrum have been developed and established. The focus of all these methods is the endeavour to optimally fulfil customer needs with efficient and effective processes. However, the respective approaches go far beyond the mere design of processes and change the corporate culture in the long term. Depending on the complexity of the issue, these methods can be combined in a targeted manner and used to optimise work processes.

Martin Hofmann

4. Tools for the Optimisation of Workflows

When working on improvement projects, the use of different tools has a positive effect on the achievement of goals. The most important tools include, for example, the Process Mapping, the Ishikawa Diagram, the Utility-Value Analysis, the Burn Down Chart or the Pareto Chart. All these tools rely on a strong visual component, which is excellent for use in workshops with groups. In addition, the Maturity Model offers a structured procedure for assessing the quality of existing work processes and for tracking the progress made in continuous development.

Martin Hofmann

2. Prerequisites and Framework Conditions for a Successful Improvement Culture

In order to anchor a sustainable improvement culture, the corresponding prerequisites and framework conditions must be established in advance. The framework conditions include cooperative management, standardised processes and the involvement of employees in decision-making processes. This is the necessary basis for the emergence of an improvement culture in the company, which is indispensable as a basis for the continuous development of work processes. In addition, the necessary know-how and the corresponding structures for the handling of improvement projects must be established.

Martin Hofmann

Let’s Get Explicit: The Emergence of Impact-Linked Returns in the Commercial Debt Market

While impact investments place value on positive impact alongside financial returns, how those attributes are prioritized within investment decision-making varies drastically. How investors manage these trade-offs is an active area of practitioner interest. There is a gap in financial tools that directly tie financial returns to the observed impact of investee businesses to manage these trade-offs. This limits professional impact investors’ ability to efficiently manage impact and financial goals. This chapter examines the growing number of innovative, debt-based transactions that are explicitly tying investor returns to the observed impact of investee businesses. A particular focus is the direct linking of returns between asset managers and investee businesses. While there are examples of explicitly linking impact and returns in transactions on both large and small scales, strong theoretical similarities exist among these tools. They all involve internalizing previously externalized factors. The use of impact-linked debt instruments is viewed here as providing impact investing practitioners more and better options to manage the trade-offs between risk, return, and impact. Opportunities and challenges for the replication and adoption of these tools are discussed, with a particular emphasis on related challenges in impact data gathering and management. These tools are expected to become more commonplace as impact measurement tools and practices mature.

Lars Boggild

Opportunities in Patient Capital Financing

This chapter introduces the concept and applications of patient investment capital. It proposes patient capital as an instrument that, while in most cases requires investor flexibility, is not restricted to particular return preferences or asset types. Patient capital is defined as contingent on investor orientation rather than the length of investment term. In this chapter, we review the applicability of patient capital across investment types; however, we focus on its use in advancing social and sustainable outcomes in private market transactions. We outline the history of patient capital across institutional investors’ portfolios and draw upon case studies to provide evidence for the following two points: first, that patient capital has been structured to appease various levels of risk tolerance and can be used to meet distinct portfolio needs, and second, that patient capital is a necessary form of investment for creating, supporting, and aligning with social value and the impact economy.

Julie Segal, Erica Barbosa Vargas

The Community Bond Experience in Montreal, Quebec

Community bonds are an easy-to-issue debt instrument that can be emitted by non-profit organizations (part three of the Companies Act in Quebec law) to support community members (users, clients, members, partners) to enable the purchase of a building, to carry out a project, or to contribute to its mission and serve its community. If issued correctly, community bonds are not subject to scrutiny under the Autorité des Marchés financiers (AMF) (Quebec’s equivalent of the Securities and Exchange Commission). Like all bonds, they carry an issue price, a duration, and an interest rate, and the principal is repayable at maturity; community bonds are not to be confused with Social Impact Bonds. Our paper traces the emergence of the community bond in Quebec within a broader context of the vigourous and innovative social economy financial ecosystem, growing capital needs for a movement that has been acquiring property for over a decade following the launch of the Chantier de l’économie sociale’s Patient Capital Fund, while facing major government cutbacks. The paper will also map a multi-year knowledge transfer project that borrowed heavily from Ontario’s experimentation lead by the Centre for Social Innovation, to pilot community bonds issues in Montreal, revealing the process undertaken, some issues raised, winning conditions for a successful issue, preliminary results, as well as prospects going forward. The paper will conclude with a brief overview of emerging crowd-lending platforms that may be coupled with community bond issues, as well as some observations on the applicability of community bonds in other jurisdictions in Canada.

Jason Prince, Vanessa Sorin

The Role of Youth in Scaling Social Value Investing: The Case of Canada's National Social Value Fund

Social Value Investing is emerging as a viable subset of the growing impact investing sector. This paper begins by situating Social Value Investing in the history and context of other investment approaches, namely venture capital and philanthropy. We then define social value investment as having the following key components: organizational agnosticism, impact-adjusted returns, stewardship, and a systemic community approach. Our paper posits that youth have a significant effect on community development and that positioning youth to be both involved and in a leadership position (for social value investment projects in their communities) may lead to strong social, environmental, and financial results. We provide examples of youth-led community initiatives and focus our argument on a case study of the National Social Value Fund, an initiative growing in Canada’s communities since 2017.

Bruno Lam, Steve Petterson, James Tansey, Mariana Martinez Rubio, Maxime Lakat

Chapter 7. Conclusion

The results of this book suggest that the politicisation of immigration and the EU produces complex patterns of parties’ polarisation. On the one hand, immigration crosscuts the traditional lines of divisions among political parties, creating conflicting ideological pulls within mainstream parties. They seem to be in a state of flux, and often adopt vague or blurred positions, with no clear patterns of polarisation emerging. Populist (radical-right) parties are the only ones that endorse stable positions across policy issues and levels of government, which might explain their electoral success in recent elections in many European countries. On the other hand, Euroscepticism has been, at least partially, mainstreamed and normalized in the political arena. However, while mainstream right parties endorse a principled opposition to the EU polity, mainstream left party exercise a contingent and pragmatic opposition aimed to build a better and stronger Europe. Thus, Euroscepticism needs to be understood as a cumulative concept, which ranges from reactionary to reformist forms. Overall, the immigration crisis has broadened the political contraposition between an elite-led pro-integration coalition vs a Eurosceptic sovranist coalition, bridging anti-immigration stances with anti-EU stances.

Stella Gianfreda

Chapter 5. EU Debates in National Arenas

European politics is increasingly contested along two dimensions: the economic left-right dimension and a relatively new dimension focused on European integration and immigration. This chapter aims to compare the strategies adopted by mainstream and populist parties to compete on EU issues in national parliaments. The analysis reveals that support for the EU is no longer unconditional, even for mainstream left parties of both countries, which criticise certain aspects of the functioning of the EU, although they do not dispute the European horizon towards which their country needs to move. On the contrary, mainstream right parties, both in Italy and in the UK, express principled Eurosceptic positions towards the process of EU integration and towards EU institutions, mainly criticising the legitimacy of EU institutions. Populist radical right parties (LN and the UKIP) hold principled negative stances towards all the EU targets and link closely anti-immigration attitudes with anti-EU attitudes using both legitimacy and sovereigntist frames. Conversely, the M5S holds much more nuanced positions towards the EU. The chameleonic nature of the M5S is explained by its nature as a ‘pure’ populist party.

Stella Gianfreda

Chapter 3. Debating Immigration and European Issues in Italy, the United Kingdom and the EP

Italy and the United Kingdom (UK) are two emblematic cases to observe the effects of the politicisation of immigration and European affairs on party politics. First, the UK is traditionally a two-party system, while the Italian political system is highly fragmented and scarcely institutionalized. Second, Italy used to be a Europhile country, while the UK has never been entirely at ease with its membership of the European Union (EU), so much so to exit from the Union. Finally, Italy has only recently turned into an immigration country, while immigration is a long-standing phenomenon in the UK. These differences increase the variance in party politics, thus making it possible to understand if a generalisable relation exists between party family and party positioning. The European Parliament (EP) is considered as an additional case study as it allows to compare political competition across levels of government. This chapter presents a review of the history of immigration and European integration in Italy and the UK from the ‘90s until today, as well as an analysis of the evolution of political competition on immigration and European affairs in the EP.

Stella Gianfreda

3. Corporate Citizenship and Workplace Democracy in Botswana: Rhetoric or Reality?

Based on the experiences of selected firms in Botswana, this chapter examines the intersection between corporate citizenship and workplace democracy. Despite the growing popularity of the social responsibility discourse and its practices, its application has generally left out one of the most important stakeholders—the workers. Over the years, corporate social investments have tended to focus more on external than internal stakeholders. The rhetoric of good corporate citizenship conceals prevailing inequalities and potential labour rights abuses in most firms. There has been a limited attempt by the corporate sector in Botswana, to genuinely extend corporate citizenship to the workplace.

Langtone Maunganidze

4. Crime Prevention in Botswana: A Corporate Social Responsibility Perspective

While the business sector in Botswana generally acknowledges the importance of crime prevention, its involvement in national crime prevention efforts is peripheral. Businesses are more concerned with criminal threats to their survival and operational efficiency rather than criminal threats to the wider community. This businesses’ interest is to maximise profits. However, business involvement in crime prevention beyond the enterprise constitutes not only ethical and philanthropic behaviour but also business-enlightened self-interest. By incorporating crime prevention into their corporate social responsibility agendas, business entities would be not only contributing to the creation of a safe and secure environment for their communities but also reducing the cost of doing business which crime imposes.

Mecca Kgomotso Gaborone

6. Corporate Social Investment Through Sustainable Cultural Heritage Resources Management: The Case of a Mining Company in Botswana

Mining companies have received considerable global criticism for their perceived poor social and environmental performance and failure to benefit communities in and around the areas in which they operate. Mining has been associated with negligence of the consequent impacts of its activities. However, evidence shows that the mining sector is increasingly implementing initiatives meant to address its social and environmental impacts. One of the ways in which mining companies attempt to address the social and environmental impacts of their activities is through corporate social investment (CSI). Using a diamond mining company in Botswana as a case study, this chapter argues that without a law mandating it, the effectiveness of CSI remains questionable. The involvement of the private sector in cultural heritage resource management (CHRM) in Botswana can lead to sustainable community development if it empowers communities to self-sustain and make efficient use of their heritage resources.

Olivia Nthoi-Molefe

Chapter 4. Carnegie’s Lemon? The Birth of NPR

Chapter 3 examines the role of the Carnegie Commission on Educational Television, a blue-ribbon establishmentarian panel whose 1967 report was the template for the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967. The Carnegie Commission's mixture of high-flown rhetoric and confident assertion of the necessity of federal support won the day over a disorganized and not terribly passionate opposition. Radio wasn't even an afterthought to the Carnegie commissioners, but savvy and determined activists, centered around the University of Michigan's campus radio station, achieved a landmark and rather surreptitious triumph with the late appending of “and radio” to wherever “television” appeared in the Johnson administration's draft legislation. They were aided by a hastily compiled study titled The Hidden Medium: A Status Report on Educational Radio in the United States, which had concluded that government subsidy was essential to the maintenance, not to mention flourishing, of the genre.

James T. Bennett

Chapter 7. Newt [Gingrich] Cometh

This chapter considers the most serious and sustained effort yet to defund NPR: that of Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich and the Republican-controlled House of Representatives elected in November 1994. A central contention of the abolitionists was that NPR was “elitist,” and both scholarly studies and NPR's own data reveal that its listeners do fit a demographic profile that contrasts sharply with that of non-listeners along lines of wealth, formal education, and residence. This chapter also recounts the scandals of the second decade of the twenty-first century which have given new energy to the organization's critics.

James T. Bennett

Sustainable Fashion

One of the main problems in the fashion industry is its impact on the environment as a result of its value chain due to its energy consumption, exploitation of natural resources, waste disposal, CO2 emission, generation of solid waste, indiscriminate use of synthetic materials, among others. Reducing, avoiding, minimizing, limiting, stopping, etc., are key points in the sustainability agenda: we must go further, considering that the best way to reduce the environmental impact is not to recycle but to produce and waste less [1]. The meaning of sustainable fashion is not very clear, particularly when this can be analyzed from different perspectives: a commercial and an anthropological one. Journalists and scholars have defined fashion in terms of history, cultural identity, personal communication, social position, lifestyle, change, speed, and even sexuality and eroticism [2]. Color is a critical element in fashion and is probably one of the principal causes of environmental problems. Substituting fossil fuels in the production of clothes is possible through renewable energy; however, these are still essential to manufacturing many textile materials, including textile colorants. The truth is, the fashion industry is facing a complicated environmental problem, also considering the accumulation of toxic and inorganic residues and water overconsumption. This situation is a reality. We only need to look at the standards of the European Chemical Agency—REACH. Currently, the term ‘sustainability’ feels too ambiguous; many companies claim they are sustainable when, in reality, they only carry out superficial environmental activities, so much so that a term for this practice has already been coined: Green Washing. In the medium-term, sustainability will end up being a better-defined term each time and will work as a restriction and a standard for the fashion industry and its value chain, which, in many cases, will be difficult to meet. Developing concepts related to durability and versatility through materials and intelligent design of processes and products will be a significant way to care for and protect the environment.

B. Luis Chaves, A. Shirley Villalobos

Brazilian Organic Cotton Network: Sustainable Driver for the Textile and Clothing Sector

The influence of stakeholders’ pressures on adopting better environmental practices is well reported in the supply chain management literature. In this context, product development policies focused on sustainability require integration between economic, social and environmental issues that cover the entire production chain. Clothing and fashion are highly visible elements of society; therefore, the textile industry serves a manner to promote a sustainable and eco-friendly mindset. The incorporation of eco-friendly and fair-trade fibers can be a starting point for changing the existing industrial paradigm within the textile industry. At the same time, cotton fiber is the most commonly utilized natural fiber in the textile industry. Cotton is a soft, staple fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant, native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, such as the Americas, South Asia and Africa. It is mainly used in spinning to produce ring or open-end yarn for weaving and knitting applications. The annual global production of cotton fiber is about 26 million tons. However, cotton production worldwide uses more than 20% of all insecticides employed in agriculture. In many areas, irrigated cotton cultivation has led to the depletion of ground and surface water sources. Many conventional cotton farmers in developing countries are in a crisis due to decreasing soil fertility, increasing production costs, resistant pests, or low cotton prices. In this scenario, an increasing number of cultivators turn to organic cultivation in order to restore soil fertility, reduce production costs, or to get a better price for their certified organic harvest. Organic cotton appears as an environmentally preferable product, of added benefit to the environment, farmers and consumers. Organic farming is slowly gaining ground in the global cotton market. It is often promoted to address the economic, environmental and health risks of conventional cotton production. Moving from the language of commodity chains to commodity networks, helps portray the complex network of material and nonmaterial relationships connecting the social, environmental, political, and economic actors. Understanding how individuals, firms, government authorities, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are involved in economic and social transactions and how these different actors both shape and are shaped by network relations. In Brazil, organic and fair-trade cotton are widely seen as opportunities for smallholder farmers to improve their livelihoods. The cotton crop, due to its agronomic characteristics on climate adaptation, historical, cultural and economic value, established and gained prominence in family agriculture in the semi-arid region of Brazil. In this production network, trust was a critical factor in recruiting farmers and ensuring their continued participation in the organic and agroecological cotton production system and securing European customers’ organic profile. Farmers’ organizations as well as national and international environmental NGOs are instrumental in mediating and (re)building social networks among organic farmers and with the other actors in the supply chain. Linking small producers to markets, as integrating them into value chains is widely recognized as a valuable way to increase community development and benefit sustainable fashion brands.

Larissa Oliveira Duarte, Marenilson Batista da Silva, Maria Amalia da Silva Marques, Barbara Contin, Homero Fonseca Filho, Julia Baruque-Ramos

Chapter 10. Enabling Japan’s Low Emissions Technology Collaboration with Southeast Asia: The Role of Co-innovation and Co-benefits

Technology collaboration between developed and developing countries plays a major role in low carbon development as well as climate mitigation. This chapter discusses the limitations and challenges to conventional technology transfer between countries and explores opportunities for co-innovation—an approach where countries potentially partner in jointly developing and scaling up clean technologies. While co-innovation can deliver climate co-benefits by maximizing the opportunities for collaboration on the advanced technology front, co-benefits in turn incentivize the co-innovation process. The chapter demonstrates examples of technology collaboration between Japan and countries in Southeast Asia and highlights that scaling up such collaborations will be beneficial for all the stakeholders.

Nandakumar Janardhanan, Ngoc-Bao Pham, Kohei Hibino, Junko Akagi

Chapter 6. The Co-benefits of Renewable Energy Policies in Japan: Barriers and Ways Forward

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident occurred in March 2011 following the Great East Japan Earthquake. In the wake of that accident, the Japanese government decided to shut down the country’s nuclear power plants. To compensate for the steep drops in nuclear power, Japan began to rely more heavily on thermal power plants. The turn to thermal power, however, offered what amounted to a stopgap not sustainable solution to Japan’s power needs. Rather, the growing threats of climate change have generated a pressing need to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. Such a shift is not only essential to mitigate climate change but can lower electricity prices, boost the energy self-sufficiency rate, create jobs, reduce local air pollution, and improve health.

Takai Etsujiro

Chapter 9. Creating Social Co-benefits for Sustainable and Just Society

We live in an age of extremes. Significant disasters, including most the recent COVID-19 pandemic, have changed the way we understand risk and vulnerability. The heatwaves we experience each year brings temperatures that continue to break records; what makes the situation worse is that extreme weather and related risks are predicted to become more intense and frequent with climate change. These growing risks threaten human life and public health. Even more worrying is that those most adversely affected by these risks tend to be vulnerable groups of people, i.e., the elderly or workers in low-income jobs. Not surprisingly, this situation also tends to be most grave in less developed countries where there is generally a greater dependence on local natural resources.

So-Young Lee

Chapter 5. The Fight Against Corruption

In this chapter the role of CSR in the fight against corruption is explored. Discussions on corruption and its effects, especially the negative ones on societies and corporations, as well as on how the CSR-related instruments presented in the previous chapter may help in the fight against corruption, are offered. The fight against corruption is analysed as a CSR issue and is presented as an integral part of any corporation’s social responsibility. The issue of how some CSR-related instruments deal with the fight against corruption is addressed. The importance of anti-corruption CSR policies and the reporting thereof is outlined as a basis for an effective fight against corruption and associated phenomena.

Manuel Castelo Branco

Practical Frontline 3D Printing of Biomedical Equipment: From Design to Distribution—A North American Experience

With its versatility, wide availability, and a worldwide active community of enthusiasts, scientists, engineers, and physicians, 3D printing has demonstrated practical value and potential in providing stopgap solutions to shortages of key equipment. Despite enthusiastic support for 3D printing to meet some equipment shortages, the effectiveness of practical implementation of such prototypes has been variable. In this work, we draw on the practical experiences of our groups in Canada and in the United States that used 3D printing for pandemic-related equipment shortages. We describe challenges and solutions for implementing and coordinating programs for 3D printing response in addressing shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), specialized equipment for intubation and respiratory support, and development of simpler hardware to extend the lifecycle and applications of existing equipment.

Leonid Chepelev, Prashanth Ravi, Frank J. Rybicki

A Deeper Look into Wind-Powered IoT Based Sustainable Organic Compost Machine

The sustainable organic farming is a pressing need for a developing economy where there is a lot of pressure on the agriculture production due to large population. As the agriculture production demand increases so does the use of inorganic and chemical fertilizers and compost increases which deteriorates the soil fertility in the long run. Hence, we see their ambitious demand for the organic farming through organic compost. Hence an environment-friendly windpower-assisted IOT-based organic compost machine is developed to increase the agricultural productivity within run-up process between 8 and 10 days. The shredded waste mixed with browns is churned with high-speed DC motor fitted stirring device. The machine converts to heating chamber (70 degree temperature) by use of wind-powered heater and removes existed moisture from compost within time counts of 2 days. Then we allow to cool ready compost for 6–8 days. In calculated 120 kilo units, 70 kilos of ready compost can be prepared. Breez Slim SLM70 70 CFM exhaust fan is fitted to pump out gas continuously produced from organic compost. Generated alternative current produced from wind mill converted to DC using a battery and inverter which will run DC motor, Heating Chamber, IoT Integration, Exhaust both directions (in/ out). As different organic biodegradable waste having different decomposition rate of time, this invention is used for particular kind of waste. This invention empowers sustainable practice, industry 4.0 (IoT integration), particular for equal kind of biodegradable waste (decomposition rate), environment friendly, and renewable source of energy. This cost-effective machine will take equal opportunity as conventional compost machine available in market.

Ramesh Chandra Panda, Md. Safikul Islam

Security Framework for Delivery of Training, Using VR Technology

With rapid advances in industrialisation and informalisation methodologies being attributed to industry 4.0, there is no surprise that Education 4.0 would want to harness those capabilities for its own use. Immersive ecosystems for teaching, utilising the benefits brought by augmented and virtual reality, offer a new horizon in learning, but also unlock a plethora of associated security and privacy issues. This is where the motivation to look for a security framework that would encompass, not only the learning environment, but also the process from manufacturer to the endpoint user. Blockchain, once the enabling power behind bitcoin’s distributed ledger, has expanded its applicability to a number of areas, in the context of this paper this is primarily for the enforcement of smart contracts. This is not to say that this couldn’t be extended into a way to protect the data that is moved across the learning schematic.

