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2023 | Book

Low Cost Manufacturing Technologies

Proceedings of NERC 2022

Editors: Shrikrishna Nandkishor Joshi, Uday Shanker Dixit, R. K. Mittal, Swarup Bag

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

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About this book

This book is on various advanced, simple, and novel techniques being used and developed in the area of manufacturing processes. Manufacturing sector is one of the important areas which help to improve the economy of our nation. It not only generates employment opportunities but also makes us self-reliant (aatma nirbhar). In line with this important agenda of Government of India, this track envisages high-quality research contributions in the field of low-cost manufacturing technologies. It comprises the research and development studies on the various factors that influence the cost of manufacturing of product or system. The factors are materials, manufacturing processes, material handling processes, skilled manpower, quality control technologies, effective communication, and use of artificial intelligence techniques. The papers are on both numerical and experimental research works related to these aspects.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Analysis of Numerical Method for Modal Analysis of Thin-Walled Structures for Achieving Low-Cost Manufacturing
Abstract
In high-speed micromilling of complex 3D thin-walled structures like microelectrodes, microfins, micro-needles, etc., stiffness of the workpiece will be approximately equal to that of the cutting tool. Also, with every cutting, the stiffness of thin-walled workpiece reduces significantly. Due to the varying stiffness of thin-walled structure coupled with low stiffness of cutting tool, deflection increases while machining, which makes the micromilling process unstable and leads to chatter. Thus, the effect of varying stiffness has to be incorporated while predicting stable process parameters. It is essential to find natural frequency, damping and modal stiffness, which are the necessary modal parameters required for predicting stable depth of cut at different spindle speeds. Experimental modal analysis (EMA) is the most popular technique used to get all the required modal parameters, but it cannot be performed for all possible machining conditions and tool-work geometries as experimental cost and time increases leading to high manufacturing cost of the components. Thus, the present work analyses the feasibility of using numerical method to find the modal parameters for different machining conditions in order to reduce the manufacturing time and cost. Experimentally developed stability lobe diagram incorporates the effect of varying stiffness for prediction of stable process parameters. Experimental validation of simulated modal parameters has been done by performing experimental modal analysis on flexible thin-walled Ti6Al4V. Validation showed an error of 5.1% in predicted natural frequency and the percentage error in predicted modal stiffness was 8.04%. It is expected that stable parameters chosen from the developed stiffness dependent stability lobe can increase the cutting tool life and enhances the material removal rate.
S. Gururaja, Kundan K. Singh, R. K. Mittal
Corrosion Behavior and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties of ER70S-6 Cladding on AA 6061-T6 Alloy Using a Cold Metal Transfer Process
Abstract
In the present study, Fe-based ER70S-6 filler rod of 1.2 mm diameter was cladded on a 6 mm AA 6061-T6 alloy sheet using a cold metal transfer process. The accelerated corrosion test was performed to evaluate the effect of corrosion on the hardness and wear resistance of the cladded surface. Acid corrosion resistance was studied by immersing the sample in 2.0% H2SO4 solution for 200 h. The morphology of the corroded surface was analyzed using upright optical and field emission scanning electron microscopes. Surface deterioration appears to be mostly caused by localized pitting corrosion. The weight loss due to corrosion was 8.9 × 10–4 g/mm2 after 200 h. The average microhardness reduced by 10% due to removal of hard materials and introduction of porosity on the cladded surface. The pin-on-disk test revealed significant reduction in wear resistance.
Bappa Das, Biranchi Narayan Panda, Uday Shanker Dixit
An Experimental Investigation into CO2 Laser-Based Processing of Boulder and Marble
Abstract
Laser rock drilling has the potential to surpass the conventional drilling methods for rock excavation and mineral exploration. The traditional drilling methods using mechanical drill bits have limitations such as high material wastage, high carbon emission, and low depth of penetration. The laser rock-drilling technology presents solutions to cope with these limitations. It has advantages such as non-contact material processing, indirect reduction in carbon emission through lesser material wastage, and higher depth and rate of penetration. However, certain challenges like wellbore instability, complex purging process, instability in controlling laser interaction parameters, and difficulty in controlling temperature and pressure in downhole conditions are currently inhibiting laser-based drilling from being implemented on a full industrial scale in oil and gas industries. In this work, preliminary experimental investigations have been carried out to analyze the influence of lasers on commonly available rock materials like boulders and marble. The influence of altering the scanning speed and laser power on the surface morphology of boulder and marble was observed. The prospect of penetration depth measurement through optical microscopy has also been checked.
