Skip to main content
Top

2024 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

6. Mainstream Humanitarian Organizations Depoliticizing the Border Management System

Activate our intelligent search to find suitable subject content or patents.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

Most of the discourses and practices carried out by mainstream third-sector organizations (TSOs) countered the tightening of border management. However, they remained within the legal framework preexisting the reinforcement of border policies. TSOs’ interventions focused on ensuring that the state respects the rights of those who are already entitled to them at least in principle. From this perspective, the TSOs’ borderwork did not promote a radical political agenda. The TSOs’ emphasis on vulnerability and the focus on asylum seekers’ rights contributed to counter the deterioration of these rights and to contrast the increasingly restrictive turns. However, vulnerability discourses and practices legitimized—and fitted within—the preexisting order based on the distinction between people in need of protection and so-called economic migrants to be rejected. This chapter describes how TSOs fell short of contributing to a radical change of the current border management and how they contributed to the perpetuation of processes of stratification of migrants’ rights, of migrants’ incarceration and of migration securitization.

Dont have a licence yet? Then find out more about our products and how to get one now:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Literature
go back to reference Aas, F. K., & Gundhus, H. O. I. (2015). Policing humanitarian borderlands: Frontex, human rights and the precariousness of life. British Journal of Criminology, 55, 1–18. Aas, F. K., & Gundhus, H. O. I. (2015). Policing humanitarian borderlands: Frontex, human rights and the precariousness of life. British Journal of Criminology, 55, 1–18.
go back to reference Agier, M. (2008). Gérer les indésirables: des camps de réfugiés au gouvernement humanitaire. Flammarion. Agier, M. (2008). Gérer les indésirables: des camps de réfugiés au gouvernement humanitaire. Flammarion.
go back to reference Ambrosini, M. (2014). Non passa lo straniero? Le politiche migratorie tra sovranità nazionale e diritti umani. Cittadella Editrice. Ambrosini, M. (2014). Non passa lo straniero? Le politiche migratorie tra sovranità nazionale e diritti umani. Cittadella Editrice.
go back to reference Ambrosini, M. (2018). Irregular Migration in Southern Europe. Actors, Dynamics and Governance. Palgrave and Macmillan. Ambrosini, M. (2018). Irregular Migration in Southern Europe. Actors, Dynamics and Governance. Palgrave and Macmillan.
go back to reference Bartholini, I. (2018). Hotspot system in Italy: Politics of refusal against the economic migrants and their effects. In P. Amaral et al. (Eds.), Migrations: A global welfare challenge. Policies, practices and contemporary vulnerabilities (pp. 43–68). Sello Editorial Corunia Americana, Corporacion Universitaria Americana. Bartholini, I. (2018). Hotspot system in Italy: Politics of refusal against the economic migrants and their effects. In P. Amaral et al. (Eds.), Migrations: A global welfare challenge. Policies, practices and contemporary vulnerabilities (pp. 43–68). Sello Editorial Corunia Americana, Corporacion Universitaria Americana.
go back to reference Bassi, M. (2018). Lampedusa. Dynamics of bordering and ‘encampement’. In T. Caponio, P. Scholten, & R. Zapata-Barrero (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of the governance of migration and diversity in cities (pp. 343–352). Routledge.CrossRef Bassi, M. (2018). Lampedusa. Dynamics of bordering and ‘encampement’. In T. Caponio, P. Scholten, & R. Zapata-Barrero (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of the governance of migration and diversity in cities (pp. 343–352). Routledge.CrossRef
go back to reference Brändström, A., & Kuipers, S. (2003). From ‘normal incidents’ to political crises: Understanding the selective politicization of policy failures. Government and Opposition, 38(3), 279–305.CrossRef Brändström, A., & Kuipers, S. (2003). From ‘normal incidents’ to political crises: Understanding the selective politicization of policy failures. Government and Opposition, 38(3), 279–305.CrossRef
go back to reference Capano, G. (2009). Understanding policy change as an epistemological and theoretical problem. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 11(1), 7–31. Capano, G. (2009). Understanding policy change as an epistemological and theoretical problem. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 11(1), 7–31.
