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2023 | Book

Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on MMESE

Editors: Prof. Shengzhao Long, Prof. Balbir S. Dhillon

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering

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About this book

Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering: Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on MMESE are an academic showcase of the best papers selected from more than 500 submissions, introducing readers to the top research topics and the latest developmental trends in the theory and application of MMESE. This proceedings are interdisciplinary studies on the concepts and methods of physiology, psychology, system engineering, computer science, environment science, management, education, and other related disciplines. Researchers and professionals who study an interdisciplinary subject crossing above disciplines or researchers on MMESE subject will be mainly benefited from this proceedings
MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between Man, Machine and Environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “Man” refers to working people as the subject in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “Machine” is the general name for any object controlled by Man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “Environment” describes the specific working conditions under which Man and Machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization of the man-machine-environment systems are to ensure safety, efficiency and economy.
The integrated and advanced science research topic Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering (MMESE) was first established in China by Professor Shengzhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, Xuesen Qian. In a letter to Shengzhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, Xuesen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science and technology in China!”

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Research on the Man Character

Frontmatter
Research on Cognitive Theory Model of Man-Machine Combination Pilot Based on Information Processing

The cockpit design of information integration have changed the role of pilot. The role of Pilot in flight changes from the operator to the monitor of flight data, which put forward higher requirements for the pilot’s information processing ability. Pilots will receive a lot of information and they must make decisions in a short time. Due to the need to process a large amount of information under the time pressure, the cognitive load of pilots is increasing and the work performance is decreasing, which would affect flight safety. Thus, this paper have analyzed the characteristics of information acquisition and processing from the perspective of pilot and cockpit. And then, the information processing framework based on pilot cognitive characteristics has been established. Finally the pilot cognitive theoretical model and Man-machine combination precision cognitive system model was proposed. The model considered both human and aircraft information interaction, quantified the cognitive load of pilots from the perspective of information processing ability.

Siyu Chen, Hongjun Xue, Xiaoyan Zhang, Jue Qu, Sina Dang
Study on Subspace Alignment EEG Classification for Cross Session Visual Tasks

Mental workload (MW) is closely related to work efficiency. It is of great significance to obtain MW from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Due to the characteristics of random nonstationarity, EEG signals in different time sessions are quite different. This results in the poor generalization ability and low accuracy of the model when task generated EEG signals are used to identify MW. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes a MW classification method based on EEG cross-session subspace alignment. The labeled EEG signals with known MW and the unlabeled EEG signals to be identified are obtained. By learning a linear mapping, the source subspace base vector is aligned with the target subspace base vector, which solves the problem of different marginal distribution of EEG signals in the same space in different sessions. Through experiments, compared with the existing methods, this method can obtain better classification results.

Hongquan Qu, Mengyu Zhang, Liping Pang
Mental Workload Classification Method Based on Transfer Component Analysis with Cross-Session EEG Data

Due to the non-stationary randomness of the EEG signals, which results in a trained classifier with very low generalization ability. In order to improve the cross-session classification accuracy of Mental Workload (MW), a domain adaptive classification method is studied based on Transfer Component Analysis (TCA) using EEG Independent Components (ICs) in this paper. First step is to transform the EEG data in source and target domains in a same way. The TCA algorithm is used to build the transformation ϕ in order to minimize their Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MMD) distance between the source domain and the target domain. Second step is to train a MW classifier using the SVM and the transformed EEG data in the source domain. The target domain data are used for test. The presented method is compared with Subspace Alignment (SA). EEG data in the source and target domains are measured 24 h apart. A-distance is calculated to reveal the distribution difference between the transformed source and the target domains. The results show that the classification accuracy of the proposed method can be improved by 15.11% compared with SA. The A-distance of TCA is significantly lower than that of SA.

Hongquan Qu, Hanwen Dong, Liping Pang
Development of Competency Model for Test Pilots Selection and Training

Objective: To explore the competency model of test pilots, and to provide theoretical basis for psychological selection and post matching. Methods: On the basis of reviewing more than 200 relevant research papers, technical reports and reviews, 2130 evaluation indexes describing pilots’ psychological attributes were collected. According to the job requirement of test pilots, 108 items were selected by three aviation psychologists which were used to develop the questionnaire of test pilots’ psychological quality. All items were constructed as four dimensions including “knowledge”, “skill”, “ability” and “others”. Then 30 test pilot experts were asked to complete the questionnaire, the multigrade fuzzy set (MFS) evaluation technique was used to deternmine the competency model of test pilot. Results: ① A total of 24 indexes were included in the competency model of test pilots. ② Dedication and flight procedure were identified as the most important indexes of test pilots (MFS value > 0.704); Eight indexes were identified as important indexes for evaluating test pilots (0.704 > MFS value > 0.599) and 14 relatively important indexes (MFS < 0.599). ③ The Hierarchical competency model which conluded 4 dimensions and 3 levels was developed based on the importance and specificity of 24 indexes. Conclusion: This study provides theoretical basis and technical support for the establishment of competency evaluation model of test pilots which would be used in psychological selection and training of test pilots.

