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About this book

This book focuses on recent trends in the areas of green and renewable energy, especially as applied to the carbon footprint of energy production, transmission, and use. Discussing the latest developments and advances in the materials and processes involved in energy generation, transmission, distribution and storage, with a particular focus on the management and policies related to these systems, it is a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in these areas.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Applications of Solar Thermal Technologies in the Built Environment

Abstract
Solar radiation reaching the Earth surface is the most abundant renewable energy. Solar energy can be harnessed in two types of technologies: Solar Photovoltaics (PV) and Solar Thermal. This chapter deals with the applications of solar thermal technologies in the built environment. The applications presented are electricity generation, hot water production, product drying, cooking, clean water production, space heating, space cooling and refrigeration. Fundamental principles and recent developments and trends of these applications are presented and discussed.
Lu Aye, Amitha Jayalath

Perspective of Solar Energy in India

Abstract
The renewable energy resources have high impending to offer the way out to the long-standing energy shortage difficulties being confronted through the emerging countries like India. The solar energy obtained from the sun can be an imperative part of India’s plan not only to add new capability but also to upsurge energy security, address ecological concerns, and lead to the huge market for renewable energy. The electricity generated by solar thermal which is also known as concentrating solar power is emerging renewable energy technologies and can be developed as a future potential option for electricity generation in India. In this chapter, authors have been summarizing the accessibility, present status, promotion policies, strategies, viewpoints, major achievements barriers and future perspective of solar energy opportunities in India.
Atul Sharma, Amritanshu Shukla, Karunesh Kant

Fundamentals and Performance Evaluation Parameters of Solar Dryer

Abstract
Solar energy is freely available clean and renewable energy, and available to all. Researchers have developed various technologies to utilize it in various ways such as solar PV technology to generate electricity from solar radiation, solar dryers for drying crops, solar desalination, and solar thermal technology for electricity generation, cooking, etc. This chapter focuses on the utilization of solar energy for vegetable/crop drying. Crop drying is essential for developing countries so that they can provide food security to their citizen in adverse climatic conditions. The solar drying technology is economical and useful for all the developing nations. It has various advantages over open sun drying practices, which are generally performed in various developing nations from an ancient era. This piece of work provides access to various factors and parameters such as dryer efficiency, collector efficiency, moisture ratio, drying period, SMER, etc., which are important in the evaluation of the performance of different types of solar dryers.
Mukul Sharma, Om Prakash, Atul Sharma, Anil Kumar

Role of Solar Drying Systems to Mitigate CO2 Emissions in Food Processing Industries

Abstract
This chapter sheds light on the role of solar drying systems in food processing industries to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. The industrializing world is encircled by scads of environmental problems. Greenhouse gas emission leading to climate change is a major concern for which there are many policies emerging among the countries. India, ranking sixth in the world in energy-related carbon dioxide emission, pledged to decrease the emission in Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC). Industries gobble major portion of the energy produced in a country. Food processing is the largest sector in India, which has segments like dairy, fruit and vegetable processing, grain processing, meat processing, poultry processing, fisheries, etc. Drying is an important processing method for food preservation. A conventional type of drying process in industries uses electricity and fossil fuels. Replacing the existing drying systems to alternate energy-driven drying systems helps to reduce the total energy consumption. Solar drying system is remarkable in energy efficiency and product quality. A considerable amount of carbon dioxide emission reduction can be attained by using solar drying systems since they derive energy from the sun, a freely available source of energy. Details on energy consumed by food sectors, energy consumed by other drying systems, and solar drying systems are discussed in this chapter.
K. Rajarajeswari, B. Hemalatha, A. Sreekumar

Low-Cost Systems for Agriculture Energy Management in Tunisia

Abstract
Tunisia is one of the several countries where the agricultural greenhouses are used for maintaining the inside climate on its favorable environmental condition for production and plant growth. The agricultural greenhouse presents a complicated procedure because of the strong perturbations and the important number of its input parameters, which have a great potential and capacity to influence the climate inside it. A Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed in order to promote a suitable microclimate by acting on the appropriate actuators installed inside the greenhouse such as the ventilation, the heating system, the humidifying, and the dehumidifying systems with the appropriate rate. The dynamic modeling of the studied greenhouse is presented and experimentally validated in the Research and Technology Center of Energy (CRTEn) in Tunisia and it is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink environment. Agricultural greenhouse presents an important number of its inputs; which have a great potential and capacity to influence the variation of the output parameters such as the internal temperature and the relative humidity. For this purpose, a contribution to combine a small wind turbine system to a greenhouse in order to power the actuators allows reducing the cost of the agricultural production.
Salwa Bouadila, Rim Ben Ali

