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About this book

This book presents selected papers introducing readers to the key research topics and latest development trends in the theory and application of MMESE. The advanced integrated research topic man-machine-environment system engineering (MMESE) was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science and technology in China!”

MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between man, machine and environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems, where “man” refers to people in the workplace (e.g., operators, decision-makers), “machine” is the general name for any object controlled by man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “environment” describes the specific working conditions under which man and machine interact (e.g., temperature, noise, vibration and hazardous gases). The three goals of optimizing such systems are ensuring safety, efficiency and economy.

Presenting interdisciplinary studies on the concepts and methods in physiology, psychology, system engineering, computer science, environmental science, management, education and other related disciplines, this book is a valuable resource for all researchers and professionals whose work involves MMESE subjects.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Research on the Man Character

Frontmatter

Research on the Integrated Situation Analysis of Ship Mariners Team

The situation of mariners team has an important influence on the ship operation. The decrease of the integrated situation of ship mariners team will affect the safety and efficiency of ship operation. The integrated situation analysis model of ship mariners team is researched in this paper, established based on hierarchical architecture, indexes, weight, data, and mapping relation. According to the composition of SHEL model, the architecture of situation analysis for mariners team is established, covering liveware and software of ship mariners team. The architecture validation method is constructed to test the completeness and the redundancy, and to test the necessity, identification, and feasibility of mariners team indexes in architecture construction. The analysis indexes of integrated situation analysis for mariners team is established, which can provide specific feedback on the situation information of mariner individual, mariners team, management, culture, and other aspects. The research results are significance for the analysis and understanding of situation of ship mariners team.

Kun Yu

An Investigation on the Demand of Psychological Data Collection in Military Pilots

To investigate the demand of psychological data collection in military pilots, questionnaire investigation was implemented and included demographic data and rank of psychological indicators. Four kinds of psychological indicators, such as personality trait, cognitive ability, emotional state, motivation, were ranked among 1–4 in four different application scenarios. The demands of psychological data collection were different among different application scenarios. Personality trait was the most important indicators in psychological selection and psychological appraisal. Emotion state was the most important indicators in mental training and mental health service. Cognitive ability was played an important role in all the four application scenarios. These results suggest that psychological data collection should be specific for the particular application scenarios and then the collected data would maximize its reference value.

Yang Liao, Huamiao Song

Chinese Drivers’ Preferred Posture for Sedans’ Seat Ergonomic Design

This study collected data concerning preferred driving postures for sedans of Chinese driving population, aiming for investigating the relationships between drivers’ joint angles and their gender, region and anthropometry, and also finding observed optimum driving postures for Chinese drivers. Nine joint angles were measured in preferred postures to more completely describe driving postures, as were the perceptual response, with 1861 subjects. A subset of preferred joint angle range was identified through a filtering mechanism that ensured desired levels of perceptual response. It is found that gender and region both have a significant effect on all angles except torso angle. Stature, weight and sitting acromion height all have effects on different joint angles. The recommended range of 9 joint angles of preferred driving postures is obtained, and the analysis on differences between this study and the previous studies, and on reasons for those differences was conducted.

Jiaxun You, Lipeng Qin, Peiwen Zuo, Xuelei Wang, Chao Zhang

The Effect of Osteoporosis on Spine Following Osteotomy

Objective To analyse the effect of osteoporosis on spine following osteotomy. Methods The basic finite element model was constructed by CT scanning images of a male volunteer of 34 years old who underwent spinal osteotomy and long-segment fixation. Material parameters were set according to previous studies to simulate normal bone mass osteoporosis. Loads were acted to the upper endplate of the top vertebrae of model to simulate axial compression, flexion, extension and lateral bending. Results The peak stress on osteotomy site was reduced in mild osteoporosis model compared with normal bone mass. Under axial compression, screws and rods suffered higher pressure level in osteoporosis. When conducting flexion and lateral bending conditions, it was found that the peak stress on screws was greater than normal bone mass, while the peak stress on rods was less. Severe osteoporosis made the stress concentration more obviously. Conclusions The distribution patterns of stress on the models were similar under different degrees of osteoporosis. However, osteoporosis can be regarded as one of risks of fracture and instrumentation failure.

Tianhao Wang, Chenming Li, Yan Wang

Study on Human Factor Evaluation of Aviation Maintenance During Flight Test

Human error is one of the main factors leading to flight accidents. Previous human factor analysis in aviation maintenance mainly focused on qualitative evaluation with subjective results. Combined with the actual maintenance work during flight test, the paper proposed a comprehensive evaluation method including modified analytical hierarchy process, expert evaluation and grey relational analysis, fully considering the inevitable fuzziness and subjectivity of human factors. Then, the influence degrees of human factors on aviation maintenance were analyzed and recognized quantitatively for the specific accidents based on the huge data during flight test, and the corresponding risk management tips and other prophylactic measures were raised. Finally, this model was applied in one real test aircraft, and the results proved the validity of this study.

Haijing Song, Kai Feng, Yuqi Zhang

The Effect of Music Relaxation Training on Relieving the Psychological Fatigue After Simulated Flight

Objective: To explored the effect of music relaxation training on relieving the psychological fatigue after simulated flight. Methods: The experiment object was divided into the music relaxation group and deep breath relaxation group. After completing the simulated flight mission, electroencephalogram (EEG), the heart rate variability (HRV), and mental state indexes were collected before and after relaxation training. Results: After training, compared with those in the deep breath relaxation group, there were much more indexes of EEG, HRV, and mental state in the music relaxation group which were improved significantly and thoroughly. Conclusion: Music relaxation training can more effectively relieve the psychological fatigue after simulated flight.

Yan Zhang, Liu Yang, Yang Liao, Yishuang Zhang, Fei Peng, Huamiao Song

Study on the Airworthiness Certification of Human Factor in Flight Test for Civil Aircraft

With the development of system reliability for aircraft, human error is becoming one of the main factors that leading to flight accidents, which has been a key and difficult challenge for the design and airworthiness authorized departments. This paper analyzes the airworthiness certification process based on CCAR 25, including the selection of regulations relevant to human factor based on SHELL model and T.E.S.T matrix, the means of compliance verification for experimental aircraft based on MOC5 and MOC6; the compliance test program is determined, and a data analysis example based on fuzzy evaluation method is shown. The thought for airworthiness certification of human factor and verification method proposed in this paper has been applied preliminarily in ARJ21-700, and it can provide the technical support for the design and airworthiness certification of human factor for other civil aircraft such as C919.

Haijing Song, Li Han, Hongjiao Wu

Study on Autonomic Nervous Stability Training of Military Pilots

Objective—to study the methods and procedures of autonomic nervous stability training for military pilots, then provide effective training program recommendations for all the training departments to organize and carry out autonomic nervous stability training for pilots. Methods—a total of 101 military pilots were studied, based on the three-step method, a three-stage autonomic nervous stability training was conducted for pilots by the physiological coherence and autonomic balance system (SPCS), the data of “0.1 Hz index” before and after each stage of training were collected and marked in chronological order as R1/2/3/4/5/6. Then analyze and evaluate the training effect. Results—there was a significant difference in the 0.1 Hz index before and after the pilot training, the post-training data R2/4/6, and the pre-training data R3/5 were significantly higher than R1; R3/5 is significantly lower than R2/4/6; there was no significant difference between R2, R4 and R6, or between R3 and R5. Conclusion—the three-stage pilot autonomic nervous stability training scheme, both in and without the system have remarkable effects. And the two trainings can be combined with each other.

Yishuang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Fei Peng, Yang Liao, Xueqian Deng, Huamiao Song, Duanqin Xiong, Juan Liu, Liu Yang

Research on Recognizable Physiological Signals of Workers Working at Heights

In order to reduce the accident rate of workers working at heights, state identification is very important for the workers. VR technology was used to simulate operations and environment at heights, and man-machine-ring synchronization platform was used to collect six kinds of physiological signal data in the scenes, which are working on the ground, 4 m high, and 8 m high. SPSS was used to analyze the data. The results show that operators at different heights have a significant effect on the time domain of the skin electrical signal, but do not have a significant correlation with the time domain of other physiological signals. A formula, IEDA = 0.0284H2 + 0.7377H + C (C is the correction constant), was given for personal test. Then, EDA can be used as a judgment basis for workers at heights, and it can be used as a manager's monitoring for workers’ states at heights, thereby reducing the occurrence of high-altitude operating accidents.

Guilei Sun, Fangming Pang, Qi Liu, Yun Lin, Luyao Xu, Yanhua Meng

A Study on the Construction of Mental Fatigue Model and the Change of Psychological Efficacy

Objective The mental fatigue model was constructed to explore the dynamic characteristics of psychological efficacy such as emotion, cognition and simulated flight mission (SFM) performance. Methods A total of 37 healthy male subjects were recruited in this study. The mental fatigue model was constructed by using 40 h sleep deprivation. The body emotion state, alertness, risk decision-making and SPF performance were collected at 15 time points, respectively. The dynamic changes were studied by psychophysiological interaction and correlation analysis. Result Compared with the baseline, the subjects’ (1) fatigue, drowsiness and negative emotion increased significantly; (2) attention decreased, risk decision-making was impaired; (3) SFM performance decreased; (4) SFM performance decreased the earliest, followed by emotion, attention and risk decision-making; (5) there was a positive correlation between anger and the performance impairment of SFM. Conclusion The model of mental fatigue was successfully constructed, and the dynamic changes of various behavioral indicators and their correlation were analyzed in detail, which provided a reliable basis for the follow-up study.

Liu Yang, Yishuang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yang Liao, Duanqin Xiong, Rong Lin, Jian Du, Xichen Geng

Research on Psychological Management Problems of Military Cadets Under the Angle of Group Psychology

Under the information zed condition, the outcome of a war will depend on competition of human talents to larger degree. Military academy is the foundation, base and cradle in which our army cultivates human talents. Compared to other general objects, military cadets can show more group psychological characteristics in practical psychological management. From the angle of group psychology, the essay analyzes the three characteristics of group psychology for military cadets and sums up the four types of psychological management for the current military cadets, and finally, combined with management reality of military academy, the essay puts forward the three countermeasures—that is, firstly, we should grasp internally psychological regularity and reinforce the scientific nature of psychological management; secondly, we should enhance personal charm and improve effectiveness of psychological management; thirdly, we should create better psychological atmosphere and intensify permeability of psychological management.

Peng Gong, Ye Tao, Huiyong Wang, Kun Cao, Yuxi Peng

Research on the Effects of Pilots Psychological Trainings Based on Different Military Application Purposes

Objective To explore the effects of pilot psychological trainings based on different military application purposes, in order to provide evidence for carrying out all-round psychological training in the future. Methods A total of 101 military pilots were trained in three-stage autonomic nervous stability training, and their HRV indexes before and after were compared, then compared these indexes data to the stress protection training to study the different effects. Results 1. After autonomic nervous stability training, the overall level of autonomic neurological function increased, and the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic functions significantly enhanced; 2. HRV power spectrum adjusted to low frequency; 3. Stress level of pilots after flight mission is higher than their daily lives; 4. After the stress protection training, the stress level of pilots decreased obviously and they were in the state of relaxation, while after autonomic nervous stability training, the stress level of pilots was mobilized to a more suitable working state. Conclusion The psychological training of pilots based on different military application purposes has gained prominent and targeted effects.

Yishuang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Fei Peng, Yang Liao, Huamiao Song, Xueqian Deng, Duanqin Xiong, Juan Liu, Liu Yang

Human Factor Analysis on the Effect of Pilot’s Interpretation of Airborne Radar Warning Information

Objective—This paper summarizes and sorts out existing deficiencies of the human–computer interaction interface design of the current mainstream aircraft airborne radar warning system, and further puts forward the principle of optimization design, in order to shorten pilot’s reaction time in “dangerous target identification” and “dangerous target locking and disposal.” Methods—The methods of literature analysis, questionnaire survey and expert interview were used to complete the human factor analysis. A total of 40 pilots were recruited to participate in this study, and each pilot completed one-on-one interview according to the established outline, then finished a questionnaire survey. The interview lasted for 60 min. Results—This study completed the analysis of the existing deficiencies of the current mainstream aircraft airborne radar warning system, putting the emphasis on the human–computer interface design. On this basis, this study further puts forward the design principles from four aspects. Conclusions—The designers need to give priority to the problems that the information presentation mode takes up too much cognitive resource of the pilots, which may cause pilots to miss information, or fail to obtain information in time, and fail to operate effectively.

Juan Liu, Shuang Bai, Jiabo Ye, Lin Zhang, Jian Du, Wei Pan, Yubin Zhou, Qiming Cheng, Liu Yang, Duanqin Xiong

Qualitative Analysis on the Factors Influencing Pilot Functional Status

Objective—When the pilot's function status is low, he can't complete the task effectively, which may cause the whole system to malfunction or even cause serious accidents. So, in order to provide scientific basis for maintaining and improving pilot functional state, this paper studies the concept, connotation and influencing factors of pilot's functional state. Methods—Qualitative research methods were used, including literature analysis, questionnaire survey and expert interview. And 30 pilots were recruited to an in-depth interview. Results—There are three main factors that affect pilots’ functional status: special flying environment, physiological factors and psychological factors. Among these three factors, the perception ability, information processing ability, comprehensive cognitive ability and social psychological state of psychological factors are particularly important for flight function. Conclusions—The pilot's functional state directly affects flight safety. It is necessary to pay attention to the factors that may affect flight functional state, and to monitor the characterization of functional state regularly. Therefore, corresponding preventive measures can be formulated to reduce the potential risk of threat to flight safety.