Antash Kishore Sinha, Shrikrishna Nandkishor Joshi
Summary of Efforts in Phase Prediction of High Entropy Alloys Using Machine Learning
Abstract
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) possess vast compositional space making them a suitable type of metallic alloy material that can be customized for a wide range of engineering applications ranging from structural, catalytic, functional, hydrogen storage and metamaterials. Predicting the phase of an HEA for a given composition in a certain molar ratio is a daunting task, and hitherto, trial-and-error approaches are employed. With the emergence of data-driven machine learning (ML) technique newer avenues have emerged to reduce the complexity in this task. In this work, we provide a canon of research in this area and used a testbed study by deploying random forest classifier (RFC) to predict distinct phases of HEAs, such as intermetallic (IM), BCC solid-solution (BCC_SS), FCC solid-solution (FCC_SS), and mixed (FCC + BCC) phase. With an average accuracy of 86%, a ROC_AUC score of 0.965, and tenfold cross-validation ROC_AUC score of 0.903, the random forest model showed great ability and prospects in future discovery of novel phases of HEAs. Based on this analysis, the input parameters such as the mixing enthalpy (ΔHmix) and valence electron concentration (VEC) were identified most influential in governing the stable phase of an HEA.
Swati Singh, Shrikrishna Nandkishor Joshi, Saurav Goel
Conceptual Design of Extrusion Systems for Cement Paste 3D Printing
Abstract
The extrudability performance of 3D printed material depends on extruder geometry, layer height and width, the process parameters including extrusion speed, and the material rheological properties. This study deals with the development of a cement paste extruder prototype for the 3D printing of cement-based materials. A performance comparative study was carried out between two different types of extrusion systems, namely augur screw-based and ram-based extruders with the help of Pugh concept analysis. The extrusion test was conducted using the developed extruder prototypes and based on experimental findings, the ram-based extruder was found to be suitable for better extrudability. Therefore, the ram-based extruder was mounted on a custom-built 3-axis gantry system to print some lattice designs.
Shubham Maurya, Biranchi Panda, Uday Shanker Dixit, Arun Ch. Borsaikia, Biswajeet Barman
Friction Stir Spot Welding of Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure
Abstract
This work is an attempt to study the feasibility of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of the sandwich sheet with honeycomb core and examine the effect of rotational speed on plunge load, torque, and lap-shear test performance. While keeping all other parameters constant, the plunge load decreases with the increase in the rotational speed of the welding tool, whereas welding torque increases as the rotational speed of the tool increases. The lap-shear test fracture load increases with rotational speed and the maximum fracture load of 1338 N is obtained at 462 rpm, and nugget pull-out failure and shear failure have occurred at the lowest and highest rotational speeds, respectively.
A. Kumar, R. Ganesh Narayanan, N. Muthu
Low-Cost La(III)-Bentonite@Chitosan and La(III)-Bentonite@Polysulfone Composite Beads for the Removal of Dyes and Phosphate from Water Bodies
Abstract
This work focuses on an environmentally benign process for the removal of dyes and phosphate from water. Removal of dyes and phosphate by developing La(III)-bentonite@chitosan and La(III)-bentonite@polysulfone composite beads via phase inversion method has been delineated for the first time. The porosity and pore structures of polysulfone (PSf) beads were controlled through additives like La-Bnt. In this work, we have prepared the mentioned composite beads by a simple, facile, and scalable method. From the 20 mg/L phosphate feed concentration, we were able to remove 97.7% phosphate by La(III)-bentonite@polysulfone beads and 99.1% by La(III)-bentonite@chitosan beads. Whereas, the dye removal efficiency was obtained in the range of 79.2–99.4% for methyl violet (MV) dye from its 30 ppm feed solution. The study suggested that the prepared beads have the potential ability to be used for the removal of dyes and phosphate in environmental applications. We anticipate that designing and fabricating such low-cost composite materials will provide promising information for the removal of different pollutants from the water.