Yanyan Wang, Huifeng Ren, Xiaochao Guo, Yu Bai, Yu Duan, Zhengtao Cao, Duanqin Xiong, Qingfeng Liu
Experimental Research on Team Dynamic Function Allocation Strategy Optimization

This paper mainly focused on the dynamic function allocation strategy proposed by the team, and carries out relevant experimental research. The underwater vehicle consists of three workstations, including Operating Officer (OO), Vehicle Officer (VO) and Leader, was designed and built. Twelve healthy male college-age students were recruited to investigate the effects of two allocation strategies on their mental workload and task performance. Although the result showed that the improvement of Operating Officer’s task performance was less at human-machine allocation strategies than at human-human allocation strategies, the Vehicle Officer’s task performance decreased significantly at human-human allocation strategies. Hence, human-machine collaboration strategy is still the primary scheme at dynamic function allocation based on the convenience of intelligent systems. If the mental workload level and job performance level of Operating Officer are underperforming after the human-machine allocation strategy is completed, part of the Operating Officer’s fault task processing function is assigned to Vehicle Officer.

Chenyuan Yang, Liping Pang, Xin Wang, Ye Deng, Yuan Liu
Eye Movement Characteristics During Rifle Aiming

Objective. The purpose was to explore the eye movement characteristics during rifle aiming at different target holes and baselines. Methods. The eye movement characteristics were measured by the eye tracker. The proportion of saccades behavior and the range of eye movement were the analysis indicators. Statistical analysis with Pearson’s correlation coefficient was performed. Conclusion. The proportion of saccade behavior and the range of eye movement decreased with the increase of the diameter of the target hole. Decreased significantly by 60%–80% and 50%–80% respectively when the diameter of the target hole was 1 mm–3 mm. The proportion of saccades behavior and the eye movement range decreased with the increase of the aiming baseline lengths decreased significantly by 40%–65% and 40%–70% respectively when the aiming baseline lengths was 200 mm–300 mm. The eye movement range was more suitable as an indicator for evaluating aiming efficiency from the correlation analysis. Application. This study reveals the eye movement characteristics during riffle aiming, which provides approaches for rifle design and structural optimization. It also provides a basis for the evaluation of rifle aiming efficiency.

Jie Cao, Yaping Wang, Sheng Guo, Cancan Hu
Research on User’s Subjective Preference of Taohuawu New Year Painting Based on CycleGAN

Objective. Exploring a feasible method for studying users’ subjective preferences of image samples based on style transfer; exploring contemporary young people’s subjective preference for different styles in the historical development of Taohuawu New Year painting. Methods. A detailed review of the development and style evolution of Taohuawu New Year painting. CycleGAN (Cycle Generative Adversarial Networks) was used to transfer the two artistic styles of Changmen Kusu Prints and Taohuawu woodblock New Year paintings to the typical representative pictures of Taohuawu New Year pictures, and to conduct user preference experiments on the images of the two styles. Results. The images of Changmen Kusu Prints style had higher user preference. Conclusions. CycleGAN can be effectively applied to the study of users’ subjective preference for images; Changmen Kusu Prints is more favored by contemporary young people in terms of quality, style and subject matter, and it is necessary to focus on its inheritance and development.

Funan Dai, Zhengqing Jiang, Yiao Fang, Xin Guan
Personalized HRIR Based on PointNet Network Using Anthropometric Parameters

A novel deep neural network model was proposed to reconstruct the head-related impulse response (HRIR) by using three dimensional anthropometric parameters. Aiming at the point physiological parameters in the HRTF database of Chinese pilots’, this paper adopts a Point-Net network composed of three convolutional layers and two hidden layers. The convolutional layer is used to extract the features of physiological parameters, and the hidden layer is used to generate hrir. The spectral distortion (SD) is adopt to quantify the difference between the measured and the reconstructed HRTF. Consequently, the proposed method performs better than the deep-neural-network based model.