Robert Hoole, Hamid Jahankhani

Right Thing, Right Time, Right Place Commutable Disease Pandemic Incident Management Reflections on Covid-19

As we have found, having been living with the Covid-19 Coronavirus, and experiencing the impact the response to the pandemic has had on our day to day activities and freedoms, we can reflect with some hindsight on whether the correct action has been taken, but were the Responders correctly equipped to respond differently, and were we in a position to actually equip them any differently? What are the priorities within the non-function attributes of the systems we employ, based on the scenarios we are faced with? In different times and in different places we have different requirements, and thus need different things from our equipment. These reflections on what has been experienced propose what Responders should expect from the equipment they are provided to carry out their vital role. The intention of this chapter is the run through an exercise that it is hope will prove inciteful for those planning or executing such operations.

Simon M. Wilson

Privacy and Security Implications of the Coronavirus Pandemic

SARS-CoV-2 has highlighted the importance of cyber security, particularly information integrity and surveillance, in dealing with an ongoing, infectious crisis. From the spread of misinformation causing people to actively work against measures designed to ensure safety and minimise the spread, to concerns over the approaches taken to monitor, track, trace, and isolate infectious cases through the use of technology, almost every aspect has been relevant to cyber and information security. This chapter considers the legal, social, and ethical cyber and information security implications of the pandemic and responses to it from the perspective of confidentiality, integrity, and availability.

James Bore

Data Privacy and Security: Some Legal and Ethical Challenges

The proliferation of accessible data and our growing reliance on it presents a perennial challenge: how to find an appropriate balance between what is technically possible, what is legally permissible and what is societally acceptable [8]. Under the demands of the Covid-19 pandemic this challenge increased significantly—and in the future it will probably become more challenging yet.

Fraser Sampson

Chapter 9. Does Authoritarian Legality Work for China?

This article begins with a genuine reform aiming to modernize the Party–state relationship—the brave blueprint presented by General Secretary Zhao Ziyang in 1987 at the 13th National Congress of the CCP, proposing to separate the Party and administration. Like any previous genuine reform in China, however, the separation reform quickly foiled and has been forgotten since the crackdown in 1989. The article moves on to discuss reform in the very opposite direction—the centralization of political and judicial powers since General Secretary Xi Jinping took over in 2013, accompanied by massive anticorruption campaigns and, at the same time, systematic restriction of civil and political rights. It then refutes the claim that the centralization reform is buttressed by reliable public opinion support and follows the logic of authoritarian legality. It predicts that, without reliable grassroots support, a purely top-down reform characterized by an elaborate supervisory system and the anticorruption campaign will fail to achieve its stated purpose, nor will the judicial reform make substantive progress. The article concludes by reinstating that the separation of the Party and administration is the only path for China’s legal reform to make genuine progress under the existing regime.

Qianfan Zhang

Chapter 7. Authoritarian Constitutions: Audience and Purposes

This essay addresses the constitutional question: Why draft and adopt a constitution in an autocracy where repression is always an option, as are show trials, deportations, arresting opposition groups, discriminating minorities, intimidating political adversaries, even murder, albeit not all of these measures to the same degree everywhere? Do constitutions actually have a say or do they function merely ‘as if’? In case constitutions have authority, who do they address, and which purposes do they serve in an authoritarian context? Do they come with practical import or are they meant to provide empty rhetoric and a deceiving appearance to make a regime look better? A matrix of internal and external audiences, as well as instrumental and symbolic purposes, is used here to find answers to the ‘constitutional question’.

Günter Frankenberg

Chapter 15. Another Perspective to Read the Picture of Lawyering for Change in China

Plenty of academic deliberation especially in the West has transpired on the journey and challenges as confronted by the Chinese legal profession and the exceptional struggles of Chinese public interest lawyers. This article aims to draw a general picture of the collective knowledge as developed through a data-driven and case-study analysis. Specifically, the article explores three key areas which are absent in the current literature: (a) applying Amartya Sen’s Idea of Justice to explain the political radicalization of lawyering for change in China; (b) an analysis of the challenges of rule of law building and its impact on the state–legal profession relationship in China; and (c) an exploration of alternatives through a case-study analysis on the possibilities to promote a sustainable role of the Chinese legal profession in legal reform and in serving the disadvantaged.

Wenjuan Zhang

Chapter 11. Relevance and Significance of Constituent Assembly Debates in Constitutional Interpretation: A Comparative Analysis with Reference to Amendments

Constituent Assembly Debates, as a resource of ideas, inspire various schools of interpretation. However, the originalists abide by its faith quite strongly. It gives a picture of subjective purpose which ought to be balanced and integrated with the textually explicit provisions and structure of the Constitution in order to promote the constitutional goals. In determining the limits of amending power, ambit of amendments and the method of overarching them with the unamended parts, the Constituent Assembly Debates throws useful light and inspires to build unwritten principles in support of foundational values. The two extreme positions, originalism and living tree notion, developed in the US and Canada and the moderate approach evolved in India have both diverse experiences and similar outcomes. The interface between time and space occurring in this domain is a continuous dialogue a society has to engage in for balancing between continuity and change.

P. Ishwara Bhat

Kapitel 5. Bewertungskriterien eines nachhaltigen Gebäudes

Wer ein nachhaltiges Gebäude in Auftrag gibt, muss sich auf neues Terrain begeben. Es geht bei einem nachhaltigen Gebäude nicht nur um einzelne Materialien, sondern auch um die Bauweise und die Energiequellen. Worauf man allgemein achten sollte, wird untenstehend aufgeführt.

Hannes Bäuerle, Marie-Theres Lohmann

Kapitel 3. Ökologische Zertifikate

Wie sich Zertifikate, Produktkennzeichnungen und Label in ihren Bezeichnungen, der Herkunft und den Werten unterscheiden, wird hier zusammengefasst. Ein Auszug der relevanten Zertifikate für die Baubranche bietet einen kleinen Überblick.

Hannes Bäuerle, Marie-Theres Lohmann

Chapter 1. Enhancing Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security Within a Changing Climate

Climate change is adversely affecting food production systems while increasing the vulnerability of human societies—especially resource-poor small producers—and diminishing their resilience to food and nutrition insecurity. Even with a 1.5 °C scenario, climate change is believed to leave disadvantaged populations weakly resilient to food, health, and livelihood insecurity. Additionally, the scale of change required to limit warming to 1.5 °C is historically unprecedented and can only be achieved through strategically important societal transformation and ambitious mitigation measures, a requirement still not efficiently met by the majority of countries, especially key carbon emitters. This chapter accordingly aims at analyzing the dynamics through which climate change affects food and nutrition insecurity and drawing the pathways towards resilience building in this area. The analysis starts with investigating the predominant impacts of climate change on food security and resilience; then assesses these dynamics from international and regional perspectives; and finally explores some best pathways and approaches toward building resilience for food and nutrition security in a changing climate.

Mohamed Behnassi, Mohammed Ataur Rahman, Joyce D’Silva, Gopichandran Ramachandran, Himangana Gupta, Olaf Pollmann, Nira Ramachandran

Chapter 6. The Importance of Expertise: Political Careers, Personnel Turnover, and Throughput Legitimacy in the European Parliament

This chapter focuses on the political consequences of the career paths of members of the European Parliament (MEPs). We focus on two leadership positions—committee chairships and rapporteurships. We use an original dataset to consider the relationship among turnover, MEPs’ previous political experience, and throughput legitimacy. We find that while previous European Parliament (EP) experience is an important criterion for committee chair selection, such experience is less important for rapporteurship selection. This finding does not hold, however, for rapporteurs who receive a larger number of reports. We also observe, contrary to existing theoretical arguments, that throughput legitimacy suffers when politicians entering the EP are political outsiders but not when new MEPs have been professional politicians in their home country.

Eugenio Salvati, Michelangelo Vercesi

Chapter 7. Making a Hasty Brexit? Turnover and Brexit Negotiations

To what extent has personnel turnover affected the Brexit negotiations between the EU and the UK? And how might Brexit-related turnover affect output legitimacy? This chapter considers these questions by examining personnel dynamics between 2017 and 2019. During this period, the EU had a steady negotiation team and a strong negotiation management process; it experienced little turnover. The UK, on the other hand, experienced high turnover and poor inter-institutional communications. The chapter argues that structural features of “differentiated disintegration” (Schimmelfennig 2018) were not the only reason for the EU’s negotiating advantage; personnel dynamics mattered, as well. The Brexit case suggests that minimizing turnover among negotiating teams can help to boost output legitimacy. Widespread personnel replacements imperil negotiating success and undermine output legitimacy.

Jessica Adolino

Chapter 1. Personnel Turnover and the Legitimacy of the European Union

How does personnel turnover affect the legitimacy of the EU? This chapter establishes the foundations upon which this question can be addressed. It argues that questions about turnover’s consequences can be examined through a framework focused on three facets of legitimacy (input, output, and throughput). It discusses three sets of propositions—those arising from a populist critique of EU politics, a feminist critique of EU politics, and academic studies of turnover—that link turnover to EU legitimacy. The chapter defines personnel turnover and presents data on turnover across time in the seven treaty-established EU institutions. It concludes by presenting the structure of Personnel Turnover and the Legitimacy of the EU.

John A. Scherpereel

Chapter 8. Turnover, Conditionality, and Europeanization in the Western Balkans

The EU accession process in the Balkans has gone from being a major force for political and economic change to being accused of promoting “stabilitocracy”, while deep societal problems in Western Balkans countries have become more entrenched. The EU’s global competitors have intensified their strategic engagement with the Western Balkans, and elite and mass interest in enlargement within the EU have waned. The length of the enlargement process has allowed for significant flux among the EU personnel who interface with regional peers. This paper examines the effects that such changes have had on conditionality in the Western Balkans with a focus on the application of conditionality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where EU negotiators have been arrayed against much more stable local leadership, creating opportunities for regional and global opponents of liberal democracy.

John Hulsey

Chapter 9. Turnover, Legitimacy, and the EU Timescape

This chapter synthesizes the volume’s findings. It suggests that personnel turnover in EU institutions has few effects on legitimacy’s input facet and significant effects on legitimacy’s throughput and output facets. The chapter assesses the ways that the volume’s findings bear on populist and feminist critiques of EU politics: accumulated findings show that the populist critique overstates turnover’s redemptive potential and that the feminist critique receives early empirical support. The chapter argues that personnel turnover is a critical component of the EU’s dynamic institutional system and forms an integral part of the EU’s timescape (Goetz and Meyer-Sahling 2012). The chapter concludes by presenting ideas for future work on personnel turnover, EU legitimacy, and the EU timescape.

John A. Scherpereel

Chapter 9. Are the SDGs Sufficient?

The aim of the SDGs is to provide guidance to countries in attaining key economic, environmental, and social benchmarks that are considered essential to sustainable development. In this chapter, we address an important question: is progress towards the SDGs sufficient to ensure sustainability? Addressing the continuing environmental costs of global development will require greater climate action, biodiversity conservation, and other policies to counter the rising threats of global environmental risks. Policies should also focus on the specific sustainability challenges faced by poor economies, and on encouraging good governance and institutional effectiveness. Finally, specific policies should be targeted at closing the growing wealth gap between rich and poor, and what type of steps could be taken to make development more sustainable and inclusive.

Edward B. Barbier, Joanne C. Burgess

Chapter 3. Smart Tourism Specialization to Outfox the Competition: An Analytical Framework

This study provides an analytical framework of smart tourism specialization, integrating smart tourism, tourism specialization, and nations’ competitive advantage. The resulting model incorporates a process of tourism specialization, distinguishing between envisioned and realized tourism specialization. The model’s dynamic nature originates from the applied smart tourism management approach and a feedback loop while considering the possibility that tourism development is not an isolated process. The study contributes to the literature by analytically linking smart tourism with tourism specialization and nations’ competitiveness in a smart tourism specialization framework. Also, the study propels two new concepts in smart tourism literature, i.e., smart tourism specialization and smart tourism management. The analysis framework serves as a blueprint for policymakers in their quest to outfox the competition.

Jorge Ridderstaat

Chapter 8. Tourism and Economic Resilience: Implications for Regional Policies

Tourism is an important key sector in regional and national economies which appears to have often a favorable recovery potential after a shock, leading to the notion of resilience capacity of regions. In the context of a tourism-led growth mechanism, the concept of tourism-led resilience capacity is introduced (constituted of sustained tourism resilience and speed of recovery). The analytical framework is tested for the 2008–2012 financial crisis in European Union by examining relevant data from European NUTS 2 regions. The research is unfolded on two complementary axes: (a) assessing the resilience of the tourism sector, and (b) estimating the weight of tourism in the overall resilience performance of EU regions. Finally, several implications for regional and European policies are addressed as well, particularly related to the role of innovation and diversification in increasing the recovery speed following a disruption.

Gabriela Carmen Pascariu, Bogdan-Constantin Ibănescu, Peter Nijkamp, Karima Kourtit

The Means Justifies the End? Digitalization and Sustainability as a Social Challenge. A Plea for an Integrative View

It is still not so long ago. Even in the second half of the last century, there was no shortage of forecasts predicting a bright future for workers in the developed world as a result of the use of new technologies, especially automation: higher productivity with considerably less working time and, of course, more time for the essential things of life.

Tim A. Herberger, Jörg J. Dötsch

Digital Sustainable Leadership

Nature gives us many examples and pictures of networks, symbioses, mutations and adaptations to permanently changing environmental conditions. In plants and animals we speak of evolution, in economics we use change and challenging processes.

Angelika Kölle

Sustainable Upscaling: The Role of Digitalization in Providing Health Care and Health Insurance Coverage in Developing Countries

How can sustainability in the health sector be achieved in a situation where the poor (rightly) demand access to basic health services, the growing global middle class (rightly) demand the right to spend more of their resources on health services, and people in industrialized countries (rightly) demand continued access to high-quality health care? IT systems are often difficult and expensive to design and implement, but the marginal costs of providing additional services are negligible. This is what makes digital health services so powerful in achieving universal health coverage. Digitalization can improve access to health care services, and it can support health insurances in processing large numbers of claims and payments. Both are essential to upscaling health services especially in developing countries.

Jens Geissler

The Top Managerial Influence on Innovation: Development of a Comprehensive Framework

For decades, innovations and their relevance for the organizational performance have been discussed. Past research has ascribed a high impact to top managers as organizational leaders in shaping the organizational innovation activities, but so far has only investigated the spheres of influence in detached approaches. In order to provide a comprehensive framework explaining the multifaceted impact, this paper focuses on four factors identified to specifically shape the top managerial influence: (a) the New St. Galler Management-Model (Rüegg-Sturm, 2003) for the general management, (b) the Innovation Diamond (Cooper, 2005) for the innovation culture, (c) the Model of Leadership Influence on Innovation, (Hunter & Cushenbery, 2011) for the factor of leadership, and (d) the Model on Leader’s Network (Balkundi & Kilduff, 2005) for the network ties. This combined approach provides an important basis for future research as well as management practice. Several implications and the limitations of the framework are addressed.

Sonja Sperber

Change or Be Changed—Online Education and Organizational Culture at Universities

Online education has become an increasingly important sector within universities. It can provide potential for growth of the institutions and enables learners who are otherwise not able to commit to studies in traditional university programs.

Jürgen-Matthias Seeler, Desiree Wieser, Anita Zehrer, Karin Sixl-Daniell

Kapitel 12. Gesellschaftliche Veränderungen und was es für die Arbeit mit der Gen Z bedeutet

Megatrends beeinflussen uns, wie wir leben und wie wir arbeiten. Wie wir kommunizieren, zusammenarbeiten und zusammenleben verändert unsere Werte und Prinzipien und bringt Konflikte im Miteinander mit sich. Im Arbeitsalltag fehlt es an Verständnis für die jeweils älteren ebenso wie für jüngere Kolleg:innen, Kund:innen und Führungskräfte und Mitarbeiter:innen. Die Gen Z als Digital Natives hat das richtige Skill-Set, um innovative Produkte und Geschäftsmodelle zu entwickeln und bereitzustellen, gleichzeitig verzweifeln Fach- und Führungskräfte mit den angeblich so faulen und anspruchsvollen Kolleg:innen. Dabei muss man nur verstehen, was die Gen Z antreibt, motiviert und was ihr wichtig ist, um ihr Potenzial zu nutzen.

Kristina Bierer

Chapter 4. Continuing Air Transport Post Covid-19: The Regulatory Response

The Coronavirus pandemic has brought to bear the fundamental fact that the spread was due to global population movement mostly caused by air transport. It was therefore inevitable that the central role in facing the crisis would be played by States and the International Civil Aviation Organization as the specialized agency of the United Nations for international civil aviation. On 29 April 2020 the Council of ICAO established its COVID-19 Task force based on the premise that air connectivity is critical to the economic sustenance of the world and that the aviation industry should be restored as soon as possible. The underlying concerns were public health and the world economy, both of which are addressed in the statutory instrument of ICAO—Chicago Convention—and its Annexes. The discussion to follow addresses the relevant legal and regulatory implications for ICAO in addressing the crisis as well as salient economic fallout that have to be considered. The Conclusion suggests how ICAO might look at the future of air transport and strategies and key factors that the ICAO COVID-19 Task Force may wish to consider in its future work.

Ruwantissa Abeyratne

Chapter 1. Prelude to Disaster

Albert Camus starts his novel The Plague, which he started in 1941 and published in 1947, with a description of an “ugly” French Algerian town called Oran where “…certainly nothing is commoner nowadays than to see people working from morn till night and then proceeding to fritter away at card-tables, in cafes and in small-talk what time is left for living at Oran” amidst “the violent extremes of temperature, the exigencies of business, the uninspiring surroundings, the sudden nightfall, and the very nature of its pleasures call for good health. An invalid feel out of it there. Think what it must be for a dying man, trapped behind hundreds of walls all sizzling with heat, while the whole population, sitting in cafes or hanging on the telephone, is discussing shipments, bills of lading, discounts! It will then be obvious what discomfort attends death, even modern death, when it waylays you under such conditions in a dry place…”

Ruwantissa Abeyratne

Chapter 2. History

The Coronavirus (a cousin of the SARS virus (an acronym for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome which was first discovered in Asia in February 2003) spread quickly, and as at Saturday 25th January, it had killed 41 people and infected 14,000 people in China. The virus had spread across borders to Thailand, Malaysia, Australia, France and the United States. Festivities in connection with the Chinese New Year have been canceled in Beijing, Hong Kong and other major cities to control the spread of the virus. China is building two new hospitals in the province over the next few weeks (if not days) that would accommodate thousands of affected cases that are expected to be reported over the next few days.

Ruwantissa Abeyratne

Chapter 6. Legal Aspects of Covid-19

At the time this book was being written—in late January 2021—there were many vaccinations available against the COVID-19 virus. However, there were also the usual self serving interests of States and individuals emerging. the Director General of the World Health Organization Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus issued a serious warning that the world is on the brink of “catastrophic moral failure” in sharing COVID-19 vaccines. He “urged countries and manufacturers to spread doses more fairly around the world”. According to the Head of WHO, the prospects for equitable distribution which were at “serious risk” just as its COVAX vaccine-sharing scheme meant to start distributing inoculations next month. Dr. Ghebreyesus criticized the “me first” attitude reflected by many countries through 44 bilateral agreements signed in 2020 and 12 such agreements already signed in January this year.

Ruwantissa Abeyratne

48. Team Systems Theory

Building Stakeholder Value Through a Learning Culture for Organizational Resilience

Most organizational research aims to reveal insight into how organizations can be successful. Historically, the focus of much of this research has been on performance and productivity in service to profit and stockholders in for profit enterprises. However, as operating environments have become increasingly competitive, with rapid adoption of technologies and their impact on it, research has widened its scope to include stakeholders, like people and planet, to understand organizational resilience in pursuit of sustainability. Because the cost of education and training has risen rapidly, the urgency to assess, design, develop, implement, and evaluate pedagogy has become vital for not only educational institutions but industry and government. Institutional urgency compels identification of the highest value paths of learning for quantifiable return on investment. Using a systems perspective, this analysis examines the role project teams can have in delivering learning outcomes that provide enduring value to these organizations and their stakeholders. When seen as learning systems, project teams provide an experiential learning approach for sustained, cumulative value.The proposition of team systems theory is tri-fold. First, a model of project teams as complex adaptive social systems is explained based upon four principles of self-organization, hierarchy, emergence, and learning. Second, an analysis examines the value of project teams as learning systems mediated by action research with affinity toward cultivating communities of practice. Third, by leveraging learning of project teams they become a middle-out strategy for embedding a learning culture that develops adaptive capacity for organizational change and resilience. Project teams are appropriate for continuous improvement and organizational learning through development of communities of practice paired participative action research. This analysis of team systems theory delves into the co-created value of project teams in experiential and organizational learning in education, as well as its implications in wider contexts such as profit, nonprofit, governmental agencies, and nongovernmental organizations. Value can be measured in terms of the efficacy of knowledge networks, risk management, and innovation through mixed methods research. Value grows through formal reflection (e.g., formal debriefing conducted with appreciative inquiry as well as process evaluation) at individual member, team, and organizational levels. Team Systems Theory suggests that creating cultures of learning through progression of project teams toward communities of practice builds co-created value and adaptive capacity. Implications of Team Systems Theory include potential for process improvement and enhanced performance through networked knowledge sharing, as well as increased leadership effectiveness through augmented agility and risk management stemming from organizational change generated from the middle out resulting in organization resilience and sustainability.

