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Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering: Proceedings of the 21st Conference on MMESE is the academic showcase of best research papers selected from more than 500 submissions each year. From this book reader will learn the best research topics and the latest development trend in MMESE design theory and other human-centered system application.MMESE focus mainly on the relationship between Man, Machine and Environment. It studies the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In the system, the Man means the working people as the subject in the workplace (e.g. operator, decision-maker); the Machine means the general name of any object controlled by the Man (including tool, Machinery, Computer, system and technology), the Environment means the specially working conditions under which Man and Machine occupy together(e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of the optimization of the system are safety, efficiency and economy.In 1981 with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Qian Xuesen, Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering (MMESE), the integrated and advanced science research topic was established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long. In the letter to Shengzhao Long, in October 22nd, 1993, Qian Xuesen wrote: “You have created a very important modern science subject and technology in China!”.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Pandect

Frontmatter

Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering and Its Historical Mission

Commemorating the 40th Anniversary of the Founding of Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

In 1981, under the direction of great Scientist Xuesheng Qian, Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering (MMESE), a comprehensive marginal science, came into being in China.MMESE is a science that uses system science theory and system engineering method to correctly handle the relations among man, machine and environment and deeply research the optimal combination of man-machine-environment system.Great scientist Xuesen Qian spoke highly of this emerging science. He wrote to MMESE founder Prof. Shengzhao Long on October 22, 1993, saying, “It is in China that you have created this important modern science and technology!”To commemorate the 40th anniversary of the founding of the MMESE, this paper comprehensively and incisively discusses the MMESE in terms of the formation and development of the MMESE, the research content and implementation methods, characteristics and contributions, relations with some related disciplines, the application fields and the historical mission, so that readers can deeply understand and actively apply MMESE theories promote the progress of science and technology and the prosperous development of productivity in the world!

Shengzhao Long, Yinying Huang

40-Year Development of Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering from Scientific Papers

There were totally 1749 scientific papers published in proceedings of conferences on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering (MMESE) during 1993 to 2020 since the MMESE was founded in 1981 by guidance of Xuesen Qian with system engineering thought. The results were found by data analysis that 27.90%, 10.29%, 9.26%, 9.89%, 11.78%, 2.69%, 20.01% of the papers were in the subdomains of MMESE named as the Man Character, the Machine Character, the Environment Character, the Man-Machine Relationship, the Man-Environment Relationship, the Machine-Environment Relationship, the Overall Performance of Man-Machine-Environment System in addition to 7.66% under title of Theory and Application Research and 0.51% of Pandect. In the last decade, MMESE went much faster especially in 5.75% growth on the Machine Character, and trend was better and better for internationalization with efforts of main contributors such as the first authors of the papers, publishers, and MMESE committee of SESC.

Xiaochao Guo, Jian Du, Yu Pu, Qingfeng Liu, Yanyan Wang, Jie Li

Research on the Man Character

Frontmatter

Research on the Comprehensive Evaluation Method of Pilot Workload During Flight Test

High pilot workload during flight test may cause human error, which influences the safety of flight test. Currently, there are a few studies on pilots’ workload evaluation during flight test. The paper firstly analyzed the influencing factors of pilot workload during flight test and established the evaluation index system. Then, a comprehensive evaluation method of pilot workload during flight test combining improved Analytical Hierarchy Process method and fuzzy evaluation was proposed, and the fuzziness of pilot workload evaluation is fully considered. And then the factors of pilot workload affecting greater were analyzed and recognized quantitatively, and the suggestions for aircraft equipment improvement and pilot’s operation were put forward. At last, the model was used in the landing stage of a mission scenario in which a civil aircraft’s engine fails after flying over V1 and the validity of the proposed method is verified.

Hongjiao Wu, Bao Lv, Yi Jiao

Investigating the Effects of Face Mask and Gender on Interpersonal Distance Judgments

Face masks and social distancing are widely encouraged as barrier gestures against the Covid-19 pandemic. In the aspect of social psychology, severe public hygiene might change people’s perception of interpersonal distance (IPD). The purpose of the current study was to study the effects of face mask and gender on IPD performances. Under the isolation condition, the paper-and-pencil test was selected and conducted into an online version of visual distance scale for IPD measurement. Thirty participants were required to drag the picture-confederates for determining the comfort distance under facing confederates with/without face masks of different genders. The result of the ANOVA showed the significant effect by face mask and confederate’s gender on IPD. For confederate’s gender, the IPD of male was larger than female. Moreover, the results of face mask effect were found that participants preferred a larger IPD when facing the confederate without a face mask than that with a face mask. In other words, the image of the face mask can arouse the feeling of safety and contribute to social intercourse promotion during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Mingyue Wang, Yu-Chi Lee

Analysis of the Degree of Information Exchange Among Team Members in a Ccontrol Cabin

The communication and collaboration of team members is essential for the effective implementation of the work within a ccontrol room. In this study, a 1-h navigation mission for six positions (sound operator, motion analyst, vehicle controller, operating officer, watch officer, and leader) in a ccontrol room was designed. Social networks is used to obtain the information exchange degree of each team member during the mission. The analysis showed that the communication level of each member of the team was different; and the communication level between the members of the team increased during the high demand condition. The frequency of communication between the members of the ccontrol team depends on the ccontrol team role and demand level. This provides a basis for further study of the task load of key personnel within the ccontrol cabin team.

Liping Pang, Yitong Ren, Chenyuan Yang, Ye Deng, Xin Wang

The Influence of Modafini on the Visual Function of 16-hour Simulation Flight

To observe the effect of modafinil on the visual function of 16-h flight. Methods 5 male healthy subjects were double-blind: placebo group (n = 5) and modafinil group (n = 5), Autologous control. Carry out 16 h (h) continuous simulated long flight test across day and night. First, the visual function is detected before flight, In pairs, at the same time, First phase 8 h at 15:30, After 200 mg, of modafenib or placebo 00:00 Completion of phase 2 h 8 flights, After the flight, the visual function was detected again and the state changes of far and near vision were compared before and after the flight. Results Compared with placebo, the use of modafinil had no significant effect on far and near vision, but increased the long vision of both eyes during flight. Conclusion Routine single dose of modafinil has no significant adverse effect on visual function and can reduce human fatigue perception.

Dawei Tian, Feng Wu, Xiaoquan Zhu, Kaibo Zhang, Wenge Wang, Peiyi Chen, Yunhan Liu, Lue Deng, Yongsheng Chen

Study on Changes of Visual Function Before and After 24 hours Simulated Flight Visual Fatigue Protection

To evaluate the effect of visual fatigue protection measures on the relief of visual fatigue caused by 24-h simulated flight. Methods: 6 healthy subjects were selected to simulate the 24-h flight mission, and the visual fatigue was alleviated by visual fatigue comprehensive protection measures after flight, and the visual function analyzer was used to detect the visual acuity before and after flight. Results: Compared with the pre-flight, the near-sightedness and the far-sightedness decreased after the flight. Conclusion: the comprehensive protective measures of visual fatigue can improve the comprehensive state of vision, alleviate the visual fatigue caused by 24 h simulated flight and improve the quality of visual function.

Dawei Tian, Fengfeng Mo, Xiaobin Yan, Yange Zhang, Feng Wu, Shan Chen, Xianliang Zhao, Jing Huang, Lue Deng

Research Status of Neck Pain in Ergonomic Area

Neck pain has grown to 27–48% and are expected to continue to rise due to the shift from heavy manufacturing to office work. Since 1980s, there have been 220 publications about neck pain in the ergonomics field. The scientific papers are collected from the Web of Science database. The analyzed parameters include publication years, the geospatial distribution of the neck pain research in countries/regions and organizations dimension, and high frequent keywords. The annual output of related publication continuously grew. The analysis of the countries shows that the US, Sweden, Canada and Australia are the most productive countries. The published articles revealed that Chalmers University of Technology, Curtin University, University of Gothenburg are the key institutes that conduct neck pain research in ergonomics. Keywords analysis showed that four main topics in neck pain research are research method, risk factors, interventions and occupation. Research trends include the study of dynamic cervical spine model, the association of smart phone usage and neck pain, the effectiveness of micro-break and ergonomics training intervention, neck pain at school.

Menglu Li, Hongyan Yi, Lixia Niu, Jie Li

Effects of 8-hour Simulated Flight on Cognitive Function and Performance of Volunteers

Objective. To study the effects of 8-h simulated flight task on cognitive function and performance of volunteers, and to evaluate the workload of simulated flight. Methods. The subjects started the simulated flight at 9 am and continued to operate for 8 h to complete the simulated flight task. The flight control ability, reaction time, motion time, critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF) and subjective scale were measured. Workload evaluation indicators were detected before, half and after the simulated flight. Results. There were no significant differences in reaction time, motion time, critical flicker fusion frequency and Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) between before, half and after the simulated flight. Compared with preflight, the rating of perceived exertion scale (RPE) scores was significantly increased after 8-h simulated flight. There was no significant difference in the ability of simulated flight control between preflight and postflight. Conclusions. There was no significant effect on the cognitive function and performance of volunteers during the 8-h simulated flight task in the daytime.

Feng Wu, Dawei Tian, Hua Ge, Andong Zhao, Xuan Li, Shuang Bai, Xueqian Deng, Quan Wang, Lue Deng

Study on Countermeasures of Psychological Tension During Electroencephalogram Examination of Pilot Selection

Objective: To study the psychological tension in electroencephalogram (EEG) of pilots selection in order to provide the evidence for obtaining accurate and reliable results. Methods: A total of 250 senior high school students, aged 17–21 years old, were randomly selected to take part in the physical examination of pilot selection from 2019 to 2020, and were divided into the non-teaching group and the education group (self control), respectively. In the process of EEG examination, the students’ comprehension, cooperation and physiological indicators were evaluated through video demonstration and teaching before examination and heart rate monitoring during examination. Results: Compared with the non-teaching group, the video demonstration helps the participating students to understand the inspection items, get familiar with the inspection process, and get good cooperation. After the beginning of the examination, the heart rate of the education group did not change significantly, and remained at the same level until the end of the examination. There was no significant difference between the heart rate after the examination and the heart rate during the examination (P > 0.05). The heart rate of the uneducated group increased and remained at the same level until the end of the examination, which was significantly different from that of the basal heart rate (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Video education and heart rate detection can effectively improve the students’ understanding and cooperation on the examination items, reduce psychological tension and fear, and enhance the reliability and effectiveness of the selection results.

Yongsheng Chen, Xinxin Shang, Xiaoquan Zhu, Haitao Zhang, Jianling Pang, Li Li, Xueqian Deng, Huiming Qi, Dawei Tian

Application of Fuzzy Mathematics Method in Sensory Evaluation of Military Ready-to-Eat Meat Sticks

Objective—To study the sensory quality of six kinds of military ready-to-eat meat sticks by fuzzy mathematics method. Methods—Adopted the method of fuzzy mathematics with color, status, smell, texture and taste as evaluation factors, and carried out fuzzy mathematics judgment of the sensory quality of six kinds of military ready-to-eat meat sticks: Orleans pork, sauced pork tenderloin, original beef, black pepper beef, mellow beef and spicy beef. Results—The fuzzy comprehensive sensory evaluation scores of six kinds of military ready-to-eat meat sticks from high to low were original beef, mellow beef, black pepper beef, spicy beef, Orleans pork and sauced pork tenderloin. Conclusions—The fuzzy mathematics method can reflect the sensory quality more objectively and accurately, which provided a reference method for the comprehensive sensory quality evaluation of military ready-to-eat meat sticks.

Huiling Mu, Peng Du, Shuang Bai, Ximeng Chen, Peng Liu, Feng Li, Hongjiang Jing, Falin Li, Ruoyong Wang

Risk Factors Analysis and Health Management Countermeasures of Dyslipidemia of Flight Personnel in 2020 Annual Physical Examination

Objective—To understand and analyze the prevalence and risk factors of dyslipidemia among flight personnel, so as to provide the basis for aviation health management. Methods—The physical examination data of flight personnel who participated in physical examination in 2020 were collected. The prevalence and risk factors of dyslipidemia in flight personnel were analyzed by statistical methods. Results—The risk of dyslipidemia increased with age and longer flight time. Flight crews with an overweight body mass index are more likely to have dyslipidemia. Conclusions—Comprehensive measures should be taken to prevent and control dyslipidemia from health education, diet and nutrition, and physical training for the key population.

Peng Liu, Shuang Bai, Ximeng Chen, Huiling Mu, Ruoyong Wang, Feng Li, Hongjiang Jing, Peng Du

Effect of Different Muscle-Enhancing Supplement Programs on Muscle Strength

Objective—To observe the effect of different muscle-enhancing supplement programs on muscle strength and guide pilots to carry out reasonable nutritional supplement in anti-G physical training. Methods—Ten healthy male volunteers were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group. The subjects were trained according to the anti-G muscle strength training program and got different muscle-enhancing supplement programs for 16 weeks. The muscle strength indexes of the subjects were measured before and after the experiment. Results—Compared with before the experiment, the 10RM and 3RM of barbell squat, leg bend and pull, and maximal leg strength in the experimental group and the control group were significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the 10RM and 3RM of barbell push in the experimental group and the control group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). After muscle-enhancing supplement, the proportion of muscle strength improvement in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group. Conclusions—The muscle-enhancing supplement program of experimental group was better than the control group.