go back to reference Casas-Cortes, M., Cobarrubias, S., De Genova, N., Garelli, G., Grappi, G., Heller, C., Hess, S., Kasparek, B., Mezzadra, S., Neilson, B., Peano, I., Pezzani, L., Pickles, J., Rahola, F., Riedner, L., Scheel, S., & Tazzioli, M. (2014). New keywords: Migration and borders. Cultural Studies, 29(1), 55–87.CrossRef Casas-Cortes, M., Cobarrubias, S., De Genova, N., Garelli, G., Grappi, G., Heller, C., Hess, S., Kasparek, B., Mezzadra, S., Neilson, B., Peano, I., Pezzani, L., Pickles, J., Rahola, F., Riedner, L., Scheel, S., & Tazzioli, M. (2014). New keywords: Migration and borders. Cultural Studies, 29(1), 55–87.CrossRef
go back to reference Cassidy, K. (2018). Where can I get free? Everyday bordering, everyday incarceration. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographies, 44(1), 48–62.CrossRef Cassidy, K. (2018). Where can I get free? Everyday bordering, everyday incarceration. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographies, 44(1), 48–62.CrossRef
go back to reference Castañeda, H. (2007). Paradoxes of providing aid: NGOs, medicine, and undocumented migration in Berlin, Germany. PhD Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona. Castañeda, H. (2007). Paradoxes of providing aid: NGOs, medicine, and undocumented migration in Berlin, Germany. PhD Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona.
go back to reference Castelli Gattinara, P., & Zamponi, L. (2020). Politicizing support and opposition to migration in France: The EU asylum policy crisis and direct social activism. Journal of European Integration, 42(5), 625–641.CrossRef Castelli Gattinara, P., & Zamponi, L. (2020). Politicizing support and opposition to migration in France: The EU asylum policy crisis and direct social activism. Journal of European Integration, 42(5), 625–641.CrossRef
go back to reference Chouliaraki, L., & Georgiou, M. (2017). Hospitability: The communicative architecture of humanitarian securitization at Europe’ s borders. Journal of Communication, 67, 159–180.CrossRef Chouliaraki, L., & Georgiou, M. (2017). Hospitability: The communicative architecture of humanitarian securitization at Europe’ s borders. Journal of Communication, 67, 159–180.CrossRef
go back to reference Council of Europe. (2018, June). Report to the Italian government on the visit to Italy carried out by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) from 7 to 13 June 2017. Retrieved from: https://rm.coe.int/16807b6d56 Council of Europe. (2018, June). Report to the Italian government on the visit to Italy carried out by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) from 7 to 13 June 2017. Retrieved from: https://​rm.​coe.​int/​16807b6d56
go back to reference Cuttitta, P. (2007). Le monde-frontière. Le contrôle de l’immigration dans l’espace globalisé. Cultures & Conflits, 68, 61–84.CrossRef Cuttitta, P. (2007). Le monde-frontière. Le contrôle de l’immigration dans l’espace globalisé. Cultures & Conflits, 68, 61–84.CrossRef
go back to reference De Genova, N. (2002). Migrant “illegality” and deportability in everyday life. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, 419–447.CrossRef De Genova, N. (2002). Migrant “illegality” and deportability in everyday life. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, 419–447.CrossRef
go back to reference De Genova, N. (2013). Spectacles of migrant ‘illegality’: The scene of exclusion, the obscene of inclusion. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(7), 1180–1198.CrossRef De Genova, N. (2013). Spectacles of migrant ‘illegality’: The scene of exclusion, the obscene of inclusion. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(7), 1180–1198.CrossRef
go back to reference De Jong, S., & Ataç, I. (2017). Demand and deliver: Refugee support organisations in Austria. Cogitatio, Social Inclusion, 5(3), 28–37.CrossRef De Jong, S., & Ataç, I. (2017). Demand and deliver: Refugee support organisations in Austria. Cogitatio, Social Inclusion, 5(3), 28–37.CrossRef
go back to reference Della Porta, D., Andreatta, M., & Mosca, L. (2003). Movimenti sociali e sfide globali: politica, antipolitica e nuova politica dopo l’11 settembre. Rassegna Italiana di Sociologia, Fascicolo, 1, 43–76. Della Porta, D., Andreatta, M., & Mosca, L. (2003). Movimenti sociali e sfide globali: politica, antipolitica e nuova politica dopo l’11 settembre. Rassegna Italiana di Sociologia, Fascicolo, 1, 43–76.