Mary C. Edson

49. Career Development from a Systems Perspective: The Systems Theory Framework

At its inception in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, career development was viewed as an inherently systemic process. Systems mapping based on the Systems Theory Framework has been used at the microlevel to conceptualize the career development of individuals and at the macrolevel to conceptualize career counseling and career assessment, career education in school systems, and career research. This chapter describes developments across these fields, emphasizing the efficacy of systems mapping in understanding and negotiating the complexity of career development. The authors argue that career development practice founded on systems thinking is more likely to meet client needs.

Mary McMahon, Wendy Patton

5. Critical Systems Thinking, Systemic Intervention, and Beyond

Applied systems thinking has evolved since the 1950s through three paradigmparadigmatic waves. Authors in the first wave regarded systems as real-world entities, and systems models as representations of reality, so objectivity was important. In contrast, second wave authors emphasized thinking in terms of systems, and the exploration of multiple perspectives. The role of models was to aid mutual understanding and enhance the appreciation of diverse viewpoints on possible actions to be taken. In the 1980s, first and second wave advocates came into conflict. Then some third wave authors, initially working under the banner of critical systems thinking, argued that the division of the systems research community into two camps was unhelpful, and they advocated methodological pluralism – mixing methods from both traditions. Other authors set out to address power relations during interventions – in particular, the practice of exploring value and boundary judgments in projects in order to address conflict and marginalization. This practice came to be called “boundary critique,” and it was eventually integrated with methodological pluralism in a new approach called “systemic intervention.” This chapter gives readers a thorough overview of the emergence and maturation of both critical systems thinking and systemic intervention, illustrated with practical examples. It then discusses two major problems that remain unaddressed in the third wave. First, the increasing proliferation of methodologies and methods has resulted in such a diversity of views on systems thinking, that explaining what it is to newcomers has become a real challenge. Second, despite this diversity, all the new methodologies and methods are still founded on principles of rational analysis, and approaches that go beyond this are marginalized. For instance, arts-based and theater methods are rarely mentioned in the literature on systems thinking, yet they can help people discover how their value and boundary assumptions have roots in unconscious impulses and memories. Such discoveries help to unfreeze taken-for-granted understandings, including the internalization of oppressive power relationships. Very recent writings have begun to tackle these problems, but it is too soon to judge whether they represent an extension of the third wave, or the first swellings of a new, fourth wave of systems thinking.

Gerald Midgley, Raghav Rajagopalan

18. Designing Socio-technical Systems

A Multi-team Case Study

Technical system design processes are typically based on systems engineering vee models where designers move between functional and physical domains as they develop detailed designs of the overall system and its sub-systems and component parts. The movements between the functional and physical domains are informed by the core activities of any design process: synthesis, description, analysis and simulation, and decision-making. However, delivering socio-technical systems design mindsets, such as those needed to design multi-team systems, requires a new branch of systems science that integrates human behavior into system behavior. Design processes built on such a science would allow system designers to compare alternative solutions in terms of their anticipated performance and consider different options with respect to functions carried out by humans and machines.In this chapter we use a systems design process vee model and apply it to a case study that involves the design of a multi-team customer service system. Both the application of the vee model (i.e., the proposed design process) and the results of its application (i.e., the multi-team customer service system) can be regarded as socio-technical systems and are used to illustrate and elaborate on Clegg’s (Appl Ergon 31(5):463–477, 2000) socio-technical principles for system design. On this basis, we provide a practical framework for designing socio-technical systems and identify requirements for developing future methods and tools to support this process.

Alison McKay, Matthew C. Davis, Helen P. N. Hughes, Rebecca L. Pieniazek, Mark A. Robinson

19. Governance of Organizational Project Management and Megaprojects Using the Viable Project Governance Model

This chapter applies a systems lens to the governance of projects, megaprojects (which are major undertakings, typically in infrastructure development), and Organizational Project Management (OPM), which is the integration of all project-related activities in an organization. The chapter provides an overview of systems thinking in the governance literature and relates it to the layers of an OPM model to outline the architecture of OPM systems in respect of Stafford Beer’s viable systems model (VSM). It then addresses megaprojects as a further viable system, something quite different from the normal organizational perspective. A case study from a real-life megaproject exemplifies the theoretical findings for practical use. The chapter ends with a reflection on the new insights to project governance when employing a viable systems perspective. This includes identification of specific governance issues for better project results, such as adjustment of steering groups to the variability of project outcomes, as well as less dominance of symbolism at VSM systems 4 and 5, combined with more realistic planning at systems 1 and 2, followed up by system 3 in megaprojects.

Ralf Müller, Nathalie Drouin, Shankar Sankaran

7. Meta-methodology for Risk Management

The need for more effective ways to manage risk of technological systems and ensure safety continues to grow in industry. Risk management tends to be considered part of the process of planning technological systems, though not as part of day-to-day operations. However, risk must also be considered with respect to emergent events that require taking action in ways which differ from planned operational procedures. A method is presented for mitigating system failures. Current state-of-the-art methodologies and frameworks have strength as a common language to understand system failures holistically with various stakeholders. On the other hand, there is a shortcoming in quantitative aspects. This is a major obstacle to assess the effectiveness of various measures to mitigate system risk. In order to overcome this shortcoming (i.e., quantitative expression of risk), this chapter express system risk numerically through a coupling and an interaction factors between system configuration elements as well as system failures frequency rate, this three numerical number (i.e. coupling, interaction and frequency) create three dimensional space, and measuring its trajectory through time visualize system risk trends which are the targets to create an effective preventative measures to system failures. A root cause of a system failure is discovered by using a system dynamics technique to a trajectory of a system risk location, and then based upon the root cause, the effective countermeasures are extracted. Lastly this methodology is applied to the system failure cases with various ICT systems, and countermeasures are extracted. An application example of ICT system failures exhibits the effectiveness of this methodology.

Takafumi Nakamura

20. Creating Leaders for Systems Complexity

Complexity changes the nature of leading in organizations and communities. Leaders struggle to meet the demands of their positions and their own desires to contribute to the greater good when faced with uncertainty, continuous change, and wicked problems. Complexity theory encourages us to see organizations and communities as complex adaptive systems which thrive when a diversity of agents interact in ways that support collaborative movement toward shared vision and goals. Understanding systems enables leaders to recognize the limits of control-based leadership and find new ways to lead through dynamic engagement with others. This chapter presents a call for systems leaders, people who can create the conditions for collective creativity and collaborative action. It reviews the influences of systems theory on leadership theory and practice, discusses the development of system leaders, and provides examples of systemic approaches to building leadership capacity.

Nancy Southern

21. Organizational Change as Emergence: A Living Systems Perspective

Contemporary organizational change models and processes have been shaped by the prevailing Newtonian paradigm and have resulted in change itself being treated as an object that can be delivered – change is something done to an organization. While this approach has the merit of clarity and a sense of certainty, it has manifestly failed to deliver, consistently, the intended outcomes.Living systems offer an alternative lens through which to view both the nature of organizational change and the implications of that for the management of change. Living systems are characterized by uncertainty, nonlinear causation, self-organization, and emergence. These qualities demand that management be aware of wholes rather than employing a reductionist approach focused on parts. Seen through this lens, change can be understood as a quality of the living system itself; an expression of life.This chapter explores how to cultivate the conditions for, and engage with, emergent change within an organizational setting. Using a gardening metaphor, it explores how those interested in organizational change can work with natural forces to till and fertilize the soil, sow seeds, and nurture the growth of plants, enabling them to flourish. We identify the Gardener leader’s ways of being, thinking, and doing.Our practice has engaged with the dynamics of emergent change, reflecting the practical application of the underlying principles we identify here. We relate some of these stories to present the concepts and principles in an accessible way to the student or practitioner.

Sam Wells, Josie McLean

14. Translational Features of Competencies in Healthcare Innovation

With social issues such as an aging society and sustainability of health services systems becoming of greater concern, decision-makers in healthcare sectors need to identify the human factors that differentiate high performance of health services professionals such as nurses. Due to an aging population and technological innovation, the healthcare industry is growing rapidly, where nurses constitute the single largest professional group. In such a context, the purpose of this chapter is to clarify the translational features of human competencies in healthcare innovation by analyzing some features of nursing managers as a potential agent of innovation through a perspective of complex adaptive systems. To achieve this aim, an empirical quantitative research was performed to find out critical aspects of perceptions related to competencies. We found a disparity between what nursing managers perceived as “my strength” and what they perceived as “critical in adopting innovation” with respect to competencies. This research empirically identified key competencies relevant to nursing managers in adopting innovation through a perspective of encompassing complex adaptive systems.

Hironobu Matsushita

23. Developing a Sustainable Employee-Owned Chemical Company

While the governance model of employee-owned organizations seems to predispose them for more naturally embracing all components required for creating sustainable systems, this chapter highlights the challenges such a ownership model can face on its way toward sustainability in the real case experience of a mid-size multinational company operating in the manufacturing sector. It describes the challenges needed to be addressed, where to intervene in the system using Meadows’s model, how to intervene from visioning to assessment, planning, and progress monitoring, what outcomes have been achieved, and what are the key learning and the main system archetypes encountered through that journey.

Jean-Claude Pierre

29. Systems Design for Health System Reform

There is a significant need for reforming healthcare systems in most contexts worldwide, and radical proposals based on complexity science and systems thinking are necessary. Health systems around the world are failing on three fronts – they fail to meet the needs of people/patients, they are disease-focused rather than health centered, and they are economically unsustainable.Failed/failing systems cannot be reformed by incremental cost-management or policy changes; they need to be redesigned based on peoples/patients’ needs – these are far broader than disease-specific management and include social, community, work, and environmental domains. Embracing these insights is a major challenge for policy makers, not only do they have to convey the direction, they also have to facilitate the necessary adaptive work required by a large and diverse workforce within the health system and its institutions.Health system redesign, while not easy, is possible. The organizational change management literature provides the foundations to lead the process, and the complex adaptive systems literature provides the conceptual understanding of the dynamic interdependencies within and across the organizational scales of the health system. And finally, there are a number of examples that can guide the redesign process toward effective, efficient, and sustainable health systems.

Joachim P. Sturmberg

39. Understanding the Systems Solution Landscape

In this chapter, a generic model for understanding the relationship between a situation responding to the situation and the system assets that are instantiated in the response is explored. This model can be applied for all types of engineering solutions. Working towards a solution (response) first involves understanding the problem or opportunity situation space, the potential response, and the system assets that are available or can be developed to provide a response. Thus, the first step involves systems thinking where the underlying properties and relationships are established and understood. The thinking activity is followed up with acting activities for planning, developing, and applying the response in order to change the situation to a desired situation state. A paradigm for coupling thinking and acting activities is provided as a guide. Organizing the development, deployment, and sustainment of systems (in particular software systems) is a major challenge of the solution landscape. Consequently, the properties of an international standard on systems engineering as well as a standard on “essence” are shown to be viable approaches to addressing the systems solution landscape. A major contributing factor to complexity in system solutions is related to the selection of an appropriate architecture as well as following the right approach to change management. Finally, a systems solution approach, leading to a lightweight architecture in organizing and operating enterprises, is presented.

Harold Bud Lawson

35. Systems Ecology and Limits to Growth: History, Models, and Present Status

History, Models and Present Status

Systems ecology, including systems science more generally within or associated with the discipline of ecology, started with a great deal of enthusiasm and four main areas of development a little more than half a century ago, propelled by new hardware, software, and conceptual developments. Issues pertaining to the survival and sustainability of modern industrial civilization, and indeed humans themselves, have been intertwined with systems ecology more or less since the start of each. Obvious examples include the Limits to Growth models and many subsequent analyses of sustainability (or lack thereof). Systems ecology today is far more diffuse and fragmented than it was a half century ago, although it lives on in the general use of modeling and the many concerns about the planet’s future. These include: climate issues, ecological footprint analysis, energy analysis (including EROI, or energy return on investment), emergy analysis, Hubbert energy analyses, ecological economics, and biophysical economics. Since most of these efforts include at least some means of dealing with complex data sets, and indeed complexity itself, then one can say that systems ecology is alive and well and continuing to deal with the issues that were part of their original focus. But general public and political interest, never strong, is even less so at this time even though the original concerns initiated some 50 years ago are far more clearly defined and operational today. Probably the main reason is that the price of gasoline at the pump is not perceived as being especially high (unless you are poor, or in France or much of Africa, in which case it is devastatingly so). The perceived success of fracking has led to the perspective in the minds of most Americans that technology will continue to resolve issues of scarcity, as indeed it appears (quite arguably) to have been the case so far. While most of the world may not be concerned, the issues raised by the founders of Systems Science continue unabated and to the degree they have been mitigated it is primarily through increasing energy use, most of which is carbon-based. If we are to decrease our use of carbon-based energy, the transition will be extremely difficult and will require the use of much systems science. Even with the greatest efforts, it is not clear that it is possible.

Charles A. S. Hall

42. Enterprise Systems Engineering

Modern enterprises face a challenging set of problems that are not so readily solved. This chapter addresses several aspects of this situation and suggests a way forward that depends on a complex, socio-technical point of view that often seems lacking among many systems engineering practitioners. Enterprise definitions are reprised, and examples are given that represent a wide range of complex systems engineering difficulty. Essential elements of complexity and enterprise engineering principles are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on how enterprise systems engineering (ESE) might deal with major issues facing humanity to improve quality of life. Accordingly, enterprise practitioners ought to consider devoting more of their resources toward these goals.

B. E. White

3. Cybernetics Approaches and Models

From its beginnings, cybernetic perspectives and models were designed to understand or regulate dynamic processes. The approaches and models described in this chapter range from the explicit to the implicit but have in common the central role of feedback as a guide for action and understanding. Feedback and the recognition of the importance of the observer in defining the system and its purposes are the common factor in a cybernetic approach. The Watt steam governor was an early and clear example of intrinsic control – using feedback to bring a system back under control in the act of going out of control. The steam governor’s arms rise and cut off air to the steam engine as it goes too fast and lower to allow in more air when its speed comes back under control. Its purpose was the safe operation of the engine. The origin of the word cybernetics comes from the Greek word for steersmanship. The sailor adjusts the tiller and the sails to use the forces of the winds and tides to reach a destination. It is the same root as the word for governance.

Allenna Leonard, Tom Scholte, Ken Shepherd, Joe Truss

1. Introduction to the Handbook of Systems Sciences

The Handbook of Systems Sciences reflects the work of scholars whose thinking and practice cross a wide spectrum of disciplines. The intent of this handbook is not simply to be an overview of knowledge domains, but is the marking of milestones in their development. The formal study of systems, cybernetics, and complexity all date back to the early twentieth century. The principles on which those domains were founded trace back millennia. The chapters contained in this handbook describe the evolution of theories, and applications in practice, across familiar disciplines including engineering, management, ecology, education, and design. The hope for this work is to provide foundations on which future researchers and scholars can build.

Gary S. Metcalf, Kyoichi Kijima, Hiroshi Deguchi, Mary C. Edson, Peter Jones, John J. Kineman, James Martin, Shankar Sankaran, Carol A. Wessman

17. Reaching Goals with Structured Strategic Plans

A Fresh Approach to an Annual Leadership Dilemma

Planning (in general) and strategic planning (in particular) are mainstays of the business world. While significant time and effort are placed into the creation and execution of those plans, the results are not impressive. A growing body of research suggests that the benefits of strategic planning are minimal. Even generally accepted methods, such as SWOT analysis, may be detrimental to company performance in some circumstances (Hill and Westbrook, Long Range Plan 30:46–52, 1997).Because our world is made of systems (economic, industrial, organizational, etc.), the problems and opportunities of that world can be better understood and addressed by plans which are themselves more systemic. In our research and consulting experience, however, most plans are not highly systemic and so they are not highly useful for reaching goals. Instead, plans are typically based on simple, linear, assumptions which fail to account for the many variables of this complex world, so leaders may be moving effectively forward in the wrong direction.Metaphorically, the plan is a map that leaders use to guide their organizations. Today, however, most leaders have only a small scrap of a much larger map. As a result, decisions based on those plans often lead to unanticipated and unwanted consequences instead of the anticipated success. What they really need is a highly reliable GPS.This chapter draws on advances in the science of conceptual systems to understand why some plans succeed while others fail. We use Integrative Propositional Analysis (IPA) and related tools to evaluate and improve the systemic structure of strategic plans to improve their chances for successful implementation and reaching organizational goals.While the chapter is focused on business operations and management, the methods presented here will also be applicable to nonprofit and NGOs, academic and research institutions, government agencies, collaborative megaprojects, and the stakeholders invested in them.

Steven E. Wallis, Kent E. Frese

Detroit DD15 The New Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine from Daimler Truck AG

Heavy-duty diesel engines will continue to play a major role in the heavy-duty truck business for years to come. Higher demands on exhaust emission requirements and challenging legislation in conjunction with relentless competition will push the technical development of diesel engines beyond what they currently represent. Regardless of alternative power units, the diesel engine will need to actively contribute to achieve future CO2 legislation goals and account for the overall accomplishment.For this reason, in 2015 DAIMLER Truck AG decided to re-engineer and upgrade its heavyduty engine series as part of the so-called HDEP2020 project. HDEP (‘Heavy-Duty Engine Platform’) engines consist of inline-six engines brought to the market in 2008 and have been used ever since in trucks and buses of Daimler Truck AG and third-party applications around the globe. To this day, attributes such as high efficiency and technological leadership with respect to quality and fuel efficiency are inseparably associated with the HDEP engine platform.As the first of its kind, the Detroit DD15 Gen 5 engine will be launched by end of 2020 to launch the new HDEP2020 generation. In early January 2021, it will be available in class 8 vehicles of DTNA (Daimler Trucks North America).The DD15 HDEP2020 will be offered in a power range up to 505 hp with a maximum torque of 1,750 lb-ft.The following article outlines the goals of the HDEP2020 engine project, describes the approach and explains the technical concept using the Detroit DD15 engine as an example.

Wolfgang Weller, Peter Kožuch

Professor C R Rao: Homage to the Towering Personality of Indian Statistical Institute

Professor Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao, popularly known as Professor C R Rao, is the name of veneration of a world-famous statistician, an illustrious teacher and the friend–philosopher and guide of the students of Indian Statistical Institute.

Nibedita Ganguly

Glimpses from the Life and Work of Dr. C.R. Rao: A Living Legend in Statistics

Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao (or simply Dr. Rao, as he is universally known to his students and colleagues) who attended the age of 100 on September 10, 2020, is a living legend in Statistics: His work has influenced not only has influenced the field of statistics, but also has had a profound impact on numerous other areas, such as economics, engineering, agriculture, anthropology, biometry, demography, psychology, geology, and medicine. In this article, along with some of his pioneering work, we trace a few the events of his memorable long life.

Anil Bera, Priyasmita Ghosh

Chapter 3. Who Will Control Atomic Power?

This chapter highlights the importance of cooperation between the United States and England in the development of radar, which was instrumental in equipping the Allies to prevail in World War II. It also sets out US President Truman’s belief that this international cooperation among military, academic, and industry agencies was as important of a wartime battleground as the front lines of the war itself. This cooperation relied in large part on a shared language, and this idea that effective communication could underpin national security was discussed in relation to technology development and public education for decision-making about computer innovations.

Bernadette Longo

Chapter 6. Technology Development Strains Standardization of Human Communication

This chapter places efforts to standardize computer terminology within a historical context of language standardizing efforts for earlier technologies of electricity and radio. It describes nationalistic concerns in assigning names to electrical concepts at the turn of the twentieth century. It also describes how standardization of radio terminology was considered to be important to concerns with safety and secure transportation systems. Language standardization efforts from the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) and American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) began to focus on creating glossaries of terms relating to automatic computing devices in the late 1940s, reflecting the growing importance and specialization of this emerging professional field. The glossaries developed in these organizations reflected the priorities of committee members with backgrounds in military, academic, and industry projects.

Bernadette Longo

Chapter 4. Sharing Information (or Not) for Computer Development

This chapter describes how computer developers shared information about technology innovations in the early 1940s and through World War II. During this period, much information about computer development was isolated in university laboratories where people worked under national security restrictions. In the absence of formal communication channels for sharing information, computer developers relied on personal relationships and face-to-face meetings to learn about new designs and approaches to automatic machine calculation. In this period, information was largely shared among people who had established contacts with leaders in the field of computer development, yet they often found that they had difficulty sharing information because of differences in terminology they developed in isolated laboratories.