Huiling Mu, Ruoyong Wang, Xichen Geng, Yan Xu, Shuang Bai, Ximeng Chen, Longmei Fang, Lili Zhang, Peng Liu, Feng Li, Hongjiang Jing, Peng Du

Effects of Muscle-Enhancing Nutrition Support on Anthropometric Indexes After Anti-G Physical Training

Objective—To explore the effect of muscle-enhancing nutrition support on anthropometric indexes after anti-G physical training. Methods—Ten healthy male volunteers were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. Based on anti-G physical training, different muscle-enhancing nutrition support were used for 16 weeks. Anthropometric indexes were measured every two weeks. Results—The neck circumference, chest circumference, armpit upper arm circumference, upper arm circumference, upper arm minimum circumference and upper arm maximum circumference increased, while waist circumference, hip circumference and thigh circumference decreased in the experimental group and the control group. The body weight, fat free mass and muscle mass increased, while body fat percentage and fat mass decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the experimental group. The body weight, boy fat percentage and fat mass increased while the fat free mass and muscle mass decreased in the control group. Conclusions—The results showed that the nutrition support in the experimental group could help improving muscle mass and reducing fat mass, and the effect was better than that in the control group.

Peng Du, Ruoyong Wang, Xichen Geng, Yan Xu, Shuang Bai, Ximeng Chen, Longmei Fang, Lili Zhang, Xiaoli Zhang, Baohui Li, Peng Liu, Feng Li, Hongjiang Jing, Huiling Mu

Investigation on Dietary Structure and Nutritional Health Status of Cadets in Air Force Youth Aviation School

Objective— To investigate the dietary characteristics and nutritional health status of cadets in air force youth aviation school. Methods— The 24-h dietary survey was used to investigate the dietary structure. The body composition index and blood biochemical indexes were measured to evaluate their health status. Results— According to the dietary guidelines for Chinese residents, the intake of fruits was seriously insufficient, reaching only 53.48%–80.23%. The intakes of sodium, potassium and phosphorus were high, calcium, iron, zinc and iodine were low. Folic acid intake reached 50.58% of the recommended amount of Chinese residents. The energy supply for breakfast was 23.97%, which was lower than the recommended amount, while the dinner was higher. Carbohydrate provided 1163.6 kcal (39.80%), which was lower than standard recommended. The proportion of protein intake from animal origin was slightly higher than the upper limit (50%) recommended by military standard. Among the blood biochemical indexes, only VD (25-OH) was low. Conclusions— The dietary structure of the cadets is not reasonable, and the intake of minerals and the energy supply ratio of the three nutrients are unbalanced. The overall nutritional health status was good, individual students had malnutrition.

Longmei Fang, Guangyun Wang, Ruoyong Wang, Shuang Bai, Dongyun Fen, Bingqian Guo, Qiao Ye, Huiling Mu, Yuan Luo, Zhusong Mei, Ximeng Chen, Peng Du

Study on Biomechanical Response and Subjective Fatigue Symptoms of Human Body Wearing Personal Protective Equipments

Objective. Exploring the relationship between human biomechanical response and subjective feelings under the wear of different rescue protective equipment. Methods. By using four suits of rescue equipment commonly used in the rescue process, namely fire-proximity suits, fire-fighting suits, explosion-proof suits and anti-chemical, nine fire-fighting soldiers wearing four different suits were tested the pressure of shoulder, waist and back under static condition, and the quantified subjective fatigue value was obtained under dynamic condition. Results. Shoulder pressure is the main factor affecting the overall wearing fatigue. The waist and back are less affected by the pressure and overall sense after wearing the protective clothing. Apparel quality is an important factor affecting shoulder pressure and wearing sense. When the clothing weight become heavier, the pressure on the shoulder will be greater, the discomfort will be more intense. Conclusion. The design of the rescue suit needs to be improved. It is recommended to optimize the carrying mode of the oxygen cylinder under the premise of ensuring that the oxygen cylinder is not affected in the corresponding working environment, and increase the lining on the shoulder.

Yuhong Shen, Chenming Li, Ting Zou

A Rapid Objective Method of Fatigue Detection for Air Traffic Controller Before Duty

Objective. To establish a rapid objective method for detection fatigue of air traffic controllers (ATCs) to meet fatigue management requirements. Methods—A fatigue detection method established by combining a modified psychomotor vigilance test scene with the test of the percentage of eyelid closure over the pupil over time (PERCLOS). The subjects’ PERCLOS value, reaction time and error rate during detection were simultaneously obtained and integrated into the fatigue value. The detection time was compressed to 5 min and the result obtained just completed detection. The established method was applied to a field test at one area control unit in China. 19 ATC volunteers were recruited and divided into two groups as a test group before duty and a fatigue control group after duty. The detection results indicated that the method was valid to detect out ATCs’ fatigue from work and was suitable to control work environment. Conclusions—The rapid method of fatigue detection for air traffic controllers before duty was successfully developed, which would serve as an effective tool for air traffic controller fatigue management.

Zhenling Chen, Jianping Zhang, Xiaoxia Zhou, Pengxin Ding, Yanzhong Gu, Bo Wang

Preliminary Development of Mental Health Checklist for Flight Personnel

Objective. develop a scale suitable for evaluating the mental health of flight personnel. Methods: According to the results of the pilot health survey, a preliminary draft of the scale was formed. A total of 460 pilots were selected as test subjects. Correlation coefficient method, t-test method, and factor analysis method were used to screen items, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify the structural validity. Results: Through three methods, items and dimensions were deleted and revised, and the “mental health checklist for flight personnel” with 52 items and 4 dimensions was finally determined. Conclusion: This scale can reflect the mental health of flight personnel more comprehensively from different perspectives.

Yan Zhang, Jingjing Gong, Yishuang Zhang, Yang Liao, Liu Yang

Preliminary Validity Analysis of Pilot Psychological Competence Assessment

Objective:To explore the assessment methods of pilots’ psychological ability. Methods: 30 pilots were tested using the Vienna psychological test system. Results: (1) The correlation between flight performance and test scores reached a significant level (p < 0. 05), and the scores of decision and signal detection test were significantly different in age group (p < 0. 05). (2) Factor analysis showed that there were three latitudes in the test items, which reflected the cognitive process of flight activities. Conclusion: The test items in the Viennese psychological test system have good validity when applied to the pilot group, and can be used as a method to evaluate the psychological ability of pilots.

Yan Zhang, Yang Liao, Yishuang Zhang, Liu Yang

Identification of Mechanical Impedance Parameters of Human Upper Limbs Using Mechanical Perturbation Method

The upper limb impedance parameters of stroke patients are changing with the rehabilitation process. If the patient's upper limb impedance parameters can be identified, the impedance control parameters of the rehabilitation robot can be adjusted in real time according to the patient's limb mechanical impedance parameters, which will effectively improve the safety of human-machine interaction and enhance the effect of rehabilitation training. This paper introduces the basic principle of the impedance parameter identification method based on the mechanical disturbance method. Based on the principle of the mechanical disturbance method, a three-layer neural network is used to simulate the mechanical impedance parameter identification. The simulation results show that the model calculated in this article is the result of the training. The coefficient of determination of is 0.94428, and the use of neural network can identify mechanical impedance well, which lays the foundation for follow-up research.

Huaiwu Zou, Haoran Tao, Zhou Zhou, Bingshan Hu

Comparative Analysis Research of Occupational Mental Health Assessment Scale

In order to evaluate the occupational mental health status of grassroots firefighters, the occupational mental health assessment scale was developed. In this paper, literature retrieval and statistical analysis were used to statistically analyse the main research contents, advantages and disadvantages, preparation time, frequency of use, reliability and validity, applicable population, and main application fields of seven commonly used assessment scales. According to the analysis results and the occupational characteristics of firefighters, the most widely used SCL-90 scale was selected. The symptom self-assessment scale had the characteristics of large capacity, rich reflection of symptoms, and accurate assessment of patients’ self-conscious symptoms. The structure of the firefighter occupational mental health assessment scale was designed, including the basic information of occupational mental health survey and the symptom self-assessment scale.

Zhongxi Guan, Yanqiu Sun, Jianwu Chen, Jiexiong Zhou, Bin Yang, Pei Wang, Zhili Wang

The Form of Competency Model of Pilots by Job Analysis

To learn the construction and indicators of competency model of military pilots by job analysis, seventy four military pilots were selected. The questionnaire was a revised version of O*NET job analysis questionnaire for commercial pilots. Participates were asked to rate the importance of the competencies. Twenty eight competencies were included in the competency model, the average rating of included competencies was 0.76, which was significant higher than the average rating of competencies not included in the model (t = 19.02, P < 0.01). The included competencies were divided into four first level factors according to KSAOs theory, which were knowledge, ability, skill and other characteristics. Factor analysis was used to explore second level factor, only the other characteristics could be divide into motivation and personality. According to finding in the current study, the other characteristics such as motivation and personality were an important part of the model. This founding indicates that the development of correlated measuring tools and training methods are needed, which could be used in psychological selection and mental training of the military pilots.

Yang Liao, Yan Zhang, Huamiao Song

Psychological Health and Self-management During Epidemic Control

Purpose: During epidemic control in 2020, via telephone, WeChat, as well as spot investigation, the study team conducted sampling survey on the self-management of psychological health. As the results indicated, although the general public was quite confident to prevail over the epidemic, there were psychological issues needs attention and solutions.

Yu Luo, Jiang Shu, Qian Liu, Mengxi Li, Xuechen Yao

Research on Screening Methods for People Susceptible to Motion Sickness and Fatigue After Long Voyage

Objective: This study intends to select a simple and easy method for screening people who are prone to seasickness and seasickness by observing the physiological parameters, seasickness, and navigation fatigue of the crew after a long voyage. Method: Data (including data, weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), their susceptibility to motion sickness, motion sickness symptoms, fatigue degree, etc.,) of 49 subjects who participated in the 200-day long voyage were collected data and the relevance between the above factors and motion sickness symptoms and fatigue symptoms was analyzed. Results: After the voyage, a total of 16 subjects had symptoms of motion sickness, and 41 subjects had symptoms of fatigue. 16 subjects had both seasickness and fatigue symptoms. BMI was positively correlated with motion sickness and fatigue scores. Conclusion: People with a higher BMI index may be more susceptible to motion sickness and fatigue during a long voyage.

Shuang Nie, Dawei Tian, Yanan Huang, Tianyu Zheng, Jie Zhang, Peng Ding, Bohan Zhang, Hui Shen, Fengfeng Mo

A Retrospective Analysis of Dietary Pattern Changes of Chinese Aircrew from Year of 1963 to 2018

Objective-To study the dietary changes of Chinese flight personnel in the past 60 years, and to provide a basis for formulating reasonable nutritional intervention measures. Methods-The changes of dietary structure of Chinese pilots from 1963 to 2018 were analyzed by retrospective statistical classification and analysis according to each 10-year-period. It involved a total of 10,327 flight personnel, 68 civil aviation personnel, 10,259 military aviation personnel. Results- The average carbohydrate energy intake ratio is 50.21%, decreasing year by year, and the fat is 34.89%, increasing yearly. The intakes of vitamin B1 and vitamin PP decreased while Vitamin B2 increased. Conclusions-The aircrew have been in a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet for in the past 60 years, and their total energy intake was high. Therefore, attention should be paid to the long-term potential negative effects of these results on flight occupations. Attention should be paid to the intake of vitamin B1 and PP.

Ximeng Chen, Peng Du, Huiling Mu, Shuang Bai, Zhenyao Song, Peng Liu, Feng Li, Hongjiang Jing, Longmei Fang, Falin Li, Ruoyong Wang

Sensory Evaluation of Fuzzy Mathematics in Sticky Soup Food

Objective—To study the sensory quality of four kinds of sticky soup food by fuzzy mathematics method. Methods—Adopted the method of fuzzy mathematics with color, status, smell, texture and taste as evaluation factors, and carried out fuzzy mathematics judgment of the sensory quality of four kinds of sticky soup food: cheese purple potato soup, guggen pumpkin soup, cocoa black bean soup and matcha wheat soup. Results—The fuzzy comprehensive sensory evaluation scores of four kinds of sticky soup food from high to low were cheese purple potato soup, guggen pumpkin soup, cocoa black bean soup, matcha wheat soup. Conclusions—The fuzzy mathematics method can reflect the sensory quality of sticky soup food objectively, which provided a reference method for the comprehensive sensory quality evaluation of sticky soup food.

Ximeng Chen, Peng Du, Huiling Mu, Shuang Bai, Zhenyao Song, Peng Liu, Feng Li, Hongjiang Jing, Longmei Fang, Falin Li, Ruoyong Wang

The Evaluation of Cognitive Control Ability Under the Variable Operation Conditions

Cognitive ability evaluation is the main content of pilot psychological selection. Most of the existing cognitive ability assessment is based on a single cognitive ability assessment under normal condition, which does not consider the fluctuation of cognitive ability under the variable operation conditions. In this study, lower body negative pressure bucket was used to simulate accelerated stress, and digital Stroop task was used to evaluate the individual's cognitive control ability. The results showed that the main effect of stimulus information type was significant (F = 22.96, P < 0.01), and the response time to conflict stimulus was significantly greater than that to consistent stimulus (P < 0.05). With the change of operation condition, the fluctuation of cognitive control ability is not completely consistent across subjects. The findings in the current study indicated that digital Stroop task can be applied as an assessment tool of cognitive control ability, and operation condition should be included as a variable in the evaluation of cognitive ability to comprehensively understand the level of individual cognitive ability.