Moucham Borpatra Gohain, Diksha Yadav, Sachin Karki, Kongkona Gogoi, Pravin G. Ingole
Ultra-Precise Single-Point Diamond Turning Process and Its Low-Cost Alternative Methods
Abstract
Single-point diamond turning (SPDT) is an ultra-precision subtractive material removal process to achieve optical-finish surfaces almost on any material. Due to this capability to produce nano-level surface finish, it has become an important advanced manufacturing process for optics, semiconductors, biomedical, defense and aerospace sectors. However, due to its initial setup cost, its popularity and uses have been suppressed in many regions. As it is a nanoscale regime machining process, size effect has a major influence along with effective rake angle, tool wear, crystallographic orientation, ploughing, rubbing, burnishing, build-up edge, tool vibration, material swelling and elastic recovery. All these factors need to be studied to understand in order to improve the outcome of the process. Numerical simulation is one of the low-cost alternative methods to study the process and its influencing factors on product quality and process efficiency. These techniques can provide insight into the effects of cutting process that are often difficult see through physical experiments. Studies showed that the methods helped the researchers in understanding the insight of process, physics and origins of chip formations, microstructural behaviour during plastic deformation. Thus, it is ascertained that these alternatives methods if effectively designed may help to cut down the (a) operating and metrological cost and time, (b) predict the outcome of the processes and (c) optimize the process parameters without carrying out costly and tiresome experiments. The approach is found to be simple and economical and a possible substitute for costly, tedious and time-consuming physical experiments.
Borad M. Barkachary, Shrikrishna Nandkishor Joshi
Fabrication of a Cost-Effective Bi-porous Composite Wick for Loop Heat Pipes
Abstract
In the present work, a bi-porous composite wick made of aluminium and copper powder was fabricated using cold-press sintering. Polyvinyl alcohol was used as a binder; it also works as a pore-forming agent during sintering. The compaction of powder was carried out at 150 KN force for about 15 min, using a reusable die and punch in universal testing machine. The compacted sample is then sintered at 400 ℃ for about 90 min. The fabricated composite wick has the advantage of both lower and higher thermal conductive material which helps in reducing heat leak and improving the evaporation rate. The wick was found to have a porosity of 42% (calculated using the density method) and a hardness of 35.6 HRB. The average pore diameter of the sintered wick is found to be 378 nm.
Toni Kumari, Chandan Nashine, Manmohan Pandey
Development and Characterisation of Bi-porous Metallic Wick for Loop Heat Pipes
Abstract
The current work deals with the methods employed for the measurement of several wick parameters, outlines the experimental setup developed to measure pore radius and presents the results. Bi-porous copper wicks with distinguished sizes and pore characteristics are successfully developed for loop heat pipes. The powder compaction is performed at 12 KN force, followed by sintering at three different temperatures and durations. Among these, the best sintering condition is identified as 923 k and 90 min. The characterisation of wick shows that the porosity of 49% and a maximum capillary pore radius of 85 nm have been achieved. SEM examination of the wick surface shows the existence of large pores, which leads to increased porosity and interconnects the fine pore network responsible for generating the required capillary pumping pressure. The permeability of the fabricated bi-porous samples is found to be in the range of 2.46 × 10−14 m2. The measured hardness of the sintered sample is found to be 37.4 HRB.
Chandan Nashine, Nadaf Arman Mohaddin, Rohit Kumar, Sandip Kumar Sarma, Manmohan Pandey
Laser-Induced Plasma-Assisted Ablation (LIPAA) of Transparent Materials
Abstract
An overview of the significance of microchannels and transparent materials in many scientific and industrial applications is given in this chapter. The importance of laser machining of transparent materials is also presented, followed by a comprehensive discussion on laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA) process in terms of its types, laser process parameters and workpiece materials. The current study also presents the effective fabrication of microchannels on polycarbonate (PC) by LIPAA using a conventional millisecond Nd: YAG laser and copper as the target metal.