Bernadette Longo

Successfully Mutual Cooperative Collective Action: Principle of Institutional Arrangement of the Aflaj Irrigation System in Sultanate of Oman

To investigate the present of the two most common analytical tools; heterogeneity and homogeneity over a mutual cooperative in an irrigation system, we considered both of these in an attempt to find an existing mutual cooperative over aflaj (singular falaj) in Oman. In an aflaj community defined-boundary shareholders group, we expect some sort of equal size distribution by which all members interested in cooperative mutual collective action with regard to system maintenance, extra water renting right, and water flow reliability. We provided the necessary demonstration of the existing institutional arrangement to further prove the theory. Although fast body of literatures discussed these rules and cooperative with the different types of the common-pool resources, this study focus over the cooperative collective action, in particular investigate the presence of cooperative collective action within the Omani ancient-aflaj system (singular falaj). In Oman, aflaj water allocation and its institutional arrangement showed relatively resilient against recent regional development. Today, in many aflaj communities, common administrative as well as allocative water delivery processes were found over almost identical structural social hierarchy. While the documented Omani measuring unit, known as ather, (based on time) indicated the first condition of the present of cooperative collective action, another associated water auctioning which used to generate income, (known as rub’ah (quarter)) has been found.

Ahmed S. Al-Marshoudi, Suzyrman Bin Sibly, Hamoon Khelghat-Doost

Tweeting CEOs, Opinion Leadership, and the Social Capital of Companies

In the postmodern age of social media, chief executive officers (CEOs) have become the public faces of their organizations on Twitter. Therefore, CEOs’ use of Twitter can be assumed to influence the social capital of the organizations they represent. In this mixed-methods study, this possibly influential relation is examined using the framework of principal-agent theory by focusing on the tweeting behaviors and strategies of CEOs as well as their follower counts. The results suggest that the CEOs who gained the most followers and, therefore, potentially increased the social capital of their companies tweeted positive messages to diverse audiences and actively maintained various stakeholder relationships.

Sanna Ala-Kortesmaa, Laura Paatelainen, Pekka Isotalus, Johanna Kujala, Jari Jussila

Changes in Internal Communications Through the “Home Office” Working Model

This paper deals with the changes in internal corporate communication caused by home office. The research focuses on the maintenance of social inclusion, internal relationship structures and communication between employees in the regular work and home office model. The implementation took place in the form of qualitative interviews with employees of an Austrian technology company. The results show a reduced need for social inclusion (=social isolation), a deterioration of interdepartmental relationships as well as a reduction in (interpersonal) communication in the course of home office work. In internal corporate communication, therefore, targeted measures for a functioning home office are necessary.

Tatjana Zeman, Mario Jooss, Mario Situm

Current Status of Corporate E-Learning in Austrian ATX Companies and its Implications—A Qualitative Analysis

Autumn 2019: How do Austrian ATX companies use e-learning as a tool for corporate learning? In qualitative expert interviews the authors of this paper created an insight and outlook on how, when, for what purpose, for whom and with what content e-learning is used in internal training in five listed Austrian companies (ATX companies).Fall 2020: Covid19 has changed the world. What new insights are emerging from the handling of the pandemic with regard to further education and training in companies? This paper was supplemented by the latest findings on e-learning in times of corona and concludes with reflections on the challenges, problems and opportunities that e-learning brings for further training in companies.

Peter Schneckenleitner, Evelyn Wieser, Carina Settje

Leadership Communication with Multiple Managers and Its Influence on Internal Integration of Different Functional Areas

This study makes a first attempt to investigate the influence of leadership communication on internal integration when employees maintain relationships with multiple managers in different functional areas of an organization. In a cross-sectional survey, 388 employees in German theatres assessed perceived internal integration between artistic, technical and administration areas as well as perceived leadership communication quality (PLCQ) with managers in each area which they had a relation with. Results show that the better and the more consistent employees perceive the communication of managers from the different areas, the more employees will perceive internal integration across the areas.

Berend Barkela

Open Access

Chapter 2. Interpretation of Network Sovereignty

In recent years, with the integration of the Internet and various economic and social fields, the security situation in cyberspace has been changing rapidly. There are more and more network games at the national level and the network attack and defense have become more intense. Network sovereignty has become one of sovereignty that all states are striving for. Cyber war against national targets has emerged and will not abate. Major countries have successively set up cyberspace forces. These facts have demonstrated the existence of a new frontier for humanity, national interests, and digital sovereignty in cyberspace, and demonstrated the absence of international rules or laws that effectively coordinate the management of this space. The chaos in the online media during the US presidential election in 2020, in which the incumbent US president has been banned from several public accounts by major online social media, shows that there is still a long way to go in terms of citizens’ digital human rights and the reasonable and orderly legislative and judicial administration of domestic cyberspace management. All of these topics are discussed in detail in this chapter.

Hui Li, Xin Yang

What Kind of Employees’ Team is Necessary for Industrial Digital Transformation? Theoretical and Practical Analysis

The article considers cross-functional teams as an alternative to the traditional team-building approach in industrial digital transformation. Based on the contextual analysis of the reasons for creating cross-functional teams, their polyphonic nature and exclusivity signs are revealed. The paper demonstrates particular importance of knowledge sharing in cross-functional teams for efficient work. Knowledge sharing among employees serves as a source for obtaining necessary and useful information and a condition for the successful functioning of cross-functional teams. The purpose of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of the influence of organizational and managerial factors on knowledge sharing in cross-functional teams. The academic environment of two universities in Russia and Germany was used as an example to determine the obstacles and conditions of this process. In the study, two groups of employees from Russian (Ekaterinburg) and German (Brandenburg an der Havel) universities were examined. The paper determines the degree of influence of various organizational and managerial factors on the intensity of knowledge sharing in cross-functional teams under the national context.

Elena Kalabina, Olga Belyak, Vera G. Meister, Aleksandra Revina

The Impact of Displaced Persons on National Security

Conflict causes a large portion of the world’s existing and measured human displacement. In turn, displacement of individuals can also promote conflict. Through challenging economic and social stability, migration of individuals creates a disruption in which host nations or regions must accommodate and support the incoming individuals. The feedback loop analysis is expanded by considering a secondary cause of displacement—climate-induced disasters. Currently, individuals are being displaced at unprecedented rates due to both unstable political environments and changing climate conditions. I propose that internally displaced persons can stress nations, which contributes to increased likelihood of civil and external strife. Applying probit regression analysis, I explore this relationship between displacement and conflict. With data on internal displacement, militarized interstate disputes, and common trade control variables, this novel analysis adds to the existing displacement-conflict relationship literature by separately analyzing climate vs conflict-induced displacement and the respective impacts on militarized interstate disputes. There is a positive impact of disaster displacement on future conflict, especially when both nations in a pair experience disaster displacement. Results also suggest that contiguity, distance between nations, and political stability play important roles for conflict. This analysis is motivated with discussion on the channels of impact from displacement to conflict as well as the significance for United States national security.

Alaina Totten

The Interplay Between Frugal Science and Chemical and Biological Weapons: Investigating the Proliferation Risks of Technology Intended for Humanitarian, Disaster Response, and International Development Efforts

The attempt to create cheap, easy-to-use scientific equipment made for anyone, anywhere has made significant progress in the last decade in what innovators call frugal science. The emerging technology developed by frugal science to increase access to the experimental practice of the physical sciences through low cost and low electricity equipment and to lower the cost of medical devices so as to expand their application to impoverished areas is a subject of concern along with most other emerging technologies. While designed to help both kids generally and scientists in impoverished areas reach parity with their experimentalist counterparts in the developed world, the question remains: Will terrorists exploit such technology to develop chemical or biological weapons (CBW)? In order to address this question, we develop an analytical framework that assesses the overall threat of CBW terrorism. Through evaluation of terrorist motivations, capabilities, and other influencing factors, this framework analyses how emerging technologies, such as frugal science, affect motivated terrorist organizations in their pursuit of CBW. We use as a case study al-Qaeda’s CBW programs in the 1990s and early 2000s to demonstrate the small effect frugal science would have on the significant sociotechnical barriers faced by terrorist organizations. Results not only inform intelligence practitioners, law enforcement, and policy makers about the dual-use implications of emerging technologies, but also indicate the utility of this framework in future analyses and studies.

Michael Tennenbaum, Margaret E. Kosal

Project Management Competences for Next Engineers in the Industry 4.0 Era. A Case Study

In the context of training in engineering and technology in the Industry 4.0 era, project competences’ acquisition must start from the trainer’s perspective as a counselor, facilitator, and sponsor of trainees’ learning. This means minimizing master classes to promote their autonomy and collaborative work, not being possible to ensure their development through traditional evaluations. In a recession context (Spain, Andalusia, and Cadiz) with low growth and high youth unemployment rate, it is intended to promote future engineers’ entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation. Within this framework, the study reviews the models that highlight the ways of teaching and learning in project management subjects in the engineering degrees of the industrial branch (chemistry, electricity, electronics, industrial design and product development, mechanics, and industrial technology) offered by the University of Cadiz (UCA). This selects project-based learning (PBL), in which learners are the main characters, who evolve through experimentation. This research consists of three stages. In a first phase, education in entrepreneurship is encouraged. Next, culture of innovative entrepreneurship is promoted, propitiating the conditions for the (simulated) creation of innovative companies. Finally, those proposals that potentially contribute to Cadiz improving its business deficit in technological sectors are selected.

Alberto Cerezo-Narváez, Manuel Otero-Mateo, Andrés Pastor-Fernández

Data Driven Review of Health Security Adoption in 95 Countries

Disease surveillance continues to grow in importance as new and reoccurring infectious diseases emerge and reemerge at increasing rates. The World Health Organization adopted the International Health Regulations in 2005 with the aim to prevent, protect against, control, and provide a public health response to the international spread of biological diseases and other threats (including chemical, radiological, nuclear, or other threats). To measure a country’s individual status and progress in building the necessary health security capacity, a Joint External Evaluation assessment from 95 countries completed from 2016 to 2019 are reviewed. Findings suggest that high and upper middle-income countries have established capacities to prevent, detect, and respond to biological, chemical, or radiological threats. Results show that low and lower-income countries are in the early stages of addressing priority areas. Continued funding is needed across low and lower-income countries in efforts to increase their surge capacities to respond to disruptions and contain outbreaks of high-threat diseases. The differences in health security are tied to adequate funding and contribute to health protection benefits. This chapter recognizes the importance of investment in multiple countries to develop health surveillance and response capabilities using complimentary public health approaches to address widespread disease concerns and suggests what additional resources may be needed.

Judy Kruger

Artificial Intelligence: Unpacking Political, Rhetorical, and Security Factors

Artificial Intelligence (AI)-enabled capabilities have advanced considerably in the last decade and are expected to see increased employment by states and potentially by non-state actors in the ensuing years. This chapter explores how political, rhetorical, and security factors surrounding the research and development of AI-enabled capabilities interact and considers the implications for geopolitics. The widespread emphasis on the importance of AI globally, especially in the context of military capabilities and balance of power, is uncontested politically, and concurrently, it is also an area in need of more investigation by scholars.

Margaret E. Kosal

Assessment of Potential Security Threats from Advances in Neurotechnology

Neurotechnology has experienced rapid growth and progress, and this could be attributed to the advances in the fundamental understanding of human brain activity, coupled with access to high technology. Additionally, it is a “dual use” technology as it has immense medical applications that could benefit the public and could also pose significant threat to the public safety and health. As the nature how wars are being fought change, neurotechnology can be used in military and counterintelligence applications, thus benefiting both the civilian and the military realm. Using three emerging neurotechnologies as case studies, this chapter addresses the potential medical and military applications of these technologies, while speculating on potential misuses. The possibility of exploiting neurotechnology by various actors for nefarious purposes is analyzed, along with hypothesizing the current, near, and far future use of neurotechnology in different environments.

Sathya Balachander

Development and Proliferation of Flexible and Wearable Electronics: Opportunities and Challenges for National Security

The United States dominance in science and technology is under threat due to large foreign investment in the development of dual-use technologies with a primary civil-commercial use but which could be directly misapplied to pose a significant threat with broad potential consequences to national security. In the last two decades, rising powers like China have increased their spending in domestic research activities. In late 2017, China diverted millions of dollars to finance applied research at universities based in Australia, a traditionally strong U.S. ally in the South Pacific. Among the disruptive technologies the Chinese investment aims to develop, “flexible and wearable technologies” (FWEs) stand out given the limited U.S. efforts to dominate an industry where there is no clear leader. To invert the current trend, to control proliferation of FWEs, and to maintain the technological advantage the U.S. economy and the military enjoy, the prevailing scholarship suggests the creation of U.S. based consortia linking universities, companies, and the federal entities. However, the hypotheses that consortia are the ideal institutions to favor diffusion of FWEs technologies and primarily confine diffusion domestically rest on empirical arguments. Analysis of more than 9000 patent records shows consortia promote FWEs diffusion if the countries involved are strong innovators, but it is not possible to prove that FWEs will diffuse locally. The U.S. could adopt a second mover strategy and acquire intellectual property (IP) developed by consortia to establish leadership in FWEs. Last, there is need for more effective international agreements to regulate IP developed through consortia.

Federico Pulvirenti

Digitization and Sustainability: Smart Working as an ICT Tool to Improve the Sustainable Performance of Companies During the Covid-19 Pandemic

The following paper aims to explain to the reader the existing interconnection between the paradigms of sustainability and digitization. In detail, the study will focus on Smart Working, analyzing this tool for its possible improvement of the sustainable performance of companies, and its benefits on the environment, making use of the perceptions that people have about this new way of working. Through the use of a questionnaire, it has been analyzed the perception that people have about this new way of working, which has characterized their lives for about two months during the lockdown period in Italy, caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, considering the time period from 9th March to 1st June 2020. The questionnaire was developed using Google Forms, and it was administered using Computer Assisted Web Interviewing (CAWI) using social networks, primarily Facebook and LinkedIn; 352 workers participated in the survey. The results show that the sample under review is satisfied with this new way of working, both in terms of reducing expenses and increasing the time that can be dedicated to personal activities, and from the point of view of improving the environmental impact. Despite this, a state of skepticism reigns which is characteristic of great changes, since the Covid-19 pandemic we are facing, as a country and globe, forces us to change our habits established over time.

Federica Murmura, Laura Bravi

Exploring the Spread of Offensive Cyber Operations Campaigns

What constitutes an act of war has evolved throughout time but is largely agreed upon by most actors either by treatise or various global norms. Established rules of engagement apply to naval, ground, air, and even aerospace battle domains. International consensus on the rules doesn’t apply to cyber warfare, however, making for a murky international climate rife with tension, ambiguity, and plausible deniability. For this paper, data on national cyber programs for all UN-recognized 195 countries was coded looking for identifiable trends or interesting observations. Over 80 countries have some form of military-driven offensive cyber program. Intuitive associations that countries with a high percentage of internet users and high GDP per capita were not indicative of whether or not a country had an active offensive cyber operations campaign; nor was military size or the presence of a criminal code for cybercrimes. There was a loose association of national cybersecurity strategy and offensive cyber operations (OCO) programs, but of course it is one-directional: it’s not guaranteed that countries with a national cyber strategy have OCO programs. Other observations include: states share threat intelligence regionally more than they do internationally, and sharing agreements generally mirror political security alliances. With the rapid spread and lack of determining factors, we can confirm the choice to pursue OCO is a political one.

Holly M. Dragoo

Dragonflies in the African Bush: Security Ramifications of Low-Cost Light Attack/Air Reconnaissance Aircraft Proliferation and the Chinese Aviation Industry

The adaptation of civilian agricultural aircraft into a military attack and reconnaissance role represents a potential proliferation risk to US interests in areas of low-intensity conflict, particularly if the Chinese aviation industry builds on initial investments made by Chinese state-owned enterprises. Judging the likelihood of this shift, however, remains difficult. While not a high-tech threat, this type of aircraft has the potential to disrupt US diplomatic and military operations, as well as economic interests, in areas where advanced air-defense systems are not present, exploiting a narrow capabilities gap between these and man-portable countermeasures. The rapid advances Chinese firms have made in the international military UAVUAV market and recent domestic reforms poise them uniquely to capitalize on the market for this type of aircraft, particularly in the African theater, and the issue begs closer attention from US military and intelligence institutions.

Christopher Long

Understanding the Role of Digital Technologies in Supply Chain Risks Management

Supply chain risks have been regarded as one of the most significant threats to business continuity. Digital technology is considered to reform human production and manufacturing methods. In the recent wake of COVID-19, disruptive digital technologies have emerged as a key tool to manage supply chain risks. Therefore, exploring the impact of digital technology on supply chain risks is considered an important topic in the supply chain management domain. The paper reviews different digital technologies such as 3D printing, IoT, Blockchains, RFID and Big Data Analytics used in supply chains. This exploratory study is based on a survey response from 176 supply chain professionals in China. The findings show the role of digital technologies in managing supply chain risks. The study highlights the current level of implementation of digital technologies in supply chain functions and emphasizes the importance of training. Moreover, the study underlines the significance of supply chain data analysis capabilities for supply chain risk management. The study adds to the limited literature exploring the importance of digital technologies in supply chain risk management.

Jiayan Yang, Vikas Kumar, Banu Ekren, Evgeny Kuzmin

Impact of New Technology on Sustainability of Supply Chains: Empirical Evidence from Manufacturing SMEs in China

New manufacturing technology can provide useful competitive advantages for enterprises to deal with fierce competition, and help them look for a better solution to production and operation management improving the quality of product services. New technology can also promote enterprises to obtain sustained economic, social and environmental benefits. This study, therefore, focuses on investigating the impact of technology on the sustainability of supply chains in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Pearl River Delta region of China. The findings are based on 100 valid survey responses from SMEs in the region. The study identifies a set of enablers and barriers to new technology implementation in manufacturing SMEs. Our findings show that the economic factors occupy the central position whereas the market pressures from home and abroad; the vision of the enterprise’s development; and the apparent advantages of new technologies were identified as other key enablers. On the contrary, the driving force from the government was found to be insufficient, whether it is a relatively free market regulatory environment or tax-free welfare policies for small businesses to promote the use of new technologies. The high production cost appears to be the most critical barrier followed by vicious competition among enterprises in the industry and lack of technical personnel. Our findings also show that enablers and barriers of new technology implementations are significantly correlated with sustainability performance measures (economic, social and environmental performance). Our study hence adds to the limited empirical literature focused on investigating the new technology and sustainability relationship.

Ruibing Shi, Vikas Kumar, Banu Ekren

Kapitel 2. Der neue Jihad als Theologie, Ideologie und Strategie

Jede Religion, damit auch der Islam, kann Einfluss auf das Individuum, eine Gruppe und ganze Gesellschaften ausüben. Um die Funktionen von Religion für Fundamentalismus und Totalitarismus zu verstehen, wird Religion hier als sozialwissenschaftliche Kategorie verstanden.

Stefan Goertz

Enhancing the Network Performance of Wireless Sensor Networks on Meta-heuristic Approach: Grey Wolf Optimization

The sensing technology has brought all advancements in the human lives. Wireless sensor network (WSN) has proven to be a promising solution to acquire the information from the remote areas. However, the energy constraints of the sensor nodes have obstructed the widely spread application zone of WSN. There has been a great magnitude of efforts reported for acquiring the energy efficiency in WSN, these efforts varying from conventional approaches to the meta-heuristic method for enhancing the network performance. In this paper, we have presented a comparative evaluation of state of art meta-heuristic approaches that helps in acquiring energy efficiency in the network. We have proposed grey wolf optimization (GWO-P) algorithm with the empirical analysis of the existing methods PSO, GA and WAO that will help the readers to select the appropriate approach for their applications. It is similarly exposed that in different other execution measurements GWO-P beats the contender calculations for length of stability, network lifetime, expectancy and so on.

Biswa Mohan Sahoo, Tarachand Amgoth, Hari Mohan Pandey

Organizational Structures in Servitization: Should Product and Service Businesses Be Separated or Integrated?

Organizational structure appears as one of the major challenges in the servitization of manufacturing firms. Decisions about organizational structure are closely linked to those concerning strategy, and manufacturers need to decide whether to integrate or separate product and service business units. However, there is no consensus and the literature on servitization still does not provide a clear answer on the question of the separation or integration of service and product activities. In order to help alleviate the current stalemate, this chapter calls for a new direction in research on organizational structures in servitization, especially regarding its epistemological foundations. It first proceeds to a review of the “to separate or integrate” debate, then suggests some avenues for studying organizational structures in servitization within alternative and multiple epistemological paradigms.

Sophie Peillon

Revitalizing Alignment Theory for Digital Servitization Transition

Digitalization presents manufacturers with new opportunities for differentiation. Yet, transitioning toward selling technology-enabled advanced solutions remains challenging. By applying an alignment theory lens to extant (digital) servitization literature, we open the black box to factors underwriting digital servitization transition success and/or failure. An alignment framework for digital servitization is developed. Propositions for future research are made.