Shuang Bai, Juan Liu, Jiabo Ye, Lin Zhang, Jian Du, Wei Pan, Yubin Zhou, Qiming Cheng, Liu Yang, Duanqin Xiong, Peng Du, Ruoyong Wang, Huiling Mu, Ximeng Chen, Hua Ge

Study on Sensory Evaluation of Instant Rice by Fuzzy Mathematics Method

Objective: To study the sensory quality of six kinds of instant rice by fuzzy mathematics method. Methods: Adopted the method of fuzzy mathematics with color, status, smell, texture and taste as evaluation factors and carried out fuzzy mathematics judgment of the sensory quality of six kinds of instant rice: rice, five grains rice, coix seed rice, mung bean rice, highland barley rice and black rice. Results: The fuzzy comprehensive sensory evaluation scores of six kinds of instant rice from high to low were black rice, coix seed rice, five grains rice, mung bean rice, highland barley rice and rice. Conclusions: The fuzzy mathematics method can reflect the sensory quality of military instant rice objectively, which provided a reference method for the comprehensive sensory quality evaluation of military food.

Huiling Mu, Peng Du, Longmei Fang, Shuang Bai, Ximeng Chen, Peng Liu, Ruoyong Wang

Study on the Workload of 12 h Simulated Flight Continuously Across Day and Night

Objective: To investigate the workload of 12 h simulated long-haul flight continuously across day and night. Methods: Six healthy male young volunteers, aged from 19 to 21 years, were trained in simulated flight and skilled in operating flight simulation software before the experiment. Subjects began the simulated flight every day at 20:00 and lasted for 12 h that ended at 8:00. Subjects flew for three consecutive days and slept at least 6 h during the day. Workload evaluation indicators were tested before and after simulated flights on the first, second, and third days, respectively. Reaction time (RT), motion time (MT), critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF), Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), and rating of perceived exertion scale (RPE) were measured. Results: RT increased after simulated flights on the second and third days, but there was no significant difference between before and after flights. MT increased after the first and second days of simulated flight, but the difference was statistically significant only after the first day of flight. There was no significant difference in CFF between before and after three consecutive days of simulated flight. SSS and RPE scores were significantly increased after 12 h simulated flight for three consecutive days. Conclusions: 12 h simulated long-haul flight continuously across day and night could aggravate the flight workload and heavy fatigue.

Feng Wu, Dawei Tian, Hua Ge, Shuang Bai, Andong Zhao, Ruoyong Wang, Yanpeng Zhao, Quan Wang, Lue Deng

Study on Nutritional Status and Changing Trend of Air Force Pilots

Objective To understand the nutritional status of air force pilots and explore its changing trend, so as to provide scientific basis for guiding reasonable nutrition and improving operational performance of the air force pilots. Methods 125–147 male pilots were included in the study. The energy intake was estimated by weighing method. The energy consumption was assessed by life observation method. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated by height and weight. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) were determined by double reagent enzyme method. The results were compared with that of nutrition survey for air force pilots in 1997 and 2007. Results The average daily energy intake and consumption was 3375.2 kcal and 3091.5 kcal, respectively. Protein, fat, and carbohydrate provided 17.4%, 43.9%, and 38.7% of the daily energy intake, respectively. The incidence of underweight, overweight, and obesity was 4.8%, 16.8%, and 4.0%, while the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia was 31.2% and 36.1%, respectively. The nutritional status of air force pilots changed a lot compared with that of 1997. However, the situation seemed to be improved compared with that of 2007. Conclusions The dietary pattern of air force pilots was not reasonable and the incidence of overweight, obesity, and dyslipidemia was high. Nutritional intervention and guidance should be strengthened.

Peng Du, Huiling Mu, Shuang Bai, Longmei Fang, Ximeng Chen, Hongjiang Jing, Feng Li, Peng Liu, Lili Zhang, Ruoyong Wang

Simulation and Verification of a Vestibular Perception Model

Objective To develop a vestibular perception model for human space orientation and to verify the effectiveness of the model through simulation experiments. Methods Based on the theory of the multisensory modeling for human space orientation, a MATLAB/Simulink based vestibular perception model including otoliths, semicircular canals and their interactions was developed. By inputting the motion stimuli including linear acceleration and angular velocity into the model, simulation experiments of Coriolis effect and somatogravic illusion were performed. Results The model outputs of linear acceleration, angular velocity, Euler angle and gravity were in good agreement with the results of relevant research or analysis. The perception model could simulate human vestibular perception function and predictive responses on vestibular flight illusion accurately. Conclusions It proves that the perception model presented in this paper has a high credibility. It would contribute to the study on flight orientation and flight illusion.

Cong Wang, Dalong Guo, Hongbo Jia, Yuliang Li, Fang Su, Yuanjing Zheng, Yao Liu, Chenlong Jia, Qi Zhang

Analysis of Man’s Role in Unmanned Operations

Unmanned operations have changed the patterns of war, which also enlightens people to understand some recognized war ethics in a new sight of view. Man is both of the designer and beneficiary of unmanned operations. However, faced with abuse of force, the risk of weapons out of control, weakening morals, to some extent, man is also the victim of unmanned operations. Man is the designer of unmanned operation methods. Therefore, man should keep unmanned equipment under good control and avoid the abuse of unmanned equipment, making full use of advantages of unmanned operations. In this thesis, a deep analysis is made on the four roles of man in unmanned operations.

Hongjun Cheng, Huifang Wang, Yinxi Yang

An Experimental Study of the Effects of Subliminal Stimulation on Attention Perception

Objective: To investigate the effect of task difficulty and dual channel subliminal stimulation on people’s attention perception. Methods: 24 college students were recruited to participate in the experiment. The experimental program was compiled by E-Prime software on the basis of the paradigm of attention span. The experimental task was to determine the number of red pentagram stars presented on the computer screen quickly and accurately. Two factors mixed design was used in this experiment. Task difficulty and subliminal stimulation are the two independent variables, each of which contains three levels. When the number of pentagram stars to be judged was 5–9, it was of low difficulty; correspondingly, 10–14 was of medium task difficulty, and 15–19 was of high task difficulty. The three levels of subliminal stimulation are as follows: “no subliminal stimulus”, which can be regarded as a control group, “auditory subliminal stimulus” and “audiovisual subliminal stimulus”. In order to avoid the effect of experimental sequence, the order of subjects participating in the experiment was balanced in advance according to the independent variable of the type of subliminal stimulation. Results: The main effect of task difficulty on perception was significant (p < 0.001); the main effect of subliminal stimulation on perception was not significant (p > 0.05); the interaction between task difficulty and subliminal stimulation was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: With the increase of task difficulty, the error of perceptual judgment increases, that is, the accuracy decreases. Subliminal stimulation designed in this paper has no obvious effect on perceptual judgment, but from the mean of the absolute value of perceptual error, it can be seen that judgment bias in the comprehensive intervention group of “audiovisual subliminal stimulation” has a downward trend, which shows that subliminal stimulation can improve the accuracy of attention cognition to a very small extent. The research direction of this experiment is worth further exploration. In future experiments, it is necessary to personalize the intensity and duration of subliminal stimulation according to the definition of sensory threshold, so as to enhance its effect.

Juan Liu, Wei Pan, Duanqin Xiong, Rong Lin, Jian Du, Jiabo Ye, Yubin Zhou, Qiming Cheng, Liu Yang, Yishuang Zhang, Shuang Bai

3D Head Anthropometry for Head-Related Transfer Function of Chinese Pilots

The 3D head anthropometry of 69 Chinese male pilots was tested in order to build China Air Force head-related transfer function (HRTF) database, i.e. CHNAF HRTF Database in abbreviation. There were totally 93 anthropometric landmarks defined according to principles of physical acoustic reflection and refraction. All the landmarks were measured in sitting with (x, y, z) coordinate system to get 2D dimensions in GB/T 5703/ISO 7250-1 and GJB 4856 and 3D descriptions of the head with polar coordinate transformation in (r, ϕ, θ). The test results of the 3D descriptors showed the 3D positions of anatomical mediators between the outer acoustic signal and pilots’ auditory spatial localization, in which there were 50 landmarks about ears or auricle, 33 landmarks about skull, eyes, face and noses and 10 about neck and shoulders. Therefore, the CHNAF HRTF Database could provide about 150 items of anthropometric measurements for HRTF and its personalization especially with focus on the role of ears.

Xiaochao Guo, Yu Bai, Qingfeng Liu, Duanqin Xiong, Yanyan Wang, Jian Du

The Mental Health and Correlated Factors of Medical Team Members in an Aerospace Medical Unit Before Conducting Non-war Military Operations

To investigate the mental health and correlated factors of medical team members in an aerospace medical unit before fight COVID-19 pneumonia, which would provide quantitative data to help keeping mental health. Cluster sampling method was used and 193 medical team members were engaged. Eysenck personality questionnaire, symptom checklist-90 and self-made scale were used to evaluate the medical team members’ personality, mental health level, personal protection and risk of infection. The levels of personal protection and risk of infection may have an influence on medical team members’ mental health. Medical team members with low personal protection may more likely to be obsessive-compulsive (t = 3.20, P < 0.01), anxiety (t = 2.00, P < 0.05). Medical team members with high risk of infection may have multiple types of mental problems. Medical team members with higher introversion, higher psychoticism and neuroticism characteristics were more likely to be in low level of mental health. These results could help us to find out the target population of mental protection before military operations other than war.

Yang Liao, Yishuang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Xueqian Deng, Liu Yang

Research on the Construction of Ship Operator’s Cognitive Behavior Model

The establishment of the cognitive model is beneficial to the identification of the operator’s cognitive error model and its cognitive stages and causes, so as to provide the corresponding basis for the design of the ship’s human–machine interface and the training of the operator. This paper studies the construction of a cognitive behavior model for ship operators, and results show that the behavior of ship control system operators is mainly manifested as cognitive behavior, including monitor/discover, state evaluation, response plan, response execution. The three main feedbacks (state evaluation, response plan, response execution) in the cognitive model can be seen as a series of cognitive cycles, each providing information for the next stage.

Weiming Fang, Shuqin Zhao, Jun Peng, Chuan Wang

Analysis of Human Factor Characteristics of Ship Control System

With the development of computer and information technology, the level of human–machine interface automation of ship control system is improved continuously. Based on the definition of human factor error and human factor concept, this paper analyzes the typical human factor characteristics in the digitized ship control system through on-site observation and operator interview, which are mainly manifested in the changes of the operator’s role and function, task load, cognitive factors and experience ability, operation team structure and size, the level of team communication and cooperation, operating procedure, information display and control based on VDU, alarm screen, etc.

Jun Peng, Guangjiang Wu, Chuan Wang

Study on Fatigue Detection of Ship Operator Based on Eye Features

Aiming at the problem of human error caused by the fatigue driving, domestic and foreign scholars have done a lot of research on driving behavior model, traffic safety risk, curve track distribution features, curve speed characteristics and road infrastructure, etc., but few have done much research on driver behavior. In this paper, combined with Haar-related feature templates, the face of the ship operator is identified and detected. The face-related data is measured by the geometric method to locate the human eye, and the eye state of the operator is located and detected by the PERCLOS algorithm. The results show that real-time detection and early warning of fatigue state are of great significance to reduce the human error caused by ship operators.

Chuan Wang, Jun Peng, Xiaoxi Han, Shenghang Xu, Jian Zhang

Study on Fatigue Detection Method of Ship Operator Based on Face Recognition Technology

Aiming at the problem of human error caused by the fatigue operation of ship operators, this paper proposes a method for fatigue detection of ship operators. The AdaBoost algorithm is used to detect the face of the ship operator, locate and analyze the eyes and mouth in the detected face area, and judge the fatigue state by information fusion in the decision-making stage. The results show that the method can accurately detect the state of eyes and mouth and effectively detect whether the ship operator is in the state of fatigue operation.

Jian Zhang, Jun Peng, Xiaoxi Han, Shenghang Xu, Chuan Wang

Hybrid Model of Eye Movement Behavior Recognition for Virtual Workshop

Purpose This paper is oriented to the virtual workshop scenario, discusses the creation of a feasible eye movement recognition model and provides new ideas for eye movement recognition and eye movement interaction in the virtual workshop. Method Obtain user’s eye movement data through eye tracker in real time, create blink behavior recognition model and gaze/saccade behavior recognition model based on convolutional neural network (CNN) and bidirectional long short-term memory network (Bi-LSTM). A data set was created by collecting eye movement data of three subjects for comparative experiments to verify the performance of the proposed model. Results The experimental results showed that the recognition accuracy, Kappa coefficient, F1 score and running time of the proposed model had certain advantages over other models. Conclusion The created hybrid model of eye movement recognition for virtual workshops has high reliability and effectiveness, which will create a foundation for future research on building eye movement interaction systems.