Yang Liao, Yishuang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Duanqin Xiong, Xueqian Deng, Juan Liu, Liu Yang

Correlation Between EEG Band Power and Behavioral Performance Based on Dichotic Listening Task

Previous studies on personnel selection focused more on the cognitive processing of visual information, and it is urgent to pay more attention to auditory information. Ten young male subjects participated in a dichotic listening task, and 64 channel EEG data were recorded simultaneously. The correlation coefficients between delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma band power and behavioral data in attention task were calculated. The results showed that the total distance and standard deviation of the reaction time of both ears are target stimulus, the left target and right non-target and the average reaction time were relatively larger. Delta and theta band power are dominant in frontal area, while alpha band power is dominant in temporal and occipital area. TP7-beta, CB2-alpha and O2-alpha were significantly correlated with the above three behavioral indicators (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the reaction time and the related EEG band power data in dichotic listening task could be used as potential indicators to evaluate auditory attention ability.

Yang Liao, Yuyang Zhu, Jian Du, Rong Lin, Liu Yang

Sensory Evaluation of Mixed Juice Drinks Based on Fuzzy Mathematical Evaluation Method

In this study, four mixed juice beverages were evaluated using a fuzzy mathematical approach. The dimensions evaluated included color, aroma, taste and composition. Subjects scored each of these four dimensions. Using the obtained scores, a fuzzy mathematical comprehensive sensory evaluation model was developed. The results showed that the mixture of lemon and grapefruit juice scored the highest, followed by the mixture of pineapple and apple juice, and the mixture of strawberry and guava juice. The mixed juices of cherries and cranberries scored the lowest.

Shuang Bai, Peng Du, Huiling Mu, Ximeng Chen, Longmei Fang, Juan Liu, Hua Guo, Feng Wu, Yubin Zhou, Dalong Guo, Dalong Liu, Feng Li, Hongjiang Jing, Ying Liu, Falin Li, Ruoyong Wang

Discussion on the Cultivation of Talents for Intelligent Warfare

Combat talents for intelligent warfare have the basic characteristics of professional complementarity, sophisticated skills, compound knowledge, innovative thinking, and intelligent decision-making. This paper analyzes the situation and tasks faced by the development of intelligent combat talents through the development of information technology, the midwifery by evolution of warfare, the preemptive development of powerful countries and the urgent needs of weak countries for leapfrog development. This paper puts forward some measures on how to cultivate talents adapting to intelligent warfare, such as insisting on taking combat needs as the traction and promoting transformation by updating ideas; highlighting the key points of institutional mechanism and optimizing the system structure to promote transformation; focusing on intelligent simulation training and promoting transformation through innovative training methods; persisting reform and innovation driven and promoting transformation through innovative support models.

Qian Liu, Jinxin Li, Jiwen Sun

Study on the Regular Changes of Training Effect of Autonomic Nervous Stability of Flight Personnel

To study the characteristics of the regular changes of autonomic nervous stability training for flight personnel, and provide scientific and application basis for clarifying the training methods, procedures and objective evaluation of the effects. Method 101 military pilots were selected as the subjects. Three phases of autonomic nervous stability training for the pilots before and after the three times of heart rate variability (heart rate variability, HRV) index, including time domain and frequency domain index data and combined with frequency of 0.1 Hz for recording and analysis on order to probe the regular changes of heart rate variability in autonomous nervous stability training of flight staff. Results After autonomous nervous stability training: (1) Time domain index: SDNN index increased, and reached the highest value in the third training; RMS-SD index decreased; SDSD and PNN50 showed a downward trend (P < 0.05). (2) Frequency domain indexes: TP, LF, LF/HF and LFnorm were significantly increased, and TP reached the highest value in the third training; VLF and HFNorm significantly decreased. (3) HRV power spectrum at 0.1 Hz was enhanced before and after training of pilots, and the difference was significant (P < 0.01). Conclusions Through the regular changes of HRV indexes after autonomic nervous stability training of pilots, the results showed that the overall level of autonomic nervous function of pilots was increased after the training, and the stress level is mobilized to a more suitable working state, and the best effect is achieved in the third training.

Jian Du, Yishuang Zhang, Duanqin Xiong, Qinglin Zhou, Yang Liao, Yan Zhang, Juan Liu, Liu Yang

Experiment and Evaluation of Occupant Cognitive State Based on Situational Awareness Theory

In recent years, with the improvement of the automation level of special vehicles and the explosive growth of the information available on the battlefield, higher requirements have been put forward for occupants’ cognitive level and performance. The first problem is how to master the cognitive state law of the occupant of the special vehicle system in real-time, that is, how to solve the cognitive state recognition problem. In this paper, the representation methods of occupant's situational awareness in physiological and performance aspects were studied by virtual simulation experiments, and the man-machine system of automated special vehicles was taken as the research object. The results show that the level of situational awareness and performance of special vehicle members are significantly increased under the condition of partial task automation; that is, the level of the cognitive state is improved.

Fang Xie, Sijuan Zheng, Xiaoping Jin, Dongwei Zhao, Chunlin Liu

A Preliminary Research on Energy Expenditure Assessment with 24-hour Life Observation Method and Activity Recorder Method

Objective—To understand the daily energy expenditure of military personnel with different measurement method, so as to provide scientific basis for guiding the military personnel’ reasonable energy intake and dietary supply. Methods—67 male military personnel were included in the study. The total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed by 24-hour life observation method and activity recorder (ActiGraph GT3X+) method. The results of these two different energy expenditure assessment methods were compared by paired t-test. Results—With the 24-hour life observation method the average energy consumption of various actions(ECVA) and TEE-24 were (3672.42 ± 829.78)kcal and (3839.26 ± 834.75) kcal respectively. Using Actigraph GT3X+ to measure their average energy consumption of physical activity(PA) and TEE-Actigraph were (1416.47 ± 615.17) kcal and (3251.68 ± 680.98) kcal respectively, and the mean difference between TEE-24 and TEE-Actigraph was (587.58 ± 540.16) kcal. There is a strong correlation between the measurement results of the two methods(r = 0.764, p < 0.001). Conclusions—The measurement result of activity recorder (ActiGraph GT3X+) method and 24-hour life observation method is highly related. The activity recorder (ActiGraph GT3X+) method is more objective and easier to be implemented for the military personnel. Further comparative studies should be performed to find more objective, accurate, reproducible, and maneuverable methods.

Feng Li, Huijuan Zhu, Hongjiang Jing, Ruoyong Wang, Shuang Bai, Huiling Mu, Ximeng Chen, Peng Du

Investigation on Psychological Service of Military Pilots

Based on the investigation of the present situation of psychological service of military pilots, this paper points out that now the psychological service of pilots is not carried out frequently, and the methods&means are not targeted enough, then analyzes the military pilots' characteristics of psychological stress and their demands for psychological service. It is considered that the psychological service of military pilots should be necessary to strengthen the mechanism construction, cultivate the professional and technical personnel of psychological service, and strengthen the propaganda of psychological knowledge among pilots, highlight the goal and significance of psychological service, in order to achieve the overall service of full coverage and follow-up of the whole process. At the same time, we should pay attention in scientific research, aim at the psychological service needs of pilots, combine with advanced psychological training and evaluation technology, and explore methods of psychological service for pilots with definite purpose and measurable effect.

Yishuang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yang Liao, Juan Liu, Xueqian Deng, Liu Yang

Research on Preventive Methods for Human Errors of Marine Nuclear Power Plant Operators

Aiming at the problem of human error caused by the manipulation of marine nuclear power plants, this paper conducts research on prevention methods for human error of marine nuclear power plants from three perspectives: external factors, internal factors and stress factors. In the design stage, suggestions are made for the working environment, equipment and procedures, etc.; in the operation stage, suggestions are made for personnel training, work instructions, experience feedback, etc.; in terms of nuclear safety culture suggestions, it is recommended to strictly select operators and value people Suggestions on how to deal with the physiological laws, develop emotional management, and humanized system design. The research results are of great significance to strengthen the prevention of human error in marine nuclear power plants, reduce operation accidents, and improve the safety of operation.

Chuan Wang, Ziying Wang, Shenghang Xu

Analysis of Ship Operator's Operation Ability and Research on Prevention of Human Error

Based on the theory of human error classification, combined with the characteristics of human error of ship control devices, through the analysis of memory, cognition and ability limits, the relevant ability restrictions of ship operators are correlated to analyze the impact of human error on ship control devices The factors are classified, mainly from the psychological state factors, the physiological state factors, the information in the memory, the individual's quality and ability factors to analyze the impact of people's work behavior. On the basis of influencing factors, the cognitive status of ship control devices under emergency conditions is analyzed according to actual conditions, and operational ability training indicators are proposed. The research results provide theoretical guidance for ship operators' operational ability training subjects and methods, and have practical significance for the prevention of ship operators' human errors.

Chuan Wang, Xiao Han, Shenghang Xu, Guangjiang Wu, Xi Lu, Ziying Wang, Zhongfeng Gao

Fatigue Index of ATC in Number Recognition Task

Objective: The objectives of current study are to explore whether serious fatigue of Air Traffic Controller (ATC) exist in their duty, and to explore a sensitive fatigue index. Method: Number recognition task was used to explore ATC fatigue. Following results were found, firstly, significant fatigue effect was found in all 55 ATC. Besides, significant fatigue effects were only found in ATC in tower control area and terminal control area, but not in regional control area. Thirdly, only reaction time before and after ATC duty were found significant difference but not in accuracy. Conclusion: Fatigue effect really exist in ATC after their duty, and ATC in different work location suffer different work load. Finally, reaction time of number recognition task can be a very sensitive and reliable fatigue index.

Qiuhong Piao, Xianggang Xu, Wei Fu, Jianping Zhang, Wei Jiang, Xiang Gao, Zhenling Chen, Pengxin Ding

Research on Situational Awareness of Crew Warnings Based on GDTA and FCM

Situational awareness is very important for pilots to recognize and deal with crew warning information. In order to make pilots maintain good situational awareness, it is necessary to understand the process of situational cognition while pilots handling with warnings and analyze the factors that affect pilots' situational awareness. For this reason, combines the goal oriented task analysis (GDTA) method and fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) method, establishes the situation cognitive model of crew warnings, divides the task of handling the warnings, determines the operation process of handling the warnings, and obtains the influence degree of various factors affecting the situation awareness. By comparing the model with the existing typical crew warning scenarios, it is found that they are highly matched, which verifies the rationality of the model. The model is helpful to understand the key information needed by pilots to eliminate the warning, and has a certain guiding role for the design of crew warning system which is helpful for pilots to maintain situational awareness, identify and process the warning.

Wang Lijing, Xiaonan Shi, Yu Zhu, Yanzeng Zhao

Research on a Fatigue Detection Method Based on Phoneme

In order to effectively detect the fatigue status of train drivers and ensure the safety of train operation, in view of the limitations of existing methods in feature selection and model construction, a driving fatigue detection method based on phoneme spectrogram and convolutional neural network was proposed. According to the characteristics of the work tasks of the train driver, a fatigue speech database was constructed and the effectiveness of the database was verified; phonemes that can express fatigue information in a more detailed and intuitive manner were selected as the research object, and based on the speech signal processing theory and the deep learning theory, a driving fatigue detection model was established to achieve a more accurate and robust driving fatigue detection. The experimental results show that the precision, recall and accuracy (96.7%) of this method are better than the existing methods. The research on the train driver fatigue state automatic detection technology carried out in this paper not only has a wide application prospect in the intelligent rail transit industry, but also can provide theoretical and technical support for the research on human-machine adaptive interaction of trains.

Qian Zhang, Weining Fang, Jian Li, Haifeng Bao, Xingdong Zhao

Study on EEG Channel Selection for Visual Manipulation Tasks

At present, electroencephalogram (EEG) has been widely used in the classification of mental workload. But most of the EEG acquisition devices used in the research a use a large number of electrodes. However, this brings high hardware costs, limited portability and discomfort to the wearer. In addition, most of the channels have information redundancy and noise interference, which have a negative impact on the subsequent mental workload classification. Therefore, it is necessary to use fewer channels to accurately identify the mental load of the operator. Focusing on the above problems, a method of channel selection based on Davies–Bouldin Index (DBI) for visual manipulation tasks is proposed in this paper, it selects effective channels by analyzing the differences between the features of low and high workload data.

Hongquan Qu, Min Liu, Liping Pang, Hongbin Qu, Ling Wang

An Experimental Study on the Impact of Customer Feedback on the Performance of E-commerce Customer Service Personnel

To improve the performance of e-commerce customer service personnel, this paper explores the impact of customer feedback on the performance of the e-commerce customer service personnel from the perspective of customer feedback. Using an experimental approach to design a feedback-performance simulation scenario which based on the real customer feedback scenarios to explore the impact of customer feedback on the job performance of e-commerce customer personnel. The results show that the job performance of e-commerce customer service personnel is affected by customer feedback, and positive feedback positively affects the performance of the customer service personnel, while negative feedback decreases the performance; risk perception affects the performance of customer service personnel, and the risk perception of female customer service personnel is higher than male’s. This study provides theoretical suggestions and guidance for e-commerce platforms to train their customer service personnel, improve the quality of e-commerce customer service and then increase customer viscosity.

Xiaofang Yuan, Ling Li, Yuanhang Liang

Research on the Machine Character

Frontmatter

Modular Cleaning Set Design Based on Ergonomics

With the rapid development of science and technology, cleaning tools are gradually transitioning to electric ones, such as sweeping robots, vacuum cleaners and other smart products. However, considering various factors such as user groups, cost and environment, manual cleaning tools are still irreplaceable products, which should be paid attention to by designers. According to the corresponding national standard size and practical exploration, based on the concept of people-oriented and fully practicing the research methods of ergonomics theory, this paper investigated and analyzed the existing products in the market, and combined with practical experiments, carried out innovative design, and obtained a design scheme of modular cleaning set. This scheme is dedicated to providing users with a more convenient and comfortable use experience, so that various user groups can easily, conveniently, safely and comfortably carry out daily cleaning work.