Design and Selection Criteria of Biogas Digester

Abstract
Biogas, produced from animal or kitchen waste, is possibly the only energy source that allows farmers to produce their own electricity. There is an added advantage of reducing the contamination and pollution of water, bad odor, and global warming emissions caused due to animal waste. Biogas is generated when bacteria decompose organic waste anaerobically. The biogas is a combination of gases containing about 60–70% CH4, 20–30% CO2, and few of other gases like CO, H2S, NH3, O2, H2, N2, and water vapor, etc. The gas produced can be used not only for cooking but also for rural electrification where grid connection is not viable. The remaining digested slurry can be used as manure. The idea behind this chapter is to prepare a document which can help in the installation of biogas units and reduce the size of the biogas plant. This communication discusses the various design aspects of the most common types of biogas digesters used today. It takes into account the design aspects of Fixed dome type and Floating drum type. Mathematical equations for measuring the amount of biogas digester volume have been discussed. The selection criterion for biogas digesters has also been discussed.
Anirshu Dev Roy, Om Prakash, Anil Kumar, A. K. Kaviti, Anukul Pandey

Biofuels in Transport Sector

Abstract
In the developing nations, biofuels emerge as a best possible alternative fuel option. Energy obtained from biomass is an attractive source of energy due to several numbers of reasons such as it is a renewable source of energy and a large amount of biomass are available on the Earth’s surface, it is cheap and may be utilized using environmentally friendly solutions. With the help of biochemical or thermochemical processes, raw materials or feedstocks can be converted into biofuels such as ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, bio-crude, and methane which can be used as transportation fuels. The energy use in the transport sector is mainly governed by fossil fuels. In order to reach sustainability targets, it is important to replace the use of fossil fuels by renewables.
Renu Singh

Biodiesel: Sources, Production, Emissions, and Policies

Abstract
A major part of energy generated is being consumed by transport sector creating an imbalance in the atmosphere by releasing the emissions resulting in global warming which is the biggest threat to living beings and the environment. Therefore, it is importance and need of biodiesel as a replacement for diesel and other conventional fuels. The various sources of biodiesel production comprise of obtaining raw oil from the seeds and are converted to biodiesel through various techniques of transesterification that utilizes catalysts to increase the yield. The newly available techniques have been discussed with primarily focusing on the various catalysts that affect the yield keeping in view the policies related to curtail down the global warming.
Arun Kumar Sharma, Prashant Baredar

Thermo-chemical Conversion of Solid Biomass

Abstract
Due to rapid depletion of natural resources and continuous increase in energy demand, the utilization of biomass has attracted global attention. Biomass being so versatile and scattered in nature in the form of plant-derived and animal-derived. The efficient use of biomass as energy offers certain advantages in terms of energy, environment, economy, and society. In India, about 30% of energy comes from biomass. It can be used for different purposes such as cooking, process heating, electricity generation, steam generation, and mechanical and shaft power applications by using a number of the conversion process. Several technologies are available for biomass conversion such as physical, chemical, thermo-chemical, bio-conversion, etc. However, this chapter focused only on thermo-chemical conversion of solid biomass. Thermo-chemically biomass could be converted to energy by three ways named as Combustion, Gasification, and Pyrolysis. Direct combustion is the most common way of converting biomass to energy in presence of stoichiometric oxygen. Gasification is the partial oxidation process of converting solid biomass into the gaseous fuel. Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen. Compared to the other technologies, thermo-chemical primary conversion (gasification, pyrolysis) is the simplest and most developed technology.
R. N. Singh, D. Asha

Role of Biofuels/Biomass in Current Energy Scenario of India

Abstract
In recent times in India, there is a strong urge to apply technologies that will convert waste materials to conventional fossil used in transport and also into chemicals and useful resources. This advancement will help to reduce petroleum imports and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and will use trash materials like municipal and agricultural waste mostly biomass across our country and transform them into value-added products. This calls for a need of novel group of biofuel technologies for better perspective and development of the country. One of the major feedstocks or raw materials that have come into the limelight nowadays for biofuel production is biomass. The present work tries to highlight the various biomass and biofuels and their roles with significance in perspective of Indian energy scenario.
Koushik Guha Biswas, Lipika Das