Mengyao Dong, Zenggui Gao, Lilan Liu

Research on Influence of Organizing and Training Capabilities Towards Officers Positions Capabilities

Practical teaching is the main path to cultivate and improve combat capabilities of growing cadre cadets Li (The new phase in new century research on military academy transformation construction and talents cultivation (Part 1), 2005 [1]). As the main evaluation, contents of practical teaching organizing and training capabilities include writing teaching schemes, drawing up working plans, giving lessons and conducting training. Organizing and training capabilities have a fundamental and promoting role on the formation of organizing and commanding capabilities; they also have a guiding and facilitating role on management and political work; and they take on an elevating role on coordinating, controlling and adapting to changing circumstance. By intensifying their qualities, cultivating good personality, establishing a sense of responsibility and grasping the soldiers’ thoughts the grassroots officers must improve their organizing and training capabilities, and at the same time, promote their first-position capabilities Zhou (A study on the basic standard of growing officers cultivation, 2005 [2]).

Junlong Guo, Zaochen Liu, Jianfeng Li, Jiwen Sun

Interaction Effect of Workload and Circadian Rhythm in Air Traffic Controllers’ Fatigue

Objective To investigate interaction effect of workload and circadian rhythm in air traffic controllers’ fatigue. Methods At one busy international airport, air traffic controllers for the terminal area were recruited in this study. The volunteers were asked to fill out the questionnaire of the Stanford Sleepiness Scale about their fatigue feelings before, in the middle, and after their work. The questionnaire survey followed up with four-period groups including morning, afternoon, the first half of the night, and the second half of the night. The statistical results of the questionnaires showed that the fatigue levels of air traffic controllers increased very significantly during work periods; the levels were also influenced by circadian rhythm. The covariance analysis results showed that there was a very significant interaction effect of workload and circadian rhythm. Conclusions There existed a very significant interaction effect of workload and circadian rhythm in air traffic controllers’ fatigue. These results require more objective data to verify and will prompt to consider the effect in the assignment of workload and human resource for fatigue management.

Zhenling Chen, Jianping Zhang, Guoliang Zou, Pengxin Ding, Shunqing Li, Yanzhong Gu, Yiyou Chen

A PERCLOS Method for Fine Characterization of Behaviour Circadian Rhythm

Objective To establish a measurement method of the percentage of eyelid closure over the pupil over time (PERCLOS) to finely characterize behaviour circadian rhythm. Methods A computer program was designed based on multitask convolutional neural network for the treatment of videos to get PERCLOS quantitative values. 7 volunteers were recruited in this research. The volunteers were asked to face the personal computers and play a simple game for 5 min, doing the test 4 times a day that was just after getting up in the morning, at noon, in the evening and just before going to bed. Their videos were recorded and treated with the computer program to obtain PERCLOS results. The results showed that the PERCLOS values of 6 young persons increased from morning to night in accordance with the circadian rhythm of youth, while an elder female volunteer showed a different circadian rhythm from that of the youth. Conclusions The PERCLOS method for characterization of behaviour circadian rhythm was successfully developed, which would serve as effective tool for circadian rhythm related studies.

Yanzhong Gu, Zhenling Chen, Jianping Zhang, Guoliang Zou, Pengxin Ding, Weinan Deng

Research on Fatigue Monitoring of Forklift Driver Driving in an Automobile Enterprise

In order to monitor the driving fatigue of forklift drivers in automobile enterprises and improve the driving operations of forklift drivers, a third-class forklift driver in the automobile assembly shop of a certain company was used as the research object to conduct a driving fatigue monitoring study. The subjective monitoring uses the questionnaire of basic conditions of forklift drivers and the questionnaire of subjective feelings of forklift drivers’ operating fatigue to determine the causes of fatigue, symptoms and changes in symptoms of forklift drivers. Objective monitoring uses an EEG signal analysis method to monitor and record the EEG signals of the forklift driver during each working period, and use EEGLAB to analyze the driver’s δ wave spectrum chart. Taking the unloading driver as an example, the driving fatigue time and fatigue degree are analyzed and judged from two perspectives: subjective and objective. The results show that the driving fatigue of the forklift driver is obvious, and it is difficult to recover effectively. The forklift driver is in a state of severe fatigue while driving.

Zhenjun Du, Xinmin Zhang

Research on the Machine Character

Frontmatter

Parameter Optimization Design of a Cable-Driven Bionic Muscle Mechanism Based on Hill Muscle Model for Flexible Upper Limb-Assisted Exoskeleton

In this paper, a cable-driven bionic muscle is designed for the flexible upper limb-assisted exoskeleton. And, it simulates the characteristic of muscle output force from the perspective of mechanism design. The structure of the designed exoskeleton and the designed bionic muscle are introduced. Then, the dynamics model of elbow joint is established based on the Hill muscle model and musculoskeletal model. Finally, by optimizing the key parameters, the force-displacement curve of the mechanism is approximately consistent with that of human muscle. That means, in the stable state, the stiffness of the bionic muscle is similar to that of the human body. It helps the flexible upper limb-assisted exoskeleton improve its bionic performance.

Hongrun Lu, Bingshan Hu, Hongliu Yu, Tong Ma, Xinran Zhang

Design of Female Office Chairs Based on Ergonomics and Emotional Design

With the development of urbanization and information technology, the efficiency and comfort of the office environment have become the two major concerns of the office market and users. This article analyzes the psychological characteristics and emotional needs of young women, studies the user’s sitting posture, determines the structure and size of the chair based on ergonomics, improves the chair structure adjustment form, and approaches the aesthetic requirements of young women through design methods such as symbolic metaphors on the appearance. The design of female office chairs based on ergonomics and emotional design is conducive to improving people’s work efficiency and work comfort, thereby enhancing users’ happiness in life.

Yi Chen, Canqun He, Yuqi Lin

Prototype Design and Performance Experiment of Passive Compliant Mechanism for the Automatic Charging Robot End Effector

Aiming at the demand of charging automation of electric vehicles, a charging robot end passive compliant mechanism based on Stewart parallel mechanism is designed based on the analysis of the requirements of electric vehicle charging plug and socket docking in this paper. The position and attitude deviation adaptability of the compliant mechanism under various deviation conditions are simulated,and a test platform is built by using a robot arm, and the docking experiments are carried out. The research results show that the passive compliant mechanism can meet the demands of reliable docking and has an inserting force less than 100 N in the case of large deviation.

Bingshan Hu, Ke Cheng, Weilun Zhang, Xinran Zhang

Facilities Design of Fume Protection and Ventilation System in Welding Workshop of an Automotive Enterprise

The welding fume in the welding workshop has an important impact on the occupational health of the workers in the workshop. Scientific and reasonable design of the ventilation system in the welding workshop can effectively reduce the concentration of the welding fume and ensure the occupational health of the workers. This paper uses the method of controlling wind velocity to design the ventilation system of workshop. The results show that the system can effectively control the welding fume, and the concentration is less than 4 mg/m3.

Chen Ding, Bin Yang, Jianwu Chen, Pei Wang, Ying Wang

Study on Optimization Design of Drive Seat Based on Body Comfort

The research work of this paper is about the design of driver seat in the research of armored vehicles. In the design process, the seat function, vehicle space and riding comfort are mainly considered based on man-machine-environment system of armored vehicles. The working state of the driver is simulated by applying the seat model and the human body model. In order to design the shape of seat cushion and seat back, the human body model is used to simulate the driving posture. Then, the stiffness of the damping shock absorber is simulated and analyzed. By optimizing the stiffness and damping of damping shock absorber, the driving comfort is further improved, and the working efficiency of driver is enhanced. The comfort of driver is improved by optimal design.

Yu Wang, Yongqin Wang, Xiangcao Niu, Yi Liu

Analysis on Armor Protection Requirements of the Top of Self-propelled Antiaircraft Gun

According to the mission of self-propelled antiaircraft guns in future air defense operations and the all-directional three-dimensional threats they may face, the protection requirements of the top of self-propelled antiaircraft guns and the standards for level of protection should be met are proposed. On the basis of the existing protective technology of armor equipment, this paper points out the application direction of installing optical and electromagnetic transparent protective components by the use of bullet-proof glass, transparent ceramics armor and wave-transmitting composite materials. According to the characteristics that the operational employment of self-propelled antiaircraft gun requires high maneuverability, this paper analyzes the shortcomings of the current active protection means, points out the development direction and technical countermeasures of the soft killing protection system, which can be used as reference to the development of equipment technology of self-propelled antiaircraft guns.

Zhenyou Zhang, Qian Liu, Pengdong Zhang

Development of Principle Prototype of Digital Bright Spot Scintillator

Objective—to establish a digital bright spot flicker detection technology and make a principle prototype. Methods—the hardware part of the principle prototype of the digital bright spot scintillator includes the shell, eye mask, bright spot scintillation module, monitoring and imaging module and the host computer. The software system is embedded in the host computer, including the user information management module, parameter setting module, CFF measurement module, test data management module and system maintenance module. Results—the principle prototype is convenient for individual and group evaluation. The reliability of the detection results is improved by tracking the pupil of the tested personnel through the monitoring camera and eye movement tracking module, drawing the critical flash fusion frequency curve and real-time display. The detection results of 15 subjects show that the principle prototype is accurate, reliable and repeatable. Conclusions—the digital bright spot scintillator principle prototype has the advantages of high degree of automation, simple operation, accurate and good repeatability.

Hua Ge, Andong Zhao, Yuefang Dong, Feng Wu, Weiwei Fu, Xi Zhang, Hao Zhan

Information Processing System Design for Multi-rotor UAV-Based Earthquake Rescue

A design method of an information processing system for the multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based earthquake rescue application is proposed. As a kind of new rescue measurement in the third medical center of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) general hospital, this system is designed for the UAV of calamity rescue team. Four key functions are developed: the environment perception-based image enhancement, the homography matrix estimation-based image mosaicing, the imaging earthquake damage degree (EDD) evaluation, and the rescue plan recommendation. The blind image quality evaluation metrics are utilized to percept the changes of imaging environment. The homography matrix is employed to carry out the image mosaicing. Lots of image texture features are computed to assess the imaging EDD. The rescue plan is recommended by the backpropagation neural network (BPNN) with the considerations of EDD and other factors such as the population size or the weather condition. The practical tests have verified the effectiveness of the proposed system and method.

Haoting Liu, Ming Lv, Yun Gao, Jiacheng Li, Jinhui Lan, Wei Gao

Multiple Missiles Launch Assignment Based on AHP and Genetic Algorithm

A kind of launch assignment method of the multiple missiles which uses the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method and the genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for the navy ship. In this model, the missiles include both the surface combat missile and the electromagnetic compaction missile. When implementing the simulation, first, the three threaten factors are modelled. They are the anti-ballistic missile threaten factor, the radar threaten factor, and the weather threaten source. Second, a GA model is constructed to solve the mission assignment problem of multiple missiles. The corresponding threaten factors are used to build the optimal function of GA. Third, the AHP model is considered to estimate the weight of the optimal function. Many simulation results have verified the correctness of proposed method.

Fang Liu, Jinshi Xiao

Study on Female Caring Office Chair Design Based on Ergonomics

This article studies the design of office chairs for professional sedentary women. First, it investigated the hidden health hazards of women caused by sedentary, analyzed the man–machine system of office chairs, and summarized the relationship between seats and hidden health hazards. In addition to the common low back and cervical diseases caused by improper sitting posture, female reproductive system diseases and anorectal diseases are also related to sedentary. This article combines the ergonomics theory to propose design criteria in the design of women’s seats, which aims to improve the health problems of women’s sedentary from the perspective of the seat, to give women health care from both physical and psychological dimensions. On the basis of existing chairs, an office chair design plan for women’s care is proposed.

Tianqi Yuan, Xiaohui Tao

Research on Blackness Classification of Polyester Knitted Printed Black Cloth

This paper analyzes and simplifies the commonly used color index Lab, combines the reflectivity integration curve, and divides the fabric blackness into two categories according to the degree of color. The concepts of achromatic blackness and chromatic blackness are proposed to create a classification method. The achromatic blackness classification is considered to be a ≤ 1, b ≤ 1, and L ≤ 22 which is divided into 5 levels for evaluation, with 5 as the highest and 1 as the lowest. The chromatic blackness classification is evaluated by the method of integrating the reflectance curve of the test sample and the standard sample. The method of number of level–number of segment is divided into 6 levels, of which 6 is the highest, 1 is the lowest, and each level is divided into 3 segments, which are represented by I, II, and III, with I being the highest and III being the lowest. These two categories can more intuitively reflect the user’s blackness classification requirements for black fabrics.

Jingying Xu, Qiubao Zhou, Zimin Jin, Kun Chen

Evaluation of Dietary Quality of Aircrew by Military Diet Balance Index

Objective—To evaluate the dietary quality of aircrew by using military diet balance index (DBI) and provide basis for their dietary guidance and nutritional intervention. Methods—Dietary survey was carried out by weighing method. The dietary quality of aircrew was evaluated by using military DBI. Results—The intakes of red meat and egg met the standard, the intake of vegetable oil was over the standard, the intakes of other kind of food did not meet the standard. The intakes of calcium, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2 did not meet the standard. The energy supply ratio of protein, fat and carbohydrate was 16%, 46% and 38%, respectively, showing a “high protein, high fat and low carbohydrate” pattern. The food quantitative results were basically consistent with the military DBI scores, showing a slight nutritional imbalance. Conclusions—The dietary pattern of the investigated aircrew was unreasonable; part of the food and nutrients intake was insufficient; the military DBI score showed that the dietary pattern was slightly unbalanced. The dietary pattern should be further adjusted.