Xiaoxuan Zhao, Min Lu, Runsen Wang

Design and Research of Female Anti-mistaken Touch Alarm Based on Ergonomics

Maslow divides people’s needs into five levels, among which safety is basic [1]. In recent years, women’s safety issues have received widespread attention from the society. In order to design safety protection products suitable for women, to realize the function of timely alarming at critical moments and effective prevention of accidental touches temporarily. According to user needs, this article analyzed product design process, using relevant theoretical knowledge and research methods of ergonomics, through research and experimental analysis, summarized the important demand factors of female users in safety protection products, and apply them to the design practice, designed an anti-mistaken touch alarm that meets the needs of female users. It is hoped that the design and research results of this article can reduce the occurrence of female safety accidents.

Xiaoxuan Zhao, Han Li, Yaning Zhu, Min Lu

Man-Machine Analysis and Design of Handheld Infrared Thermometer

Hand held infrared thermometer is widely used in epidemic prevention and control, but the user’s human-computer experience is often ignored in the design. In this paper, combined with the relevant knowledge of ergonomics, the handle, interface, key, probe, and other parts of the handheld infrared thermometer are studied and designed. Through field research, the use of different types of thermometers, button infrared, interface display, etc., are observed and simulated. Based on the relevant principles of ergonomics and design psychology, the irrationality is analyzed, and the improvement scheme is put forward to provide the best effect for users.

Hangling Liu, Huiran Ye, Qiao Guo

Research and Practice on Renovation and Reuse of Historic Buildings

A city is an organic system. It is necessary to correctly handle the valuable historic buildings and blocks to promote the sustainable development of the city, because they are non-renewable resources in urban development. This paper takes the renovation project of Wuhan Art Museum as the research object. It explored the general methods of the protection and renewal of historic buildings from the aspects of historical value, appearance design, functional layout, etc. This research used the method of combining theory with practice and summarized the key points of the renovation of historic buildings by case analysis. The purpose of this research is to find a way to reuse historic buildings in line with China’s national conditions. This can provide a useful reference for other similar projects. The practice of the renovation project must be given appropriate uses, which is the key to continue their lives. Only in this way can old buildings meet the modern lifestyle.

Zhen Li, Heng Chen, Fang Liu

Optimization Design and Development of Working Face Support Selection System

In order to carry on optimization design and development the support selection system of working face, in this paper, a large number of measured data of mine pressure, geological conditions of working face and support parameters accumulated in many years of work experience are summarized and sorted out, and the support selection system is optimized and developed in this paper. First, the data input and data management module are designed, and a set of extensible support selection database is constructed. Then we developed the support strength matching, support adaptability evaluation and working resistance calculation module by further combining with the theory of rock pressure research. This system can input various parameters to quickly match the support strength record, then it can calculate the working resistance of support according to the best results of adaptability evaluation, which can provide a means for engineering analogy method of hydraulic support selection in working face.

Zhenlong Lu

Test Evaluation of Thermal Protection Performance of Flame-Retardant Protective Clothing

In order to study the shrinkage deformation and overall thermal protection performance of flame-retardant protective clothing under instantaneous strong fire conditions, the flame-manikin test system is used to test the overall thermal protection performance of flame-retardant protective clothing of different materials, and the stamping method is used to measure the shrinkage and deformation of the garment surface before and after combustion. The results show that the thermal protection performance of clothing not only depends on the thermal protection performance of the fabric, but also closely related to the style and structure design of the clothing, the performance of the accessories and the environment of the clothing. The flame-manikin system can predict the location and extent of second-and third-degree burns on human skin, thereby evaluating the overall thermal protection performance of the tested clothing. The shrinkage deformation of the clothing surface can also reflect the thermal protection performance of the clothing to a certain extent.

Chenming Li, Yuhong Shen, Liying Liu, Mei Tong, Feng Li

The Research on the Efficiency of UAV Swarm Anti-UAV Swarm Operations

(Purpose) To explore the problems about human-machine interaction in UAV swarm anti-UAV swarm operations, and seek the countermeasures to improve the efficiency of UAV swarm anti-UAV swarm operations. (Method) Analyzes the advantages of UAV swarm anti-UAV swarm operations; differentiate the difficulties of UAV swarm anti-UAV swarm operations; puts forward the countermeasures to improve the efficiency of UAV swarm anti-UAV swarm operations. (Result) This paper analyzes the difficulties of UAV swarm anti-UAV swarm operations launch, remote control and interference strike, and around three aspects of strengthening body design, reducing environmental impact and using artificial intelligence, puts forward the countermeasures to improve the effectiveness of UAV swarm anti-UAV swarm operations. (Conclusion) The countermeasures proposed in this paper to improve the efficiency of UAV swarm anti-UAV swarm operations have reference value. This paper has reference significance for exploring new methods and expanding new thinking of air defense operations.

Hongyan Ou, Di Wu, Shuxin Wang, Junfei Wang, Jifeng Wang, Yuming Huang

Research on Operational Capability and Countermeasures of the U.S. UAV Swarm

At present, the research on UAV swarm operations is more and more widely in the world. As the leader of UAV technology and swarm tactics, the research on the swarm has become practical. On the basis of defining the swarm, the paper first analyses the operational capabilities of the U.S. UAV swarm. The U.S. UAV swarm has variety of advantages, and it integrates the capabilities of saturation attack, cooperative operation, distributed decision-making and precision attack. Then the paper analyzes the characteristics of operational applications of U.S. UAV swarm from multiple perspectives such as platforms and tactical applications. The UAV swarm brings infinite possibilities for future operational pattern, and also brings unpredictable thread to ground air defense system, but on the other hand, its overall operational capabilities and tactical and technical performances are still difficult to meet the ideal requirements of large-scale operations at this stage. Finally the paper discusses the countermeasures and suggestions against the UAV swarm.

Weixin Liu, Haijun Ma, Yanyan Ding, Hao Liu, Hongyan Ou, Hao Jiang

Research on Low Resistance Ventilation Handle of a Welding Torch Based on Numerical Simulation

The welding torch with an exhaust hood can effectively capture welding fumes at the source of contamination. However, due to the high temperature of the welding fumes, the temperature of the welding torch handle is relatively high in a short time and the resistance of the ventilation handle is also too high, which makes it difficult to apply in practice. In order to reduce the resistance of the ventilation handle, and promote the smooth outflow of high-temperature welding fumes, the pressure loss of the three welding torch handle structures was studied in this paper by simulation. The structure models of the welding torch handle were established by Auto CAD, and the air distribution and resistance in the ventilation handle were simulated by Fluent. According to the simulation results, the influence of the different structures and air volumes on the resistance of the ventilation handle was analyzed. The result shows that the ventilation handle B of the welding torch has the least resistance and the resistance of the ventilation handles increases rapidly with the increase of air volume.

Youchun Wang, Jianwu Chen, Pei Wang, Bin Yang, Dongwei Zhao

Research on Cabin Load Evaluation of Two Types of Transport Aircraft

Objective. To investigate the difference of cabin environment between a large transport aircraft (A) and a previous transport aircraft (B) and its impact on the workload of flight personnel by questionnaire, so as to provide reference for the formulation of aviation and health support measures. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was used to conduct on-the-spot investigation. The grade data were tested by nonparametric test, with P < 0.05 as the statistical difference. Results. The results of cockpit environment investigation showed that there was no significant difference in the evaluation of cockpit noise and vibration changes between the two types of transport aircraft, but there was significant difference in the evaluation of cockpit temperature comfort, instrument airworthiness and control convenience between the two types of transport aircraft (Z = −3.136, P = 0.002; Z = −3.556, P < 0.001; Z = −3.556, P < 0.001); There was no significant difference in the effects of cockpit environment on hearing and vision between the two types of transport aircraft; there was significant difference in the evaluation of seat comfort between the two types of transport aircraft (Z = −2.395, P = 0.017). Conclusion. The noise and vibration of the cockpit environment of transport A have no obvious change compared with that of transport B, but the temperature comfort of the cockpit of transport A has been greatly improved; the instrument airworthiness and convenient control of the cockpit of transport A have been greatly improved compared with that of transport B; the influence of the cockpit environment of two types of transport on the hearing and vision of flight personnel is not obvious, and The comfort of the seats of transport A has been improved significantly compared with that of transport B.

Xuan Li, Zhigang Jiao, Jiakang Zhang, Hua Guo, Feng Wu

Intelligent Process Parameter Tuning of Laser Cleaning Based on Image Feature Analyses

An image feature analysis-based method is proposed to conquer the intelligent process parameter tuning problem of laser cleaning machine. First, lots of metal corrosion images and their corresponding laser cleaning process parameters are collected. The settings of the laser cleaning process parameters come from the experts’ experiences. Second, some image features, i.e., the colour and the texture features are computed. Third, the Back Propagation (BP) network is employed to build the connection between image features and process parameters. Finally, when this system works, the image features of workpiece will be calculated, then the BP network will estimate the proper process parameters for laser. Many experiment results have verified the correctness of proposed method.

Haoting Liu, Na Zheng, Jiacheng Li

The Improved Artificial Bee Colony Method and Its Application on UAV Disaster Rescue

An improved Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is proposed in this paper. In contrast to the traditional method, which may drop into the local optimization and meet the slow convergence problem, a global population optimization-based method is developed. The equilibrium searching factors are designed to speed up the convergence effect and expand the searching ability. To evaluate the effectiveness of proposed method, on one hand the algorithm computation effect is assessed. The convergence effect of fitness value can be improved. The experiment results show that the proposed method is better than the ordinary ABC algorithm. On the other hand, an optimal path planning mission of the UAV disaster rescue is also compared between the traditional ABC and our proposed methods. The results also illustrate that our proposed method has a better performance to avoid the threaten sources on ground.

Ming Lv, Haoting Liu, Yajie Li, Lixuan Li, Yun Gao

Using an Electrochemical Immunosensor Based on Polypyrrole Nanowire Arrays/Carboxyl Graphene Composite Modified Microelectrodes to Detect Periodontal Bacteria

An electrochemical immunosensor based on polypyrrole nanowires array/carboxyl graphene modified gold interdigitated array microelectrodes was developed to quantify periodontal bacteria. We prepared the polypyrrole/reduced carboxyl grephene composite nanostructures through one step cyclic voltammetry method. The present method could simplified polymerization process, while maintained excellent conducitivity of the composite nanostructures. Then we could immobilized antibodies directly on composite nanostructure surfaces through chemical activation of carboxyl groups. The results demonstrated that PPy nanowires were coated with reduced carboxyl grephene. The impedance value increased significantly after antibody immobilization and bacteria adsorption. The linear dectection range was 103 to 109 cells/mL. The developed immunosensor had a good reproducibility and sample recovery rate. The relative standard deviation was small, which showed the potential application value of the immunosensor for periodontal bacteria detection in clinical samples.

Zhenhua Pei

Safety Design to Underwater Robotic Arm

To meet requirements of underwater simulation training for space station mission, the safety problem of underwater operation of the robotic arm is studied and solved. Methods. Based on the environment adaptability, operation control and man-machine interaction of the underwater robotic arm, the safety design scheme is proposed. Conclusion. The underwater test shows that the safety design of the underwater robotic arm is comprehensive and the measures are effective. The operation ability of the underwater robotic arm is guaranteed in the special Man-Machine-Environment relationship composed of the astronaut in the underwater training suit, the underwater robotic arm and the neutral buoyancy tank. From the perspective of the whole underwater simulation training effect, it not only improves the efficiency, but also improves the quality in the underwater simulation training because it is closer to the real space operation conditions, so as to achieve the expected goal of safety, efficiency and economy.

Shang Huan, Jiangang Chao, Yan Zhang, Jiahong She, Liangliang Han, Jian Yang, Deli Zhang

The Perceived Recoil Force on Shooter During Rifle Shooting Using MFF Pressure Measurement

Objective. The goal of this study was to objectively quantify the perceived recoil force on shooter and obtain the distribution of recoil force during rifle shooting. Methods. Using the multi-point flexible film (MFF) pressure measurement system, the experiment was designed to measure four surface contact forces on the human-gun system. Results. During rifle shooting, the recoil force on the shoulder position is maximum, the recoil forces on cheek and forestock are relatively minimum. The distribution proportion of the recoil force as follow: shoulder is 69.7%, grip is 19.3%, cheek is 9.8%, forestock is 1.2%. Conclusion. The shoulder and the grip contact areas born more concentrated force rather than cheek and forestock. The MFF system is feasible for measuring the surface contact force of the human-gun during shooting. Application. This study provides data support to the perceived recoil forces measurement on the human body during dynamic shooting. It was an important contribution to the design, evaluation and optimization of rifle.

Yong Cheng, Yaping Wang, Long He, Xinrui Wang, Yu Bai

Analysis of Heat Transfer of a Multiscale Turbulence Model

A multiscale model based on the variable interval time average method has built up a set of averaged equations for incompressible turbulent flows. Multiscale model was applied to calculation of turbulence heat transfer, and the work include the derivation of the incompressible turbulent energy equation, the structural anisotropy of eddy viscosity thermal conductivity and the development of corresponding numerical algorithms. A backward-facing step flow was calculated, the simulation result indicated that Stanton Number is consistent with the experiment data, validating the ability of multiscale model to calculate complex turbulent heat transfer problems.