Dongdong Lu, Jun Zhang, Haiyang Gao, Chuang Liu
Effects of 15 days −6° Head-Down Bed Rest Simulated Weightlessness on the Judgment of Motion Direction

To explore the effect of long-term simulated weightlessness on the judgment of motion direction, the −6° head-down bed rest (HDBR) was used to simulate the effect of long-term weightlessness, and the judgment task of motion direction was performed on the four main directions: upward, downward, leftward, and rightward. Twenty-five males were tested on the 2nd, 8th, and 13th days of the −6° HDBR position, as well as pre-test and post-tests in the supine position. The results show that the upward direction judgment deviation was minimal over time, while the downward direction judgment deviation decreased substantially in the first test of HDBR compared to the pre-test, narrowing the judgment gap between the downward and upward direction. Long-term simulated weightlessness had a great influence on the judgment of downward direction in the initial stage, which showed better performance, and the performance tends to be stable along time increased.

Tianxin Cheng, Duming Wang, Yu Tian, Zhen Yuan, Lian Wang
Passenger Car’ Sitting Posture Prediction Research

Sitting posture as the input of the design of Automobile seat face, makes a huge effect on the overall seat comfort. The current software for sitting posture calculation is based on the SAE manikin and European driving habits for sitting, which is much different from the Chinese one. This paper firstly analyzes the key factors that affect the driving posture, and defines the input of the prediction model, and then predict the position of eye points and H point in different vehicles for different drivers, with the step-wise regression method. A inverse kinematic method is applied to solve the posture of torso, upper limbs and lower limbs to obtain the overall sitting posture. Finally, the accuracy of the model is verified by a comparison between the measured data and the predicted one.

Lipeng Qin, Peiwen Zuo, Hui Lv
Psychological Adjustment of High Intensity Physical Training

Mental preparation before high-intensity physical training can make individuals in high spirits, strengthen the correlation between ideology and biological reaction. It serves useful purposes in whole training process. This paper is based on the perspective of practice, attempt to explore the significance and application of the adjustment of the high-intensity physical training center from three aspects: the psychological preparation before the high-intensity physical training, the main methods of psychological adjustment in the high-intensity physical training and the application suggestions of psychological adjustment in the high-intensity physical training. This paper makes a preliminary discussion on the role of psychological factors in high-intensity physical training, it aims to provide psychological support and help for high-intensity physical training.

Yu Luo, Qiaoyang Zheng, Hu Wang, Xia Chen, Shu Jiang, Mingze Li, Hao Li, Mengxi Li
Research on Audience Cognition of Audio-Visual Interactive Art from the Perspective of Mental Model

Objective Media art with the intervention of computer development has greatly increased the audience’s participation, and has to become one of the factors that artists consider in the creative process. In this paper, semi-structured interviews are conducted with highly involved audiences in this field through metaphor extraction technology, and constructs are extracted to establish a cognitive map of the audience, in an attempt to explore the influencing factors of audience participation. The research finds that when the audience participates in the audio-visual interactive art with subjective initiative, they generally have interaction and connection with the works, in the whole process of audience acceptance, “emotional experience” has the highest influence on whether audience participates in the work. Moreover, it has a progressive influence from the instinctive, behavioral and reflective layers of audience experience.

Yijie Zhang, Zhengqing Jiang, Haiyun Zheng
Comparative Study on the Reachability Distance Measurement Method: Difference Between the Real Environment and Mixed Reality Simulation

The study aimed to analyze the feasibility of Mixed-Reality (MR) in measuring reachability distance and to compare it with the real environment method. The effect of participants’ gender was also taken into consideration. Thirty-six subjects were recruited in this study. Subjects were asked to provide the reachability distance they perceived when they faced the confederate in both real environment and MR environment. Two-way ANOVA was used to clarify the relationship between the independent variables (participants’ gender and measurement method) and the dependent variable (reachability distance). The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to indicate the reliability of these two measurement methods. The experiment results showed that the distance measured in the MR environment was consistent with that collected in the real environment, and the MR simulation method showed higher reliability. For the gender effect, the reachability distance of male subjects was larger than that of female subjects. In addition, there was no significant interaction effect between gender and measurement method. The findings of this study validated the reliability of the MR simulation method when collecting reachability distance and proposed that MR technology was a promising tool in conducting psychological experiments and studying human behaviors.