go back to reference Dellmuth, L. M., & Tallberg, J. (2017). Advocacy strategies in global governance: Inside versus outside lobbying. Political Studies, 65(3), 705–723.CrossRef Dellmuth, L. M., & Tallberg, J. (2017). Advocacy strategies in global governance: Inside versus outside lobbying. Political Studies, 65(3), 705–723.CrossRef
go back to reference Fassin, D. (2010). La Raison humanitaire. Une histoire morale du temps présent. Gallimard Seuil. Fassin, D. (2010). La Raison humanitaire. Une histoire morale du temps présent. Gallimard Seuil.
go back to reference Feldman, I. (2012). The humanitarian condition: Palestinian refugees and the politics of living. Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development, 3(2), 155–172.CrossRef Feldman, I. (2012). The humanitarian condition: Palestinian refugees and the politics of living. Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development, 3(2), 155–172.CrossRef
go back to reference Flinders, M., & Wood, M. (2014). Rethinking depoliticisation: Beyond the governmental. Policy & Politics, 42(2), 151–170.CrossRef Flinders, M., & Wood, M. (2014). Rethinking depoliticisation: Beyond the governmental. Policy & Politics, 42(2), 151–170.CrossRef
go back to reference Gazzotti, L., Mouthaan, M., & Natter, K. (2022). Embracing complexity in ‘Southern’ migration governance. Territory, Politics, Governance, 11(4), 625–637.CrossRef Gazzotti, L., Mouthaan, M., & Natter, K. (2022). Embracing complexity in ‘Southern’ migration governance. Territory, Politics, Governance, 11(4), 625–637.CrossRef
go back to reference Geiger, M., & Pécoud, A. (2010). The politics of international migration management. Palgrave and Macmillan.CrossRef Geiger, M., & Pécoud, A. (2010). The politics of international migration management. Palgrave and Macmillan.CrossRef
go back to reference Geiger, M., & Pécoud, A. (2013). Disciplining the transnational mobility of people. Palgrave and Macmillan.CrossRef Geiger, M., & Pécoud, A. (2013). Disciplining the transnational mobility of people. Palgrave and Macmillan.CrossRef
go back to reference Geiger, M., & Pécoud, A. (2014). International organisations and the politics of migration. Journal of the Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40(6), 865–887.CrossRef Geiger, M., & Pécoud, A. (2014). International organisations and the politics of migration. Journal of the Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40(6), 865–887.CrossRef
go back to reference Jeandesboz, J., & Pallister-Wilkins, P. (2014). Crisis, enforcement and control at the EU borders. In A. Lindley (Ed.), Crisis and migration: Critical perspectives (pp. 115–135). Routledge.CrossRef Jeandesboz, J., & Pallister-Wilkins, P. (2014). Crisis, enforcement and control at the EU borders. In A. Lindley (Ed.), Crisis and migration: Critical perspectives (pp. 115–135). Routledge.CrossRef
go back to reference Kofman, E. (2002). Contemporary European migrations, civic stratification and citizenship. Political Geography, 21, 1035–1054.CrossRef Kofman, E. (2002). Contemporary European migrations, civic stratification and citizenship. Political Geography, 21, 1035–1054.CrossRef
go back to reference Korkut, U., Terlizzi, A., & Gyollai, D. (2020). Migration controls in Italy and Hungary: From conditionalized to domesticized humanitarianism at the EU borders. Journal of Language and Politics, 19(3), 391–412.CrossRef Korkut, U., Terlizzi, A., & Gyollai, D. (2020). Migration controls in Italy and Hungary: From conditionalized to domesticized humanitarianism at the EU borders. Journal of Language and Politics, 19(3), 391–412.CrossRef
go back to reference Mavelli, L. (2017). Governing populations through the humanitarian government of refugees: Biopolitical care and racism in the European refugee crisis. Review of International Studies, 43(5), 809–832.CrossRef Mavelli, L. (2017). Governing populations through the humanitarian government of refugees: Biopolitical care and racism in the European refugee crisis. Review of International Studies, 43(5), 809–832.CrossRef
go back to reference Mezzadra, S. (2015). The proliferation of borders and the right to escape. In Y. Jansen, R. Celikates, & J. de Bloois (Eds.), The irregularization of migration in contemporary Europe. Detention, deportation, drowning (pp. 121–135). Rowman & Littlefield. Mezzadra, S. (2015). The proliferation of borders and the right to escape. In Y. Jansen, R. Celikates, & J. de Bloois (Eds.), The irregularization of migration in contemporary Europe. Detention, deportation, drowning (pp. 121–135). Rowman & Littlefield.