Bieke Struyf, Paul Matthyssens, Wouter Van Bockhaven

Digital Servitization: How Manufacturing Firms Can Enhance Resource Integration and Drive Ecosystem Transformation

The integration of data-enabled services into an ever-increasing number of life aspects exemplifies how digital transformation and servitization are closely intertwined. For manufacturing firms, such digital servitization gives rise to new opportunities for long-term competitive advantage. However, it also poses new challenges and entails tradeoffs among strategic options. In addition, digital servitization changes not only intra-firm processes and customer relationships but also overall ecosystem dynamics. Against this backdrop, this chapter sheds light on the concept of digital servitization by discussing its key characteristics—and how it differs from “conventional” servitization—as well as the major opportunities and challenges for manufacturers. Drawing on an extensive study of a market-leading systems integrator, this chapter discusses the resource integration patterns that connect ecosystem stakeholders and the dual role of technology in increasing pattern complexity and facilitating the coordination of that complexity. To take full advantage of digitalization and go beyond the purely technological benefits, firms need to foster service-centricity and execute strategic change initiatives that are geared toward the internal organization, as well as the wider ecosystem. Furthermore, this chapter examines three strategic organizational shifts that underpin digital servitization: (1) from planning to discovery, (2) from scarcity to abundance, and (3) from hierarchy to partnership. Organizational identity, dematerialization, and collaboration all play key roles in this transformation.

Christian Kowalkowski, David Sörhammar, Bård Tronvoll

Salesforce Transformation to Solution Selling

A central part of a manufacturer’s transformation to solution selling involves recruiting and training salespersons who enact the critical relational processes of solution selling at the customer interface. Such solution selling involvement by the salespeople plays a key role in ensuring subsequent solution selling performance. However, given that the requirements for solution selling differ drastically from product selling, ensuring salesperson solution selling involvement is a challenging task in a transformation context. Given these difficulties, we suggest that the manufacturer undergoing a solution transformation can choose between two approaches. One alternative is to create a dedicated solution selling salesforce staffed with salespeople who possess the right set of motivations and abilities. The other is to implement a broader transformation program that facilitates the ability of the existing product-centric salesforce to engage in solution selling. It is likely that a dedicated solution salesforce staffed with suitable salespeople precedes a broader salesforce wide transformation.

Employee Reactions to Servitization as an Organizational Transformation

This chapter presents a framework that describes employees’ long-term reactions to and suitable management responses for engaging employees in servitization. We review the literature on servitization, organizational behavior, and organizational psychology to identify observable behaviors and reasons for three employee reactions to servitization: (1) support, (2) rejection and voluntary turnover, and (3) resistance. For each reaction, we present management responses that are intended to overcome the barriers to engaging employees in servitization while improving the decision-making behind the organizational transformation. Theoretical implications and practical advice for managers are provided.

Mădălina Pană, Melanie E. Kreye

Chapter 3. Preparation to Execution: Orchestrating Campaign Processes in Organization-Led Crowdfunding

This chapter examines the preparation and execution of crowdfunding campaigns as processes that can transform cross-functional organizational teams’ collaborative approaches. The study of these processes in such campaigns remains underdeveloped; therefore, this study investigated the preparation and execution processes as organizational actors assemble to crowdfund. Drawing on a trust perspective, the investigation focused on two museum organizational teams’ performances. The findings illustrate the strategies cross-functional teams employ to create a trusting environment involving multiple stakeholders. In the case studies, an early state of uncertainty preceded stakeholders’ induction during the project initiation. This phase included a process of knowledge-sharing and trust development, with parties moving towards preliminary agreements. The findings demonstrate that as knowledge and competence are consolidated, synchronized team efforts reinforced the initial agreements through underexplored social-relational synergies. The process also requires the management of internal stakeholders’ diverse ideologies, competencies, and expectations in this context. These findings provide an understanding of the dimensions underpinning adaptation and integration synergies towards a holistic organizational adoption of innovative funding methods. Further insights highlight the significance of knowledge exchange and communication across diverse departments and stakeholders throughout the preparation and execution of crowdfunding campaigns.

M. Isabella Cavalcanti Junqueira

Chapter 4. Assessing the Maturity of Crowdfunding and Alternative Finance Markets

In order to assess how public authorities and crowdfunding platforms can collabo-rate, it is essential to understand the different levels of maturity of the Crowdfunding ecosystem. The chapter analyses concepts developed in the crowdfunding literature. It establishes a unified framework to understand the increasing complexity of crowdfunding industries, by discussing the conceptual framework of Crowdfunding success. It proceeds to describe several models of maturity of industries by applying entrepreneurial ecosystem theory to the alternative finance space. Lastly, it transfers entrepreneurial ecosystem theory to the alternative finance regulation and the four scenarios of fitting crowdfunding and alternative finance into existing regulation.

Karsten Wenzlaff, Ana Odorovic, Ronald Kleverlaan, Tania Ziegler

Chapter 2. Crowdfunding in Public Sector: A Systematic Literature Review

In recent years, crowdfunding has become important and it has been enthusiastically used not only by commercial organizations but also by the public sector. This study organizes existing research on the crowdfunding in the public sector in order to investigate the current state and what value e-government is supposed to yield. Despite the importance and relevance of the topic, deficiencies related to a comprehensive review of crowdfunding in the public sector are noticed. The aim of the article is to synthesize the previous crowdfunding research in the context of the public sector. A systematic literature review was used, including, as a bibliometric technique, frequency and content analysis. The subject literature was selected on the basis of foreign scientific databases, such as: Web of Science and Scopus. The analysis covered 64 articles on crowdfunding in public organizations published from 2006 to 2018. Based on a systematic literature review, a theoretical framework for future research on crowdfunding in the public sector is developed in the context of the ways of crowdfunding defining and operationalizing, crowdfunding types, goals of crowdfunding, antecedents of crowdfunding, and outcomes of crowdfunding. Regarding the current state of research into the crowdfunding in the public sector this study is based on the research including existing theories and socio-economic, financial, behavioral, and regulatory perspectives. There is also a lack of comparative studies on the national level.

Regina Lenart-Gansiniec

Chapter 10. China’s Nuclear Prowess: A Formidable Nuclear Military Power and a Nuclear Energy Power House

Nuclear technology has become an integral component of China’sChina economic and political future, accounting for its energy needs, technological exports and most notably its military protection as a sovereign State. This chapter explores China’sChina current nuclear status in relation to its economic, political and military ambitions. In particular, it assesses China’sChina mounting production of nuclear power for civilian purposes, aimed at both meeting growing commercial and manufacturing demands due to its rapid economic development at home, as well as addressing increased consumer needs for personal consumption as the country becomes wealthier with greater energy requirements. Indeed, ChinaChina is both a user and increasingly a supplier of nuclear technology which spans far wider than simply meeting domestic consumption. It has become an important exporter of nuclear technology integrated into the nuclear supply chain globally. Moreover, ChinaChina is a nuclear-weapon State pursuant to the Nuclear Non-ProliferationNuclear non-proliferation TreatyNuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 1968, raising concerns regarding its overall aspirations as a nuclear-armed State potentially becoming more dominant, regionally and globally. In essence, this chapter explores China’sChina rise as a formidable nuclear State from both a civilian and military perspective. Discussion focuses on its current position, making reference to its international legal obligations and its overall ambitions in light of its emerging status as an economic and military superpower within a modern global context.

Jonathan L. Black-Branch

Chapter 3. Nuclear Nonproliferation Objectives of Permanence with Accountability at Stake: The Role of International Law in the Interlude Between the Tenth and the Eleventh Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

This chapter aims to discuss the meaning and implication, in terms of international law, of the concept of permanence with accountabilityAccountability in the framework of the tenth Review ConferenceReview Conference, NPT of the States party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and in the interval between this and the next Review Conference. After contextualizing the concept of permanence with accountabilityAccountability, which was adopted when the NPT was indefinitely extended in 1995, the chapter investigates whether the decisions on practical measures to implement Article VI of the NPT taken at the 1995, 2000 and 2015 NPT Review ConferencesReview Conference, NPT can be regarded as subsequent agreement or subsequent practice to the NPT. Guided by the ‘Draft Conclusions on Subsequent Agreement and Subsequent Practice in Relation to the Interpretation of Treaties’, adopted in 2018 by the United Nations International Law CommissionInternational Law Commission (ILC), it is held that (i) Article VI contains an obligation to achieve a precise result by adopting a particular course of conduct, (ii) the fact that a certain result has not been achieved does not necessarily constitute a breach of Article VI, (iii) the question of whether Article VI has been breached should be answered by drawing upon the consensus outcomes of the NPT Review ConferencesReview Conference, NPT, (iv) to the extent that these outcome documents have specified obligations to such a level of concreteness that States can take action individually, inaction may amount to noncompliance with Article VI. The concept of permanence with accountabilityAccountability serves as a litmus test, since it has all the objective and subjective prerequisites of fact whose presence is constitutive of a subsequent agreement or subsequent practice. The discoloration achieved under this test, indicating a possible violation of Article VI of the NPT, occurs in cases where, on the one hand, negotiating States have not yet signed or ratified the 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and, on the other hand, nuclear-weapon States frustrate even the most moderate transparency expectations of non-nuclear-weapon States, such as providing relevant and comparable information in a standardized reporting format, on which accountabilityAccountability could be based. It is essentially the responsibility of nuclear-weapon States party to the NPT to provide the NPT treatyNuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) regime with the impetus for regime stability which the compatibility of their actions with the concept of permanence with accountabilityAccountability would represent. In an adjacent phase, to be masterminded by cooperative intersessional work leading up to the eleventh Review Conference, it would be the joint responsibility of nuclear-weapon States and non-nuclear-weapon States party to the NPT to lay the ground for a modernization of the treaty regime by reforming it institutionally in the style of other treaty regimes of disarmamentDisarmament and arms controlArms control, and thus to overcome the under-complexity of the NPT regime in terms of international law.

Dirk Roland Haupt

Chapter 17. Stigmatisation as a Road to Denuclearisation—The Stigmatising Effect of the TPNW

The purpose of this chapter is to consider the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW)Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) as an international instrument that stigmatises nuclear weapons in various ways, and to analyse whether this endeavour will be successful and lead to global denuclearisationDenuclearisation. The global nuclear order was established by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), but the issue has recently been reframed as a humanitarian one. The non-nuclear-weapon States have always outnumbered the nuclear-armed States, but they had never used their majority strategically. Fortunately, they were able to find common ground by reframing nuclear weapons as a humanitarian issue. This led to the forging of a coherent anti-nuclear-weapons coalition to counter the nuclear-armed States—the Humanitarian Impact InitiativeHumanitarian Impact Initiative—that ultimately led to the conclusion of the TPNWTreaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW). The reframing of the nuclear issue and the TPNWTreaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) stigmatise nuclear weapons as inhumane and abhorrent and thereby establishes an international norm which nuclear-armed States will find increasingly difficult to ignore. The road to stigma recognition can take place through international and domestic pressure that also depends on power dynamics. Nuclear-armed States can also manage the stigmatisation through stigma rejection and counter-stigmatisation, which they often do through reliance on the nuclear deterrenceNuclear deterrence argument. The current security environment should not be taken as an argument in favour of nuclear deterrenceNuclear deterrence but rather as an impetus for denuclearisationDenuclearisation, and towards increased cooperation and peaceful negotiation.

Clea Strydom

Chapter 3. History of Oil Refining in T&T

This chapter outlines the economic trends in the oil refining sector of Trinidad and Tobago. The analysis is decomposed into 3 distinct periods: the period before Texaco (1910–1955), the period of Texaco (1956–1985) and the period after Texaco (1986 to the present). The chapter analyzes changes in refinery output, capacity utilization, imports, exports employment and value added. The progress of the Petrotrin refinery is traced from its infancy to the period of peak performance in the 1970s. The chapter then elaborated the factors which weakened the position of the refining sector in T&T, including the presence of rigidities in the business environment that prevented the desulphurization plant to be set up by Texaco in the early 1970s.

Roger Hosein

Traceability, Sustainability, and Circularity as Mechanism in the Luxury Jewelry Industry Creating Emotional Added Value

In the past, designers and artisans had changed and improved the way people live; these days they are recycling trends with little creativity and imagination (Edelkoort 2016). In this paper, I would like to claim that designers should use technological achievements with much awareness and consciousness for the surrounding in order to influence the future for the better. Observing the ever-decreasing prices of apparel items leads one to ponder, how could it be that such prices are tenable? The linear production known from the industrial revolution must change. In the last decades, the fashion industry became more aware of the damages caused as a result of exploitative production, and increasingly more certifications and governmental regulations are used. Unfortunately, this is not the case with the jewelry industry, which has yet to initiate reform. A new set of jewelry criteria, laws, and certifications are in need as their current absence. As a Master’s graduate for sustainability in fashion and design, I was in the midst of my research on the jewelry industry, trying to understand and decipher the complex supply chain of practices and processes—from material to making and beyond. The raw materials (precious metals and stones)—where are they sourced? Who is mining them and in which conditions? Which additional materials are being used? What kind of processes being made? What are the outputs and impacts of these processes? Finalizing the materials, preparing them for production—which chemicals are used? What are the impacts on the environment, the workers, and the communities that surround these sites? What changes could be made in order to minimize these effects? Designing and making the products from handmade to 3D printing—which production methods are more efficient? What are the outputs of each technology? What are the impacts of recycling the materials? Could recycling become on a large scale creating a more circular economy? Following the issues above, I used several research methods: in-depth interviews with knowledgeable experts, designers, production employees, and material suppliers, content analysis of international and private-written reports, advertisement content analysis, and implementing these questions on my own M.A. final project products. Based on the gathered knowledge and information in this research, I propose a methodology through which brands and designers could examine sustainable, traceable, and circular practices, and how to implement them. Since many designers and product developers are not even exposed to issues like sustainability as part of their training, these aspects could not be taken into account while planning these products. On the other hand, 80% of the environmental impact of a product is decided on the designer table and this is the main purpose of this methodology. Accumulating this database accessible to the industry helps to achieve this ethical shift, hopefully creating a strong connection between all the links in the luxury jewelry supply chain to achieve a sustainable, traceable, and circular industry.

Danielle Keller-Aviram

7. Building Inclusive Disaster Management Systems: Opportunities and Constraints in Addressing the Needs of the Vulnerable

Extreme events such as cyclones lead to massive loss of lives and properties and erode developmental gains. The projections of increasing frequency and intensity of extreme events may result in the creation of enduring disaster zones with displaced economies and populations, with disproportionate effects across the social strata. Disadvantaged groups including children, the elderly and the disabled bear the brunt of such events due to pre-existing challenges that exacerbate their vulnerability, thus requiring tailored measures in disaster situations to effectively address their needs. Despite the special protection that children and the disabled receive as stipulated in international human rights laws and standards, they are often ignored in disaster management. This study explores measures and interventions that can assist in achieving inclusive disaster planning and management with reference to the occurrence of cyclones in Mozambique. Qualitative methods involving literature studies are sued to shed insights on this theme. Overcoming the challenges to inclusion involves adopting rights-based approaches and mainstreaming vulnerable groups across all phases from planning to decision-making. Sound institutional collaboration in risk governance coupled with regular reiteration of risk mitigation measures and responsibilities is essential. Ultimately, given that cyclone-related losses have significantly reduced in developed nations due to improved management, Africa has an opportunity to develop tailored interventions that are best suited for its conditions. The study feeds into goal 10 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that seeks to address inequalities together with those due to age, disability and opportunity amongst others.

Felix Kwabena Donkor, Kevin Mearns

1. Tropical Cyclones as an Emerging Global Disaster Risk and Management Issue

Climate change is known to result in extreme weather events across the world. Concern has been increasing over the social, environmental and human costs of such extreme weather events. 2019 witnessed some of the most significant record cyclones in southern Africa due to the occurrence of two devastating cyclones, namely tropical cyclones Idai and Kenneth. These were followed by two more tropical cyclones, namely Chalane (2020) and Eloise (2021). The occurrence of these hydrometeorological hazards has raised various questions on the capacity of southern Africa to respond to these hazards, which are on the increase. The question regarding the state and capacity of early warning systems has been brought to the fore, challenging improvements to ensure climate resilience and regional sustainability. This book tackles issues of how southern Africa can view tropical cyclones in the context of climate change and develop early warning systems that can be used as a platform for disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation and resilience. This introduction sets the tone for the book and deals with various thematic issues, such as the meteorological and climatological occurrence of tropical cyclones, tropical cyclones as an emerging disaster risk and human response in the context of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. A ‘building back better’ strategy is recommended for both infrastructure and disaster management institution and a de-risking approach to development anchored on clean development mechanisms to address climate change and its associated risks.

Kaitano Dube, Godwell Nhamo

3. A Review of Tropical Cyclone Idai Forecasting, Warning Message Dissemination and Public Response Aspects of Early Warning Systems in Southern Africa

The loss of life and destruction of property caused by Tropical Cyclone Idai in southern Africa in 2019 highlight the need for a review of the mainstreaming of early warning system (EWS) into development plans and effectiveness in protecting lives, property and livelihoods in the region. This review examines Tropical Cyclone Idai forecasting, warning message dissemination and public response aspects of EWS in reducing the loss of life, property and livelihoods in three countries of southern Africa impacted by the cyclone. Literature focusing on four elements of the EWS framework of cyclone risk knowledge, forecasting, dissemination of warning messages to the population at risk and public response was reviewed. Results revealed gaps in mainstreaming of EWS into development plans in the region, which compromised its effectiveness. The track, intensity and landfall leading time forecasts were difficult to accurately predict a few days ahead of landfall and warning messages came late, creating ambiguity in the public response to warning communications. Public risk knowledge deficiency combined with a lack of faith in warning communication messages issued contributed to low public response. This review concludes that although EWS are in place in southern Africa, more studies are needed to evaluate their effectiveness in practice.

Patrick Gwimbi

4. Revisiting Zimbabwe’s Early Warning Systems in the Light of Tropical Cyclone Idai

This chapter presents an assessment of the effectiveness of the tropical cyclone early warning system (EWS) in Zimbabwe, with a special focus on Cyclone Idai, which affected the country in March 2019. The study used a household questionnaire survey, interviews, field observations and official documents to identify gaps in major components of the EWS value chain, which contributed to the dysfunction of the EWS, resulting in fatalities, loss and damage of property and infrastructure. Lack of risk knowledge, poor instrumentation for accurate forecasting and nowcasting, weak institutional coordination and inadequate resources—that hinder critical government institutions from executing their mandates in the system—and poor early warning communication are some of the identified factors that contributed to the dysfunction of the EWS. The study proposes a set of enabling conditions, as corrective measures to improve all the EWS components. The private sector is an underutilised actor in the EWS, and we recommend that, rather than engaging the private sector in the post-disaster response, the private sector needs to be incorporated in pre-disaster EWS activities. A people-centred, impact-based and multi-hazard EWS, which is founded on shared resources, risk knowledge and expertise, should be considered. Further research may focus on a cost-benefit analysis of the EWS, to provide an evidence base to inform decisions in EWS investment and strategies.

Sizwile Khoza, Godwell Nhamo

Chapter 1. Introduction: On the Relevance of European Solidarity

This chapter introduces the subject matter of the book and provides a comprehensive overview of the book’s argument and structure. The book is introduced as the first systematic analysis of national debates on redistributive EU policies and the relevance of European solidarity therein providing important insights into (1) domestic support for redistributive EU policies, (2) the general strength of European solidarity in a society and (3) the conditions under which reference to European solidarity is pronounced. The chapter begins with a discussion of the relevant literature and describes the research gap that is filled by the book. It further presents the theoretical foundations and analytical approach of the book and elaborates on the four cases selected to analyse the relevance of European solidarity: (1) the French debate during the euro crisis, (2) the German debate during the euro crisis, (3) the French debate during the migration crisis and (4) the German debate during the migration crisis. Finally, the chapter concludes with a summary of the main findings of the book and outlines the approach to be taken in the next chapters.

Raphaela Hobbach

13. The Role of Hunhu/Ubuntu as a Local Community Response to Floods and Cyclones in Chimanimani, Zimbabwe

Cyclones and floods pose immediate threats to local community livelihoods and well-being. Indigenous local communities respond differently to emergencies such as floods and cyclones compared to westernised humanitarian responses. While Western responses emphasise national and international emergency relief approaches which focus on temporal evacuation and provision of shelter, treatment and food relief, indigenous responses on the other hand pay attention to both immediate and long-term community resilience, based on Ubuntu/Hunhu, an indigenous ethic of care and humanity. Ubuntu/Hunhu is based on a relational foundation where the individual is always viewed concerning his/her roles and responsibilities in broader family and community context. Drawing from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, this chapter explores how the Ubuntu/Hunhu philosophy was applied in responding to Tropical Cyclone Idai-induced disasters such as the recent (March 2019) floods and landslides in Chimanimani District in Zimbabwe. Such responses included the provision of shelter and food to the affected people, looking after the vulnerable community members (orphans, widows, the elderly), and the burial of the dead.