Recent Trends of Process Intensification in Energy Domain

Abstract
Process intensification which means the enhanced efficiency of a particular process was first brought into the limelight by Ramshaw in the year 1983. Basically, process intensification consists of finding out and using novel apparatus and techniques which can bring an increase in product yield or decrease in equipment size for a given production capacity. It can also bring about the decrease in energy consumption or reduction in waste production. Process intensification can be achieved through two different paths by the development of novel equipment or methods. The novel equipment can be further classified into (those for conducting chemical reactions) static mixer reactor, spinning disk reactors, etc., and (those which do not involve chemical reactions) static mixer reactor, compact heat exchangers, etc. Microreactor technology which is a boon nowadays enables the production of miniature components for chemical and biochemical systems that involve continuous flow systems usually comprising of two or more phases. The present work aims to review a complete status of process intensification in various fields of energy in India and abroad and their applications for the betterment of science and technology.
Koushik Guha Biswas

Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Technology: Recent Development and Advancement

Abstract
Energy is one of the essential needs for the sustainability of the society. Fast industrialization and growing population of the world have increased the demand for the energy. In the past, fossil fuels have been major sources of the energy and are being burnt for accomplishing the thermal and electrical energy demands of the society. Continuous burning of the fossil fuels has resulted in fast depletion of the fossil fuel resources and an unsustainable situation for the energy sector as well as created severe issue of the climate change. Due to the fast depletion of the fossil fuel and climate change issues, the current electricity generation technologies cannot be utilized in future. Therefore, new technologies which can run on the renewable energy sources are being developed and assessed. Solar photovoltaic is one of the renewable energy based technologies, which are suitable for the sustainability. Conventional silicon-based solar cells are expensive and suffer from the low efficiency, while dye-sensitized solar cell arose recently as a cheaper alternative to the conventional solar cells. However, they also suffer from the low conversion efficiency issue. In recent past, research in DSSC has been expedited to enhance the efficiency and reduce the overall cost of the technology. This chapter has been focused on the basic structure, working principle and the recent advancements in the different components of the DSSC.
Ramkishore Singh

Photovoltaic-Assisted Thermoelectric Cooling and Heating Systems

Abstract
At present, maintaining thermal comfort inside the buildings is becoming expensive and environmental unfriendly for a great majority of countries, as the mechanism of cooling air can prompt the tremendous utilization of energy and CO2 emissions. This chapter introduces the renewable concept of photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric module (TEM) implemented on the building for thermal load reduction. The chapter starts by describing the basics of the PV technology and its dependent parameters, which enhances its performance. In addition, TEMs as an alternative to conventional space conditioning technology are presented. Since PV panel can power the TEMs directly and cause no harm to the environment, therefore, the numerical modeling of PV-assisted TEMs for development of energy-efficient buildings is presented. After that, different kinds of literature focusing on the application of integration of two materials, i.e., TEM and PV for thermal load reduction of buildings, are provided. Results suggested that implementation of PV-assisted TEM system reduces 5–10 °C inlet temperature with COP ranges from 0.4 to 2.5. Lastly, the challenges and future commendation of PV-assisted TEMs technologies are discussed. Thus, it was suggested that PV-assisted TEM system provides Freon free, less energy consuming, and less CO2 emission solution to the space conditioning problem of the building as compared to traditional air-condition system.
Kashif Irshad, Khairul Habib, R. Saidur

Familiarization with Energy Storage Technologies and Their Relevance for Renewable Energy (RE) Based Power Generation

Abstract
This chapter familiarizes with the energy storage technologies, and its applications with respect to nonconventional energy resources. Establishing the energy-environmental interaction and associated challenges of sustainability the requirement of energy storage, energy storage technologies, global scenario, along with the techno-economics of renewable energy (focusing on solar) with storage in the current market scenario have been presented. The initiatives on energy storage to support utility scale electricity in context of India have also been highlighted.
Ishan Purohit, Sudhakar Sundaray, Saurabh Motiwala

Thermal Storage Technologies for Space Cooling and Heating

Abstract
Storing thermal energy is not a new concept; harvesting ice for summer applications and the ice trade was a nineteenth-century industry. Thermal storage technologies enable excess thermal energy to be stored and used later. Balancing of energy demands between day and night (daily storage) or winter and summer (seasonal storage) and reducing the peak demands are the example benefits of thermal storage technologies. This chapter presents short-term cold thermal energy storage technologies and seasonal thermal energy storage technologies, and discusses their operational strategies. Full storage operation, partial storage with demand limiting and load levelling operating strategies are discussed.
Behzad Rismanchi, Sheikh Khaleduzzaman Shah, Tshewang Lhendup, Lu Aye

