Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book
The issue of radio frequency in outer space is a very pertinent one, due to the plethora of satellites operating and about to operate in the outer space. Thus, the possibility of interference of this form is getting higher by the day. ITU regulations and International law may be sought recourse to in such matters. This article address this issue based on three aspects in the legal regime on frequency interference, viz., (a) the governing legal framework; (b) the challenges in current legal regime; (c) the proposed solutions and promotions to current legal regime.
Please log in to get access to this content
To get access to this content you need the following product:
Graf, R. F. (1974). Dictionary of Electronics, Page 467.
Sue, M.K. “Radio frequency interference at the geostationary orbit.” NASA. Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Radio Regulation, Art1.166-1.171 Geneva, WRC-12, (2012)
Ibid, 1.169 Geneva, WRC-12, (2012)
See, report of ITU seminar:
See, Arab representative speech on radio conference: http://www.itu.int/ITU-R/index.asp?category = conferences&rlink
ITU Constitution, Article 1, Nos.10, 11 and 12; Preamble of the Radio Regulations, WRC-12, (2012), Nos. 0.4.[hereinafter Radio Regulation]
Radio Regulation 4.2.
Radio Regulation 4.3.
Radio Regulation 4.5.
Radio Regulation 4.10.
Radio Regulation 5.1.
Radio Regulation 5.29.
Radio Regulation 9.3; 9.59.
Radio Regulation 11.3 (a)
Radio Regulation 15.19.
Radio Regulation 15.20.
Radio Regulation 15.39.
Radio Regulation 15.22.
Radio Regulation 15.44; 15.45.
Radio Regulation 15.46.
ITU Constitution, 6.2 & 45.
ITU Constitution, 45
Radio Regulation, 15.1 § 1 : all stations are forbidden to carry out unnecessary transmissions, or the transmission of superfluous signals, or the transmission of false or misleading signals, or the transmission of signals without identification.
15.2 § 2: Transmitting stations shall radiate only as much power as is necessary to ensure a satisfactory service.
Radio Regulation 11.42
Radio Regulation 15.34.
Radio Regulation 15.34.
Radio Regulation 7.8.
OST, second preamble paragraph.
OST, art 4.
J.E.S. Fawcett. (1968) International Law and the Uses of Outer Space, at 29.
OST, art. 1; Haley, Basic Concepts of Space Law, 26 Jet Propulsion 951 (1956).
Tan, David. (2000). Towards a New Regime for the Protection of Outer Space as the “Province of all Mankind”, 25 Yale J. Int’l L. 145, 164; GYULA GAL, SPACE LAW 189-90 (1969).
Zhukov, Space Law 39 (1966).
Lachs, Manfred. (1972). The Law of Outer Space, 23.
Tan, David. (2000). Towards a New Regime for the Protection of Outer Space as the “Province of all Mankind”, 25 Yale J. Int’l L. 145, 164.
OST, art. 2.
Gorove, S. (1969). Interpreting Article II of the Outer Space Treaty, 37(3), Fordham L. Rev. 349, 352
Dembling, P. G. & Arons, D. M. (1967). The Evolution of the Outer Space Treaty, 33 J. Air L. & Comm. 419, 431.
Ricky J. Lee (2004). Article II of the Outer Space Treaty: Prohibition of State Sovereignty, Private Property Rights, or Both? Australian journal of International Law, 11Aust. I.LJ. 129.
OST, art. 9.
Travaux Preparatoires to the Outer Space Treaty: Mr Goldberg’s Statement to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space Legal Subcommittee, Summary Record of the 70th Meeting (Aug. 3, 1966) 5th sess, UN Doc A/AC.105/C.2/SR.70 (1966) at 4.
Hanqin, Xue. (2003). Transboundary Damage in International Law, 275.
Trail Smelter Arbitration (U.S. v. Canada) 1938/1941, R.I.A.A. 1905; Corfu Channel (UK v. Albania) (Merits) 1949 I.C.J. 4 (Apr. 9); Report of the 64 th Conference of the International Law Association, at 168, (1990), citing Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, (Jun. 1972), U.N. Doc. A/CONF.48/14/Rev. 1, Principle 21.
Nanda, V.P. & Pring, G.K. (2003). International Environmental Law and Policy for the 21 st Century, 24.
U. N. Charter, fourth preambular paragraph & art. 74.
Brunnée, Jutta. (1988). Acid Rain and Ozone Layer Depletion: International Law and Regulation, 93; Brubaker, Douglas. (1993). Marine Pollution and International Law, 64.
U. N. Charter, art. 1.
Rathgeber, W. (2009). Space Security and the European Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities, 4 Disarmament Forum 34; Mayence, J.F. (2010) Space Security: Transatlantic Approach to Space Governance, 27 ESPI Report 35.
Tronchetti, Fabio. (2011). Ensuring Security in Outer Space by Legal Means: A Feasible Goal? Review of Current Initiatives and Possible Ways Forward, 1(1) Asian J. Air & Space L. 23, 25.
Optional Protocol on the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes Relating to the Constitution of the International Telecommunication Union, to the Convention of the International Telecommunication Union and to the Administrative Regulations, 1992, Geneva
Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, entered into force Oct. 9, 1973, art. 2 & 3, 24 U.S.T. 2389, 961 U.N.T.S. 187.
ITU Constitution, Article 56
Cheng, Bin. (1997). Studies in International Space Law, 237.
OST, art. 6; Radio Regulation 18.
Lampertius, James. (1991-1992). Need for an Effective Liability Regime for Damage Caused by Debris in Outer Space. P.13 Mich. J. Int'l L. 447.; Liability Convention art 2, 3
Shaw, M. N. (2008). International law, 6 th eddition, Cambridge University Press, 67.
- Legal Regime of Radio Frequency Interference
- Springer International Publishing
- Sequence number
AVL List GmbH/© AVL List GmbH, dSpace, BorgWarner, Smalley, Valeo Logo/© Valeo, FEV, Ansys