Upasana Sarma, Shrikrishna Nandkishor Joshi
CO2 Laser Cutting of White Pat Silk—A Preliminary Work
Abstract
Lasers are widely used in the processing of metals; however, limited work is reported on their application in the garment industry. This work explores the utilization of laser technology in the apparel industry. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine the influence of process parameters to produce complex patterns on textile fabrics. A 2.5 kW CO2 laser was successfully employed to process a very useful and luxury pat silk fabric of thickness of 0.4 mm which is available in the North-East region of India. The edge quality of the laser cut pat silk fabric was observed to be without fraying accompanied with less blackening effect when processed with parameters: laser power = 100 W, scan speed = 7000 mm/min and assist gas pressure of 4 bars and 5 bars. The results obtained from the preliminary experimentations encourage detailed investigations of the process so that further modifications can be made in order to achieve the better outcomes.
Evenmore Mylliem, Shrikrishna Nandkishor Joshi
Numerical Modeling and Simulation of Micromachining of Biomedical Materials Using Nd: YAG Millisecond Pulse Laser
Abstract
Laser micromachining is widely used in generating micro-features in critical components required for biomedical and industrial applications such as dental implants, hip prostheses, knee prostheses, stents, and clinical laboratory components. The feature quality depends on the appropriate selection of laser process parameters, such as pulse duration, pulse repetition rate, and pulse power density. To establish laser micromachining in industries, systematic investigations using finite element models and experimental methods are required. Numerical modeling can be a valuable tool for reducing experimental time, experimental cost, and resources when predicting optimized parameters for an experiment. In this work an extensive and systematic two-dimensional transient thermo-physical analysis has been carried out to compute the feature size and predict the surface quality. The work material was taken as Titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V), widely used in biomedical and aerospace applications. The model considers more realistic assumptions such as moving Gaussian heat source, temperature-dependent materials properties, and the combined effect of convection and radiation.
Brijesh K. Singh, Sajan Kapil, Shrikrishna Nandkishor Joshi
A State-of-the-Art Review on Surface Modification Techniques in Electric Discharge Machining
Abstract
Any electrically conductive workpiece can be machined using electric discharge machining (EDM), regardless of its other physical characteristics. In EDM, in addition to erosion of workpiece material, some amount of tool removal also occurs. Other than machining, EDM is also used for surface coating purposes. The electrode material is coated on the work surface during the electric discharge coating (EDC) process. In powder mixed EDM (PMEDM), some powders are used in the dielectric fluid. During machining, powder material present in the tool electrode gap reacts with the surface of the substrate and forms a layer on the workpiece. Dielectric fluid and other machining conditions also affect the surface integrity. Surface hardness, wear and corrosion resistance, surface finish and other surface properties can be improved using various surface modification techniques. Dielectric fluid also plays a pivotal part in the process of machining and surface modification. Control of input parameters is also very much important to get the desired surface coating thickness. A detailed discussion on the surface modification by EDM is presented in this paper.
Binoy Kumar Baroi, Tapas Debnath, Jagadish, Promod Kumar Patowari
Estimation of Wire Surface Quality Index During Wire Electric Discharge Machining Using Image Processing Technique
Abstract
Wire wear and breakage during wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) is a major drawback in modern industries. In an effort to prevent wire failure during WEDM, a surface quality index (SQI) of eroded wires is determined in order to quantify and minimize the severity of wire surface damages. Zinc-coated brass wire was used for WEDM experiments on Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system (EDX) were used to analyse the surface damages on the machined wire samples. From FESEM wire pictures, a wire SQI was calculated by employing an image processing (IP) technique to plot an image histogram. A histogram was drawn using ImageJ software to observe the change in pixel intensity across the image. Using the mean value of the image histogram of degraded wire samples, it was possible to figure out the limit for wire wear beyond which the wire is highly susceptible to breaking.