Wei Xiong, Zhi Liang, Xiaoqing Yu
The Effect of Face Mask and Approach Pattern on Interpersonal Distance in COVID-19 Pandemic Using VR Technology

In the COVID-19 pandemic, control measures including wearing masks, ensuring hand hygiene, and maintaining a physical distance of at least 1 m were recommended to prevent the spread of virus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of face mask, approach pattern and participants’ gender on interpersonal distance in the pandemic environment. Virtual reality (VR) technology was applied to build the experimental environment. This study recruited 31 participants including 17 males and 14 females, who were asked to interact with virtual confederates with and without a face mask. The interpersonal distance was recorded when participants actively walk towards the virtual confederate or approached passively by the confederate. Three-way ANOVA results showed that face mask and approach pattern had significant effects on interpersonal distance. The distance when facing the confederate with a face mask was significantly closer than without a face mask. Moreover, participants preferred a significantly larger distance in the passive pattern than in the active pattern. The participants’ gender showed no significant effect on interpersonal distance and no interaction effects were found. The findings in this study helped to further investigate the nature of interpersonal distance and contributed to a better understanding of the human behaviors in the pandemic environment.

Wei Xiong, Congyi Wang, Xiaoqing Yu
Investigation and Research on Occupational Mental Health Status of Grassroots Firefighters

In order to investigate and research the occupational mental health status of grassroots fire rescue personnel. This paper adopted the random sampling method. Descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test, non-parametric test and other methods were used to statistically analyze the data from the mental health scale for grassroots fire rescue personnel using SPSS 24.0 software. The results show that age, military age, political affiliation, educational level and marital status have a significant effect on the occupational mental health of grassroots firefighters, but each factor affects in different dimensions, Nationality, gender and the only child or not have no significant effect on firefighters’ occupational mental health.

Yanqiu Sun, Zhenfang Chen, Ao Zhang, Jingqi Gao, Jianwu Chen, Bin Yang, Yin Jiang, Jia Wang
Study on the Relationship Between Emotional Regulation Self-efficacy and Fatigue in the Sedentary Population

Objective: To study the relationship between mood and fatigue among sedentary people in college students, and to provide appropriate psychological and physical counseling and help. Methods: Through reliability and validity analysis of the self-efficacy scale (POS, NEG) and fatigue scale-14 (F-14) and by statistics. The correlation and regression analysis of POS (HAP, GLO) and NEG (ANG, DES, and COM) and the three factors of the fatigue scale (physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and fatigue) were conducted. Results: Both positive and negative emotions positively promoted fatigue, and negative effects between GLO in HAP and mental fatigue. Conclusions: Emotion can not effectively improve the problem of sedentary fatigue, in sedentary state, can slow down mental fatigue. University student Finch replacement should appropriately reduce sedentary time, reduce physical and psychological damage.

Xiangpeng Pan
Depth Perception and Distance Assessment Under Night Vision Goggles and Their Influence Factor

Objective: To review the research progress of depth perception and distance assessment under night vision goggles in foreign and domestic countries, and to understand the influence of night vision goggles on depth perception and distance assessment. Method: 35 references and reports in related fields at home and abroad were cited. Result: This paper studies the influence of night vision goggles on depth perception or distance assessment, and focuses on the internal factors of night vision goggles leading to depth perception problems, such as narrow field of vision, resolution, image noise, instrument myopia, spectral sensitivity effect and binocular vision, as well as some external factors, such as contrast, illumination observation condition and the interaction between various factors. Finally, depth perception training is briefly summarized. Conclusions: Due to the influence of the working environment of night vision goggles and the limitation of the special structure of night vision goggles, night vision goggles reduce ability of airmen to judge the depth perception and distance. The accuracy of judgment can be improved through the depth perception training under night vision goggles.

Shan Chen, Dawei Tian, Fei Yu, Qinglin Zhou, Jian Du, Qingsheng Xiang, Zengming Li
Understanding Driver Preferences for Secondary Tasks in Highly Autonomous Vehicles

Highly autonomous vehicles are expected to free human drivers from continuous driving tasks. Therefore, for highly autonomous vehicles, the secondary tasks that human drivers tend to involve in are significantly different from conventional vehicles. Understanding driver preferences for secondary tasks in highly autonomous vehicles is beneficial to improve the acceptance of the vehicles. This study adopted an online questionnaire to investigate and understand human drivers’ preferences for secondary tasks in highly autonomous vehicles in China. Moreover, drivers’ understanding of different secondary tasks was collected and analyzed. Further, we compared and examined the differences in the secondary subtask preferences of drivers with different individual characteristics (e.g., driving experience, motion sickness, and attitudes towards autonomous driving). This study contributes to providing the basis for the studies on driving safety analysis for highly autonomous vehicles.