Jianxin Yuan, Zhong Shi, Lei Bai

Numerical Investigation of Impinging Jets Flow Using a Multiscale Turbulence Model

Impinging jets flow is a complex turbulence flow and has strong heat transport capacity, which was generally used in civil aviation area such like wing anti-ice, turbine blade cooling, etc. In this paper impinging jets flow was simulated using the multiscale turbulence model based on the variable interval time average method. The numerical method used in this simulation is a structured staggered mesh scheme. The computational result shows that the multiscale turbulence model can successfully simulate flow and heat transfer characteristics of impinging jets from wall surface to potential core area. The Nusselt number also agree better with experiments than that of the standard k-ω model.

Zhong Shi, Jianxin Yuan, Lei Bai

Research on the Fin Performance of Air-Oil Heat Exchanger for Aircraft Engine

Due to the increasing power of aircraft engine and the increase of airborne electronic equipment, high heat flux and uneven heat distribution are becoming new problems. It is a new attempt to use the air lubricating oil heat exchanger with inner flow channel, but the research on it is not deep enough. Airflow internal-surface air-oil heat exchanger is newly-design heat exchanger and different from tube-fin or shell-tube heat exchanger which is used in previous aero engine. This heat exchanger is equipped in internal surface of air intake of the aircraft engine, consequently the fin structure directly affects the heat transfer efficiency and fin side flow resistance of the heat exchanger, and further affects the stable operation of the oil system and the performance of aero engine. Therefore, three kinds of parameters of fin structure are analyzed in this paper, and the four parameters of average convective heat transfer coefficient, fin heat transfer area, fin heat transfer capacity and total pressure ratio of inlet and outlet are compared and analyzed. According to all research, the heat transfer capacity of the fin with uniform thickness is 3.4% higher than that of a gradual thickness fin, and the total pressure ratio of inlet and outlet is 0.0001 lower, If the heat transfer performance of the heat exchanger is emphasized, the uniform thickness fin has certain advantages, which provides reference for the design of air lubricating oil heat exchanger.

Hang Zhang, Ying Wang, Liping Pang, Zhe Xu

Research on the Environment Character

Frontmatter

Safety Control of Gas Displacement in the Environmental System of Space Station Experiment Rack

A number of experiment and maintenance of equipment on the space station requires a confined space. Some of the experiment and maintenance may require a environment with high concentration of nitrogen, which need the replacement of waste gas with nitrogen. In some other cases, the waste gas generated in the experiment should be exhausted out of the cabin, then the space is recharged to the atmospheric pressure with nitrogen or fresh air. Therefore a special experimental rack (ER) is designed with a confined space for these operation. In this paper, the confined environment system is designed in the ER, which is connected to an external high-pressure nitrogen supply equipment. Furthermore, it has interfaces to vent waste gas to extravehicular environment and has another interface to the cabin environment. Safety control strategies for charging and exhausting is applied in this environment system. The pressure of ER is controlled within a tolerable range to prevent structural damage. The performance of gas displacement systems is analyzed. As the displacement rate using nitrogen is much higher than that of air displacement, the nitrogen is used as the main supply gas in the gas displacement.

Dongcai Guo, Qiang Sheng, Liang Guo, Qinglin Zhu

Numerical Simulation of Mixing Unit Performance of Civil Aircraft Environmental Control System

The mixing unit of civil aircraft environmental control system is the supplier of cabin air, which undertakes the mixing function of fresh air and recirculated air, as well as the distribution function of the air flow into each cabin zone. The performance of the mixing unit determines the thermal comfort of the crews and passengers. In order to predict the mixing unit performance under various operating conditions, the numerical simulation method is applied in this paper. Three parameters are applied for evaluating the mixing unit performance, including the temperature variance of mixing unit outlets, the surface uniformity of outlet temperature and the pressure drop. Four typical operating conditions of mixing unit are studied, including cooling mode with double PACKs, cooling mode with single PACK, heating mode with double PACKs and heating mode with single PACK. The simulation results show that, the outlet temperature variance and maximum temperature difference of the mixing unit under cooling mode with double PACKs are 62.4% and 35.6% lower than those under the cooling mode with single PACK.

Yifei Yang, Chao Liu, Shenghua Yang

Modeling and Simulation of Supersonic Parachute Inflation in Mars Environment

Parachute plays an important role of aerodynamic deceleration during exploration and landing. In this paper, inflation process of a disk-gap-band parachute in low-density and supersonic airflow is simulated based on the Arbitrary Lagrange Euler (ALE) method. Firstly, the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) numerical model of the parachute has been built. Then, the inflation process is simulated in Mars environment at Ma = 2. The simulation result shows the inflation time is 0.135 s, and after parachute reaches the over inflation stage, the canopy and the suspension line oscillate slightly, which can provide an important reference for the design of Mars parachute.

Miao Zhao, Sijun Zhang, Zhang Zhang, Qi Wang, Yu Liu, Jian Li

Investigation on Real Environment Simulation Method and Ground Test Technology of Lunar Landing and Ascending

Lunar explorer landing and ascending process is critical for lunar sampling and return mission. Flight control ability, reliability and safety of lunar explorer need to be fully verified in ground test in the condition of simulating the real moon environment. A practice method and test technology of lunar low gravity environment simulation and lunar surface real geomorphic feature simulation is presented in this paper. The research work is beneficial for ground test validation for the real landing and ascending performance of lunar explorer. It can provide references for soft landing and ascending ground test of other planets as Mars, Venus and so on. Furthermore, research work in this paper also establishes basis for the extended application of the related technology in future planetary exploration.

Zhang Zhang, Mingzhang Tang, Zhihui Lv, Miao Zhao, Yu Liu

Research on Urban Financial Ecological Environment Assessment Based on Principal Component Analysis

This paper analyzes six main factors influencing urban financial ecological environment: economic base provide important support for the urban financial ecological environment, degree of financial development is an important embodiment of the vitality of the urban financial ecology, legal environment is the basic condition for the stable development of the financial ecology, corporate integrity is the cornerstone of the financial system, social security level is an important part of the urban economic capacity, and local government public service provides an important guarantee for the urban financial ecological environment. Based on this, the principal component comprehensive evaluation model of urban financial ecological environment assessment is established by using the principal component analysis tool in the SPASS, which provides a scientific and effective method for urban financial ecological environment assessment.

Shuqi Wan

Ergonomics Evaluation of Home Office Environment

In the past year, due to the outbreak of the epidemic, remote office has become hot, unlike the previous scene, many employees choose home office. This paper takes the centralized place of office learning at home as an example, and uses JACK ergonomics virtual simulation to evaluate office environment. In the paper, we use the viewshed analysis, ovako working posture, static strength prediction, lower back analysis, and metabolic energy expenditure to analyse whether there are ergonomic problems in the current office environment, and puts forward improvement measures and suggestions to provide reference for better home office and create a good home office environment. The result is that ovako working posture, metabolic energy and lower back analysis meet the requirements. The improvement measures and suggestions were given for the risks of visibility, knee and ankle.

Nuo Xu, Yanqiu Sun, Jianwu Chen, Zhili Wang, Zhenfang Chen, Bin Yang, Pei Wang, Jiexiong Zhou

Numerical Simulation on Diffusion Law of Welding Fume in a Welding Workshop

In order to solve the problem that the concentration of welding smoke exceeds the standard in welding operation, the geometric model of the welding shop was established by ANSYS Workbench, and the RNG k-ε model and the species transport model were used to simulate the diffusion of welding smoke and the distribution law of welding smoke during welding was studied. The results show that the welding dust increases gradually with the action of hot air flow and accumulates at the top of the workshop, and the concentration of welding dust reaches the maximum. It is suggested to set up exhaust facilities on the top of the workshop or blow and suction ventilation system on the top of both sides of the wall to reduce the welding smoke and dust in the workshop and improve the working environment of the welding workshop.

Xin Wang, Bin Yang, Jianwu Chen, Pei Wang, Miao Zhang

Research on Combined Ventilation Technology in Large Painting Workshop

In order to improve the current situation of the concentration of toluene and other toxic substances in the paint shop painting process, it provides a basis for the rational design of the push-pull ventilation in the paint shop. In this paper, a large painting workshop of a shipyard was taken as the research object. Using CFD numerical simulation analysis technology, research the control effect of the combination of blowing and suction ventilation and local air supply on toxic substances. Under the conditions of different air supply velocity, the influence of the size of the annular air exhaust on the airflow organization around and inside the workpiece is studied. The results show that when the size of the air exhaust is larger than 2.5 m of the worktable, the velocity of the internal section of the workpiece is greater than 0.5 m/s, and there is no vortex in the local air supply side. At this time, the air distribution in the workshop is good, and the toxic substances in the workshop can be effectively discharged, can effectively enhance the ventilation effect of large painting workshop.

Bin Yang, Jianwu Chen, Menghui Xiao, Lindong Liu, Yanqiu Sun, Jie Xie

Study on Toxic Control Technology of Combined Ventilation for Internal Painting of Large Work Pieces

When large work pieces are painted, workers need to paint in it. The concentration of toxic exceeds the standard seriously, which leads to occupational diseases or occupational poisoning. The traditional ventilation technology cannot protect the toxic in the work pieces and painting room at the same time, so the new combined ventilation of toxic controlling is studied in this paper. The model of painting room and large work piece was established by Auto CAD, and the concentration distribution of toluene was simulated by fluent, which was used as the target toxicant. Base on the simulation results, the influence of supply air velocity of hood in the large work piece, the exhaust air velocity and width of hood, under the condition of 48 m3/s exhaust air volume being kept constant, around the working platform on the ground of the painting room on toluene concentration is studied, and the best control condition of toluene concentration is obtained, and the research conclusion, application and later researches are discussed.

Jianwu Chen, Zhaochun Yang, Bin Yang, Yanqiu Sun, Lindong Liu, Menghui Xiao

Development of Lighting Effect Evaluation Method for Hospital Ward

In the actual application of lighting systems, hospitals often lack an evaluation method for lighting effect. According to the design requirements of ward lighting, this paper proposes an evaluation method of ward lighting effect from the factors of lighting quality, energy saving and subjective feeling. First, we establish an evaluation index system, then we use the analytic hierarchy process to determine the weight of each index, and finally we determine the scoring criteria and grade evaluation criteria of the ward lighting effect. A three-person ward is used as an example to assess our proposed method. We use the DIALux evo software to simulate a lighting design example, and apply our evaluation method to assess its lighting effect. This method can also be extended to other lighting spaces, which has certain reference value and practical significance.

Yajie Li, Haoting Liu

Modeling and Simulation Analysis of Explosive Decompression Test for Units

In view of the requirements of GJB150.2A on explosive decompression test and the immature test technology at home and abroad, this paper puts forward an environmental simulation scheme to quickly expose the product to low pressure environment by breaking the glass, and carries out modeling and simulation based on ANSYS Workbench platform. The simulation results show that the decompression time of the monitoring point is 102 ms, and the decompression time of the product placement point is 87 ms. At the same time, the simulation model is verified by the built test platform.

Fang Hu, Chen Yu, Xuewei Wang, Tengfei Ma, Shouqing Huang

Steady-State Optimization of the Configuration of the Air-Borne Liquid Cooled Vapor Cycle Refrigeration System

As an efficient cooling system, the vapor cycle refrigeration system has the advantages of high performance coefficient, small compensation loss, no engine bleed and so on. In recent years, the vapor cycle refrigeration system has made great progress in application, and the disadvantages such as poor system reliability and refrigerant leakage have been solved. Therefore, the application of the vapor cycle refrigeration system in modern helicopters is gradually increasing.Based on the multi-objective optimization genetic algorithm, the steady-state optimization of the refrigeration system configuration is carried out with the goal of low energy consumption and lightweight structure, and the refrigeration system configuration in multi complex environment is improved. The recommended system configuration is given and its applicability is verified. This study has important reference value for the design of the liquid cooled vapor cycle refrigeration system of helicopter.

Liping Pang, Desheng Ma, Shuxin Li

Research on the Man-Machine Relationship

Frontmatter

Research on Icon Layout of On-Board Information Interface Under the Influence of Driver’s Visual Resource Allocation

Objective. To study the interaction behavior between drivers and vehicle-mounted information system interface, and find out the influence of icon layout of vehicle-mounted information system boundary on visual resource allocation when drivers actually drive their vehicles, so as to take this as a scientific basis for optimizing vehicle-mounted information system interface, and put forward suggestions for optimizing the design of vehicle-mounted information system interface. Methods. Through literature research, it is found that the influence of icon layout and number on visual resources in the interface of information system needs to be further explored. The ASL eye tracker was used for experimental tests to collect the eye movement data of the subjects in the simulated driving environment, and analyze the visual resource allocation (icon number and spatial location) of the ICONS in the interface of the vehicular information system with different layout in the actual driving process. Conclusion. The layout and number of ICONS in the information system interface have a significant impact on the visual resource occupancy time of drivers. There is a positive linear correlation between the number of ICONS in the interface and the visual resources occupied. The more the number of ICONS in the interface, the more visual resources occupied. There is a significant difference between the icon layout position of the system interface and the visual resource allocation of the driver, and the visual resource occupation time of the visual core area is obviously better than that of the non-core area.

Zhengjun Li, Hao Yu

Research on Readability of Automotive Instrument Information Based on Vibration Simulation

Objective. To simulate the vibration frequency and amplitude of automobile instrument under different vibration environment, and to study the difference data of readability between pointer instrument and digital instrument under the state of automobile instrument vibration simulation, so as to provide scientific basis for automobile instrument design. Methods. Through the literature method, the paper summarizes the related research on vehicle vibration and vehicle instrument, and serves as the basis of this research. The vibration frequency and amplitude data of automobile instrument are simulated by computer under the condition of automobile driving vibration. The readability test of automobile instrument information was carried out by using ASL eye tracker to simulate vibration. SPSS and other data analysis systems were used to screen and analyze the differences of the extracted quantitative eye movement data. Conclusion. (1) In the range of vibration frequency 5–20 Hz and amplitude 20–80 Pt, vibration will directly affect the efficiency of driver's instrument information acquisition; (2) The reading form of instrument data has obvious influence on the reading efficiency. In terms of the number of fixation, fixation time and reading accuracy, the digital instrument is better than the pointer instrument.