Talkmore Saurombe, Soul Shava

Chapter 2. Conceptualisation and Theory

This chapter presents the theoretical and conceptual foundation of the book. It introduces a working definition of European solidarity and then presents the book’s approach to examine the relevance of European solidarity when redistributive policies are discussed, namely: the analysis of public justifications in parliamentary debates. Building on this, a conceptual framework for mapping public justifications in national debates is introduced. Finally, the chapter presents a theoretical approach for explaining the relevance of European solidarity in a national debate. In this context, five potential influencing factors are introduced: (1) political culture, (2) material benefit, (3) political support, (4) party ideology and (5) policy precision. Based on these influencing factors, five theoretical expectations are formulated to structure the empirical analysis of the four cases. Based on these influencing factors, five theoretical expectations are formulated to structure the empirical analysis of the four cases.

Raphaela Hobbach

Chapter 7. Role of CEO’s Moral Compass as the Organization’s Fourth Dimension (4-D) in the Era of Digital Transformation

We propose a novel construct called the fourth dimensional (4-D) organization, referring to firms with a 4th dimension that serves as the moral compass providing strategic direction. We show the value of the fourth dimension that links the firm’s performance to societal flourishing. We apply the theory using an in-depth case study of a nepes, a Korean enterprise, to show that effective implementation of the 4-D organization increases employees’ locus of control and helps them to utilize their creative and innovative capabilities.

Young Won Park, Ye Jin Park

Chapter 5. Corporate Strategy for Corporate and Ecosystem Sustainability

In response to a lack of understanding on how companies perceive and engage in sustainability, we conduct a textual analysis of Japanese transport equipment companies’ sustainability reports. We identify two trends: (1) at a strategic level amongst the top management, firms have acknowledged that sustainability requirements are important and separate from legal compliance; (2) however, many firms have not yet explicitly formulated and implemented sustainability practices at an operational-level.

Young Won Park, Ye Jin Park

Chapter 1. The Core Challenge of CSR in Entrepreneurial Ventures

Every firm’s CSR problem boils down to legitimacy. To address the legitimacy challenge, we provide two guiding questions: (i) What CSR initiative is most aligned with the company’s business model?; (ii) How can the firm communicate its CSR philosophy to gain legitimacy from internal and external stakeholders? The legitimacy challenge of CSR implementation can be addressed using a two-pronged approach. Talent principle—the founding idea of the business should also be the idea that fuels the CSR program. Thermometer principle—entrepreneurs need to be equipped with analytical tools that allow them to assess the current business climate, predict future trends, and conduct experiments to test whether predictions match reality.

Young Won Park, Ye Jin Park

Chapter 3. CSR and Marketing Integration: Network Perspective

Both academics and managers within companies have realized the convergence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and marketing roles in some businesses. Despite the emerging number of conceptual studies on the integration processes of CSR and the marketing unit within the firm, there is little in-depth analysis testing these theories. This chapter seeks to remedy this situation through an ethnography that traces the actual integration processes from the perspective of a manager. The research model defines the manager’s role as the firm’s liaison, and differentiates the three stages of the integration process. First stage: marketing and CSR departments are two dichotomous units; second stage: the two units show areas of overlap through the marketing manager’s role, third, the two units converge into one unit. The data illustrates that five conditions affect the extent to which CSR can integrate with other business units. Our findings reveal why certain firms are more successful at allowing their CSR mission to permeate throughout the entire company and even to its external stakeholders and the larger society.

Young Won Park, Ye Jin Park

Between History and Propaganda: Estonia and Latvia in Russian Historical Narratives

This chapter analyses the modern Russian narrative of the history of Estonia and Latvia as it is revealed in academic publications, popular science channels and propaganda from various media outlets. The authors discuss the dynamics of the politicization and ideologization of Baltic past study, the transformation of historians into ‘mnemonic warriors’ (according to M. Bernhard and J. Kubik’s terminology) and the main actors of the Russian Federation’s official politics of memory. The article explores the media resonance of historical controversy and the use of history as a tool of informational and cognitive influence operations.

Vladimir Sazonov, Sergii Pakhomenko, Igor Kopytin

Battles for History. ‘Combats Pour l’histoire’ as the Elements of Russian Information Warfare. Ukrainian Case

Information warfare against Ukraine has deep roots in Russia’s imperial past and has started years before 2013. Manipulations with history became one of the less apparent manifestations and long-termed strategies. One of the key objectives is to prove that the Ukrainian state is fake and has no right to exist and has no historical legitimation. That is why we hear that Ukrainians were created by ‘Austro-Hungarian Headquarters’ or that ‘Crimea was just a present in 1954’. The other goal is to use a painful past to play on contradictions between the EU states. So, intentions to use anti-Semitism as a factor of discredit Poland and Ukraine and attempts to revise the history of WWII has become the elements of Putin’s New History Policy. In our paper, we will show the roots and patterns of Russian history policy in the early twenty-first century, and we will analyse the changes in it during the last few years.

Yevhen Mahda, Tetiana Vodotyka

Global Knowledge Warfare, Strategic Imagination, Uncertainty, and Fear

Governments are rapidly advancing their strategies for influence operations conducted in cyberspace. Global Knowledge Warfare (GKW) is the purposeful use and management of knowledge in pursuit of a competitive advantage over opponents by influencing the minds and, ultimately, the behaviour of the targeted groups in foreign countries. Psychological warfare is the deliberate manipulation of information to influence emotions, judgement, and subsequent behaviour of individuals or groups to fulfil particular political goals. Ideological warfare is a clash of fundamental ideas or principles referring to economy, government, politics, lifestyle, or life in general. Russia, as an influential status seeker together with another powerful challenger China, has been among the pioneers of GKW, which are effectively using new tools of communication for achieving their strategic goals. Strategic imagination is the method of creative and critical assessment of possible scenarios involving threats to security. This method allows security experts to think about the future, consider “what if” situations, and assess the probability of different threats, even those that appear improbable to some. Educated forecasting—based on historical facts, today’s developments, and strategic imagination—is an important component of building successful security strategies and supportive public policies. Using examples of apparent troll activities on the web in the past, the authors discuss two prevalent features of the GKW. Global knowledge warriors operate under the conditions of three cultures developed to support their status-related goals: culture of uncertainty, culture of fear, and culture of irrational response.

Holger Mölder, Eric Shiraev

Russia’s Strategy for Influence Operations Through Public Diplomacy: The Romanian Case

Russia, as well as other contemporary states, takes public diplomacy seriously as a tool for influence operations in world politics. The use of influence strategies to achieve its goals is determined, on the one hand, by the historical tradition inherited from the Soviet empire, but also by the changes of essence that took place in the nature of the military power of states and the emergence of hybrid warfare as a tool to promote politics in the international environment by other means. This paper argues that Russian global media platforms, NGOs and other public institutions are the rising face of Russia’s information operations through public diplomacy. The article discusses how these actors fit into a historical and theoretical framework of Russian public diplomacy and examines the intersection of public diplomacy tools with other dimensions of Russian state’s operations for international influence in regional and global politics. The paper provides empirical proofs on how Russia since 2015 has used the Russian Centre for Science and Culture in Bucharest to managing its image in Romanian contemporary society through public diplomacy. We conclude that the general objective of Russian policy towards Romania and in the Wider Black Sea Region is to gain a better image in Romanian society and to mitigate NATO’s image in the Wider Black Sea Region.

Constantin Hlihor, Ecaterina Hlihor

Russia in the Western Balkans: Interests and Tools of Influence

Moscow’s international assertiveness in the post-Soviet region, which included the invasion and dismembering of Georgia in 2008, and an entry “in force” in Eastern Ukraine and the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula in 2014, made for a major shift in the relation between Russia and the West, particularly with both the EU and NATO—with many Western states enforcing sanctions in a coordinated manner. That shift was likewise felt in the Western Balkans, a region which, in spite of having a different strategic interest to Russia in comparison with its near abroad territories, has again become geopolitically relevant to the Kremlin’s interests. Russia’s presence and influence in the region has increased and is driven by two main goals: to drive away the Western Balkans countries from an apparently inevitable accession to the EU and NATO (the only exception here being perhaps Serbia) and simultaneously protect its energy interests in the region and in Europe. To achieve these goals and, therefore, influence the region, the Kremlin is making use of several instruments of “smart power”, which includes different actors (States, NGOs, Public and Private Companies) and different courses of action. Russian instruments of power have proved to be quite effective in the Western Balkans, by keeping Russia in the orbit of a rather disputed region and traditionally a source of tensions between European regional powers and the Americans, at a very low political and economic cost, the region being a stage of confrontation and accommodation between Moscow and the West, particularly with the EU.

Marco Cruz

Russian Influence Campaigns Against NATO in the Baltic Region: Spread of Chaos and Divide et Impera

The Baltic region is of great importance to past and present global powers. The argument of this article is that while NATO poses a traditional military threat to Russia and its activities in the Baltic region, Russia resists that threat not solely with traditional military means but with a smart utilization of information warfare, which includes cyberattacks and influence campaigns, combined with sharp power. The Russian spread of propaganda and chaos in the Baltics keeps NATO members apart while also preventing unwanted military escalation with the West. The case of Russian hybrid warfare against NATO in the Baltic region illustrates that soft power measures, such as the spread of fake news and the use of bots and trolls on social networks can be used effectively to resist international military alliances.

Pnina Shuker, Lev Topor

European Union Strategy and Capabilities to Counter Hostile Influence Operations

Using the European Endowment for Democracy, European Regulators Group for Audiovisual Media Services and EUvsDisinfo platform case studies, this chapter analyses the complexity and effectiveness of European Union strategy to safeguard Europe’s and neighbouring information environments as a common, security-driven policy domain. The chapter concludes that the power of economic sanctions is Europe’s most credible deterrent and should be better used. The challenge is that some Union member states still allow adversaries to undercut Europe’s willingness and ability to counter hostile influence more coherently and effectively.

Ramon Loik, Victor Madeira

Information aggression—A Battlefield of Smartphones

Information—primarily digital—is an increasingly important commodity in the modern world and the ubiquitous use of smartphones has meant a change in the way people access information and communicate. The virtual information space has become the primary location for threats, aggression and even potentially foreign occupation. The number of electronic services with fluid lines between public and private, professional and amateur; an absence of physical borders; the 24-hour news cycle: this provides new opportunities for virtual attacks. The ancient tool of propaganda takes on a new importance. There is widespread agreement that Russia under Putin has lifted propaganda to new levels—or perhaps back to Soviet levels but with the ubiquity of modern media in addition. Through access to the information space via such a common device as the smartphone, everyone is affected by the new form of information aggression.

Katrin Nyman Metcalf

The Russian Influence Strategy in Its Contested Neighbourhood

The collapse of the Soviet Union has been followed by a series of conflicts between the Russian Federation and its neighbours. Although some of these conflicts have been fought at the kinetic level, they were justified by Moscow through information warfare activities and supported by influence operations. This chapter, which includes an extensive survey of the literature on the topic, aims to investigate the hybrid warfare strategy carried out by the Russian Federation in its “sphere of influence” over the last three decades—the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), Ukraine (Crimea and Donbass, i.e., Donetsk and Luhansk People’s Republics), Georgia (South Ossetia and Abkhazia) and Moldova (Transnistria)—and to assess the effectiveness of the Russian (dis)information strategy. The essay focuses on the nationalist discourse and the pro-Russia narrative.

Marco Marsili

Propaganda Gone Viral: A Theory of Chinese and Russian “COVID Diplomacy” in the Age of Social Media

How do authoritarian powers adapt to unexpected crises that challenge their capabilities and authority, and turn such crises in their favour? This chapter draws on the exogenous shock of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent “COVID diplomacy” to show how authoritarian powers, when confronted with unexpected crises, adapt. Beijing’s initial reaction to the emergence of COVID-19 arguably favoured its spread, while Moscow initially responded to the novel Coronavirus outbreak by minimizing its significance in state media while mismanaging the outbreak, even to the detriment of top leadership. However, both powers adapted and turned to “COVID-19 diplomacy” to serve pre-existing messaging objectives with domestic and foreign audiences, using targeted messaging in support of medical aid and outreach. Moscow used COVID diplomacy to reassure domestic audiences and win favour with select foreign audiences, while China gained favour with a broader audience. COVID diplomacy also reveals a longstanding objective: spreading epistemological nihilism in target audiences so as to render them more vulnerable to future messaging and more distrustful of their own media, institutions and state. This in turn serves as a mechanism through which these states achieve additional objectives.

Noel Foster

Russian Strategic Communication Towards Europe: Goals, Means and Measures

This chapter analyzes the role of strategic communication in Russian foreign policy towards Europe. Based on literature and document review, background interviews with Russian experts, and a content analysis of media, it maps the ideas, individuals, institutions and narratives that support realization of Russian policy ambitions towards Europe. It examines Russian strategic objectives and how the strategic ambitions are expressed, linguistically and rhetorically, in narratives covering European affairs. The chapter includes an examination of several case studies of the Russian use of various information measures to support Russian policies towards Europe. Special attention is paid to the coverage of three important political events in Europe and how they were presented in the Russian public diplomacy news outlets RT and Sputnik News, as well as in Rossiyskaya Gazeta. The three cases are the Russian narratives on the Brexit referendum, the NATO Warsaw summit and the decision to station American troops in Norway. The analysis reveals the use of narratives that delegitimize and ridicule Western actors, and simultaneously portray Russia as the responsible, knowledgeable and appeasing party—classic great-power traits. The examined Russian narratives question the democratic legitimacy of Western political leaders’ decisions in foreign affairs and play into a divide between the people and the elites, which all are recurrent themes in Russian state-driven propaganda forming an important part of what is sometimes presented as Russian political warfare aimed at the West.

Jakub M. Godzimirski

Synthetic Media and Information Warfare: Assessing Potential Threats

As the information environment is evolving, so are its manipulative uses. Hence, this chapter will focus on so-called synthetic media, produced by employing techniques such as Deep Learning. This class of media includes, e.g., deepfakes, Extended Reality applications, and (some) virtual influencers. To assess emergent threats, this chapter will first discuss the nature of Information Warfare and its connections with changes in the information ecosystem, before moving to the main relevant types of synthetic media, discussing their potential Information Warfare uses and weighing their pros and cons, subsequently evaluating the likelihood of nefarious use by Russia and other aggressive states.

Ignas Kalpokas, Julija Kalpokiene

The Russian Doctrine—A Way for the Political Elite to Maximise the Efficiency of Information Warfare

In 2013, General Gerasimov revealed the Russian perspective on how modern wars are waged in the West and called it “Western inventions and colour revolutions”. In response, the Russian Federation developed their own approach: they adopted similar ideas and actions to use against potential opponents. This approach became known as the “Russian concept of the hybrid war”. It covers all spheres (including information). Unfortunately, the West only has a limited understanding of the concept because they only analyse behaviour and actions but ignore the essence of the theory and the system that makes it efficient. Information warfare only constitutes a small part of the hybrid war. Russia perceives it as war and has ordered the military (the General Staff) to develop a theory (philosophy) and a set of rules and lead a system to wage the war. It is based on and represents certain beliefs. First, according to the theory, Russian actions are always justified. Second, Russia is constantly at war (not in peace). Thirdly, in order to win a war, the entire state (not just a single institution) must be involved, and finally, all activities of all participants must be synchronised, coordinated, and centralised. To achieve this, the Ministry of Defence (MoD) created a comprehensive system that involves both “soft” and “hard” power institutions in the hybrid war. The system is led by the MoD, more specifically, the National Defence Management Centre (NDMC). It supervises, manages, and synchronises all activities in the hybrid war.

Daivis Petraitis

Chapter 7. Modelling and Analysis of Barriers in Lean Green Manufacturing Implementation: An ISM Approach

Lean and green manufacturing is used in firms to achieve better financial, operational and environmental performance. Many researchers concentrated on the integration of these two paradigms in firms. Still, limited researchers have tried to investigate the barriers for firms which creates hindrance in the way of implementation of lean-green. This research is an attempt to identify and analyse the barriers for lean and green manufacturing, also to analyse the relationship among barriers and their effects on the implementation process. A hierarchical structure model has developed with the help of ISM (Interpretive Structural Modelling) and the strength of relationship among barriers have analysed with the help of MICMAC analysis. A nine-level ISM model for barriers has developed which shows ‘Market competition and uncertainty’ at the top position and other barriers such as ‘Lack of government support to integrate green practices’, ‘Lack of environmental awareness’ and ‘Governmental environmental laws and regulations and deficient enforcement’ are at the bottom position of the model.

Sarita Prasad, Rao A. Neelakanteswara, Krishnanand Lanka

Mass Media Instrumentalization in Foreign Policy of States: Russian Strategic Toolset

This chapter focuses on the Russian strategies of foreign mass media instrumentalization on the information-psychological level. Despite an increased interest in both the nature of Russian soft power and information warfare, a study that would strive to overcome the strict division between these paradigms is still missing, especially in the field of strategic thinking. Therefore, the chapter constructs two individual strategic modalities derived from the mentioned paradigms concerning media power and explains their roles in the inclusive Russian strategic toolset. In the end, this chapter provides a reconsidered view of the mass media assets in contemporary Russian foreign policy—it presents the strategic modalities based on soft power and information warfare paradigms as two complementary components of one toolset, with both having a vital impact on strategic diversity leading to remarkable versatility in terms of applicability.

Tomáš Mareš

Chapter 6. Relation with Others

After the above mentioned chapters, devoted to Soft Skills with a more general character, now some Soft Skills are examined, related particularly to specific aspects of relation with others

Edoardo Rovida, Giulio Zafferri

Chapter 1. Introduction

Definition of Soft Skills and their important role during one’s lifetime.

Edoardo Rovida, Giulio Zafferri

Chapter 11. Proposal

Actions introducing soft skills in Engineering Education.

Edoardo Rovida, Giulio Zafferri

Chapter 6. Blair’s Nuclear Regime of Truth

The end of the Cold War and the new international acceptance of the goal of a nuclear weapons free world provided the British government with quite broad bandwidth of possible policies; however none of them were straightforward. Renewing Trident would require a new security rationale to replace the Soviet threat, and this would need to be squared with the global disarmament agenda. Conversely, disarmament would be easy to legitimise internationally, but would face considerable domestic opposition. Labour chose the former option: renewing nuclear weapons despite the lack of an identifiable threat, while at the same time ostensibly claiming to lead global disarmament. This chapter analyses how the UK managed to make this unlikely policy position tenable. As the chapter documents, this required considerable imagination and discursive labour.

Paul Beaumont

Chapter 7. Conclusion

Zooming in upon the workings of the UK’s nuclear regime of truth—from Thatcher to Blair—the previous chapters have documented the considerable imagination and discursive labour that was required to keep Britain’s nuclear weapons in motion. This chapter discusses the main continuities and changes across the periods. First, a common theme has been the consistent (buck) passing of ethical responsibility for the world’s nuclear weapons problem onto other states. Second, the UK’s lack of empathy for how its nuclear weapons are perceived by other states is consistent across both periods. Third, nuclear weapons have enabled the UK to perform privileged international status: as protector of Europe during the 1980s and counter-intuitively, as a “leader” of disarmament from the early 2000s. Fourth, Thatcher’s successful securitisation of the Soviet Union has led to the nuclear peace correlation to become reified in British politics, such that it is even reproduced by British anti-nuclearists in the twenty-first century. Finally, Thatcher’s victories in the 1983 and 1987 elections have become an important discursive resource for marginalising non-nuclear security as viable policy option in domestic politics. The chapter ends by elaborating the implications of the findings for the resurgent global movement aiming to abolish nuclear weapons

Paul Beaumont

Chapter 5. Thatcher’s Nuclear Regime of Truth

This chapter conducts a discourse analysis of how, between 1979 and 1987, Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative government successfully legitimated the acquisition of the Trident weapon system and warded off the anti-nuclearist attacks from the Labour Party. Unsurprisingly, the Conservative government’s representation of the Soviet Union’s aggressive identity underpinned several aspects of the UK’s nuclear discourse. Crucially, the government’s performance of the Soviet’s threatening identity in the past, allowed the government to constitute the transcendental utility of nuclear weapons real, and thus represent Trident as necessary. Successfully securitising the Soviet Union in this way allowed the UK to flesh out and present the nuclear peace correlation as commonsensical. This reification of the nuclear peace correlation further helped marginalise Labour’s preferred policy of non-nuclear security and thus enabled the government to present their opponents as not only naïve, but dangerous. Ultimately, not only did Thatcher succeed in presenting the renewal of Trident as legitimate, but her foreign policy performances would provide considerable discursive resources for the UK’s nuclear foreign policy following the end of the Cold War.

Paul Beaumont

Chapter 2. Explaining Britain’s Bombs

Discourse analysis has over the last two decades become established in international relations scholarship, yet it is also true that discourse analysts have not always taken due care to speak to sceptics among the “mainstream”. Thus, this chapter aims to show—in plain language—how and why discourse analysis can offer additional insight into nuclear politics. The opening section evaluates the various explanations usually provided for why the UK has nuclear weapons. It is structured by Scott Sagan’s (1996) three general explanations—all found in varying degrees in the literature about UK nuclear weapon policy—for why states acquire nuclear weapons: (a) security; (b) status; and, (c) domestic political interests. It then discusses a fourth more contemporary explanation, also found in the UK literature: (d) identity explanations. Along the way, this section discusses the limitations of these explanations and aims to show how a discourse approach can augment these analyses by asking questions that conventional analysts are not equipped, nor inclined to answer, in this case: how nuclear weapons states maintain their nuclear weapons. The second half of the chapter reviews the post-positivist nuclear weapons literature that provides the theoretical foundations and some helpful pointers for this book’s analysis.