go back to reference Moran, D., Turner, J., & Schliehe, A. K. (2018). Conceptualizing the carceral in carceral geography. Progress in Human Geography, 42(5), 666–686.CrossRef Moran, D., Turner, J., & Schliehe, A. K. (2018). Conceptualizing the carceral in carceral geography. Progress in Human Geography, 42(5), 666–686.CrossRef
go back to reference Onyx, J., Armitage, L., Dalton, B., Melville, R., Casey, J., & Banks, R. (2010). Advocacy with gloves on: The “manners” of strategy used by some third sector organizations undertaking advocacy in NSW and Queensland. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 21, 41–61.CrossRef Onyx, J., Armitage, L., Dalton, B., Melville, R., Casey, J., & Banks, R. (2010). Advocacy with gloves on: The “manners” of strategy used by some third sector organizations undertaking advocacy in NSW and Queensland. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 21, 41–61.CrossRef
go back to reference Pallister-Wilkins, P. (2018). Médecins Avec Frontères and the making of a humanitarian borderscape. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 36(1), 114–138.CrossRef Pallister-Wilkins, P. (2018). Médecins Avec Frontères and the making of a humanitarian borderscape. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 36(1), 114–138.CrossRef
go back to reference Pécoud, A. (2015). Depoliticising migration: Global governance and international migration narratives. Palgrave and Macmillan. Pécoud, A. (2015). Depoliticising migration: Global governance and international migration narratives. Palgrave and Macmillan.
go back to reference Perkowski, N. (2016). Deaths, interventions, humanitarianism and human rights in the Mediterranean ‘migration crisis’. Mediterranean Politics, 21(2), 331–335.CrossRef Perkowski, N. (2016). Deaths, interventions, humanitarianism and human rights in the Mediterranean ‘migration crisis’. Mediterranean Politics, 21(2), 331–335.CrossRef
go back to reference Preibisch, K., & Otero, G. (2014). Does citizenship status matter in Canadian agriculture? Workplace health and safety for migrant and immigrant laborers. Rural Sociology, 79(2), 174–199.CrossRef Preibisch, K., & Otero, G. (2014). Does citizenship status matter in Canadian agriculture? Workplace health and safety for migrant and immigrant laborers. Rural Sociology, 79(2), 174–199.CrossRef
go back to reference Scheel, S., & Ratfisch, P. (2014). Refugee protection meets migration management: UNHCR as a global police of populations. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40(6), 924–941.CrossRef Scheel, S., & Ratfisch, P. (2014). Refugee protection meets migration management: UNHCR as a global police of populations. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40(6), 924–941.CrossRef
go back to reference Stepka, M. (2018). Humanitarian securitization of the 2015 “migration crisis”. Investigating humanitarianism and security in the EU Policy Frames on Operational Involvement in the Mediterranean. In I. Sirkec, E. L. d. F. Castro, & U. S. Sozen (Eds.), Migration policy in crisis (pp. 9–30). Transnational Press. Stepka, M. (2018). Humanitarian securitization of the 2015 “migration crisis”. Investigating humanitarianism and security in the EU Policy Frames on Operational Involvement in the Mediterranean. In I. Sirkec, E. L. d. F. Castro, & U. S. Sozen (Eds.), Migration policy in crisis (pp. 9–30). Transnational Press.
go back to reference Tassin, L. (2014). Accueillir les indésirables. Les habitants de Lampedusa à l’épreuve de l’enfermement des étrangers. Genèses 3(96), 110–131. Tassin, L. (2014). Accueillir les indésirables. Les habitants de Lampedusa à l’épreuve de l’enfermement des étrangers. Genèses 3(96), 110–131.