Huiling Mu, Ruoyong Wang, Shuang Bai, Longmei Fang, Ximeng Chen, Hongjiang Jing, Feng Li, Peng Liu, Lili Zhang, Peng Du

Numerical Simulation Research on Design of Displacement Ventilation System in Large Painting Workshop

This article takes the paint spraying operation of the paint shop of a shipyard as the research object and uses ANSYS FLUENT numerical simulation software to apply displacement ventilation to the paint shop under different conditions of the size of the supply and exhaust vents and the location of the supply and exhaust vents. The airflow organization and the diffusion law of toxic substances were studied numerically. It is concluded that when replacement ventilation is used in the painting workshop, the length and width of the air supply and exhaust vents should be larger than the length and width of the work piece to be sprayed at the same time as long as the air supply and exhaust volume are the same. The supply and exhaust air arrangement method of the lower apply and lower exhaust is used to achieve the best ventilation and detoxification effect. It can effectively discharge toxic substances into the workshop and reduce the exposure of paint spraying workers to toxic substances.

Bin Yang, Jianwu Chen, Lindong Liu, Yanqiu Sun, Shulin Zhou, Weijiang Liu

Application of Comprehensive Preference and Fuzzy Mathematics Method in Sensory Evaluation of Ready-to-Eat Meatballs

Objective—This paper verifies a sensory evaluation method that adds fuzzy mathematical evaluation on the basis of preference evaluation. Methods—Four kinds of ready-to-eat meatballs with different flavors were used as sensory evaluation objects. Based on the preference evaluation, fuzzy mathematics was added to evaluate the sensory quality of meatballs. Results—The results showed that among the four kinds of ready-to-eat meatballs, cumin meatballs, beef meatballs, onion meatballs and spicy meatballs ranked in order of popularity. Conclusions—On the basis of preference evaluation, fuzzy mathematical method can be added to improve the objectivity of food sensory evaluation.

Ruoyong Wang, Huiling Mu, Peng Du, Ximeng Chen, Peng Liu, Shuang Bai

Research on STK-Based 3D Model Transformation and Optimization

It is necessary to establish a 3D model with vivid effects in order to improve human–computer interaction (HCI) efficiency in the field of operation simulation. Based on the particularity of the 3D model format in the Satellite Tool Kit (STK)/VO module, this paper analyzes the data structure of the STK 3D model, describes how to directly acquire the model in MDL format, and analyzes its shortcomings and deficiencies. Taking the common 3D modeling software 3DMax as an example, this paper focuses on the description of how to transform 3D models in different formats into MDL models and subsequently forms a model solution for STK software to achieve high complexity, streamlined structure data, and vivid lighting effects during mission simulation, including the model transformation process, geometry data optimization of the model, and optimization solutions in model transformation. Practice has proven that the proposed method offers effective optimization and more vivid effects and can greatly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of HCI.

Kunfu Wang, Wanfeng Mao, Wei Feng, Jian Su, Xing Li, Peng Zhang

Quality Control of Measuring for Head-Related Transfer Functions of Chinese Pilots

A specified procedure was conducted for measuring HRTF database. The experimenters were trained to reduce the tester errors. Pilot as participator was sat in (x, y, z) coordinates with the origin at midpoint of bitragion on his Frankfurt plane same as polar coordinates of (r, ϕ, θ), keeping his posture to reduce the testee errors during each block of the experiment. The test–retest checks were arranged at (ϕ, 0°), (ϕ, 180°) and (ϕ, 360°) for data quality control. Other strategies were done such as the division of the experiment into 13 blocks and schedules of rest by turns to reduce human errors from fatigue. Three testers were trained with dummy head MK2B, and 63 male pilots were measured in hemi-anechoic room to build CHNAF HRTF database. The results were found that the tester error was about 0.29 dB of ILD and –0.75° azimuth deviation, the 2.0 dB of ILD was acceptable alarm threshold for binaural spatial symmetry because of pilots posture change, and the data quality of the CHNAF HRTF database was well validated.

Xiaochao Guo, Qingfeng Liu, Yanyan Wang, Duanqin Xiong, Yu Bai, Jian Du

An Automatic Meter Recognition Method for In-Orbit Application

With the development of machine vision technology, more and more vision-based recognition methods have appeared. However, the artificial meter readings are still widespread in the astronautic application. Astronauts’ works are complex, and the meter readings reduce their efficiencies. To solve this problem, in this paper, we propose a method that can automatically recognize the meter readings. The automatic recognition method includes the following three major components: (1) the digit extraction, (2) the digit segmentation, and (3) the digit recognition. The experiment results show that the digits of the meter can be successfully recognized. The automatic readings can reduce astronauts’ works and make them more convenient while working. This new automatic recognition system has great promise for the practical application.

Weijie Wu, Haoting Liu, Jiacheng Li

Investigation of Image Classification Using HOG, GLCM Features, and SVM Classifier

Recently, in order to solve the problem of image classification, some image features and classifiers play more and more important role in the related research field. This article investigates an image classification method by the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features, the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features, and the support vector machine (SVM) classifier. By obtaining the HOG and the GLCM features of image, the combination of them is inputted into the SVM for the training and the test. The experiment results have manifested the effectiveness of the proposed method. The use of the combination of HOG features and GLCM features in image classification is far superior to the use of them alone.

Jianyue Ge, Haoting Liu

Relationship Between Individual Perceptual Feature Demand and Satisfaction in the Small Assistant Robot Modeling Design

Quantifying the human emotional experience for product modeling design has been a research hotspot. Focusing on the personalized design of small assistant robots, the relationship between individual's perceived feature needs and satisfaction is studied. Five experiments were designed, including perceptual image vocabulary selection, image mood board eye movement experiment, satisfaction survey, perceptual imagery feature demand survey, and experiment on scoring the conformity of modeling samples on different perceptual imagery vocabularies. Forty subjects participated in the experiment. The results show that due to the diversity of individual needs and the different degrees of perceived features, the satisfaction with the same product modeling design is different. In addition, based on the Kano model, a quantitative relationship between perceived features and overall satisfaction was found. This study provides new ideas for further research on the needs of different people for external modeling and the quantitative relationship between feature needs and satisfaction.

Yankun Yang, Bo Wang, Changhua Jiang, Yujing Cui, Ling Song, Xiaomeng Ma

Model Evaluation of South Official Hat Chairs Based on Image Recognition Method

Furniture is the art of modeling. The beautiful modeling of a piece of furniture is the first condition for people to have a feeling of love and then be willing to buy or collect. When people observe the furniture, they scan and gaze at the parts of the elements quickly, process the information of “feature binding” in the human brain at the same time, and then make an overall evaluation of the furniture model. The detailed information of the conscious eye movement process can be obtained through the eye movement tracking experience. Based on this paper, an eye tracking experiment hot spot image is proposed, which uses digital image recognition processing method to extract relevant data for processing, analysis, and evaluation. The hot spot image can transform eye tracking data into two-dimensional color image, and image the number of fixation points, fixation duration, percentage of total time, scanning path and other data into color, transparency, and so on. Visual parameters are superimposed on the eye movement experimental stimulus material as the background, which is represented by “green yellow red” color mapping. The color features are extracted by “hue saturation brightness (HSV)” model, and the discriminant function model of shape evaluation is constructed to realize the aesthetic evaluation of the traditional furniture models of south official hat chairs.

Hanzhou Qiu, Yun Liu

Design of College Student Luggage Based on User Experience

It aims to redesign the college student luggage by surveying local college students’ luggage usage habits and introducing the method of user experience trip in service design. The study used questionnaire, external observation, participatory observation and indirect observation methods. Use the customer journal map to visualize the user needs and experience process. Identify typical user roles, and summarize design opportunities. Clarify the characteristics and needs of college students in the process of using luggage, and propose a more usable luggage design plan to meeting the habits of college students. In the process of researching user needs, while meeting the basic requirements for product usability, we should pay more attention to the user’s emotional needs in the process of using the product. Design product functions from the perspective of users’ psychological feelings and behaviors as much as possible to make product services more suitable for user needs.

Xiao Han, Ting Dong, Dongli Wang, Xin Chen

The Usability of Advance Intersection Lane Control Signs at Intersections

Objectives To examine what and how factors affect the usability of Advance Intersection Lane Control (AILC) signs. Method The naturalistic driving test method and the eye tracker system were used to collect data of drivers using AILC signs and arrow markings. A binary logistic regression model was established to identify contributing factors of the usability of signs. Results The usability of signs is positively correlated with the need of lane change, the number of lanes, and the number of vehicles lined up in front, while negatively correlated with the lateral distance between driver and sign and the use of arrow markings. The eye movement data of drivers using AILC signs are significantly different from those of using arrow markings by t-test: Drivers spend a shorter time in using signs, which means that the efficiency of signs is higher than that of markings. However, the utilization rate of signs is lower. Conclusions AILC signs convey information efficiently but are ignored frequently for the improper position. It is suggested that we can improve the self-explaining properties of roads or change the form of signs to upgrade guide services provided by the road environment.

Leibing An, Jun Ma, Dan Zhao

Explore the Comfortable Seat Armrest Height During the Upper Limb Motor Imagery Training

In the upper limb motor imagery (MI) rehabilitation training, patients need to naturally place their upper arm on the seat armrest for minimum 40 min. The armrest height affects comfort and has become an important factor influencing the training. In order to find the comfortable height, 19 healthy participants were invited to this study. Localized postural discomfort (LPD) body map and comfort/discomfort questionnaire were used as subjective evaluation indicators. Heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded as objective measures. Participants were asked to train tasks at different armrest heights (83 cm, 86 cm, 89 cm, and 92 cm) in a same chair. The results indicated that when the height is 89 cm, the participant’s overall comfort is the best, especially in the quality of EEG signals. In conclusion, the height of arm placement during the MI training may affect the user’s comfort experience. An appropriate height may obtain high-quality EEG signals, which is helpful to the rehabilitation training.

Lu Liu, Xueying Sun, Hechen Zhang, Feng He

A Generation Method and Verification of Virtual Dataset

Target To construct a method for generating object detection dataset based on the virtual environment. The generated dataset can be used for object detection tasks based on deep learning algorithms. Methods The procedural generation method was used to create the city's virtual environment, and also computer graphics were used for rendering and automatic labeling. Results We constructed a virtual reality environment and collected 1500 images through the virtual environment, including 1307 images containing valid vehicle and pedestrian information, and trained a deep learning model based on this dataset. Conclusions A virtual reality environment is successfully created, and the generated dataset can be used to train deep learning object detection algorithms, and the trained models can also effectively perform object detection in real world.

Pengxin Ding, Qingyang Shen, Tianguo Huang, Minghui Wang

Study on the Influence Factors of Garment Pattern Design Based on Quantification Theory

In order to systematically explore the main factors and its degree of the overall design effect of garment pattern, taking the summer t-shirt as an example, the overall design effect of pattern color (lightness, purity, hue), size, density of arrangement, angle of inclination and fabric color (lightness, purity, hue) was studied with the help of eye tracking technology and quantification theory. The results show that the above factors will affect the overall design effect of clothing pattern to varying degrees. Hue, size and layout density of pattern and fabric hum had a great influence on the overall effect of garment design; pattern lightness and purity have a slight influence on the overall effect of garment design. This conclusion provided theoretical reference and data support for fashion designers to design pattern of garment that is more in line with the aesthetic needs of consumers.

Zhaowei Su, Yuhui Wei, Long Sun

Design of Feed Mechanism Based on Computer Cooperative Human–Computer Interaction Design Concept

This article constructs a collaborative work model for project design and illustrates it with typical examples. It is pointed out that the concept of human–computer interaction design based on computer collaboration technology determines the quality of project design. By adopting serial or parallel design methods, it not only provides methods and support for the modeling, simulation and implementation of complex project design but also greatly shortens the project development cycle, reduces costs and improves project completion efficiency. The design scheme can also be revised based on the simulation feedback, thereby greatly improving the reliability of the project design. Further research shows that the human–computer interaction design concept and working model based on computer collaboration technology have important application value for timely understanding of design dynamics, obtaining information on staged design results, promoting collaborative communication among designers and sharing design resources.

Zijing Wang

Research on the Environment Character

Frontmatter

Study on Life Prediction Method of MOSFET Thermal Environment Experiments Based on Extended Kalman Filter

The prediction method of the residual service life of power MOSFET is studied in this paper. By analyzing the data collected under the existing thermal overload accelerated aging experiment, after processing the data, the failure threshold was set by using the prediction algorithm based on data drive and model to predict the residual life of power MOSFET. The traditional SVR algorithm requires a lot of parameter selection and only a few parameter convergence. The prediction algorithm model is based on Extended Kalman Filter, the extended Kalman filter is relative to the advantage of support vector machine (SVM) regression is used to predict the variance is small, and can be found in a wide range of required to predict the sample interval and the predicted results are more accurate, the test results verify the feasibility of this method.