Paul Beaumont

Open Access

Chapter 1. Introduction: Problematising the Maintenance of Nuclear Weapons

The nuclear era has prompted a great deal of investigation into how best to manage nuclear weapons, but far less on how states maintain them. Indeed, Security Studies was for a long time mainly concerned with studying nuclear weapons management strategies: deterrence, arms control, and addressing the security challenges related to new nuclear technology. Amidst this, the question of why states maintain nuclear weapons typically receives short shrift: it’s security silly. Yet, only nine nuclear weapon-armed states exist, while 186 get by without nuclear weapons, and most seem content with non-nuclear status. Thus, it makes sense to consider the few states that maintain such unpopular, yet expensive weapons to be a puzzle. Indeed, picking up and running with Nick Ritchie’s notion of “nuclear regimes of truth”, this chapter proposes a research agenda studying the discursive maintenance of nuclear weapons. That is, how governments manage to (re)produce foreign policy discourses that constitute nuclear weapons as legitimate and desirable. In short, such an approach aims to make nuclear weapon states strange. Thus, while the rest of the book explores Britain’s nuclear regime of truth, this introductory chapter lays the groundwork for post-positivist scholars to investigate and unsettle other societies’ nuclear regimes of truth too.

Paul Beaumont

Urban Green Coverage: Importance of Green Roofs and Urban Farming Policies in Enhancing Liveability in Buildings and Cities—Global and Regional Outlook

Green urban coverage (green roofs, green walls and urban farming) has been extensively used in many countries around the world to offset the heat-related problems in cities resulting from severe climate change events. Rapid urbanization and population increase contribute to increasing urban heat island effect (UHIE) and climate change in megacities. Hence, utilizing urban green coverage can assist in reducing CO2 emissions and enhance air pollution in megacities. This chapter presents a review study on the policies and laws regulating the design and implementation of green roofs internationally and regionally. The chapter also highlights and discusses policies’ types enacted for implementing green roofs in Europe, North America, South America and Asia as well as Australasia and MENA region. Examples of green roofs, green walls and urban farming are presented and discussed.

Mohsen Aboulnaga, Heba Fouad

Greening the Urban Environment: An Integrated Approach to Planning Sustainable Cities—The Case of Greater Cairo

This chapter investigates the concept of greening the urban environment as an integrated approach to realizing sustainable urban development, mitigating the impact of rapid urbanization, and enhancing the quality of life. It examines the role of urban greenways in planning sustainable green cities and in alleviating the ills of rapid urbanization.On the one hand, sustainable green planning seeks to maximize environmental performance in order to improve and support the natural environment while enhancing social life and economic vitality of cities. On the other hand, “greenways,” given their benefit on the health and well-being of urban populations, contribute to realizing sustainable green cities. This research thus explores the concept of greenway planning globally and in the Greater Cairo Region (GCR). A thorough analysis of prior studies aims to explore the potential of adopting the greenway concept in the Egyptian context while recognizing impediments hindering the execution of proposed schemes. Earlier research as well as statistical data from international and local organizations suggest that the GCR suffers severe lack of green open spaces despite possessing a huge potential to build a coherent network of greenways with distinct functions. The chapter concludes with suggestions to advance green planning in Egypt.

Khalid Zakaria El Adli, Noha A. Abd El Aziz

Significance of Courtyard House Design in the Arab World

Serious and sober architecture comes from the concept that evolves through time and across generations, and shows its sustainability through innovation and business which is becoming a crucial move along with the product at the time and place of occurrence. Aspirations of the community, cultural identity, and urban context are linked to the environment in which they arise.To some extent and up to the middle of the twentieth century, the architecture of each country and region reflected the heritage and environment of the residents who dwelled in that part of the area. With the effect of globalization and misuse of the “copy-paste” method, ready-deformed designs have disintegrated architecture in societies. This is inherited through a primitive thought fully dependent on the least efforts of designing. The consequences of this behavior have produced buildings without identity which do not meet the requirements of sustainable development.This chapter highlights the best practices by ensuring a sustainable environmental community in Bahrain and shows that this has been tackling the issue from top to bottom, by setting a sustainable strategy for the country and introducing a guideline of green building code. However, lack of building regulations is obvious and they need to be revised in favorites of greenery and saving lands to allow housing developers to build on the edge of the land plot without a setback from three sides of the land. This will have a flexible solution in designing a courtyard type which demonstrates a successful solution for the need of families as well as saving energy. Environmental best practices are led by the private sector, and some good examples of design have the quality of life. Creative designs can be appreciated when they reflect and inspire the past for the need of the present and look forward to the future.

Falah AlKubaisy

Chapter 7. Turkey’s Return to Eurasianism: Is It Real or Just a Pragmatic Discourse?

After the Cold War, one of the much debated issues in Turkey has been foreign policy strategy. For a country that has shaped its foreign policy in accordance with the the systemic requirements and preferences it has brought for a long time, how to construct the new understanding has been considered an important issue. Turkey addresses Eurasianism as a pragmatist discourse and uses the cooperation with Russia when it's necessary, but does not change the strategic orientation. Turkey will able to use Eurasianist background at benefitting from the alternative initiatives. Although strategic shift is not the purpose, proving that Turkey has an alternative like Eurasia is the main goal.

Göktürk Tüysüzoğlu

Chapter 13. Haryana

Haryana is a North Indian state that came into existence in 1966 upon bifurcation from erstwhile Punjab. Since then, corresponding to the increase in the area cultivated under water-intensive crops, the number of irrigation tube wells has recorded more than a thirtyfold increase. This has resulted in a sharp decline in the groundwater table because the water abstraction far exceeds the underground aquifers’ recharge capacity. Haryana also faces water quality problems due to groundwater contamination by industrial pollution, salination and heavy metal concentration. The degradation in quality is partly because of excessive groundwater extraction. These twin problems of quantity and quality pose a water and food security threat not just for this state but also for the country, as Haryana contributes 6.9% of India’s national food grain production. The State Assembly has tried to manage these problems through piecemeal legislation. The authors analyse the existing laws in light of Haryana’s groundwater issues to suggest appropriate policy interventions that the state must consider to avoid creating collateral issues and promote sustainable groundwater resource management.

Sushruti Tripathi, Surya Gupta

Chapter 4. Greater Eurasia as a Conservative Initiative

Conservatism is a political philosophy about managing change. Conservatism stipulates that the modern must be developed on the foundation of the traditional as societies thrive when they are positioned between continuity and change.

Glenn Diesen

Chapter 3. Asia Before Eurasianism: The Pre-Revolutionary Roots of a Russian Emigré Ideology

Eurasianism evolved from nineteenth–century ideas that Russia also had an Asian identity. Like the Slavophiles, proponents of this notion stressed their nation’s differences with the West. However, while the former argued that they were European, albeit very different from the continent’s “Roman-German” western half, such Asianists stressed their kinship with the East. Their leading advocates built on the ideas of Nikolai Karamzin, Petr Chaadaev, Aleksandr Herzen, Vladimir Titov, and Baron Roman Undern von Sternberg.

David Schimmelpenninck van der Oye

Chapter 11. Chhattisgarh

The State of Chhattisgarh is remarkably blessed with natural resources of various kinds that it relies upon for its overall development. The natural resource of groundwater is no exception. Chhattisgarh has sufficient quantities of groundwater beneath its land, but the water level is falling rapidly with each passing day. Due to over-exploitation of groundwater, drinking water sources are draining, drying up, and water quality is fast deteriorating. Due to the nature of industrialization, groundwater is also being contaminated with iron, arsenic, nitrate, salinity and fluorides. The State Government has initiated many measures, including reviving traditional wisdom relating to water harvesting to preserve water, including groundwater. This chapter sets out some of the challenges faced by the State of Chhattisgarh relating to groundwater management and analyses the State’s groundwater policy. It also explains the judicial approach in this regard.

Deepak Kumar Srivastava

Chapter 5. Central Asia in Eurasia: Its Role in History

Traditionally, Eurasia’s inner areas have remained almost unnoticed in the huge continent’s complex and multi-faceted history, when compared, of course, with the great civilisations of Western and Eastern Europe, China, India and the Middle East.

Sultan Akimbekov

Chapter 2. Greater Eurasia: From Geopolitical Pole to International Society?

The last few years have seen a radical shift that could change the entire structure of international relations. In general terms, it is the transition from bipolarity to multipolarity. An important aspect of this process is the formation of alternative systems of international governance, especially on the regional level.

Alexander Lukin, Dmitry Novikov

Chapter 11. The United States and Eurasia in Historical Perspective

Eurasia has stood at the center of American foreign-policy concerns since the founding of the republic in 1776. The European balance of power played a central role in the birth of the nation and its expansion across North America in the nineteenth century. In the twentieth, shaping the balance of power first in East Asia, then in Europe, and finally in Eurasia as a whole became, and remains to this day, vital to American security and prosperity.

Thomas Graham

Chapter 9. Finding Compatibility Between Eurasian Partnership and Indo-Pacific Security: And Indian Perspective

India’s engagement with continental Eurasia is woven into its history, culture, literature, legend and mythology. Over many periods between the sixth century BCE and the third century CE, kingdoms of northern India extended to lands in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Central Asia and Xinjiang (in present-day China). The Silk Road, connecting India with China and Europe through Central Asia, was also a channel for the exchange of ideas, religions, cultures and philosophies. Islam came through Afghanistan to India. Centuries later, the Moghuls came from Uzbekistan. India's post-Cold War efforts seek to resurrect these old connections, to reinforce political and economic approaches. This paper analyses the evolution of India's foreign policy strategies for Indo-Pacific and Eurasian structures. It examines whether (and how) these strategies could be mutually compatible, rather than mutually exclusive.

P. S. Raghavan

Chapter 1. Sad Delusions: From Greater Europe to Greater Eurasia

In recent years there has been much talk of the return of a bipolar structure to international order, with the dominance of the United States challenged by the emergence of a peer competitor in the form of China.

Richard Sakwa

Chapter 6. Summary and Outlook

In this book, we summarize the latest work on personalized privacy protection in terms of information technology. Personalized privacy protection is still in its infancy. The theories, algorithms, and other conceptual designs surveyed in this book could be a starting point for forthcoming researchers and readers to probe this under-explored domain. We aim to offer a systematic summary of existing research and application outputs on personalized privacy protection, which also testifies the theoretical and practical applicability in diverse big data scenarios. We also subsequently present a couple of potentially promising directions, with which we expect to assist in avoiding superfluous efforts from subsequent interested explorers.

Youyang Qu, Mohammad Reza Nosouhi, Lei Cui, Shui Yu

Transboundary Groundwater Management Issues in the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS)

Transboundary resource management refers to the principle of reasonable utilisation of land and water. This requires consideration of the social and ecological dimensions of groundwater use, in addition to hydrological monitoring and modelling systems. Egypt is a world leader in transboundary groundwater management and regional cooperation on water management issues more broadly. This chapter discusses Egypt’s experiences in leading knowledge generation and sharing with other riparian countries to further the sustainable utilization of the major transboundary aquifer in Africa: the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS). To date, Egyptian transboundary groundwater management initiatives have been state-led, and have focused on the generation of studies with the intent to share data between countries on the hydrological conditions and volumes of water flowing through the aquifer. This is intended to enhance management and coordination. However, this data sharing is slow and sometimes sensitive. Furthermore, it has been difficult for the transboundary groundwater management initiatives to get to grips in any practical way with the challenges of sustainable groundwater use. Practices to conserve the health of the land that stores the groundwater reserves, and enable their replenishment also receive little attention in transboundary cooperation for groundwater management. To monitor, manage and sustain the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic aspects of the transboundary system requires the engagement of local institutions to conduct or facilitate the monitoring and to implement the management practices. For them, it is important not only to pursue the sustainable management of the aquifer over the longer term, but also to consider how to improve the viability of local resource management in the short term. In light of this, the main recommendation is to build and share knowledge about local capacities to manage ecosystem service production and recharge patterns in the surface layers, as well as to monitor and jointly manage the reserves stored in the deeper layers.

Caroline King-Okumu, Ahmed Abdelkhalek

Chapter 2. A Good Story: Delivering an Experience

Many reporters and producers do not take enough time to review their material at the beginning of their research or project. Later on, this repeatedly leads to major problems. The good news is that these problems can be avoided. To do so, you need to ask the right questions: Does my material match the central story principles? Do I have a real narrative sentence? Does the story work as an audio story? This chapter examines criteria for story checking and development. And given that a good story well told is an important storytelling concept, in this chapter I focus on the first half of this phrase. What’s a good story anyway?

Sven Preger

Chapter 10. Work Routine for the Narrative Reporter

Acoustic narration is a form of representation or genre in its own right. Therefore, it needs a different work process from other forms like news or reports. Mostly, this process takes place over a longer period of time, from weeks or months to sometimes years. In order for reporters to remain in control of the process, a structured approach helps—from the pitch to the final documentation, which also includes how to avoid the most important story mistakes. This chapter therefore concludes with examples of what a narration workflow can look like and how to fix the ten most frequent story problems we identified at the beginning of this book.

Sven Preger

Chapter 8. International Relations: Complexity, Interdependence and Multilateralism—A Tragic Dilemma

This chapter retraces Keynes’s way of reasoning on measure and on the role of tragic irreducible conflicts and dilemmas in his approach to international relations. The chapter shows how Keynes’s approach is a constant from his early Indian Currency and Finance (1913) to the General Theory and on to his Plan for Bretton Woods, the Clearing Union and his 1945 Memorandum. It also devotes great attention to the concept of the ‘fear of goods’ (a concept which stands for the love of money); a concept that Keynes borrows from mercantilism and he uses against mercantilist practices. This chapter again shows Keynes’s anti-utilitarian attitude and his dislike for the hoarding of money. Keynes is a moral scientist, a promoter of happiness scathingly critical of the love of money. The final part of the chapter is devoted to the current discussion on global imbalances and the euro-zone and to what Keynes would have proposed to overcome these global imbalances and the conditions for their reduction, had he been alive today.

Anna M. Carabelli

Chapter 5. Conclusion: Digital Talent Management—Into the Age of Renewal

This chapter concludes by bringing together the main arguments of the book and by outlining their implications for research and practice. It first summarizes the contribution that this book makes to the existing literature by defining and developing the concept of digital talent and delineating digital talent management (DTM) as a human-centered talent management process that consists of strategies and practices applied and applicable to digital talent. Further, this chapter discusses the managerial implications of this research by emphasizing how a crisis such as COVID-19 has impacted the management of digital talent. It ends with a look into the future of DTM in post-COVID-19 times—a future that is both uncertain and unalike what the world has witnessed before.

Sorin Dan, Diana Ivana, Monica Zaharie, Daniel Metz, Mihaela Drăgan

Chapter 4. Attracting, Developing and Retaining Digital Talent: Empirical Evidence

While talent management emerged and later developed as a focus in both the academics’ and practitioners’ agendas, companies continue to face challenges in implementing talent management strategies. This is particularly the case with respect to digital talent and the use of digital talent management that takes into account and decidedly integrates the distinctive nature of digital talent into talent management strategies and practices in a human-centered way. Aiming to balance the early normative approaches in talent management, this chapter integrates the scholarly perspective with empirical evidence on the effective digital talent management practices implemented by information and communication technology (IT&C) companies. Balancing the organizational and individual perspective, the chapter provides insights on effective practices to attract, develop and retain digital talent, based on a qualitative research design that included individual interviews with representatives of the management of IT&C companies, HR staff and IT&C professionals.

Sorin Dan, Diana Ivana, Monica Zaharie, Daniel Metz, Mihaela Drăgan

Chapter 8. Productive Forms of Capitalism: Trends and Prospects

In this chapter, the book analyses the marginalized productive forms of capitalism in the continent—mixed-economy capitalism, state capitalism, entrepreneurial capitalism and safari capitalism—exploring the practical feasibility and empirical conditions under which the ascendancy of productive capitalism can accelerate Africa’s growth and development. The chapter argues that entrepreneurial capitalism which holds the key to radical and sustainable transformation in today’s global economy has been heavily subdued, starved and suffocated in Africa. To develop and strengthen entrepreneurial capitalism and other forms of productive capitalism, the chapter proposes practical strategies for expansion of local entrepreneurs’ favourable access to start-up capital, use of smart regulations and incentives to support local production and services, massive infrastructural development, as well as institutional reforms to uproot and sweep out the aberrant versions of capitalism pervasive in the continent. Other constructive measures proposed include ways to strengthen the tax infrastructures, mitigation of illegal capital outflow and how Africa could strategically reposition itself at a regional level to enhance the mobilization of international finance and development assistance.

Kenneth Omeje

Chapter 3. Digital Talent Management Strategies and Practices

This chapter surveys the literature regarding organizational attraction, development and retention strategies as they apply to digital talent. In combination with the literature review, the chapter integrates key practices found in the information and communication technology industry and discusses their implications for digital talent management.

Sorin Dan, Diana Ivana, Monica Zaharie, Daniel Metz, Mihaela Drăgan

Chapter 7. China–Africa Relations: Averting the Risk of Deepening Subaltern Capitalism

This chapter examines in detail China–Africa relations which has been the primary basis for the commodity boom and growth of the past one and half decades, but argues that there is the need to deploy appropriate regional and national strategies to avert the reproduction of subaltern capitalism in the relationship. The chapter further explores the history of the Chinese engagement with Africa which can be divided into three phases: the pre-colonial phase (howbeit, China had no colonial ambition in Africa), the early independence phase and the contemporary post-Cold War phase. China–Africa relations have grown remarkably since the 1990s with the result that over the past decade, China has been Africa’s largest trading partner, displacing historical and traditional allies like the European Union and the US.

Kenneth Omeje

Chapter 3. The “French–Africa Connection” and the Refusal to Decolonize

This chapter examines the peculiar context of the Francophone African countries whose economies have evidently been far more characterized by the loss of economic and monetary sovereignty than the rest of postcolonial Africa. It is evident that to protect their strategic interests in Africa, the French have long championed a policy of active interference and engagement with their ex-colonies since the latter were granted political independence, which tantamounts to “a refusal to decolonize.” France aims to maintain postcolonial relationships with the African countries under its neocolonial orbit through a set of structural and relational arrangements loosely known as Françafrique. The various dimensions of Françafrique are discussed in the chapter—the sociocultural, educational, geopolitical, military and economic dimensions.

Kenneth Omeje

Chapter 5. Dysfunctional Versions of Capitalism and the Political Economy of “Eating”

This chapter explores the institutional context of capitalism in postcolonial Africa, as well as the various dominant versions of dysfunctional capitalism devised and operated in postcolonial Africa. The chapter argues that capitalism, to a large extent, dysfunctions in contemporary Africa. The fundamentals essentially do not work because of “the political economy of eating or squanderation” Dysfunctional capitalism is mainly a product of the dysfunctionality of the state. Diverse caricature and grotesque versions of capitalism have developed in postcolonial Africa, namely: oligarchic capitalism, crony capitalism, hostage capitalism, predatory capitalism and mafia capitalism. The greatest problem with dysfunctional capitalism is that it makes a total nonsense and mockery of the economics of policy planning, choice, reforms, resource allocation, growth and development.

Kenneth Omeje

Chapter 1. Capitalism and the African Context

This chapter explores and interrogates conceptual issues about capitalism in general and the African context, appraising the contradictions that have characterized its historical evolution and development in the African continent. The chapter argues that contrary to the orthodox knowledge in African political economy, capitalism in Africa was not a colonial transplantation. An indigenous mode of capitalism was already evolving in Sub-Saharan Africa prior to European contact, which coexisted with other social modes of production, such as kinship-centred communalism and feudalism. However, the evolution of indigenous capitalism in Africa was profoundly interrupted and truncated by over 300 years of trans-Atlantic slave trade, followed by colonial conquest and the introduction of the Western-oriented mode of frontier capitalism.

Kenneth Omeje

An Analysis of Critical Success Factors Using Analytical Hierarchy Process for Implementation of Lean with Industry 4.0 in SMEs

In the present technological era, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) aim to enhance productivity with improve quality and reduce costs. They are focusing on value-adding activities through lean manufacturing, but there is a need to access technologies through the fourth industrial revolution for overall organization performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify and rank the critical success factors for effective implementation of lean with industry 4.0 in SMEs. The analytical hierarchy process technique is selected to identify the most important CSF which needs to focus more, while the implementation phase. The total 12 critical success factors (CSFs) are identified through literature review and clustered into four dimensions: Management, technological, organizational, and economics. A hierarchical structure has been developed based on these CSFs. The finding of the study shows that CSFs dimension ‘technological’ is found most important for SMEs to successfully implement lean production with industry 4.0. This is followed by the CSFs dimension ‘management’. From level 3 CSFs, digital manufacturing found most significance, followed by top management support. The present study will provide an accurate decision tool to the SMEs to implement lean with industry 4.0 technologies in a more effective and systematic way for organization benefits.