Zhengjun Li, Zhicheng Jian

Research on Users’ Satisfaction of App Interface of Mobile Phone Business Hall Based on Kano Model and Eye Movement Tracking

Researches on user satisfaction are of great significance to product improvement and user experience enhancement. Using eye trackers as research aids can make up for the low objectivity of the traditional usability testing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the user satisfaction of the App interface of two mobile phone business halls based on the Kano model theory and eye movement tracking methods, and explore ways to improve the user satisfaction of the interface. In this research, 15 subjects are invited to use two Apps to complete the same tasks and eye trackers are used to record fixation counts and duration. Besides, the Kano model questionnaire is applied to divide the level of functions on task pages. Subjective and objective measurements show that the interface design of Unicom App is more consistent with the results of the two-dimensional questionnaire of Kano model and “F” vision model, and its user satisfaction is also higher.

Yuqing Deng, Hechen Zhang, Mengyang Ren, Zhongxia Xiang

The Usability of Guidance System at Intersections in Different Directional Options

Objectives: Study of the usage and usability of guidance system at intersections in different directional options. Methods: Data on drivers’ use of the intersection guidance system was collected using simulated driving method and eye tracker system. Data were analysed using chi-square test and ANOVA. Results: Directional options at intersections have relevance to use of guidance systems or not and have no relevance to type of use and priority use type. Regardless of driving experience more drivers do not use guidance systems at left-turn intersections and tend to prioritise the use of arrow markings when they do. AILC signs being somewhat more usable than arrow markings, and AILC signs being slightly more usable for left turn functions than for straight ahead functions. Conclusions: The differences in guidance system usage in different directional options highlight the need for road consistency and show the importance of conducting guidance system usability studies. The AILC signs have high usability but low utilization rate and it is suggested that better results could be achieved by improving the usability of left-turn arrow markings that are used more frequently.

Danting Zhao, Jun Ma, Leibing An, Bowen Wang

Design and Analysis of Man-Machine System of Ticket Gate in Changzhou

Based on the theory of ergonomics, it designs and analyzes dimensions of the main engine, operation interface, identifier, and choice of color of the man-machine system of ticket gate in Changzhou. While considering the body size of different groups of people, attention should also be given to the possibility and convenience of wheelchair users’ operation to achieve an inclusive design of the product. Through preliminary field research, user behavior observation, interview, data collection, and other research methods, problems with the product in terms of size, interface, symbol, and color are summed up and analyzed. Then design improvement schemes are proposed to provide users with convenience. At the same time, the urban cultural characteristics of Changzhou are integrated.

Qianying Yang, Ziyan Liu, Jiao Yang

Influence of Human Factors on the Operation Performance of a Certain Type of Equipment and Countermeasures

(Purpose) A certain type of equipment plays a very important role in carrying out field air defense tasks. According to the characteristics of man-machine operations of the equipment, this paper analyzes the human factors that affect the operation performance of the equipment and puts forward human countermeasures to improve the operation performance. (Method) First, take the method of experimental measurement and questionnaire survey to obtain first-hand research data; then, systematically sort out the experimental data and analyze the human factors that affect the performance; finally, combine the data analysis on the basis of the results and the expert's reference opinions, propose countermeasures to improve the operation performance from the human perspective. (Conclusion) The data obtained during the writing of the paper is true and reliable, and the countermeasures proposed are specific and practical. The research of this paper has practical value for improving the combat effectiveness of this type of equipment, and can provide services for the improvement of the combat effectiveness of the troops.

Hongyan Ou, Yanyan Ding, Lei Tang, Hao Liu, Weixin Liu, Jiantao Liu

Man-Machine Interface Design Analysis of Multi-function Printing (Copying) Machine

Based on the theories of ergonomics science and implications from user experience, this study proposes a redesign of the multi-function printing (copying) machine. Several factors are worth considering in this redesign process. They are overall appearance, fundamental operating functions, and user experience (different body figures, as well as visual effects, are included). By comparison of existing machines, in-depth interviews, and questionaries, it stands to reason that existing machines have design problems on overall appearance, operation mesa, and controller interface. To provide better user experience, improvements are suggested in this study mainly in three dimensions, human-machine appearance design, interface layout design, and the visual guide instruction design.

Fangzichun Chen, Xinyue Shao, Ting Qiu

Construction of Ergonomic Evaluation System for Display and Control Characteristics of Aircraft Cockpit Touch Panel

Touch screen control technology can bring many benefits to airlines, pilots and manufacturers. At present, the design of aircraft cockpit touch panel is still in the initial stage, and there is a lack of a reliable and easy-to-use evaluation system. Combining the results of literature search, expert interview and user investigation, the relevant evaluation elements of touch panel were extracted, and evaluation system was initially set up. Through the feedback and revision of two rounds of Delphi expert consultation, the evaluation system of 4 dimensions based on hardware support, software design, installation environment and overall satisfaction was determined. Based on the G1 method, 26 pilots’ experts’ judgment data about the relative importance of the indicator were collected, and the indicator weight coefficients were determined. The evaluation system includes 4 indicators of level 1,11 indicators of level 2 and 44 indicators of level 3. The coefficient of variation of the importance of all indicators is between 0.05 and 0.23. A man-machine ergonomic evaluation system was constructed in this study, which can be applied to the design practice, improve the usability of the product and reduce the risk of R & D, and thus improve the user’s operation performance and satisfaction.

Lijing Wang, Yanzeng Zhao, Yu Zhu

Research on the Matching of Advertisement and Interface Background Color of Online Shopping App: Based on Eye Movement Experiment

Online shopping has gradually become a part of people's daily life. Advertising is an important channel for businesses to promote goods. Good advertising background matching can bring perfect visual experience to users and stimulate consumers’ shopping desire. There is little research on the matching of advertising and interface background color in online shopping platform, and there is a lot of research space on the influence of the matching of interface background color and advertising on users’ use of software. This study starts from the interface collocation of the main tone with advertisement to study its influence on attention. This study designed a variety of advertising and interface background color matching page pictures, through eye tracking experimental research method, collected the subjects’ eye movement data, using repeated measurement analysis of variance, single sample hypothesis test and other methods for data processing. The results show that the background color of the interface is the same as the main color of the advertisement, which has a significant impact on the user's attention and emotion, and can be applied to the interface design of online shopping app.

Chunhong Zhang, Yunying Luo, Lingyun Wu, Shaofeng Deng

Analysis and Design Method of Ship Command Cabin Layout

Reasonable allocation of command cabin layout can effectively improve the combat capability of warships. Based on the command and control system cabin of British 23 frigate, the operation of command cabin is described by using the hierarchical task analysis, and the analysis plan is made. The operation sequence flow chart is established to describe the business relationship between performers in each time period. The social network analysis method is used to analyze the crew in the command cabin and describe the social relationship and social status among the crew in the command and control model. In order to make the cabin layout more reasonable and effective, the process of analysis and optimization design of command cabin layout and the mathematical model of cabin layout optimization are established. The layout parameters are adjusted by genetic algorithm to obtain the optimal solution.

Aiguo Lu, Xiaoye Tong, Bo Dong, Chao Yang

Multi-channel Interactive Intelligent Fusion Technology in Shipborne Command and Control System

In order to cope with the increasing cognitive and operational load of Shipborne Command and control system, combined with touch, gesture, voice, eye movement, EEG and other interaction modes, a multi-channel interaction fusion framework is proposed, which adopts multi-channel interaction mode, integrates a variety of interaction interfaces, intelligently combines and cooperates to complete the current scene interaction tasks. This paper focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of different channels such as gesture and eye movement, and designs the interaction process of gesture recognition and the intelligent interaction process of human-computer fusion with eye movement channel as an example, so as to achieve the goal of natural and efficient information interaction.

Aiguo Lu, Xiaoye Tong, Bo Dong

Research on the Man-Environment Relationship

Frontmatter

Design and Optimization of Air Supply System to Satisfy the Thermal Comfort of Human Body

In view of this problem that the existing cockpit air supply system cannot meet the thermal comfort requirement of human body, causes the physical/psychological discomfort of pilots, and affects the work efficiency and safety of pilots, the design and optimization of the cockpit air supply system is studied to satisfy the thermal comfort of human body, in this paper. Firstly, a standard two-equation turbulence model is used to simulate the thermal environment of the cockpit in a large airliner under the original air supply system. It is concluded that the original air supply scheme does not meet the thermal comfort requirements of pilots. Secondly, the air supply condition of the cockpit air supply system is optimized and improved, and 18 optimization schemes are proposed. Finally, each optimization scheme is evaluated to obtain the optimal scheme which can satisfy the thermal comfort of human body. The design and optimization method of the air supply system established in this paper can be used in the study of thermal comfort and the design of the air supply system in the cockpit of large airliners.

Jue Qu, Hongjun Xue, Wei Wang, Sina Dang, Xiaoyan Zhang

Muscle-Force Prediction Using an Improve AlexNet Under the Simulated Microgravity Environment

Objective To study the muscle atrophy of astronauts under microgravity, an improved AlexNet model is designed to improve the accuracy of muscle-force prediction. Methods Firstly, we preprocess the signal by noise elimination and sEMG frequency reduction. Then, we convert sEMG signals into sEMG images and label the data by window tuning and K-means clustering. The sEMG image datasets come from the zero-g aircraft experiment, the bed rest test and the neutral buoyancy simulator experiment. Finally, we study the AlexNet classification results of three experimental datasets with different proportions and compare the classification results with improved AlexNet based BN layer and several convolutional neural networks. Conclusions With the same datasets, the classification accuracy of the improved AlexNet is 74.25% higher than that of the AlexNet, which is 71.23%. The improved AlexNet improves the accuracy of muscle-force prediction.

Yuan Wang, Haoting Liu

Modeling Research of Solar Illumination for Automotive Head-Up Display Testing Based on Chinese Population’s Driving Postures

The displayed image of Head-up display of cars would make a significant effect on driving safety, and a precise solar luminance simulation is the key for Head-up Display image testing. It is the local luminous environment and driving postures that influence the simulation accuracy. This paper proposed a method to calculate solar luminance and illuminance in China, which was programmed with PYTHON, and validated it by a comparison with the actual solar data collected using luminance meter, which shows that this method is qualified to simulate the solar luminance and illuminance with a certain extent. Finally, the maximum solar luminance and illuminance in China in different scenarios were obtained using the method, which could be the input to automotive Head-up Display test.

Lipeng Qin, Shouxi Wu, Peiwen Zuo, Shuoying Lv, Zhicheng Tang

The Change of Brain Activity Under Lower Body Negative Pressure Condition Examined by Time-Frequency Analysis of EEG Signals

Acceleration is a common stressor faced by military pilot. To learn the feature of brain activity could help to clarify the reason of performance change under acceleration condition. A bucket of organic glass was used to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) condition. Eight of male subjects needed to complete a continuous performance test under LBNP and baseline conditions. Thirty-two channels of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal were recorded concurrently. The time windows of 500 to 600 ms after stimulus and frequency bands between 1 to 10 Hz were selected as regional of interest (ROI). Time frequency analysis method was used to compare the power difference between LBNP and baseline conditions. The power value in CP2 under LBNP condition (1.67 ± 2.72 dB) was significant higher than the power value under baseline (−1.80 ± 1.41 dB), t = 3.27, P < 0.01. The increased power of delta and theta bands in parietal area reflect the negative effect of acceleration to brain, the indicator of power difference may be used as biomarker for pilot selection or predictor of G-induced loss of consciousness.

Yang Liao, Zhanghuang Chen, Yuyang Zhu, Yishuang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Liu Yang

Driving Behavior Analysis for Pedestrian Collision Avoidance Under Emergency Scenarios

Based on the intent and operation of drivers, pedestrian collision can be divided into accidental and intentional vehicle ramming collisions. Compared to accidental cases in which the drivers are not able to avoid the collision successfully, intentional collisions are more dangerous for pedestrians. However, there is a lack of researches on judging intentional pedestrian collisions based on the statistical characteristics of the driver’s collision avoidance behavior. Therefore, in order to analyze and define the deliberate collisions behavior of drivers, a special driving simulation scenario was designed for driving simulation experiments of pedestrian collision avoidance in emergency situations. To provide a criterion for judging deliberate ramming behavior, the driver’s normal operations for collision avoidance, including reaction time and specific crash avoidance behavior characteristics, under the sudden intrusion of pedestrian conditions was analyzed. This study provides a reference for the verdict of intentional pedestrian collision.

Quan Yuan, Qingkun Li, Wenjun Wang

Effect of Cognitive Load on Urban Spatial Discrimination: An Eye Movement Research

Purpose: Spatial similarity will affect people's visual discrimination ability. Here, we conducted an eye movement research to explore the influence of spatial design similarity on human visual discrimination. Method: Photos of urban intersections with different similarity levels were chose, and 50 randomly selected subjects evaluated the similarity levels of all the photos so as to determine the materials for the formal experiment. Participants should judge whether the set of pictures presented on the eye movement device were the same place or not, reaction time and percent correct were recorded. Results: The response time of the experimental materials with 50% similarity was significantly lower than that of the other two groups, and the error rate of the experimental materials with 80% similarity was significantly higher than that of the other two groups. Conculsion: Urban spatial similarity affects visual discrimination ability saliently. The relevant results may shed new insight on the future urban spaital design.