Ke Li, Yuxiang Zhang, Shimin Song, Zhijian Zhao, Lijing Wang

Research and Application of Multi-node Wireless Skin Temperature Measurement System

Skin temperature measurement has always been an important method for evaluating the warm-keeping clothing in winter. In order to realize synchronous real-time and accurate measurement of skin temperature, multi-person and multi-node wireless skin temperature measurement system is designed. Based on LoRa wireless transmission network, this research designed communication protocol and low power consumption circuit and developed a multi-person and multi-node wireless skin temperature measurement system. Twenty-four subjects were selected by this system in alpine regions for field tests on two kinds of warm-keeping clothing. The test results show that the skin temperature measurement system has the characteristics of long transmission distance, high measurement accuracy and simple operation and can meet the requirements of warm-keeping clothing test under extreme conditions.

Chenming Li, Yuhong Shen

Research on Calculation Method of Aircraft Skin Temperature Based on Parameter Sensitivity Analysis

From the perspective of heat transfer, according to factors that affect skin temperature of civil aircraft, combined with the sensitivity analysis method, this paper proposes a method for calculating the skin temperature of an aircraft without inputting the wind speed outside aircraft. The accuracy of this method is verified by the recovery temperature method, and the wind speed outside aircraft is expanded to explain the applicable scope of this method. The results show that when the wind speed outside aircraft is less than 110 m/s, the maximum deviation between the calculated results of this method and the recovery temperature method is 1.9%, and the calculated results are credible. The method is particularly suitable for ground stop and climb condition that the wind speed outside aircraft is less than 110 m/s and difficult to obtain.

Yi Cao

Research on Adaptive Anti-interference of Fire Control Radar Network

According to the battlefield situation, the real-time accurate operation control is an important prerequisite for giving full play to the operational effectiveness of weapons and equipment. In the face of increasingly complex battlefield environments and real-time changing air situations, it is urgent for army to make research on the accurate control of air defense radars in the best state and full use of the overall operational effectiveness of radar networks under different reconnaissance mission situations. This article takes full advantage of radar anti-interference capability, aims to develop a radar working status control method that fits the radar combat mission, and is suitable for precise use and provides auxiliary decision support for air defense group commanders.

Jiang Luo, Yanyan Ding, Boqi Wang, Wei Yu

Study of Fire Control Radar Technology Countering Electronic Attack

Providing artillery or missile with firing data, the Fire Control Radar (FCR) is often the key target of hostile electronic attack. Therefore, in order to better counter electronic attack, it has to promote its capabilities in detecting, intercepting and tracking enemy targets, controlling firepower and ensuring its own safety in such six technological aspects as adopting such technologies as phased array radar, broadened spectrum, complex signal processing, photoelectricity combination, bait laying and multi-radar networking, which is of considerable significance in the overall design of Fire Control Radar (FCR) anti-jamming.

Wei Yu, Xiaolong Liang, Yan Sun, Jiang Luo, Shilei Xin

Experimental Study on Color Optimization of Fighter Cockpit Interior Decoration

Objective: To study the preference of fighter pilots for the color of cockpit interior decoration and put forward the spraying color suitable for the whole cockpit and the devices in it, which provides the basis for the color design of cockpit interior decoration. Methods: 164 fighter pilots were selected as experimental subjects. Making two series of palettes of dark and light colors as experimental materials, in which, the light color system is an alternative color for the cockpit bulkhead while the dark system is for the main control devices. During the experiment, the subjects were asked to choose the colors that they considered to be suitable for cockpit bulkhead and main control devices from the two series of palettes and then sort these colors and finally choose the color they like in their daily life. Results: (1) The palette number C5 (agate grey) has the highest level of preference among the light color system, followed by C3 (misty grey), C4 (monky grey) and C6 (beige grey). Among the dark color system, the palette number C′8 (medium grey) and C′1 (concrete grey) are the most popular colors, followed by C′5 (cement grey). (2) The subjects’ preference for 12 light colors and 12 dark colors was different, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: In this study, the color of the bulkhead and the main control equipment of the fighter cockpit are optimized, and it is found that the daily color preference of pilots has no significant effect on their interior color selection of fighter cockpit. The results can be used as an important reference for color design of cockpit interior decoration.

Jian Du, Xiaochao Guo, Duanqin Xiong, Yanyan Wang, Wei Pan, Shuang Bai, Liu Yang, Juan Liu

The Construction of Marine Combat Flight Environment Based on 4D Simulation Technology

Natural scene simulation is an important part of virtual reality technology. When flying on the sea, it is a unique experience with vast expanse, few referential landmarks, low visibility, and “pot bottom illusion”. In order to build a virtual system of marine combat flight environment with strong immersion, based on 4D stereo imaging system, the special texture fusion algorithm is used to simulate the cloud effect through the process of making, coloring, and fusion; the fluid system is used to simulate the sea surface; the method of surface triangle mesh custom polygon is used to simulate the illusion of very low altitude flight by means of deformation modification, etc. Finally, a realistic virtual reality system of marine combat flight environment is realized, which provides a reliable platform for marine flight psychological training.

Yishuang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Fei Peng, Yang Liao, Huamiao Song, Xueqian Deng, Duanqin Xiong, Juan Liu, Liu Yang

Spacecraft Multifunctional Micro-vibration Environment Laboratory

The problem of orbital micro-vibration has been troubling the development of high-precision spacecraft. Experimental research on on-orbit micro-vibration during the satellite development stage is a very effective method to solve this problem. In order to carry out the ground micro-vibration test of spacecraft with higher accuracy, this paper introduces a micro-vibration laboratory designed in AIT, which has excellent performance of vibration isolation and sound insulation. The background noise index reaches 30 dBA, and the background vibration index reaches 10−5 g. At the same time, the laboratory is designed according to the satellite development process, which can be used to conduct all kinds of micro-vibration environmental tests in the satellite development cycle under the same background environment.

Yao Wu, Tingfei Yan, Guiqian Fang, Xinming Li, Jungang Zhang, Lei Wang, Bo Wei

Study on the Paving Density of Lunar Soil Simulant in the Indoor Ground Test of Lunar Rover

As the basic property of lunar soil simulant, variation of the density will affect the simulant bearing capacity, slope stability, heat exchange property and so on, as well as the mobility of lunar rover. Experiment research reveals that the stacking status has a significant influence on the mechanical property of the lunar soil simulant, and reasonable paving density is critical to the effectiveness of rover mobility experiment on ground. In this paper, the Duncan-Chang–Drucker–Prager model was used for the numerical representation of lunar soil simulant in the finite element model. Based on the analysis of bearing capacity of different lunar soil simulant with different densities, the paving density of lunar soil simulant in the indoor ground test of lunar rover was given.

Yanjing Yang, Shichao Fan, Shuhong Xiang

Numerical Study of Thermal Comfort for Door Area in Civil Aircraft Cabin

In civil aircraft cabin, the requirement of comfort heating for passengers and crew in door areas is increasing. For the benefit of proper design for supplemental heating systems, a thermal model of door area is developed and the thermal comfort is investigated with CFD method. Human thermal comfort, gray thermal radiation, and Boussinesq hypothesis should be considered in physical modeling. The air distribution including air temperature and air velocity at different height above the floor is presented and analyzed according to ASHRAE 161 standard. The thermal model is validated through flight test, and results show good consistency between CFD solution and flight data.

Quan Peng, Chengyun Wu, Yudi Liu, Xuhan Zhang, Huayuan Liu

Research on the Uniform Air Supply Technology of the Static Pressure Chamber in a Spray Room

The static pressure chamber has been widely used in the ventilation of a spray room, and the uniform air supply at the bottom of a static pressure chamber is very important for the control of toxic substances; therefore, the internal structure of the static pressure chamber in a spray room is studied in this paper in order to get the uniform air supply. The suitable roof structure of static pressure chamber with uniform air supply in a spray room widely used in wooden furniture manufacturing enterprise is put forward by comparing and analyzing the methods of uniform air supply in duct. The models of static pressure chamber models are established by CAD, and the numerical simulation was carried out by Fluent. The influences of roof structure on the uniform air supply in a static pressure chamber were analyzed based on the results of the simulation. The result shows that the best internal structure of static pressure chamber in the spray room with uniform air supply is that the whole roof is sloping.

Jianwu Chen, Yuan Bai, Bin Yang, Lindong Liu, Ye Tian, Yanqiu Sun, Weijiang Liu

Research on the Man-Machine Relationship

Frontmatter

Research on the Effect of Elasticity Distribution of Five-Zone Spring Mattress on Human Supine Position Spine Form

Taking zonal spring mattress as the research object, the paper adopted mattress sinking measurement and range method, by evaluation index include the gap of lumbar and back and the sinking ratio of back, studied the effect of elasticity distribution of spring mattress on body lied spine form. The results showed that, the gap of lumbar and back is bigger when the flexibility of hip area of 25 kinds of five-zone spring mattress is bigger and the flexibility of waist area is smaller; the gap of lumbar and back is smaller when the flexibility of hip area and the flexibility of waist area are smaller. When the range of the sinking ratio of back and buttock was 60–100%, the elastic distribution of mattress was good and human spine shape was good. Elasticity distribution of spring mattress was a key factor of effecting body spine form.

Huaiqiu Zhu, Tianyi Hu, Yuding Zhu, Ronghui Yuan

Attentional Allocation with Low-Limb Assisted Exoskeleton During Sit-to-Stand, Stand-to-Sit, and Walking

More and more paraplegics and rehabilitation agencies use lower-limb assisted exoskeleton to improve functional walking ability and to increase neuromuscular plasticity. However, users need to allocate their attention to the lower-limb assisted exoskeleton when they wear it. This study aims to analysis how users in the lower-limb assisted exoskeleton allocate their attention in sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit, and walking. Nine participants performed three kinds of tasks (sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit, and walking of four meters) to acquire data of eye movements. The attentional allocation is almost no statistically significant difference between sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit. Walking has statistically significant differences of attentional allocation in many attentional areas. During walking, participants paid more attention to the areas strongly related with manipulation and pay less attention to positions of orienting participants than the other two tasks. Participants select different patterns of eye movements to the specific task context. The results provide effective suggestions for developers and designers who want to integral information of eye movements into control system.

Jing Qiu, Lanlan Xu, Jinlei Wang

The Influence of Mattress Material on Sleeping Comfort of Different Age

This paper studied the relationship between the characteristic of mattress materials and sleeping comfort with supine and lateral sleeping of different age groups. The test adopted the pressure distribution system, subjective evaluation and the subjective and objective analysis of correlation on ergonomics methods. The results showed that, as the subjects’ age increasing, the subjects’ sensitivity of mattress materials increased and had partiality for harder material. The elder subjects had the highest sensitivity on different mattress materials. The young and middle-aged subjects had high evaluation on memory foam, and latex mattress in supine and lateral position. The young-elder subjects had higher evaluation on memory foam, and coir mattress in supine and lateral position. And the elder subjects preferred coir and cotton mattress in supine position and preferred memory foam and coir mattress in lateral position. The subjects lay on back preferred softer material than subjects lay on side.

Jianjun Hou, Yuchun Zhang

Study on Anthropomorphism in Human–Computer Interaction Design

The status of anthropomorphic research is explored, and the anthropomorphized psychological model—the three-factor theory—is expounded in the paper, which reveals that the generation and development of anthropomorphism are influenced by elicited agent knowledge, effectance motivation and sociality motivation. Meanwhile, the human–computer interaction of anthropomorphized model is established from the perspective of emotionalization, combined with Norman's three-level theory of emotional design and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. User demands are divided into three types, which are matched with the three factors of anthropomorphic process and the three levels of emotional design. A bridge is built between user anthropomorphic process and designer's emotional design in the model, and design recommendations are proposed for each level. Finally, how to reach the appropriate degree to cross the uncanny valley and solve the new problem caused by over-dependence on anthropomorphic products are the future prospect of anthropomorphic research in human–computer interaction design.

Weizhen Xiao, Canqun He

Study on the Influence of Touch Screen Button Size on Operation Performance

Touch devices are widely used in our lives. The size of the touch screen interface buttons will affect the user’s interaction efficiency and accuracy. At present, research on the size of touch screen button is mainly focused on handheld mobile devices and desktop touch devices. Research is still relatively scarce. In order to improve the user’s operating efficiency and user's experience, according to the actual needs of the user, this study selects nine types of touch interface buttons sizes for a desktop touch device with a screen tilt angle of 60°, and conducts comparative experimental research, mainly using task performance indicators method of measurement. The experiment results show that the minimum recommended button size for the touch screen interface is 6.25 mm, and the larger the button size, the higher the performance. The research conclusions can be used to support touch screen interface design.

Bei Zhang, Ning Li, Yingwei Zhou

Research on Man–Car Relationship in 5G Era

Objective To study the man–car relationship in the 5G era with the man–computer interaction of future smart cars as the object. Method An analysis of the current situation of man–car relations based on the development of automobiles and conduct research on them in the 5G era. Taking the starting point of bringing a better travel experience for users, by building a three-dimensional model of the future smart cars, the man–car relationship in the 5G era will be integrated into the design process of the future smart cars. Result (Combining with the changes in user needs and social environment in the 5G era, discuss the relationship between smart cars and people in the future, and form the design trend in the field of smart cars in the future). Conclusion With the advent of the 5G era, unmanned driving is gradually realized, users are liberated from the heavy driving tasks, the man and car cooperation will be more harmonious during driving, and the man–car relationship will be closer. The man–car relationship changed from a man adapt to car to a car adapt to man and then a man and car adapt to each other and finally reached harmonious unity. In the future, smart cars are no longer just a means of transportation, but more like a close friend who accompanies you and understands you, bringing you intimate and exclusive travel services.