go back to reference Tassin, L. (2016). Le mirage des hotspots. Nouveaux concepts et vieilles recettes à Lesbos et Lampedusa. Savoir/Agir, 2(36), 39–45.CrossRef Tassin, L. (2016). Le mirage des hotspots. Nouveaux concepts et vieilles recettes à Lesbos et Lampedusa. Savoir/Agir, 2(36), 39–45.CrossRef
go back to reference Tazzioli, M. (2015). The desultory politics of mobility and the humanitarian-military border in the Mediterranean. Mare Nostrum beyond the sea. Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana, 23(44), 61–82.CrossRef Tazzioli, M. (2015). The desultory politics of mobility and the humanitarian-military border in the Mediterranean. Mare Nostrum beyond the sea. Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana, 23(44), 61–82.CrossRef
go back to reference Terlizzi, A. (2021). Narratives in power and policy design: The case of border management and external migration controls in Italy. Policy Sciences, 54(4), 749–781.CrossRef Terlizzi, A. (2021). Narratives in power and policy design: The case of border management and external migration controls in Italy. Policy Sciences, 54(4), 749–781.CrossRef
go back to reference Ticktin, M. (2006). Where ethics and politics meet: The violence of humanitarianism in France. American Ethnologist, 33(1), 33–49.CrossRef Ticktin, M. (2006). Where ethics and politics meet: The violence of humanitarianism in France. American Ethnologist, 33(1), 33–49.CrossRef
go back to reference Ticktin, M. (2014). Transnational humanitarianism. Annual Review of Anthropology, 43, 273–289.CrossRef Ticktin, M. (2014). Transnational humanitarianism. Annual Review of Anthropology, 43, 273–289.CrossRef
go back to reference Van Houtum, H., & Pijpers, R. (2007). The European Union as a gated community: The two-faced border and immigration regime of the EU. Antipode, 39(2), 291–309.CrossRef Van Houtum, H., & Pijpers, R. (2007). The European Union as a gated community: The two-faced border and immigration regime of the EU. Antipode, 39(2), 291–309.CrossRef
go back to reference Vandevoordt, R. (2019). Subversive humanitarianism: Rethinking refugee solidarity through grass-roots initiatives. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 38, 245–265.CrossRef Vandevoordt, R. (2019). Subversive humanitarianism: Rethinking refugee solidarity through grass-roots initiatives. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 38, 245–265.CrossRef
go back to reference Vandevoordt, R., & Verschraegen, G. (2019). The European Refugee Controversy: Civil Solidarity, Cultural Imaginaries and Political Change. Cogitatio, Social Inclusion, 7(2), 48–52. Vandevoordt, R., & Verschraegen, G. (2019). The European Refugee Controversy: Civil Solidarity, Cultural Imaginaries and Political Change. Cogitatio, Social Inclusion, 7(2), 48–52.
go back to reference Vaughan-Williams, N. (2015). We are not animals! Humanitarian border security and zoopolitical spaces in Europe. Political Geography, 45, 1–10.CrossRef Vaughan-Williams, N. (2015). We are not animals! Humanitarian border security and zoopolitical spaces in Europe. Political Geography, 45, 1–10.CrossRef
go back to reference Verschuere, B., & De Corte, J. (2015). Nonprofit advocacy under a third-party government regime: Cooperation or conflict? VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 26, 222–241.CrossRef Verschuere, B., & De Corte, J. (2015). Nonprofit advocacy under a third-party government regime: Cooperation or conflict? VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 26, 222–241.CrossRef
go back to reference Walters, W. (2006). Border/Control. European Journal of Social Theory, 9(2), 187–203. Walters, W. (2006). Border/Control. European Journal of Social Theory, 9(2), 187–203.
go back to reference Watson, S. (2011). The “human” as referent object? Humanitarianism as securitization. Security Dialogue, 42(1), 3–20.CrossRef Watson, S. (2011). The “human” as referent object? Humanitarianism as securitization. Security Dialogue, 42(1), 3–20.CrossRef
go back to reference Zetter, R. (2007). More labels, fewer refugees: Remaking the refugee label in an era of globalization. Journal of Refugee Studies, 20(2), 172–192.CrossRef Zetter, R. (2007). More labels, fewer refugees: Remaking the refugee label in an era of globalization. Journal of Refugee Studies, 20(2), 172–192.CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Mainstream Humanitarian Organizations Depoliticizing the Border Management System
Author
Roberto Calarco
Copyright Year
2024
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-40504-4_6

Premium Partner