Ge Chen, Xu Dong, Jiaxiao Li, Fenling Liu, Liangyu Mi

Research on the Machine-Environment Relationship

Frontmatter

Influence of High Cold Mountain Environment on Vehicle-Mounted Charged Equipment and Countermeasures

This paper analyses six main factors influencing urban financial ecological environment: economic base provide important support for the urban financial ecological environment, degree of financial development is an important embodiment of the vitality of the urban financial ecology, legal environment is the basic condition for the stable development of the financial ecology, corporate integrity is the cornerstone of the financial system, social security level is an important part of the urban economic capacity, and local government public service provides an important guarantee for the urban financial ecological environment. Based on this, the principal component comprehensive evaluation model of urban financial ecological environment assessment is established by using the principal component analysis tool in the SPASS, which provides a scientific and effective method for urban financial ecological environment assessment.

Luan Cheng, Jinkuang Zhang, Wei Zhao, Yawen Chen, Yaqiong Li, Xiaolong Chang, Mingjie Wan

Research on the Impact of Ground Vortex on Wing-mounted Nacelle Drainage

To investigate the impact of ground vortex phenomenon on the nacelle drainage function of a wing-mounted nacelle layout aircraft, a test research was carried out on a certain type of civil aircraft nacelle. When the aircraft was stationary on the ground, the nacelle drain test was carried out with the engine running on idle condition. Combined with the analysis of the test results and the simulation analysis, it was concluded that the ground vortex effect has a significant impact on the external path of the nacelle’s flammable liquid drainage. The external path design of the nacelle discharge and the ground operation of the aircraft should fully consider the impact of the ground vortex effect.

Jiawei Zheng, Lizhe Wang

Research on the Overall Performance of Man-Machine-Environment System

Frontmatter

Study on the Evaluation Method of Aircraft Ergonomics Defect Consequence During Flight Test

Human error is an important cause of unsafe incidents during flight test, and one of the important reasons for error is that there are various defects in aircraft ergonomic design. Traditionally, more attention has been paid to the evaluation of fault consequence which exposed in aircraft, but there is a lack of relevant research on the defect consequence evaluation of aircraft ergonomics. In this paper, the possible consequences caused by the aircraft ergonomic defects are analyzed in combination with the practice of flight test, and an evaluation method based on extenics is proposed to evaluate the consequences of the aircraft ergonomic defects and the rating of the defect consequences and the suggested treatment methods are given. Finally, an example is given to verify the effectiveness of the method based on the braking system maneuverability.

Hongjiao Wu, Haijing Song, Yuqi Zhang

Driving Safety Assessment on Standard Deviation of Lateral Position and Time Exposed Time-to-Collision Measures Under Driving in Left-Hand and Right-Hand Traffic Conventions

Driving in an unfamiliar condition could distract drivers, leading to possible road crash increments. The study aimed to investigate the differences between the driving performances of participants (familiar with left-hand-drive) who drove a left-hand-drive vehicle in right-hand traffic and left-hand traffic conventions. Thirty participants participated in this experiment. Lateral control performances were evaluated by the standard deviation of lateral position and were analyzed by the independent t-test method. Considering the different time-to-collision (TTC) threshold values, longitudinal control performances were studied by the time exposed time-to-collision, and the TTC-frequency distribution was calculated for evaluation. Results indicated that in short-term longitudinal control, driving in the unfamiliar traffic convention was exposed to danger shorter than in the familiar traffic convention. Furthermore, the unfamiliar traffic convention did not affect the standard deviation of lateral position in monotonous car-following driving. The findings could give advice to designers and transportation researchers to enhance driving safety and performance.

Feina Wen, Yu-Chi Lee

Explore the Impact of Consumer Perception Product Attributes on the Household Appliance User Experience Based on Usability Testing

After a large number of domestic and foreign literarture research, we found consumer perception of product attributes includes appearance, function and operation, etc. The purpose of this study is to research the impact of Dimension of household appliances on user satisfaction by quantitative and qualitative methods, so as to help enterprises better evaluate home appliances, make better suggestions for the iteration and improvement of home appliances, and guide product planning and marketing strategies. Through literature research, it is found that the current domestic and foreign home appliance evaluation standards put forward corresponding requirements for the appearance, operation, usage, performance and other dimensions of the product. Such requirements for improving the user experience level of home appliances have indeed played a very good role in guiding and regulating [1, 2]. But which product attributes are more important to the user experience? Through the evaluation and analysis of two high speed blenders, it is found that appearance has played a key role in the evaluation of user satisfaction with the product, which has inspired the planning and evaluation of the future of home appliance user experience design.

Jing Liang, Xin Xin, Yue Lv

Research on Functional Training of Combat Physical Fitness Generation of Special Operations Forces

The generation of combat physical ability of our special combat forces still follows the traditional system, which will restrict the development of special combat forces in the new era. The essential change of war style in the information age will affect the generation mode of combat physical fitness of special combat forces. However, up to now, our army still lacks the specialized training system which can meet the characteristics of combat physical fitness generation of special combat forces. This paper explores the functional training scheme to meet the needs of our army’s special combat physical fitness generation by means of literature method, sorts out the guiding theory of combat physical fitness training in the new era, and draws lessons from the experience of foreign armies, so as to promote the functional, systematic and scientific development of combat physical training of our special combat forces, so as to meet the high-strength requirements of combat physical fitness for actual combat. The conclusion is that functional training is a powerful means to promote the generation of combat physical fitness; systematization and scientization are the development direction, and meeting the actual combat needs is the ultimate goal.

Chunlai Wang

Fire Risk Assessment and Application in Business Circle Based on ISM-BN Model

Based on the ISM-Bn model, a business circle fire assessment system is constructed, and the Interpretive Structure Model (ISM) is used to find the hierarchical relationship between the various influencing factors of the business circle fire, and the Bayesian Network (BN) is used to calculate the probability and Sort by importance. The calculation results are verified by combining examples, and preventive measures are formulated to provide technical support for reducing the probability of fire occurrence in the business circle.

Qiquan Wang, Ziqi Bao, Yuze Cui, Hao Wu, Hongwen Yu, Chen Wen, Fan Xu

VR Technology and Its Application in Financial Mathematics Teaching

This paper systematically analyses virtual reality (VR) technology and its characteristics of immersion, interaction, imagination and intelligence, puts forward the fusion method of virtual reality technology and financial mathematics specialty teaching, conducts a pioneering research on the application of VR technology in financial mathematics specialty teaching, and carries out a practical exploration. The results show that the financial mathematics specialty teaching based on VR technology can be not affected by the limitation of time and space, make the teaching more vivid, intuitive and vivid, make it easier for students to set up correct innovative ideas, create a good learning atmosphere, greatly improve students’ learning enthusiasm, initiative and creativity. It is of great significance to improve the quality and efficiency of financial mathematics teaching.

Shuqi Wan

Research on Workflow of Safety Risk Management in Army Training

Entering the new era, with the continuous advancement of real combat training, the intensity and difficulty of training continue to increase, unsafe factors become more and more complex, and safety risks are increasingly prominent. It is imperative to strengthen safety risk management in training. At present, safety risk management in army training is not scientific and standardized enough, therefore the actual effect and training value are relatively low. Incomplete safety risk management workflow, non-standardized procedure, and incomplete contents are the main causes of this problem. In accordance with modern risk management concept, this thesis systematically studies the related issues of safety risk management workflow of army training, expounds the basic principles of establishing the workflow, clarifies the phases in risk management, and elaborates the specific links. The thesis provides basic principles for troops to follow in carrying out scientific and standardized safety risk management in training.

Zhenguo Mei, Weifei Wu, Peng Gong, Qian Shen, Kun Cao

Research on Safety Management of Warfighting-Oriented Training

In recent years, with the continuous deepening of battle preparations, the intensity and difficulty of warfighting-oriented training are increasing, and the unsafe factors in training are becoming more and more complex. How to promote the safety training under the premise of ensuring the quality and efficiency of warfighting-oriented training has become a practical problem faced by the army. At present, there are many unsafe factors in the aspects of personnel quality, equipment and material conditions, construction of site environment and training organizing management, which affect the safety of training. Therefore, starting from the characteristics of warfighting-oriented training, this paper analyzes the factors that affect the safety management of training, reveals the practical safety problems existing in warfighting-oriented training, and puts forward corresponding countermeasures, so as to provide basic methods and ideas for strengthening the safety management of warfighting-oriented training.

Kun Cao, Zhenguo Mei, Peng Gong, Yongzhou Tang

A Hierarchical Decision-Making Design in Human-Machine Interaction for Intelligent Systems

The popularization and rapid development of intelligent systems reduces human workload. The reliability and efficiency of human-machine interaction in intelligent systems is key to the system’s accurate completion of tasks. Due to hardware failures or unreasonable software design and other reasons, some decisions made by the system may be wrong. If the users cannot correct them in time, these wrong decisions may be magnified layer by layer, causing irreparable losses. In response to this problem, a hierarchical decision-making design in human-machine interaction in an intelligent system is proposed in this paper. When an error occurs at a certain level, this design can correct the error by performing higher-priority manual intervention at a higher level, preventing serious consequences. This design provides method guidance for improving the efficiency and reliability of intelligent systems.

Peng Zhang, Baiqiao Huang, Pengyi Zhang, Kunfu Wang

Traffic Flow Prediction Model Based on Deep Learning

ARMA_LSTM model was constructed for short-term traffic flow prediction of urban road sections. Firstly, the grid search method was used to find the best parameter combination of Auto-Regressive and Moving Average Model (ARMA), so as to fit the linear characteristics of traffic flow. Then Long Short-Term Memory model (LSTM) was used to fit the nonlinear features in the reconstructed residual sequence. Experimental results show that ARMA_LSTM model has higher prediction accuracy and lower Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) values than some traditional models and artificial intelligence models at different sampling intervals. The model can be used to forecast traffic flow at different time intervals.

Bowen Wang, Jingsheng Wang, Zeyou Zhang, Danting Zhao

Research on Quantitative Method of Traffic Safety Credit Score Based on Ridge-Logistic Regression

In order to quantitatively analyze the driver’s traffic credit score, a quantitative analysis method based on Ridge-Logistic regression was proposed from four aspects: selecting drivers’ characteristics, defining good and bad individuals, determining the weight coefficients of different values of each characteristic, and improving the interpretability of the algorithm output results. And the output result of the algorithm was converted into a standard score table form through a score formula. The research results show that the model is highly interpretable, and the score table results are generally in good condition. According to the data test, the accuracy, precision, recall and Area under Curve (AUC) of the model are 98.31%, 97.36%, 99.33% and 0.99, respectively, which means that the model can correctly classify bad individuals and also has a good recognition effect on good individuals. The research results can be used to quantify the actual traffic credit and help to establish a reasonable traffic credit scoring mechanism.

Bowen Wang, Jingsheng Wang, Benyu Wang, Runzheng Wang, Xichu Xue

Research on Training Method of Information Processing Ability of Military Pilots

Objective To explore the application effect of information processing ability training in military pilots, so as to provide reference for follow-up research. Methods 36 military pilots were selected as the research subjects, all of them were trained with the information processing ability training system in the same period of time, with the thinking mode and willpower as the main training dimensions. By collecting and comparing the changes of the objective indicators such as thinking ability, willpower and total score of the subjects, and filling in the training evaluation questionnaire, data analysis was carried out to evaluate the training effect. Result (1) Thinking ability: there was a significant difference among the three times of thinking ability (P < 0.01), the first time of thinking ability was significantly lower than the second time of thinking ability and the third time of thinking ability (P < 0.01), the second time of thinking ability was significantly lower than the third time of thinking ability (P < 0.05); (2) willpower: there was no significant difference among the three times of willpower (P > 0.05); (3) Total score: there was significant difference among the three total scores (P < 0.01), the first total score was significantly lower than the second total score and the third total score (P < 0.01), the second total score was significantly lower than the third total score (P < 0.05); (4) the information processing ability training evaluation questionnaire showed that the necessity and effectiveness of training were 97%. Conclusion Information processing ability training can effectively improve the information processing ability of pilots, which is a new and popular psychological training method.

Liu Yang, Yishuang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yang Liao, Jian Du, Xichen Geng

Research on Intelligent Support of Anti-aircraft Gun Based on Remaining Service Life

By analyzing the development of equipment management in developed countries which towards to the direction of life-cycle all-system and precision-made, technical support which has shifted from breakdown maintenance to preventive maintenance, “state-based” maintenance, and “reliability-centered”, as well as discussing the difficulties faced by developing countries in the field of technical support of anti-aircraft gun equipment, the paper puts forward the viewpoint that equipment support should be adapted to the task based on the remaining service life. Taking anti-aircraft gun as an example, it analyzes the reasons for its equipment performance changes, tracks the performance changes of equipment, and correctly evaluates the remaining service life of the equipment. Based on the correct evaluation of the remaining service life and tasks, this paper develops an intelligent guarantee method plan to achieve the best maintenance opportunity and efficiency, it is of great significance to the technical support of anti-aircraft equipment.

Jinxin Li, Qian Liu, Binghai Zhang, Jiwen Sun

Test Pilot Selection for Human System Integration of Advanced Fighter

There were 45 male fighter pilots participating in two-step procedures of test pilot selection for human system integration (HSI). The pilots did psychological tests as well as special tests of aviation medicine including clinical medicine examinations and so on. For the pilots selected for test pilots 4 psychological abilities was scored by PC program or panel of experts, but 7 different abilities was for the test pilots selected for type test flight. The results were found that the psychological selection didn’t be influenced by test blocks, pilot’s age and experienced type of fighter, and the composite scores could act as qualification index of psychological selection. Test pilots also differed from the candidates at least on language performance, comprehensive analysis, and achievement motivation in problem solving. It was found that the criterion validity of the psychological selection was 0.92, and the chosen test pilots had good performances in practical test flight.