Praveen Saraswat, Rajeev Agrawal, M. L. Meena

Progression of EFQM and Deep-Dive into EFQM 2020

Strategically, business excellence models drive quality initiatives in organisations and are adopted as a framework for measuring organisational effectiveness. EFQM modelling framework is one of the very popular business excellence modelling structures and is globally accepted by leaders and quality professionals across several countries to motivate organisations to formulate strategies for continual improvement of organisational processes leading to excellence. This paper tracks the historical evolution of the EFQM models and dissects the model to its most fundamental elements and presents the analysis of the EFQM model over the past three decades.

M. A. Narasimha Murthy, Kuldip Singh Sangwan, N. S. Narahari

Das Schaffen einer innovationsförderlichen Verwaltungskultur für die digitale Transformation

Dieses Kapitel befasst sich mit dem Kulturwandel im öffentlichen Sektor. Es beschreibt die Elemente, die eine innovationsfreundliche Verwaltungskultur fördern und somit die digitale Transformation im öffentlichen Sektor erleichtern. Konkret geht der Beitrag auf die Entwicklung des Diskurses rund um Innovation im öffentlichen Sektor, die Entwicklung einer neuen Lern- und Kollaborationskultur sowie einer neuen Führungskultur ein.

Angelina Dungga, Carmen Ferri, Kathrin Schmidt, Alessia Neuroni

Pythagorean Fuzzy Soft Sets-Based MADM

Modern set theory offers intelligent, unbiased, and comprehensive solutions to many problems faced by human beings in day-to-day life. Most of the extensively held problems from daily life involve uncertainties, imprecision, and vagueness. Fuzzy sets, introduced by Zadeh and soft sets, introduced by Molodstov are significant mathematical models to cope with such uncertainties and imprecision present in the data. These models have their own deficiencies, especially regarding loss of information. We present Pythagorean fuzzy soft sets (PFSSs) as a hybrid structure of fuzzy sets and soft sets, in this chapter. Some notions related to PFSSs along with their algebraic properties are brought into light. We elaborate the notions presented with real-life examples and tabular representations to develop the affluence of linguistic variables based on Pythagorean fuzzy soft (PFS) information. We present practical implementations of PFSSs in multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) problems from daily life using choice value method, “Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution” (TOPSIS), “Vlse Kriterijumska Optimizacija Kompromisno Resenje” (VIKOR) and similarity measures.

Khalid Naeem, Muhammad Riaz

Chapter 7. Critical Success Factors of Adopting Servitization Strategy

Currently, the industry focuses on technology and innovation to increase the capabilities and relevance to markets. However, there is an important strategy that needs attention, especially in the manufacturing sector, to improve the company’s performance. “Servitization” is a strategy to add value proposition to a product through service offerings. This chapter explores the concept of servitization strategy and identifies important factors to adopt the strategy. The concept of product and service is explained in this chapter, and the evolution of research related to this topic. Six critical success factors of servitization identify as the outcome of this study.

Anas Hasbullah, Norani Nordin

Chapter 5. Think Global, Act Local: Strategies to Develop a Sustainable Mobility Programme in Promoting Socio-Economic Development for a Better Quality Education

Sustaining a mobility programme at higher learning institutions requires dedication and commitment from all parties involved. However, it is difficult to sustain a mobility programme due to several factors such as financial support, marketability of the programme, the number of participants attending, and the institution’s political changes. In view of this, a good reference model is required to identify the challenges and provide the solution needed to sustain the mobility programme. A model has been developed, and it provides the identification of challenges and detailed solutions required. The model’s success is discussed through its implementation on a mobility programme known as UKM-GSMP, which has been running for more than a decade. This had further proved that with proper model, strategy and execution, it is possible to sustain a mobility programme for a period of time. Stakeholders’ interviews showed that the program has provided the students with good experience, and knowledge and helped them understand the local culture, leading to better education quality. The programme had also benefited the institution socio-economic development via the income generation and good branding for the university.

Farah Azea Khalid, Yazrina Yahya

Chapter 2. Service Science and Sustainability

Service science is one of the interdisciplinary studies of service systems established in the early twenty-first century. It aims to tackle the value creation issues in complex systems with Service-Dominant Logic in human societies heavily affected by the interactive effects of technological innovation and social changes. The academic research paradigm shifts toward an engaged scholarship to encourage the iterative cycle of discovering issues faced in the real world and generating solutions to solve the problems, facilitating theory building and technology development. In this chapter, the service science discipline is elaborated and connects its research activities to achieve sustainability goals. A case study is used for explaining the issues, involved stakeholders, methods, and tools to attain sustainability. The major contribution of this case study is to position the emerging discipline of service science onto the important missions to achieve the sustainability of human societies by modelling the complexity of service ecosystems as actor-to-actor networks using Service-Dominant Logic and innovating service systems that sustain the value co-creation processes among different stakeholders (actors) including the natural environment. This case study results serve as an example that could inspire other practices in similar service ecosystems to realize their sustainability.

Fu-Ren Lin

Chapter 16. Sydney Opera House, Sydney, Australia

One of the most celebrated modern buildings in the world, next to the Fallingwater, must be the Sydney Opera House. From its inception to its implementation, it has occupied the attention of the Australian nation as well as that of the Western world. It has been one of the most complex and visible construction projects anywhere in the world. The design created by the Danish architect, Jorn Utzon, has had no equals, or successor for that matter. Its implementation was possible only because an unprecedented national and professional resolve overcame sizable political, technical, aesthetic, financial, and cultural obstacles. The role that this building and its design played in the life of an entire nation for a period of a decade during its construction is absolutely unprecedented in modern architectural history.

Ömer Akın

Branding the Public Service of Canada: A Model Worthy of Emulation or Unfulfilled Promise?

The adoption of new public management has had a profound impact on public services around the world as they began to incorporate a series of private sector business principles into their governance and service delivery models. One such development, which is now ubiquitous, was the use of various public sector branding processes, including attempts to brand government as a whole and its various departments, ministries, and other public sector organizations like corporations. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the Canadian federal government’s effort to emulate several leading private sector organizations that attempt to brand themselves as employers of choice. More specifically, in 2007, the former Canada Public Service Agency formally spearheaded a plan to establish a master brand for the federal public service. This particular initiative has been singled out as one of the most interesting branding exercises undertaken by a government. To what extent is that an accurate assessment? Has Canada truly been the vanguard with respect to branding the Public Service of Canada as an employer of choice? The chapter argues that despite good intentions and the discernible benefits to be derived from branding the public service, the initiative, like so many government reform efforts, has been one of unfulfilled promise. The government has yet to deliver a compelling public sector brand that has coalesced the views of current and prospective public servants and citizens alike around the name, values, and identity of the Canadian public service.

Tim A. Mau

Branding from Within: Internal Brand Management in the Public Sector

This chapter focuses on public sector branding from an internal, employee perspective. It shows that for public organizations to ensure desired outcomes, organizations should adopt a multi-level approach to their internal brand management. This entails considering factors on sectoral, organizational, and individual levels. Further, a central message of the chapter is that public sector organizations may need to reconsider some traditional brand knowledge to ensure the brand management is approached in a manner better suited for the sector.

PhD Dr. Ulrika Leijerholt


I will end as the book began – with a nod to the rapid changes in our world affecting communities globally. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to shake our sense of place and urgency. Many people thought something like this could not happen again in an advanced society. Epidemiologists, though, warned about a virus-spreading crisis repeatedly (Cox et al. 2003). “A pandemic is considered likely if the novel virus is readily transmissible from person to person and causes disease and if there are large populations worldwide that lack immunity to the virus” (Cox et al. 2003, p. 1801).

Staci M. Zavattaro

Who Learns from Who in Participatory Practices of Place Brand Co-creation? An Exponential Random Graph Modelling Analysis on the Determinants of Learning Interactions in a Belgian Branding Process

This chapter examines the conditions under which individual 12 stakeholders within a Flemish case are likely to engage with other participants in learning activities during a place brand co-creation. In order to make inferences about the learning interactions among these stakeholders, the statistical network methodology of Exponential Random Graph Modelling (ERGM) is used. So far, ERGMs have not been applied in place branding studies. The ERGM method has been used in neuroscience (Teleford et al. 2011), conflict management and piece studies (Cranmer et al., Confl Manag Peace Sci 29(3):279–313, 2012) as it helps to explain tie-formations (Goodreau, Soc Netw 29:231–248, 2007). This means the methodology is able to draw inferential conclusions about why individual actors have a tendency to connect with some people and not with others. Hence, by looking at the conditions under which these individual stakeholders are likely to learn from each other, we aim to gain a better understanding of how through dialogue place brands are co-created by multiple active stakeholders.The data were collected in two steps: the involved stakeholders were first asked to fill a standardized questionnaire and then interviewed to ask to follow-up question based upon their initial responses on the survey. The results show four significant conclusions: (1) relational history matters. This means that repeated deliberation in different settings, instigates a modus vivendi (stable network). (2) Societal relevance matters, if an individual believes the project is meaningful to society, they are more eager to learn. (3) Less managerial involvement increases the learning interactions and (4) ingenious stakeholders (who can combine different branding stories into coherent vision) are more likely to connect and learn from various network alters.

Vidar Stevens, Peter Nafzger

From a Dog’s Breakfast to a King’s Table: Branding and Marketing a Major Research University

This chapter outlines how a university system shaped and developed its brand identity. Focusing, clarifying and articulating the university brand often leads to improved stakeholder engagement and unprecedented opportunities. Leaders of the process must unleash emotion, creativity, research high points and a strong sense of place while harnessing reason, balance, value and integrity. The authors articulate what is takes to strengthen a higher education brand from identifying a visual disconnect and justifying branding needs to navigating speed bumps, creating branding guides and resources, launching, promoting, and measuring outcomes.

Julia Cummings, Ken McConnellogue

#thatswhywestallis Shows the World How Good West Allis Feels

This chapter details how one city developed and communicated its brand identity.

Jenny Kosek

Chapter 11. Book Reviews: Natural Resources

The authors have reviewed seven technical books published by WIT Press, Ashurst, Southampton, UK; CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida, USA; and ASCE Press, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia 20,191, USA. These seven books are: (1) Flood Risk Assessment and Management, WIT Press, 2012; (2) Groundwater Assessment, Modeling, and Management. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016; (3) Natural Decadal Climate Variability: Societal Impacts. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2017; (4) Sustainable Water Management and Technologies: Volume I, Sustainable Water Management; Volume II, Sustainable Water Technologies; CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2017; (5) Underground Aqueducts Handbook. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2017; (6) Urban Storm Water Management, Second Edition, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016; and (7) Water Engineering with the Spreadsheet, ASCE Press, 2016. All seven reviewed books are in the professional areas of natural resources, management, treatment, and resources recovery. In each book review, the authors introduce the publisher, authors, editors, and previous old editions of the book, if they exist. Each book is reviewed and discussed in terms of its technical coverage, professional level, area of applications, affordability to readers, advantages, disadvantages, suitability for international distribution, recommended readership, possible improvements, etc.

Lawrence K. Wang, Mu-Hao Sung Wang

Kapitel 5. Öl als politisches Instrument: Von der Emanzipation zur Konfrontation der Exportländer

Über Jahrhunderte hatten die Ökonomien und Gesellschaften im vorindustriellen und modernen Europa zur Deckung des Energiebedarfs mit den auf dem europäischen Kontinent vorhandenen Kraftquellen und Brennstoffen das Auslangen gefunden.

Alexander Smith

3. Handlungsfelder des Produktionsmanagements

In diesem Kapitel erfolgt die Beschreibung der vielschichtigen Handlungsfelder eines ganzheitlichen Produktionsmanagements. Die Basis hierfür sind die Beschreibungen des strategischen Rahmens des Produktionsmanagements, der in Kap. 2 gegeben wird. Basierend darauf folgen nun die Beschreibungen zu dem Technologiemanagement, dem Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystem, dem Ganzheitlichen Produktentstehungssystem, der Führung in Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystemen, der Produktionsplanung und -steuerung, dem Logistikmanagement, dem Supply Chain Management, den Knocked-Down-Verfahren, dem Industriellen Qualitätsmanagement, dem Instandhaltungsmanagement, dem Facility Management, der Ressourceneffizienten Fabrik sowie dem Human Resource Management. Jedes dieser genannten Handlungsfelder wird zunächst theoretisch beschrieben und anschließend durch einen thematischen Praxisbeitrag ergänzt. Damit sollen anwendungsorientierte Einblicke in die praktische Umsetzung des ganzheitlichen Produktionsmanagements gegeben werden.

S. Anders, H. Biedermann, Y. Dix, U. Dombrowski, K. Franz, A. Gemeiner, U. Gerkens, T. Hoffmann, P. Huke, C. Intra, H. Knake, P. Krenkel, M. Meeser, T. Mielke, H. Nottbohm, F. Nyhuis, D. Opritescu, K. Patzelt, T. Rennemann, T. Richter, J. Wullbrandt, T. Zahn

8. Crisis Communication

On March 6, 2020, President Trump visited a health center in Atlanta; after a facility tour, he expressed being impressed with the testing procedures. They were not only “beautiful,” he said, but as perfect as his phone call the other day (to Ukraine). There was little sign of concern about the pandemic that was just gaining momentum. Instead, Trump discovered something new—his own personal insightfulness. Dr. Trump: “I like this stuff. I really get it. (...) Every one of these doctors said, ‘How do you know so much about this?’ Maybe I have a natural ability.” Lastly, he asked a Fox News reporter how good the ratings of the news show had been the night before.—Amazing how this works: a presidency in six sentences.

Klaus Kamps

7. The Substitute King (and His Framers)

In mid-September 2019, it became known in Washington that an anonymous whistleblower from the ranks of the US intelligence services had triggered an internal whistleblower procedure: in a phone call in June, Trump allegedly urged Ukrainian President Volodymyr Selinskyi to open an investigation against Hunter Biden (Joe Biden’s son). The president may have withheld aid money—money that had already been approved by Congress—until Ukraine publicly announced an investigation on (corruption allegations). Immediately, the implication was that Trump had abused his office and pressured a foreign government to gain a personal advantage in the 2020 election. The phone call itself was not in dispute. Trump spoke of a “nice” conversation; later it was always “perfect.” And of course, there was no trace of pressure on Selinskyi.

Klaus Kamps

3. Campaigns

In October 2008, barely a month before the presidential election, at a town hall meeting in Minnesota, a citizen confronted John McCain with her reservations about Barack Obama: “I can’t trust Obama. I have read about him. He’s an Arab.” McCain responded, “No, ma’am. He’s a decent family man, citizen, that I just happen to have disagreements with on fundamental issues.” Thereby the senator buried the rural event instead of calming tensions; any attempts at factual discussion failed.

Klaus Kamps

4. POTUS: President of the United States

Picture-perfect for all who were also somehow entertained by Trump’s presidency, a finally complete cabinet gathered at the White House on June 12, 2017, for its first meeting. It had taken some time, after turbulent weeks, the opportunity was to present the government as a business-ready entity. Of course, such public meetings at the White House are part of the business model, not just since Trump. However, this event in particular marked a cabinet meeting for the ages.

Klaus Kamps

Chapter 2. An Appropriate Response: A Skills Development Framework

In this chapter, we lay out a conceptual framework for a skill development perspective to entrepreneurship development. We argue that entrepreneurship development should be considered a transformational offering that requires mass customization. Developing entrepreneurs necessitate a skills-based complex system. For this purpose, we describe a conceptual framework for managing such a system called Transformational Collaborative Outcomes Management (TCOM), which comes from the helping professions, particularly behavioral health. We elaborate its five-stage process—access, assessment and engagement, intervention planning and delivery, monitoring and adapting, coordination and care management, and transitioning—and adapt this to the entrepreneurship development process.

Thomas S. Lyons, John S. Lyons, Julie A. Samson

Chapter 1. The Paradigm Shift in Entrepreneurship Education

This chapter discusses major recent changes in the way we think about entrepreneurs and how they are developed. It begins with the idea that entrepreneurs are born, not made, and how that theory influenced entrepreneurship education and policy, until it was largely debunked through research, shifting thinking toward the development of entrepreneurs. Along the way, entrepreneurship educators moved away from business plans and planning processes toward customer discovery and business modeling. Entrepreneurship is now thought of as a method, requiring a skill set to be executed successfully.

Thomas S. Lyons, John S. Lyons, Julie A. Samson

Chapter 7. Implementing a Skills-Based Curriculum with an Outcomes Management Framework

In this chapter, we discuss two major pathways forward: (1) the support of entrepreneurship development programs’ ability to provide a skill development curriculum and learning experiences and (2) encouraging the use of transformational management strategies to enhance the effectiveness of these programs. We describe the RISE and its features as an online platform available to all, and we encourage a collaborative approach to entrepreneurship development across programs using the TCOM conceptual framework. Our message is one of cooperation, with an emphasis on the kind of equitable treatment of entrepreneurs and students of entrepreneurship that our communimetric approach to skills measurement permits.

Thomas S. Lyons, John S. Lyons, Julie A. Samson

Chapter 6. The Case of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

The Entrepreneurship Program in the Gary W. Rollins College of Business at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga is using the RISE to help it implement a strategy that focuses on building the entrepreneurship skills of its students. It is taking its long-standing curriculum and closely integrating it with the co-curricular activities of its new Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. The result is an interesting set of unique practices that reinforce the knowledge imparted in the classroom in a way that strategically facilitates skill building.

Thomas S. Lyons, John S. Lyons, Julie A. Samson

Chapter 4. Applying the Skills Assessment to Entrepreneurship Education

In this chapter, we will take up the application of the clinical assessment tool called the RISE to the education of students of entrepreneurship. We will pick up on the discussion of the current model of entrepreneurship education begun in Chapter 1 , exploring learning theory, both curriculum and co-curricular activities, and where the RISE might fit into this flow. We will look at the application of outcomes management principles to skill building efforts in entrepreneurship education. Finally, we will examine how the RISE has been modified and extended over the course of its development and the implications of this for its use in the entrepreneurship education arena.

Thomas S. Lyons, John S. Lyons, Julie A. Samson

Chapter 3. The RISE of a Clinical Approach to Skills Assessment

Entrepreneur development programs have many choices in terms of how they might elect to measure skills. However, any program that conceptualizes entrepreneurship as a set of skills must make this decision. In order to remain consistent with the TCOM framework and create an efficient and collaborative assessment process, we have created the Readiness Inventory for Successful Entrepreneurship (RISE).To achieve the aspirations of TCOM we have used the communimetric measurement theory. In this chapter we describe this theory and contrast it to traditional theories of measurement. We then describe the development, structure and uses of the RISE.

Thomas S. Lyons, John S. Lyons, Julie A. Samson

Design of Hospital Remote Consultation and Teaching System Based on Deep Learning

The application of deep learning technology makes the hospital’s remote consultation and teaching system more humane. Therefore, this research designed a hospital remote consultation and teaching system based on deep learning technology. First of all, through the analysis of the problems of system construction, clear system design objectives. With the support of the system hardware, the deep learning process is used to realize the functions of case collection, remote consultation, doctor recommendation, remote education and training, and case sharing. Using experiments to analyze the actual application performance of the hospital remote consultation and teaching system based on deep learning, and comparing it with the traditional system, it verifies that the system in this paper is more effective.

Ying Bao

Chapter 3. Intellectual Capital within Nonprofit Organizations (NPOs)

This chapter introduces the reader to the topic of the book. It starts by describing the pivotal role of intellectual capital (IC) in the knowledge-based economy. Many authors have contributed to enrich the economic and management literature on intellectual capital by providing numerous definitions, measurement methods, and guidelines for its reporting. However, most of the studies focused their attention on companies operating in the for-profit sector. Therefore, there is a need to unveil what are the components and effects of IC in terms of human, relational, and structural capital can have on nonprofit organizations, especially with regard to SCEs’ multidimensional performance. To this purpose, the chapter provides a descriptive literature review by investigating the concepts of IC in the nonprofit sector to highlight the strategic role of IC for social cooperative enterprises. Finally, it also provides an innovative multidimensional measuring system of IC for SCEs by the development of a set of key performance indicators (KPIs) able to capture the value generated by human, relational and structural capital.

Francesca Sgrò

Chapter 4. Intellectual Capital and Firm Performance

This chapter addresses the relationship between intellectual capital and firms’ performance, with a focus on hybrid organizations. For these enterprises, the concept of performance overcomes the traditional one, as “profit maximization.” In fact, organizational performance is defined as multidimensional considering that these hybrid organizations adopt a social mission while generating profit to sustainably accomplish this mission. Therefore, the performance can be divided into social or mission) and economic dimensions. Hence, drawing on the literature, the chapter offers an overview of the studies regarding the relationship between IC and the performance of hybrid organizations as well as the hypotheses development, devoted to testing the influence of human, relational, and structural capital on SCEs’ performance.

Francesca Sgrò
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