Ting Tang, Qiang Zhang

Optimal Design of Man–Machine Interface for Integrated Situation Display of Vehicle-Mounted Command and Control Equipment

Purpose is to improve man–machine interaction efficiency and support optimal design of man–machine interface. Methods Application of new technology is researched in man–machine interface design of integrated situation based on the theory and researching methods of system engineering. Taking vehicle-mounted command and control equipment of a certain type as the typical case, the integrated situation display man–machine interface is designed and optimized. Result After optimization system reaction time is largely shortened, command and control efficiency is greatly improved and users’ demand is perfectly met. Conclusion Man–machine interaction efficiency directly affects the combat effectiveness of weapons and equipment. The application of advanced man–machine interaction technology in the integrated situation display of command and control equipment is an effective way to realize the deep integration between commanders and command and control equipment and improve the combat effectiveness.

Mingjie Wan, Jinkuang Zhang, Jianjun Gao, Zaochen Liu, Xuewei Liu, Xiaolong Chang

Research on Respiratory Signals for Visual Fatigue Caused by 3D Display

In order to study the relationship between visual fatigue and respiratory characteristic parameters caused by 3D display, 30 subjects were invited to watch 3D videos for 90 min. A questionnaire survey was performed in the initial state and every 15 min after watching the video to obtain the subjective data, and 7 groups of data were collected. The characteristic parameters of breathing were acquired synchronously using breathing sensors. The data was analyzed using SPSS. The results show that subjective fatigue increases with the increase of time spent watching 3D videos, and subjective visual fatigue increases extremely significantly from 45 to 60 min. The mean of power, index of the respiratory frequency domain, and the corresponding standard deviation show a highly significant linear negative correlation with time and the consistency with subjective fatigue score reached 0.970, indicating that the power value is effective for visual fatigue assessment. Therefore, based on the power mean or standard deviation of the breathing signal, the time is used to estimate or evaluate the time of watching 3D display.

Guilei Sun

Man-Machine System Design for Rest-Office Seats

The modern people's habit of sitting on the seat for a long time and lying on the table for a rest has seriously affected their health. The reasonably designed rest-office seats can provide office workers with healthy work conditions and comfortable rest conditions, helping office workers to reduce diseases such as spondylosis and improve work efficiency. This paper analyzes the existing office seats from the perspective of ergonomics and clarifies the basic functions and potential development possibilities of rest-office seats. The two methods of element shape extraction and user demand analysis were applied to the design and development of rest-office seats. It has a certain guiding significance and reference value for the future office seating style, the development of additional functions and the appearance design of seats. It also improves the user experience.

Jiawei Tang, Canqun He, Yuhong Wei, Chenfei Cao

Concept Plan and Simulation of On-Orbit Assembly Process Based on Human–Robot Collaboration for Erectable Truss Structure

Considering the future construction of large erectable truss structure in space station, concept design and simulation of on-orbit assembly task are conducted based on human–robot collaboration. The therbligs level tasks of truss structure are decomposed layer-by-layer according to the characteristics of the truss bay. An assembly task model is established based on hierarchical task analysis. The human and robot functional performances associated with the assembly operation in space are compared and analyzed to establish the description of human–robot ability constraints. The comparing allocation principle is adopted to determine the distribution of human and robot collaborative assembly task. DELMIA is used to simulate the assembly process of truss bay and the feasibility of human–robot collaboration is verified.

Xinyue Zhu, Changhuan Wang, Meng Chen, Shiqi Li, Junfeng Wang

Experimental Study on Dynamic and Static Work of Shoulder-Mounted Portable Equipment Operators

The purpose of this paper is to improve the scientificity of operators’ work by analyzing their dynamic and static work performance and how the performance changes through a research on shoulder-mounted equipment operators to measure and compare the operators’ work performance at a different time and after a different distance of movement. Based on the Training Achievement Evaluating System, point out the difference of dynamic and static work performance after analyzing the score in a different time. Present the correlations obtained by comparing the performance changes in varied conditions. In this way, find out a method to improve the training of shoulder-mounted portable equipment operators.

Zhaofeng Luo, Meng Kang, Peng Zhang, Han Zhang, Huashan Li, Fan Zhou, Kun Qu

Research on the Comfort of Human Upper Back in Different Seat Back Angles

This study aimed to investigate the effect of upper seat back in different vertical angles (5°, 10°, 15°, and 20°) on upper back support. The upper seat back was taken as an independent component in experimental facility, so that it could move and rotate in vertical angle relative to seat back of waist. Experimental results showed that comfort sensations in upper back could be perfectly measured by body pressure-measuring parameters and subjective comfort evaluation indicators. Proper leaning of slightly vertical angle upper back support would improve the whole sitting comfort compared with normal chairs.

Ligang Luo, Tianyi Hu, Tinghua Wu

An Organic Design for Human–Computer Interaction

The accuracy and efficiency of human–computer interaction are critical to the completion of the set tasks of an engineering system. In traditional human–computer interaction, because software only has solidified logic which does not change with the external conditions, resulting in the failure of operating personnel to perform timely correction in the event of logical errors, an organic human–computer interaction design is proposed which regards software as an autonomous agent capable of perceiving, analyzing and learning. A software architecture with organic characteristics is also put forward to improve the self-adaptability of software by strengthening its perception, learning and optimization abilities, thus providing method guidance for improving the accuracy and coordination of human–computer interaction.

Hongjun Zhang, Baiqiao Huang

Human–Machine Interface Optimization Design Based on Ecological Interface Design (EID) Theory

With the development and application of digital technology, the human–machine interface of the console has been widely used with the computer as the core of the digital display control interface. The paper analyzes the effect of the application of EID theory in human–machine interface (HMI) in the nuclear power plant based on the actual HMI examples in the nuclear power plant. The analysis shows that EID has important application value in HMI design of the nuclear power plant, and the application of EID theory in the nuclear power plant will better organize the display information and improve operator’s ability to solve problems when encountering unanticipated events.

Guangjiang Wu, Yiqian Wu, Xi Lu, Shenghang Xu, Chuan Wang

Human–Computer Interaction Analysis and Prediction for Task Operating System Based on GOMS Model

Objective—In view of the current application status for special vehicles, along with increasing functions of task operating system interface, the operation mode and interactive information are becoming more and more complex. In order to achieve the purpose of optimizing the display-control interface scheme, a human–computer interaction analysis method facing to task operating system is proposed. Methods—Combined with the actual special vehicle tasks, quantitative analysis and prediction of human–computer interaction process of task operating system interface are performed using the principle of GOMS model. In addition, the verification experiment is also carried out based on the task simulation platform system of special vehicle. Results—The validity of the proposed quantitative analysis method based on GOMS model is proved by the results analysis of the verification experiment. At the same time, it is concluded that there exists a linear relationship between the task completion time and subjective workload in the current test task. Conclusions—The analysis results can be used in the ergonomics evaluation for task operating system interface and provide reference for the future interface design and optimization.

Fang Xie, Yaofeng He, Sijuan Zheng, Liang Ling, Zhiyou Fan

Research on Visual Perception and Modern Inheritance and Innovation of Models of Traditional Sleeping Beds in Eastern Fujian

Based on the theory of eye movement experiment and subjective evaluation psychology, this paper studies the visual perception of traditional sleeping bed models in eastern Fujian and proposes a visual aesthetic method of traditional folk furniture modelling based on eye movement tracking technology. Based on the subjective intention evaluation, the representative samples are selected, and then the typical samples with the highest and lowest preference are extracted with eye movement hot spot map, and the interest is taken as the basis Based on the area and eye movement tracking data, according to the principle of “point, line, face and body” modelling elements, the typical samples are divided into AOI, the eye movement variable data of visual attention and visual search are extracted for further analysis, and the integrity characteristics of visual aesthetics and the intensity laws of modelling elements are obtained, and finally, the index system of typical samples is constructed.

Hanzhou Qiu, Yun Liu

Research on User Interface Perception Usability Evaluation of B2C Retailers in Large Appliances

The Internet industry is developing rapidly, and competition among various home appliance websites is fierce, improve the user's shopping experience in the website is the first urgent issue. Website interface as the main medium of user data exchange of information, to a large extent, affects the user experience and purchase intention. In this study, representative websites A and B were selected, and six groups of website interfaces that were representative in terms of design location were selected at the same time. In addition, using eye movement experiment to evaluate the usability of home appliance website interface perception, subjective perceived usability and objective eye movement indicators were measured and compared and analyzed. The experimental results show that site A and site B have significant differences in eye movement indicators, site A has a reasonable design in terms of commodity classification and login mode, while site B has a better design in terms of login, registration, customer service contact, delivery address, and after-sales content display than site A. Overall, site B has a relatively reasonable layout of functional areas.

Xiaofang Yuan, Meng Zhang, Linhui Sun, Qin Tian

Research on the Man-Environment Relationship

Frontmatter

Analysis of Human Heat Stress Response in High Temperature Environment

The work efficiency of operators can be reduced at high temperature, which would affect their health. In order to reduce the heat stress reaction of human body, this paper analyzed the influence factors of operation in high temperature environment, collected the heat stress analysis model, carried out test tests for three kinds of protective clothing, and compared the test results with the prediction results of the mathematical model. The test results show that the mathematical model can accurately predict the change trend of human core temperature within a certain range, which provides a preliminary basis for the accuracy of the prediction method to alleviate thermal injury.

Yuhong Shen, Chenming Li

Study on Attention Characteristics of Small-Arms Shooting at Moving and Looming Targets

In the process of small-arms shooting at the looming target and moving target, one of the main objects in the target area, that is, the shooting target, is the center of “attention,” while the other objects are at “the edge of attention.” In order to study the effect of attention characteristics on the shooting of moving and looming targets with small-arms, the attention of 55 shooters was tested in a certain army department under different conditions. From the angle of factors affecting attention and tests of attention, Through the analysis of the main influencing factors such as age, length of military service and duration of continuous shooting training, the influence of various factors on attention is discussed in this paper by using graphics, hoping to provide some basis and foundation for small-arms shooting training.

Xiang Gao, Haoyuan Li, Zhengbu Liu, Xin Wang, Yang Li

The Survey of Hand Grinding Operation Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders

Objective—To study the occupational ergonomics of hand grinding operation, analyze the adverse ergonomic factors in handheld pneumatic angle grinder grinding operation, study the occurrence law and preventive measures of musculoskeletal diseases, so as to improve the working environment and ensure the occupational health of workers. Methods—To investigate the WMSDs of hand grinding workers by questionnaire and analyze the data with SPSS 25.0 software. Results—The musculoskeletal diseases of the waist are more serious. There are also musculoskeletal diseases of the shoulder, neck and wrist to some extent. The elbow, hip, knee and ankle are in good condition. Conclusions—Posture load is the main risk factor of this kind of diseases.

Zidai Xia, Yanqiu Sun, Jianwu Chen, Pei Wang, Jie Xie

Study on Pilots’ Color Requirements for See-Through Displays in Desert Flight

Objective—To study the color requirements of displayed information in see-through displays when pilots flying in the desert. Methods—The experimental materials included some route and combat flight menus. There were eight fixed colors and custom colors provided to be chosen. The experimental procedure was programmed. One hundred and fifteen fighter pilots participated in the study. They were required to choose the most suitable colors for the display elements in the menus. Results—(1) For the two types of menus, the numbers of pilots that chose colors for the same information elements were generally consistent. The number of pilots choosing green was superior in most long-time displayed information elements including normal information. (2) For the information of flight element category and flight instruction category, the numbers of pilots choosing green and choosing blue were generally equal. For the dangerous information, unattackable information and overrun information with unlong-time displayed information, the number of pilots choosing red was superior. And for the information that was latent dangerous, the number of pilots choosing yellow was superior. Conclusions—When flying in the desert, pilots have evident requirements of colorful displayed information for see-through displays. Their requirements were as follows: The main color was green. The long-time displayed and normal and attackable information was tended to be displayed in green. The dangerous, unattackable and overrun information was tended to be displayed in red. And the latent dangerous information was tended to be displayed in yellow.

Duanqin Xiong, Tao Jiang, Liu Yang, Yanyan Wang, Xiaochao Guo, Jian Du, Yu Bai, Fang Su, Wen Dong, Rong Lin, Juan Liu

Analysis of the Diffusion of Cough Particles in Non-full Load Cabin

For a certain aircraft economy class that has completed the preliminary layout, the diffusion process of particles generated by a passenger coughing under non-full load cabin is analyzed. First, the boundary conditions of particles were defined, including the particle size, number, and sedimentation rate. Secondly, the sparse two-phase flow is used to describe the diffusion process of particles, and the Euler-Lagrangian-Euler mixed model is used to simulate the steady-unsteady-steady diffusion process. Finally, the analysis of the calculation results shows that reducing the longitudinal flow of airflow in the cabin can control the diffusion range of particles and reduce the infection risk for other passengers.