Solar Passive Technique to Meet Energy Challenges in Building

Abstract
Electricity consumption is increasing day by day; as per the world energy outlook 2011, this demand will increase by 53% from 2008 to 2035. As per the electric holding company, 52% of the energy is utilized alone in heating ventilation and air conditioning in domestic buildings. This increasing demand has to be cut short. Expanding utilization of energy has prompted natural contamination bringing about a worldwide temperature alteration and ozone layer depletion. Solar passive techniques employed will help to meet the energy demands of the building. These techniques in the building incorporate the natural process for heating or cooling to achieve balanced indoor condition. The solar passive technique can reduce the energy load in the building by 50–70%. Incorporation of these strategies would absolutely lessen our reliance on artificial means for thermal solace and limit the ecological issues because of excessive utilization of energy and other natural resources and subsequently will evolve build form, which will be more natural responsive, more sustainable, and more natural cordial of tomorrow.
Alok Kumar Maurya, Mahendra Joshi

Fuel Cell: Fundamental, Classification, Application, and Environmental Impact

Abstract
In this chapter, an outline of fuel cell technology is being discussed with its advantages, disadvantages, and classification. The application of fuel cell is being done in comprehensive areas such as stationary electrical energy generation, fuel cell energy for transportation, and portable electrical energy generation. Fuel cell environmental impact based on stationary power generation, transportation system is discussed.
Anand Singh, Prashant Baredar, Hitesh Khare, Anil Kumar

Shallow Geothermal Energy: An Emerging Technology

Abstract
Shallow geothermal energy systems use the upper few metres of the ground below the surface to provide space heating and cooling efficiently. Well-designed systems render year-round coefficient of performance (COP) of about four or more. In closed-loop geothermal systems, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes are embedded in trenches, boreholes or into geostructures (e.g. piles) to form ground heat exchangers (GHEs), whose function is to access this sustainable geothermal energy. A large proportion of electricity worldwide is generated from fossil fuels. Substituting commonly used electric heating and cooling systems with shallow geothermal ones could significantly decrease peak energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions given their high COPs and high primary energy ratios. This chapter summarises the fundamental principles of the technology, the various factors that affect the thermal performance of different types of GHEs and their impacts on the capital and operating costs of geothermal systems. In addition, this chapter provides an overview of what the future might hold in terms of using geostructures with a dual purpose, as load-bearing-buried structures and as GHEs. Consideration is given to common design methods and an example is presented using a simplified design method. The chapter highlights the importance of directing additional efforts in research and development of the performance of ground loop systems.
Guillermo Andres Narsilio, Lu Aye

Shale Gas: A Futuristic Non-conventional Energy Resource

Abstract
Global energy security is a major goal for rapid industrial progress. However, meeting the demand of energy and continuing the pace of industrial growth in future would depend on the sustainable economic development and simultaneously addressing the global climate change concerns. It is, therefore, necessary that alternate energy sources with reduced environmental footprints are discovered and developed on a commercial scale. In this scenario, shale gas could clearly be a “game-changing” resource that could transform the global energy market and contribute significantly to the national energy security of different countries. Various countries are considering the shale gas as a means to strengthen their energy security as well as an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the unconventional shale gas is present in low permeable rock formations. The extraction and production of shale gas as an economically profitable venture had so far, been difficult, with only the United States exploiting it at large scale. With the innovations in technology, and continuous improvements and advancements in production techniques such as hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, shale gas is emerging as an attractive futuristic source of energy. The advanced technology has, therefore, made it possible to explore the shale reserves and its commercial extraction safe. Nonetheless, the worldwide development of shale gas-based energy production units would depend on collaboration and cooperation among different countries. The stakeholders having common energy goals can harness this futuristic energy resource after formulating a comprehensive framework that addresses various social, legal, environmental, geophysical, engineering, and technological challenges.
Gunjan Kumar Agrahari, Sudha Agrahari

Energy Awareness and Education: Needs and Challenges of Developing Low-Carbon Societies

Abstract
World’s growing energy demands have exacerbated the problem of rising carbon footprints around the globe. There has been a growing consensus that carbon emission can be contained and treated through socio-technical transitions. However, the prime challenge which is faced, at large, is to frame a vision beyond the approach of simply being satiated with containing the carbon levels and role reversals. Educating and making people aware about benefits of post-carbon societies both at the individual as well as global level in terms of wealth and job creations with an added accrual achieving sustainability can help to build integrated techno-societal low-carbon transition. Engaging the societies in the restructuring of energy can be combed out by rejuvenation of the prevalent societal heuristics. Education and awareness have an undoubted pivotal role in inducing behavioral changes, within the various level of stakeholders, in the society. To develop targeted energy-literate and empathized community, the idea should be engraved in designs which are focused upon proliferating awareness and also converting that awareness into societal practice. Conceptual schemata of societal entities can be trained and made energy transition-ready state by addressing and initiating an interaction within societies.
Saurabh Mishra
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