Xiaochao Guo, Yanyan Wang, Qingfeng Liu, Duanqin Xiong, Jian Du, Xueqian Deng

Research on the Promotion Effect of Emotional Cues on Target Search

Objective—To explore the effect of emotional cues on target search through behavioral experiments, in order to provide experimental evidence for the optimization of man-machine interface. Methods—30 subjects were recruited to participate in this study and the double tasks experimental paradigm of target search was adopted. All subjects were required to complete the main and secondary task quickly and accurately. The correct rate of completing the main task and secondary task and the total reaction time of completing the dual tasks were collected. Two factors mixed design was used in the experiment. The first factor was gender, including two levels of male and female; and the second factor was designed within the subjects, which was designed around the visual coding of secondary task, including three levels of traditional triangle (M1), low intensity negative emotion pattern (M2) and high intensity negative emotion pattern (M3). The data were analyzed by two factor repeated measurement ANOVA in SPSS statistical software package. Results—The response time of subjects to complete dual tasks under three visual coding conditions was R1 > R2 > R3, R2 and R3 were significantly lower than R1 (p < 0.05); the main task accuracy was MT3 > MT2 > MT1 for male subjects and MT2 > MT3 > MT1 for female subjects; the secondary task accuracy was ST2 > ST3 > ST1 for male subjects and ST3 > ST2 > ST1 for female subjects. There were statistical differences in the accuracy of dual tasks (p < 0.05). Conclusions—Emotional cues significantly improved the efficiency of visual search, which was manifested in the shortening of response time and the improvement of accuracy.

Juan Liu, Shuang Bai, Lei Yang, Wei Pan, Han Li, Jian Du, Jiabo Ye, Yubin Zhou, Rong Lin, Duanqin Xiong

A Decoupling Simulation Method for Complex Multi-form Vehicle-Vulnerable Road User Crash Cases

The cases of complex multi-form vehicle crash with vulnerable road users are serious crimes committed. However, there is a lack of practical and repeatable verification method for relevant cases now. This study surveying the data of vehicle-crash scenes, the crash sequences were decoupled into crash patterns among multiple units, and a simulation analysis method of full sequence dynamics modeling, simulation analysis, crash scene reconstruction and trace verification was constructed. The validity and calculation reliability of the method were verified by scientific research on actual crash cases. The decoupling simulation method constructed in this paper is suitable for solving the crash coupling of multi-vehicle/multi-person/multi-times sequence, which provides a new identification method for complex form crash analysis.

Quan Yuan, Junwei Zhao, Tiefang Zou

Automated Driving Simulation Platform Design on Collision Avoidance Decision Making for Vulnerable Road Users

The current research on vehicle driving simulation lacks the participation of real traffic participants, such as pedestrians and cyclists. In this research, the system design is carried out in the aspect of vehicle and pedestrian interactive simulation. Based on the human-machine environment system engineering idea and using the existing simulation technology, an automatic driving simulation platform for collision avoidance decision-making of vulnerable road users is designed and constructed. The platform collects the location, speed and other information of real vulnerable road users, establishes virtual scenarios and vehicle dynamics with PreScan and CarSim respectively, and establishes decision-making module with Simulink, and carries out real vehicle control with driving simulator. Based on real vehicles and real vulnerable road users, the simulation test platform established by this study can be used to make collision avoidance decision-making simulation without safety risk.

Xiang Si, Quan Yuan

The Advantages, Difficulties and Countermeasures of Military-Civilian Integration to Improve Management Efficiency

Improving the efficiency of military management is an important link in further strengthening national defense construction. To improve the efficiency of military management, not only must the military’s main role be brought into play, but also the resources and achievements of academies and enterprises must be fully utilized to take the road of military-civilian integration. The key to military-civilian integration to improve management efficiency is to realize the “civil-to-military” transformation of related achievements. This article expounds the advantages of military-civilian integration to improve management efficiency, analyzes the difficulties in the transformation of results, and proposes corresponding countermeasures.

Shenghang Xu, Xiaojun Wang, Chuan Wang, Xiao Han

Quantitative Research on the Complexity of Pilot Operation Procedures Based on TACOM Method

Pilot Operation Procedures (POP, Pilot Operation Procedures) are the basic operating rules that pilots must follow during flight [1]. The quantitative evaluation of expected operating behaviors in standard operating procedures is particularly important [2]. In this paper, the TACOM method is used to establish a complex measurement dimension of POP and form a system of quantified flight standard operating procedures. The task complexity is divided into five dimensions: step information complexity, step logic complexity, step number complexity, system knowledge complexity, and decision-making complexity, to construct relatively comprehensive conditions for measuring the complexity of flight standard operating procedures. Taking the Cessna 172 standard operating procedure as an example, the task step decomposition, graph theory construction, weight investigation, and quantitative solution are carried out in the four processes from landing to shutdown. The final scores for each process are landing: 1.4087, go-around: 1.3426, after landing: 1.4937, stop: 1.9275. Then, 15 pilots with Cessna-related flight experience were subjectively investigated through the method of ordering relation [3]. The final scores in each stage were landing: 2.0788, go-around: 2.0156, post-landing: 2.1787, and stop: 2.2154. The objective score has a better correspondence. The effectiveness and usability of this method in pop complex quantification are verified. This research innovatively applies the TACOM method to the quantitative evaluation of flight standard operating procedures in the aviation field, which has strong research value and practical significance.

Lijing Wang, Yu Zhu, Yanzeng Zhao

Research and Application on Quantitative Evaluation Method of Maintenance Ergonomics for Fighter Cockpit

In order to improve the maintenance ergonomics, reduce maintenance errors, achieve safe maintenance, and improve the utilization rate of aircraft. Based on the “man-machine-environment” theory, this paper deeply analyzed the factors affecting maintenance ergonomics, and introduced the Delphi method to establish the maintenance ergonomics evaluation indexes. Considering the subjectivity and uncertainty of expert evaluation, put forward a maintenance ergonomics evaluation method based on grey clustering model, and realized the quantification of maintenance ergonomics qualitative evaluation. Finally, the effectiveness of the evaluation indexes and method has been verified by the actual maintenance data during flight test, that means it could provide technical basis for comprehensive evaluation of fighter cockpit maintenance ergonomics.

Haijing Song, Jue Wang

Service Design of Vehicle System Based on Ergonomics

This paper explores the development of service design concept and its application in vehicle-mounted system. It compares and analyzes the design concept, design idea, function integration characteristics, application and advantages and disadvantages of four mainstream vehicle-mounted entertainment systems in Drive, MMI, COMAND and Uconnect. It also summarizes the design methods of mainstream vehicle-mounted system design and the application of service design concept at the present stage, puts forward the optimization service design methods of vehicle-mounted system, and combs and contrasts the application of service design in vehicle-mounted system.

Jiahe Zhang, Xiaoyu Kang, Zhenming Wu

Design of Man–Machine Cooperative Assembly Line Based on Mathematical Model and Simulation

By the example of small appliances assembly, we propose the man–machine collaborative assembly line design steps, including: demand analysis, feasibility assessment, product structure analysis and assembly process analysis, assembly line design and improvement. By researching the functions of robot and production line respectively, the mathematical programming model of assembly line was constructed and combined with simulation technology to simulate a production process, analyzing the rationality of the assembly structure and improving the production line. Simultaneously, it’s important to evaluate and verify the improved production efficiency and balance rate continuously that can improve production and design efficiency and reduce equipment idle time.

Chaoan Lai, Jianying Yao

A Framework for Intelligent Fitness Guiding System

Using fitness equipment for workout is becoming increasingly popular. High expertise and skills were required for the user to manipulate the equipment for exercising. Injuries were commonly generated by applying an awkward posture to exertion due to lack of professional guidance. This study therefore proposed an intelligent guiding system for instructing users for fitness. The system used 3D computer vision technology to identify the body contour of the user and established a video-base of virtual fitness posture model. This model digitized the user’s actions to accurately obtain fitness posture data in real time, and comparison with the standard motion model through the in-depth algorithm calculation to identify whether the fitness posture is standard. Providing feedbacks to the bodybuilder in time, correct the bodybuilder's motions, and effectively ensure that people are efficient and safe in weight training.

Haohao Yang, Jin Chen, Lian Shen, Yuwei Liang, Yu-Chi Lee

Research on the Reliability of ANRINC429 Bus Based Cabin Pressure Regulation System

Aiming at a certain pressure driving system miniaturization, intelligent design requirements, as well as the hardware platform design limitations, the system through the software design to achieve the complex function of a single hardware platform design, according to the actual project application requirements, implements including BLDCM double-loop PID closed-loop control, fault prediction and diagnosis of high precision and high real time capability of the motor position detection, real-time data storage strategy, ANRIN429 bus communication and other functions, under the premise of meet the functional requirements, the control precision of 0.01 degree of the outflow valve if realized. Due to the complex function and the multiplexing of multiple bus, various kinds of ANRINC429 communication problems have been encountered in ground and practical work. A lot of theoretical analysis and experimental research on ANRINC429 bus multiplexing have been carried out, and the software has been optimized and improved, and has been successfully applied in the voltage regulation project. The experience and conclusion are drawn: the main influencing factors of communication reliability problems caused by ANRINC429 bus multiplexing are the protection of interrupted field data in the process of data transmission and reception, the number of data transmission and the cycle of data transmission.

Ying Wang, Hang Zhang, Liping Pang, Shunv Zhang

Research on Text Visual Effect of Multimedia Courseware for Mobile Online Learning

The purpose of this study is to make the multimedia courseware, which designed on the computer, can terminal obtain satisfactory visual effect on the mobile screen. Methods interviews and questionnaires were conducted to online learning students to determine the factors that affect visual effect. Then an experiment on visual effect with font, font size, color and spacing as variables was conducted with 20 subjects. Results the influence of each variable on visual effect was obtained. Conclusion the study gives the clear suggestions on the parameterization of font designed on computer to ensure good visual effect on the mobile screen.

Zhendong Liu, Beihai Wang

Classroom Teaching Details Design Adapted to the Characteristics of Equipment and Students

Weapon equipments teaching is the first professional basic course in the professional curriculum system of military academy, which is directly related to the first professional ability needs of military academy students. According to the teaching characteristics of weapons and equipment course, this paper expounds the connotation and significance of classroom teaching design, analyzes the common problems in teaching design, and puts forward several design methods of classroom teaching details to adapt to the characteristics of equipment and students, which has a strong reference value for improving the quality of classroom teaching and improving the teaching effect.

Jianfeng Li, Jinxin Li, Jiwen Sun, Junlong Guo, Tao Li

Study on Humanized Design of a Fire Control System

In view of the phenomenon of misoperation in the process of man-machine operation of a fire control system, the general requirements for humanized design of fire control system are summarized by analyzing the behavior characteristics and psychological characteristics of people in the state of war, as well as the possible effects caused by these characteristics. The humanized design of fire control system has important guiding significance for the design and development of fire control system. It also has important military significance for improving the training level of operators and the training effect.

Jiwen Sun, Heyuan Hao, Jinxin Li, Junlong Guo, JianFeng Li, Tao Li

Theory and Application Research

Frontmatter

Analysis and Design of Road Safety Protection Guardrail Based on Man-Machine-Environment System

With the gradual complexity of China’s traffic system, more perfect road safety protection measures are needed. As an important part of road safety protection, guardrail’s hidden dangers should be solved. This research mainly focuses on the design of man-machine-environment system of urban road safety guardrail. The researchers collected the data of the existing urban road safety guardrails through field investigation and network data collection. Sort out the relevant data and analyse the existing problems of road guardrail. Combined with human body size, man-machine-environment system analysis and China’s national road facilities standard, the improved design of road safety guardrail is further studied. This paper summarizes the relevant design principles of road traffic guardrail, combined with the characteristics and connotation of urban culture, taking Changzhou City as an example, puts forward reasonable improved design solutions, in order to make the road safety guardrail better serve the road traffic.

Danlan Ye, Wen Zhang

Interaction Design of Display and Control Equipment Based on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

This paper first introduces the interactive characteristics of display and control equipment, and further analyzes the connotation and typical design process of display and control equipment human-computer interaction. This paper presents a design method model of display and control equipment interface based on man-machine environment system engineering. In the design model, the factors in human-machine interaction design, human environment interaction design and machine environment interaction design are fully considered. Finally, an application example is given to show that the interaction design of display and control equipment based on man-machine environment system engineering can improve the work efficiency of operators, it can provide theoretical guidance for the “humanization” of display and control device interface interaction.

Kunfu Wang, Jian Su, Peng Zhang, Baiqiao Huang, Wei Feng

Research on Design Method of Man-Machine- Environment System in Product Processing Based on MMESE

Based on the concept of man-machine environment system engineering, this paper analyzes the relationship of man-machine environment system in the process of product processing. Combined with industrial Internet of things, industrial big data and information technology, it constructs the man-machine environment system framework, artificial intelligence and other technologies in the process of product processing. Using the framework of man-machine environment system can effectively solve the problem of product utilization and adaptability, realize the matching of demand and function, and then realize remote monitoring, control and service, so as to expand product functions, optimize system performance, and improve product quality and performance. Under the goal of safety, high efficiency, economy, health and comfort, it provides users with man-machine environment system for product processing. This research has a certain practical and theoretical value, and provides a guiding method for the design of man-machine environment system of product processing under the concept of MMESE.

Wobo Zhang

Backmatter

Additional information