Xianlin Shi, Xuhan Zhang

Study on the Diffusion of Gaseous Pollutants from Passenger Cough in Aircraft Cabin

At the preliminary design stage, the cabin layout of a certain aircraft requires the comfort assessment. The impact of “invisible” gaseous pollutants on passenger comfort during long flights cannot be ignored. Appropriate cabin layout helps control the spread of gaseous pollutants. First, for a certain aircraft, the structural digital model containing design details is cleaned, and the mesh is divided by a mixed grid. Second, the emission rate of CO2, O3, and VOCs is defined, and the position and speed of inlet and exhaust air are set. The Euler method calculates the flow field change caused by a cough of a passenger in the middle of the cabin and analyzes the diffusion range and concentration change trend of CO2 generated by the cough. Finally, the cabin layout is evaluated to control the diffusion range of gaseous pollution.

Xianlin Shi, Xuhan Zhang

The Empirical Research of the Emotional Experience Ambulatory Assessment of Built Environment by Wearable Interactive Technologies

The study aims to explore the method of ambulatory assessment of urban built environment by an empirical study, find out the interactive coupling relationship between the built environment and human’s emotional experience, establish the link between physiological indexes and the emotion experience, and thereby lay an empirical foundation for this method to be applied in the field of urban study and design. The virtual scene was constructed with a university campus environment video, and college students were randomly selected as subjects. Wearable biosensors were used to record the subjects’ physiological indicators in real time, and the emotional variations were detected by the combination of mental maps and interviews, and consequently evaluate the campus environment. The experiment verifies that the SC value is the window reflecting emotion arousal, and the variation trend of the SCL and the sum of the LF/HF value reflect the individual and overall emotion experience in stages. This method could create a new layer of information for designers, enrich citizens’ participation in urban space design, and help to create a high-quality urban environment that meets people’s psychological and physiological needs.

Liang Zhang, Xiangning Li, Lingxuan Cheng, Yuan Kang, Yu Zhang, Qi Guo

Study on the Effect of 12-h Flight Simulated on Visual Function

Objective To explore the effects of 12-h flight on the visual system and lay a theoretical foundation for developing visual fatigue protection measures. Methods The visual function of six healthy subjects tested with Optec-6500 (Stereo Corp, USA) for 12-h flight. Different spatial frequencies (1, 3, 6, 12, 18 cpd) and distant vision and near vision were compared with preflight and postflight. Results Compared with preflight, the contrast sensitivity CS value (frequency 3) was significantly lower than postflight. The contrast sensitivity CS value (frequency 1.5, 6, 12, 18) has a downward trend during flight. Conclusion 12 h of flight and sleep deprivation may affect visual contrast and central visual function quality. It is vital to formulate systematic, scientific and rapid visual fatigue protection measures to reduce long-term flight and sleep deprivation to reduce the visual information load of flight personnel.

Dawei Tian, Feng Wu, Haibo Sheng, Yange Zhang, Qin Yao, Bin Ma, Bin Li, Fengfeng Mo, Lue Deng

Research on the Machine-Environment Relationship

Frontmatter

Evaluation and Analysis of Intelligent Early Warning System in Crowded Places

In order to deal with accidents in crowded places, research on technical methods for accident prevention and control and intelligent early warning systems in crowded places have been widely used. Based on the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, an intelligent monitoring and early warning evaluation index system for crowded places are constructed. Combined with the analysis and study of the situation of specific personnel-intensive places, the use of intelligent early warning systems is verified through quantitative data analysis, providing a scientific reference for the further improvement of the system.

Qiquan Wang, Meiming Liu, Haibo Xu, Yanhua Meng, Ping Chen, Yu Zhu, Xi Sun

Application of RULA to Research the Ergonomics Risk of Hand-Held Grinding Operation

Objective—To study the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) of four working positions of hand-held grinding in the mechanical manufacturing industry. Methods—Application of rapid upper limb assessment (RULA), the bad postures of arm and wrist, neck, trunk and leg are scored, respectively; the total score is obtained by combining with the corresponding muscle use score and force/load score, then assess the risk grade according to the total score. Results—The bad posture of upper arm, wrist, neck and trunk is more obvious; the lower arm is followed; the bad posture of legs is not obvious; muscle use and force/load are not obvious. Conclusion—The results show that there are middle and high grades WMSDs ergonomic risks in the working process of four kinds of hand-held grinding postures, which need further study and take corresponding ergonomic improvement measures.

Yanqiu Sun, Zhenlong Lu, Jianwu Chen, Bin Yang, Weijiang Liu, Zidai Xia

Analysis of the Fighter Pilots Acceleration Tolerance Selection Method and Results

Objective To discuss and analyze the +Gz tolerance selection results of high-performance aircraft pilots. Methods One thousand and seven hundred forty-three aircraft pilots +Gz tolerance data were collected and analyzed by cross-sectional study. The +Gz tolerance examination method, qualification rate and the correlation of that between age and flying hour were analyzed. Results Straining was not banned strictly, furthermore, the pilot was permitted to adopt the breathing method of HP maneuver during +Gz tolerance examination. Of the 1743 pilots, 1569 completed the selection run, and the qualification rate was 90%. The qualification rate was significantly related to the age (r = 0.891, P = 0.000) and flying hours (r = 0.9281, P = 0.004). When reaching the end point of G tolerance, 39.3% pilots got a change of vision and the incidence of A-LOC and G-LOC was 1.7% and 2.6%, respectively. Conclusions The high-performance aircraft pilots +Gz tolerance selection qualification rate was greater than formerly reported. Less +Gz exposure runs, standardized breathing maneuver and muscular straining may contribute to the high qualification rate.

Rong Lin, Baohui Li, Yan Xu, Lihui Zhang, Hong Wang, Xiaoyang Wei, Yifeng Li, Jinghui Yang, Xichen Geng, Liu Yang, Juan Liu, Duanqin Xiong, Zhao Jin

Study on the Impact and Countermeasure of Plateau Alpine Region on Shooting of a Type of Light Weapons

The plateau alpine region is vast, and the climate is changeable. The unique geographical environment will have a greater impact on the shooting effect of light weapons. We made statistics on the shooting results of light weapons of a unit in the plains and in the plateau alpine region and analyzed the decline percentage at all levels. Aiming at the characteristics of the environment in the plateau alpine region, the impact of the environment on weapon effectiveness and the physical and mental function of the shooter during the light weapon shooting training in the region was found, and countermeasures and suggestions for reducing the impact and improving the shooting results were proposed.

He Wu, Xiang Gao, Zhengbu Liu, Yanyan Ding, Haoyuan Li, Xin Wang

Research on the Overall Performance of Man-Machine-Environment System

Frontmatter

Study on the Organic Integration of High Intensity Interval Training Regime and Physical Fitness Training of Special Operation Forces

Innovative training ideas become a consensus with the advance of military thoughts about the defense in the new era. Purpose of innovation in military training is to improve the overall efficiency and better match the military training practice. The paper is attempting to discuss the proper integration of the high intensity interval training regime for the army. Appropriate integration and flexible use of interval training with high intensity can effectively improve special operation forces physical fitness training efficiency. The conclusion after deep studying about the organic integration of high intensity interval training regime is below. First, high intensity interval training regime should better match military subjects. Thus, the exercising content of high intensity interval training regime must be arranged properly. Second, the recovery period should be arranged appropriately during the training process. And the third, the intensity should be optimized to avoid overtraining and injury.

Chunlai Wang

Study on Training of 400-m Armed Island-Landing Obstacles

The aim of study on training of 400-meter (400 m) armed island-landing obstacles is to improve the training effect. The obstacle course is set specially for the training. Each obstacle has its own unique purpose and function. In order to achieve good effects, the trainees will first get themselves familiar with each obstacle one by one, and then after the trainees have command the skills to pass each obstacle, they will pass several obstacle at one time. At last, the whole-process training will be conducted. In order to test the training result, experiments are carried out, through which one systematic training method is obtained and examined. Based on the daily training and experiments, gradual principle and step method are proved efficient, and basic qualities are also found important to the training result.

Min Chen, Huifang Wang, Zhengbu Liu, Xiang Gao, Xin Wang, Ming Kong

Application of Virtual Reality Technology in Man–Machine Interactive Equipment Virtual Maintenance System

Purpose—the purpose of the study is to enhance fidelity and immersion of man–machine interaction in equipment virtual maintenance system and further improve the training effect and efficiency. Method—some virtual reality technologies such as the 3D modeling and scene simulating are adopted to conduct modeling and simulating toward the equipment compositions, structure, principles and maintenance process. Result—the constructed virtual maintenance system of a certain type of equipment is characteristic of higher fidelity of man–machine interface, better man–machine interaction and stronger immersion of operators. Conclusion—the system enriches and perfects the training methods and means of the complex equipment maintenance in grassroots level, and accumulates experience for the construction of equipment support resources, effectively promotes the rapid generation of maintenance support capability in grassroots units.

Mingjie Wan, Xiaolong Chang, Yuhui Li, Zaochen Liu, Shiyou Ma

Research on Technical Method of Cognitive Behavior Training During the Maritime Flight and Its Effect Evaluation

Objective: To construct a technical method of cognitive behavior training for the maritime flight, verified the application effect. Methods: (1): The present study investigated the psychological problems and demands of logistics support of the pilots in maritime flight training. (2) The multimedia technology was adopted to complete the maritime flight cognitive behavior training technology. (3) The maritime flight cognitive behavior effect questionnaire was adopted to conduct an effect analysis. Results: (1) The common psychological problems, psychological stress sources, and psychological safeguard demands of maritime flight were analyzed. (2) The filmed teaching film had a total of 10 episodes, which systematically illustrated the physiological and psychological influence, illusion prevention, nutrition guarantee, sleep management, and other knowledge of maritime flight. (3) The effect evaluation questionnaire showed that pilots were able to quickly understand and comprehend the knowledge points of the maritime flight. Conclusion: Maritime flight cognitive training can enable pilots to understand and evaluate maritime flight tasks accurately.

Yan Zhang, Yishuang Zhang, Yang Liao, Fei Peng, Liu Yang

Industrial Robot Training Platform Based on Virtual Reality and Mixed Reality Technology

With the steady implementation of the national strategy of “Made in China 2025”, industrial robot education has achieved phased development. Many universities have opened majors in robot engineering. The problem that accompanies it is that there are many industrial robot brands in the industry. There are many model differences in the integration industry, and the investment in purchasing a stable industrial robot is enormous. At the same time, improper operations during industrial training may cause serious accidents. We have designed a set of industrial robot training platforms based on VR technology and MR technology. And it solved the problem of the shortage of teaching resources caused by the high purchase cost of industrial robot training equipment and potential safety hazards.

Zhe Chen, Zhuohang Cao, Peili Ma, Lijun Xu

An Oversea Flight Preadaptive Training System-Based 4D Scene

This paper introduces the development of a oversea flight preadaptive training system-based 4D scene, which includes server, psychological data analysis and processing unit, oversea flight simulation scene play and control unit, seat control unit, special effect output unit, psychological stress test equipment, special effect seat and special effect equipment. The system can be used for the pilot to complete targeted psychological training in the four-dimensional space composed of three-dimensional video and environment, improve the psychological adaptability and tolerance to carry out combat tasks in the dangerous environment at sea and be familiar with the common operational modes of oversea flight, so as to eliminate the tension and fear.

Liu Yang, Yan Zhang, Yishuang Zhang, Duanqin Xiong, Yang Liao, Juan Liu, Xueqian Deng, Hua Guo

Analysis on Countermeasure of Troops Delicacy Management in the Process of the Newly-Typed Army Construction

Delicacy management has importantly realistic significance on advancing construction level of troops regularization, improving innovative development of troops management and education and promoting construction and development of the newly-typed army under the higher starting point. The essay analyzes the existing problems of delicacy management in army troops based on practical newly-typed army construction, discusses the necessity to improve troops delicacy management in constructing the newly-typed army combined with the related questions, puts forward the countermeasures; that is, firstly, taking the transformation of ideas as guide, delicacy is advanced in establishing ideas of scientific management; secondly, taking the establishment of standard system as lead, delicacy is advanced in improving work guidance level; thirdly, taking the construction of information system as support, delicacy is advanced in realizing troops management informationization.

Zaochen Liu, Peng Gong, Xiaoping Wang, Yujin Wang, Dongdong Cui

A Method for Evaluating the Level of Shooting that Attenuates the Effect of Small Arms on Accuracy

This paper is based on the related theory of probability theory and mathematical statistics through the study of small arms shooting accuracy, fire intensity test, and characterization methods and establishes the relation model among shooting performance, small arms accuracy, and shooting level. The shooting performance data were incorporated into the calculation process of shooting accuracy and shooting intensity of small arms, and then the shooting intensity of small arms was used to evaluate the stability level of the shooter in vertical and horizontal directions. The shooting accuracy of small arms is used to modify the shooting performance data so as to form a shooting level evaluation method that can reduce the influence of the accuracy of small arms from the shooting performance data.