Sanghamitra Das, Shrikrishna Nandkishor Joshi
Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Modified Auxetic Structure: Experimental and Finite Element Study
Abstract
In this research, a re-entrant (RH) lattice (called Proposed RH) was designed by tapering the inclined struts of the modified re-entrant structure (Choudhry et al. in Comp Part B: Eng 228:109437 [10]) to achieve enhanced energy absorption properties. In-plane quasi-static compression tests were conducted on 3D printed specimens followed by finite element (FE)-based numerical modeling. Results from FE and experimental analysis were used to investigate the compressive deformation behavior and estimation of energy absorption performance. The analysis results indicate that the proposed RH structure outperforms the conventional RH structure in energy absorption efficiency by 34.41% and in specific energy absorption by 67.25%. The energy-absorbing performance of 3D printed auxetic structures demonstrated here offers insight into the design of lightweight, high-performance structures for defense and protective engineering applications.
Niranjan Kumar Choudhry, Biranchi Panda
Response of Coconut Coir Filler-Reinforced Epoxy Composite Toward Cyclic Loading: Fatigue Property Evaluation
Abstract
Natural fiber-reinforced plastics possess several ecological and economic benefits over synthetic polymer composites. However, their sustainability and durability under severe structure loading conditions are of potential concern. The present research work investigates the fatigue behavior and performance of coir filler-reinforced epoxy composites to find its budding commercial applications. Composite samples are fabricated with four different weight percentages of untreated and alkali treated coir filler. Alkaline treatment of coir fillers is carried out with 5 wt% aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution to suppress the hydrophobic character of bio-filler sand and improve its mechanical properties. Four different weight percentages of untreated and treated fillers, viz. 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10%, were selected for sample preparation along with neat polymer samples. Fatigue tests of the samples are carried out up to a maximum of 106 cycles considering the filler content and loading level variation and the corresponding Wohler (SN) curves are established. An increase in fatigue life and load bearing capacity is observed with an increase in filler loading for untreated samples. However, the alkaline treatment showed a detrimental effect on fatigue life although it improved the load bearing capacity.
Faladrum Sharma, Rahul Kumar, Sumit Bhowmik
Parallel Kinematics-Based Mechanism and Its Industrial Application in CNC Machine Tool Development
Abstract
Parallel Kinematics Manipulator (PKM) is a closed-loop mechanism having certain inherent advantages over serial ones in terms of accuracy, stiffness, acceleration speed, and increased workload. PKM with six DOF is typically referred to as hexapod. It is also known as the Stewart–Gough platform. In PKM, all the links are connected to the ground and the moving platform at the same time. A Stewart platform is a six-degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator robot with six prismatic joints that are used to define the position and orientation of the moving platform. The base plate and end effector are connected by using serial chains (called limbs or legs). PKM has various industrial applications such as flight simulation systems, manufacturing, medical applications, and precision laser cutting. This work presents the development of a PKM-based computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool and its useful applications for the small-scale industry, research laboratories, or tool rooms. The CNC machine tool structures are generally based on a Serial Kinematic Manipulator (SKM). However, SKM has some limitations like low stiffness, low strength-to-weight ratio, and large workspace and requires comparatively bulky structures. Therefore, a novel concept is being developed to employ parallel kinematics for the development of CNC-based machine tools. This paper presents the design and development of an algorithm to compute the three-dimensional workspace of the PKM-based CNC configuration Monte Carlo method. A MATLAB-based computer program has been written to compute the space volumes using inverse kinematic analysis. The developed algorithm and the computed volumes will be helpful to design and fabricate the proposed low-cost and simple CNC machine configuration.
Mayur Singh, Priyanka Duarah, Sourabh Narnaware, Shrikrishna Nandkishor Joshi
Metadata
Title
Low Cost Manufacturing Technologies
Editors
Shrikrishna Nandkishor Joshi
Uday Shanker Dixit
R. K. Mittal
Swarup Bag
Copyright Year
2023
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-19-8452-5
Print ISBN
978-981-19-8451-8
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-8452-5

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