Qingkun Li, Zhenyuan Wang, Wenjun Wang, Quan Yuan
Classification of Mental Load of Special Vehicle Crew Based on Convolutional Neural Network

Detecting the mental load state of special vehicle crew is of great significance to monitor the driving state of crew and improve the comprehensive combat effectiveness of crew. Based on the virtual simulation system of crew task of an special vehicle, 12 subjects were selected to carry out the brain load experiment of special vehicle commander for the new task of special vehicle commander. The experimental results show that adding sub tasks to typical combat tasks has higher scores on Subjective scales and lower accuracy of typical combat tasks than only completing typical combat tasks; Compared with the attack and report stage, the search stage has higher scores of Subjective scales and absolute power of theta band, alpha band and beta band. A feasible model of deep learning network based on EEG to detect the mental load of special vehicle passengers is established. The deep learning network model is based on THE RESNET convolutional neural network. The results show that the deep learning model can effectively extract the characteristics of EEG and realize the classification of crew mental load.

Fang Xie, Mingyang Guo, Xiaoping Jin, Sijuan Zheng, Zhongliang Wei
Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms Among Construction Workers

To investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort in construction workers, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 randomly selected subjects. Data were collected using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) through semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort among construction workers was 61%, with the highest prevalence in the neck (28%), followed by the shoulder (23%), lower back (15%), and elbow (14%). The workstations with the highest prevalence were decorators (91.3%), followed by ironworkers (68.4%), bricklayers (58.3%), concreters (50.0%), and laborers (40.6%). The findings of this study indicate that construction workers have a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and that the highest affected body regions vary across workstations. Thus, it is important to conduct further investigations to examine specific associated factors to develop interventions strategies to improve occupational health.

Xinye Hong, Yuchi Lee
Establishment and Verification of Flight Fatigue Model Induced by Simulated Aircraft Driving

On the basis of work analysis for airline pilot, joystick operating and instruments monitoring are extracted as the two core tasks, to build a simulation of the aircraft driving induced flight fatigue model. The model including the computerized simulation of dual task operation module, system management module and eye video monitoring module. In the validation study, 15 volunteers were recruited, their scores on the Stanford sleepiness scale (SSS) and their percentage of eyelid closure (PERCLOSE) in the task was recorded for 5 min were collected before and after the fatigue induced task for 3 h. The validity of the model was verified by comparing the subjective and objective fatigue indexes before and after the fatigue induced task. the score of SSS was increased, and the fatigue closure time of eyelid closure was significantly prolonged, all reaching the statistically significant level (P < 0.01). The simulation of aircraft dual task model can effectively induce flight fatigue and provide a tool for flight fatigue research.

Wei Jiang, Zhenling Chen, Haishan Xu, Tiebing Liu, Lili Li, Xianfa Xu
Comparative Study on Inducing Effect of Two Kinds of Shape Flash in Pilot Selection by EEG Detection

Objective To compare the differences of two types of EEG flash evoked effect in pilot selection, and to provide evidence for optimizing the effect of EEG pilot selection. Methods A total of 500 high school students aged 17 to 20 were selected to participate in the Air Force pilot selection in 2020 to 2021. Two kinds of flash (arc and round plate) were used for flash evoked selection respectively. There were 250 people in the arc shaped lamp group and 250 people in the round plate shaped lamp group, and the selection effect and difference of the two kinds of different shaped flash lamp were compared. Results In the arc-shaped group, 238 patients (95.2%) had normal EEG photic driving response. There were 12 patients (4.8%) with abnormal EEG, including 6 patients (2.4%) with abnormal photic driving, 2 patients (0.8%) with multiple reaction, 3 patients (1.2%) with fractional reaction, and 1 patient (0.4%) with abnormal EEG wave. There were 237 (94.8%) normal EEG photic driving in the round plate lamp group. There were 13 patients (5.2%) with abnormal EEG, including 5 patients (0.2%) with abnormal photic driving, 3 patients (1.2%) with multiple reaction, 3 patients (1.2%) with fractional reaction, and 2 patients (0.8%) with abnormal EEG wave. There was no significant difference between the eliminate rates (X2 = 0.890, P = 1.000). The elimination rate of arc shaped lamp group was 4.8%, and that of round plate shaped lamp group was 5.2%, there was no significant difference between them (X2 = 0.042, P = 0.837). Conclusion The evoked effect of two kinds of shaped flash is basically the same.