Xin Wang, Haoyuan Li, Xiang Gao, Min Chen, Ming Kong, He Wu

On the Re-understanding and Prospect of Warfighting Experiment

With the rapid development of scientific technology, the developed countries in the world begin focusing their military training reform on warfighting experiment to create realistic battlefield environment and carrying out actual combat by computer simulation technology. This plays a very important role in increasing training beneficial result and forming quick combat capability. Warfighting experiment is a scientific testing method. In the process of research, it adopts various natural science technology, for example, information gathering and processing, computer simulation, communication network and so on. At the same time, the research questions will be examined qualitatively and quantitatively to get clear result by the imitation of natural science methods. With the development of information technology, intelligent, network and virtual reality, these new technical means will be put into warfighting experiment continuously.

Boqi Wang, Jiang Luo, Wei Yu, Hongjun Cheng

Research on the Method of Aviation Maintenance Work Based on Hall’s Three-Dimensional Structure

Based on the Hall’s three-dimensional structure systems engineering thinking and lifecycle theory, this research constructs an aviation maintenance work model including the time dimension, logic dimension and knowledge dimension. Analysis and integration of the aviation maintenance work has been made to improve performance of the aviation maintenance work. The feasibility of the method has been verified by the case of aircraft fault diagnosis and troubleshooting process to prove its guiding significance to the practice of aviation maintenance work.

Bing Zhao, Haiming Li

The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Military Operations

In the twenty-first century, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gone through big development, and more and more UAVs are used in operations. UAVs have a lot of advantages compared with manned aircraft. UAVs could not only release pilots from dangerous battlefield but also perform various tasks with good efficiency. UAVs can be used in reconnaissance and surveillance tasks and strike targets directly as well as carrying out other missions. However, UAVs still have some limitations, which should be overcome in the future. Especially, the command and control system of UAV is vulnerable. The future UAVs will be stealthy, more intelligent and autonomous. The self-defense capability of UAVs is also undergoing big improvement.

Huifang Wang, Hongjun Cheng, Heyuan Hao

The Construction Method and Research of Military Online Courses

Rich and excellent online courses are the important learning carrier for the learners. Contents design methods are produced in the article for the topic—online course construction in the military vocational education involving contents of the courses should circle around the post need, distillation of the language points should apply with the online learning system, teaching contents should match the show form in the learning carrier. And the teaching methods and skills are shared in the article from teaching ways, teaching language speed, to the content explanation and so on. Suggestions are made how to name the courses, apply the teaching resources and design the examinations. Good ideas are offered in the article for the construction of online courses.

Hai Chang, Shuai Mu, Rui jie Wang

Effectiveness Evaluation of VTS Measures on Pilot Candidates Selection

This study aims to evaluate effectiveness of several psychological measures from Vienna Test System. Method A total of 110 male pilot candidates complete Chinese pilot selection psychological test battery and five measures from Vienna Test System. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures. Results: Spearman correlation analysis results reveal that total score of Chinese selection systems significantly correlate to seven indexes drived from five VTS subtest respectively (r = 0.250–0.508, P < 0.05) expect correct numbers of Pilot’s Spatial Test. Conclusion: In this study, we test the effectiveness of five measures from VTS in Chinese pilot candidate selection. These five measures are all consistent with our system and be conducive to improvement of selection system.

Yu Bai, Qingfeng Liu, Huifeng Ren, Xiaochao Guo, Duanqin Xiong, Yan Zhang, Guowei Shi, Yanyan Wang

Research on Internet of Things in Space Flight Training Simulation

Objective: The purpose of studying Internet of Things (IoT) is to construct the interface network of the space flight training simulator of the space station. Methods: Guided by the problem of the interface system of the space station simulator, based on the IoT technology, the space station simulator interface network, which combines the upper Zigbee network and the secondary CAN bus network, is proposed. Results: The experiment shows that the interface network solves the problems caused by the complex structure, configuration change, and self-service training of the space station simulator. Conclusion: Due to its comprehensive perception, reliable transmission, and intelligent processing, the network is not only suitable for the space station simulator, but also can be applied to other large equipment simulation field.

Shang Huan, Suqin Wang, Shaoli Xie

Study on Optimization Design for Man–Machine Combination of a Self-propelled Anti-aircraft Gun Vehicle (SODMMCSPAGV)

Under the conditions of a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun vehicle operation, some unfavourable factors and the unreasonable operational interface designs effect the operational efficiency of gunner as well as the weapon performance. Thorough analysis of the self-propelled anti-aircraft gun man–machine combination shows us the importance and significance of optimizing the current designs interface. The researchers adopt the method of field test to study the temperature, humidity, noise and interface to influence operations of gunner. With this development, a man–machine combination optimization design proposal for self-propelled anti-aircraft gun vehicle is brought into use. The contribution can have important guiding significance for design and development of a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun vehicle. Furthermore, it also has important military significance to improve the level of gunner training and effectiveness.

Jiwen Sun, Heyuan Hao, Jinxin Li, Junlong Guo, Tao Li, JianFeng Li, Ke Zhang, Pengdong Zhang

Research on the Designing of Guiding System of Tiexi Workers’ Village in Shenyang Under Industrial Culture

Based on the element evaluation of the existing guidance system of the scenic spot, this paper separates and orthogonally reconstructs the main components and types of the guidance system through the application of the conjoint analysis according to the survey of the cultural background of Tiexi workers’ village in Shenyang, and the preferences of testers are quantified and rated. Finally, the design of the guidance system of Tiexi workers’ village is obtained, which ensures the basic function of navigation and enhances the sense of substitution by passing on the regional culture to promote the development of the tourism industry.

Zize Guo, Yang Liu, Guojing Wu, Zhaoding Kun, Liyi Han

Assessment on the Availability of Domestic MMORPG Games Official Web Site Based on Eye Movement

The main function of MMORPG Web site is to introduce game information, provide download channels and serve players. For the study of the current domestic MMORPG game official Web site usability and improve Web site appeal to players, this article selects three more representative domestic MMORPG game’s official Web site, using the eye movement experiment, research subjects in the game’s official Web site “announcement,” “download game,” “get the gift bag” section for the first time into the AOI interest zone time, the number of fixation and total fixation time, combined with hot figure the comprehensive analysis of the game’s official Web site usability. Results show that the page layout differences on subjects of interest area have significant effect, part of the division with different colors was more likely to lead to subjects of interest, compared with text, pictures has more attractive to the user, so simplifying Web design, use color piece partitioning key, the amount of text information and nice pictures to attract users, improve domestic MMORPG game Web site usability.

Xiaofang Yuan, Yuan Yuan, Linhui Sun, Lvyuan Sun

Reliability Modeling and Analysis of Teleoperation System with Path-Dependence Effect Considered

In the teleoperation task of robotic arm system, path-dependent effects have significant impact on human–computer interaction failures. By analyzing the task process, this paper identifies the key factors affecting the success of the robotic arm teleoperation task and constructs a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) model. On this basis, the path dependence which can promote or inhibit the human error is analyzed to revise the model. The revised model can clearly describe the path-dependent effect of human–computer interaction failures and also help to calculate the reliability of the complex system accurately.

Shanshan Zhang, Xiaopeng Li, Wei Zhang, Wenming Zhou, Sha Qin, Lu Chen, Yi Xiao

Framework of Performance Shaping Factors for Human Reliability Analysis of Digitized Nuclear Power Plants

The state-oriented procedures (SOP) have been applied to the digitized nuclear power plants (NPPs) in China, which makes the operation of operators efficient. But at the same time, new human reliability issues arise. In this paper, literature review-based and expert-based methods are applied to construct a hierarchical framework of performance shaping factors (PSFs). Firstly, operators’ task types and error modes were analyzed with systematic human error reduction and prediction approach (SHERPA). Then, the PSFs of different task types were concluded with the Delphi method. The expected result is the conceptualizing PSFs framework that contains the task types, error modes, and PSFs. The future study is to identify the cause-and-effect relationships of the PSFs to inform the HRA quantitative analysis.

Li Zhang, Jianqiao Liu, Yanhua Zou

Preliminary Establishment of Emotion-Inducing Library of Chinese Folk Music and Embodying Effect in Emotion Inducing

Emotion induction and the study of the relationship between human behavior and emotion are the foundation of affective computing. In order to establish a library of emotion-inducing materials suitable for Chinese people and explore the expression characteristics of Chinese subjects’ emotions, first 30 segments of Chinese folk music were selected as the inducing materials, and then two groups of emotion-induced controlled experiments were designed. Four subjects participated in the experiment. In both experiments, Chinese folk music was used to induce emotion, and subjects were asked to score in PAD scale. In the first group, the subjects sat comfortably in the seats, while in the second group, they could express their bodies freely according to their understanding of musical emotions. The results show that 30 segments of Chinese folk music can effectively induce the positive, neutral and negative emotions, and there is consistency between human body behavior and individual emotion expression.

Bo Wang, Hong Yuan, Huijiong Yan, Changhua Jiang, Shaowen Ding

Design and Research on Guide Blind Device Based on User Experience

Facing the problem that the existing guide blind devices cannot fully meet the needs of visually impaired users, taking the guide blind device as study object, basing on user experience theory, studies the needs of visually impaired users and the future design direction of guide blind devices. Conduct user interviews and external observation experiments for visually impaired users, build user emotional experience maps, understand the road factors that affect visually impaired travel and the true needs of visually impaired users for guide blind devices. Transform user needs into practical and feasible function implementation directions, and explore suitable functions and interaction methods of guiding blind devices. The research results show that the future guide equipment should meet the needs of users at multiple levels and achieve simple operation, lightweight volume, and interactive humanization.

Jianyi Zhang, Xinyu Shi, Xinqin Jin, Fengfeng Li, Xin Chen

Theory and Application Research

Frontmatter

Analysis of Differences Between ISO and China Ergonomics Standards

Objective—In order to study the current status of ergonomics standards in ISO and china, analyze the differences between them in constraint content and publication year. Methods—It used quantitative analysis method of statistics to analyze the differences in the paper. Results—The number of China standards is equal to ISO in general ergonomics principles and anthropometry and biomechanics, but the number of China standards is about half of ISO in ergonomics of human–system interaction and ergonomics of the physical environment. Conclusion—The update speed of ergonomics standards is relatively slow in China, because of the difficulty in establishing national standards and the complicated procedures. The change way is to apply for group standards by society, which can respond to the market demand in time and promote the combination of production, learning and research.

Zhenlong Lu, Yanqiu Sun

Analysis on Core Capabilities and Key Technologies of Future Air Defense Anti-missile Operations

The future warfare is a kind of war based on the information technology, which is full-depth, three-dimensional, and conducts air strike and anti-air strike in multidimensional space. This paper discusses the development trend of modern air strike operations on four aspects: informatization, stealth, precision and integration, and puts forward three core capabilities for winning future air defense anti-missile operations, such as improving all-dimensional resisting capability with both offensive and defensive measures, improving anti-jamming capability with the combination of soft-kill and hard-kill, and enhancing anti-saturation attack capability in long-range and short-range. This paper analyzes the future development direction of air defense anti-missile weapon system such as low-altitude and short-range, integration and special-purpose, generality and modularization, as well as joint operations, and emphasizes four key technologies which should be mastered, including data acquisition, data fusion, precision guidance and system simulation.

Jinxin Li, Zhenguo Mei, Qian Shen, Tao Li

Research on the System Architecture of Scientific Data Management

The architecture construction of scientific data management system has become one of the important contents all over the world. The management system is to realize the collection, circulation, storage, release, and innovation of scientific data in the life cycle. At present, there are three modes for the construction of major scientific data management systems: independent development system, professional data management system, and construction system through open data source (Zhengguo and Xiang in J Libr Intell Work 57(3):39–42, 2013 [1]). This paper takes scientific data and its management as the entry point, analyzes the current situation on the basis of theoretical research, summarizes its characteristics and shortcomings, develops the scientific data service mode, and improves the service content, so as to improve the construction of the domestic scientific data system architecture.

Rui Man, Guomin Zhou, Jingchao Fan

Military Applications of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is one of the core technological innovations of future that can play an important role in making important changes in the world, in the transformation and development of modern society. AI technology has entered a new period of rapid development. At present, it is recognized as the most likely to change the future world of disruptive technology. Many countries in the world have raised the level of developing AI in the national strategy, not only from the policy guidance and strategic planning but also from funding and budget level to give strong support. To lay a foundation of the future military application of AI, we have to thoroughly analyzed the application of AI in this field and found the key points of the development of it.

Liang Du, Guangdong Li, Hai Chang, Heyuan Hao

Multi-dimensional Safety of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles for Future Traffic Scenarios

The multi-dimensional safety of intelligent and connected vehicles (ICV) refers to the comprehensive safety characteristics integrating the requirements of the safety of functions, the safety of human–computer interaction, the security of information and communication, and space–time safety. It is the essential condition to implement the application of ICV. This paper discusses and analyzes the safety of ICV for future traffic scenarios. Firstly, as the basic guarantee for the safe operation of vehicles, the perception and decision-making and control functions of ICV are still unable to help to obtain high-quality perception data, high-speed reliable decision-making and accurate execution and control, and a series of problems. Moreover, the diversity of human–computer interaction brings greater challenges to the safety protection of occupant and vulnerable road users. In addition, information and communication security become more important in future intelligent cooperative transportation system. Furthermore, the diversification of spatiotemporal scenarios brings complex and changeable risks and challenges. By summarizing the multi-dimensional risk and safety problems that ICV may face in advance, the research results of this paper provide insightful references for the new concept design of ICV and future traffic safety management.

Quan Yuan, Junwei Zhao
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