Yongsheng Chen, Dawei Tian
Application of Multi-motive Grid for Acceptance Test in the Pilots

Objective: To study the applicability of Multi-motive Grid for Acceptance (MMG) in the pilots. Methods: 43 pilots completed the MMG, and the internal correlation, differentiation and reliability of the scale were tested according to their results. Results: The cronbach’s alpha of three kinds of motivation and six kinds of motivation tendency measured by the scale ranged from 0.800 to 0.931, and the guttman split-half ranged from 0.710 to 0.899. The degree of differentiation ranged from 0.66 to 0.74. The internal correlation between the approach and avoidance direction of each motivation is consistent with the previous research results. Conclusion: This scale can be used as a measuring tool to evaluate pilot motivation.

Yan Zhang, Yang Liao, Yishuang Zhang, Jian Du, Liu Yang
Evaluation of Different Salmonella and Escherichia Coli Antibodies Based on ELISA

With the development of food hygiene industry, food safety has gradually become a major problem threatening human life and health. Food bacterial infection and food poisoning are the most widespread phenomena in foodborne diseases. The specific detection of foodborne pathogens is one of the effective measures to prevent foodborne diseases. At present, the commercial antibodies against foodborne pathogens are also common in the market, nevertheless, the specificity of these antibodies in the market has not been systematically evaluated. In order to better comprehend the application effect of commercial antibodies in the market, we choose Salmonella antibodies and Escherichia coli antibodies in the market as examples and evaluate the specificity of the six antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), so as to find the best Salmonella antibody and Escherichia coli antibody by evaluating the experimental data.

Yan Gao, Yanan Huang, Shuxin Du, Weifeng Xia, Fengfeng Mo
Study of the Intensity of Feedback of Vibration Information from Different Parts of the Human Body

The physiological feedback data and subjective evaluation results of the subjects’ human bodies at different positions and different vibration intensities were obtained by designing human vibrotactile experiments using personal questionnaire methods and electrical skin data. Statistical and variance tests were used to compare and analyse the subjects’ comfort at different position intensities. The author’s research explores the subjects’ subjective feelings and electrical skin responses in different vibration intensities on different human body parts to provide a physiological basis for natural human-computer interaction research and haptic feedback device development.

Jianyi Zhang, Shan Du, Haochen Dong, Wei Li, Haolin Sui, Xinyang Zhao
Research on Psychological Service Needs of Paratroopers Based on Stress Events

Understanding the main stress events faced by paratroopers and the use of coping styles is helpful to clarify the needs of psychological services. In this study, 86 paratroopers were selected as the research objects by stratified sampling method. The frequency and impact of stress events, frequency and effect of coping styles in paratroopers were investigated by Likert five point scales. The results showed that paratroopers in different positions had significant differences only in the stress event of workplace interpersonal conflict. The influence of workplace interpersonal conflict on the psychological state of officers is significantly higher than that of sergeants and soldiers. Officers and sergeants prefer to use exercise and breathing relaxation to deal with stress events, while soldiers prefer to play video games to deal with stress events. The results of this study indicate that the types of stress events and preferred coping styles of paratroopers in each position are different. In psychological service, psychologist need to choose targeted measures based on their characteristics in order to effectively maintain mental health and operational efficiency.

Yang Liao, Chuang Xu, Yiwen Hu, Xin Liu, Yuyang Zhu, Yan Zhang, Yishuang Zhang, Miao Jin, Liu Yang
Design of Psychological Measurement and Archives Management System Based on WLAN

Objective. To develop a system based on WLAN for psychological measurement and archives management system. Methods. The system is based on B/s and WLAN architecture, and realizes data acquisition through self-organizing LAN. Users can use their own mobile phone as the evaluation terminal, access the LAN through WiFi, log in to the system and do some work. All collected evaluation information and other data are summarized and saved in the server database. System hardware equipment includes server, gateway, switch, base station, Poe power supply module, etc. The software is mainly divided into manager and user system. The administrator can log in to the manager, bind the evaluated scale information for the user role, analyze the psychological data, and manage the user authority, psychological archives and so on. The participants can register and log in to the client to test the corresponding scale and view the evaluation results. Results. Experiments showed that the system was reliable and anti jamming. Conclusion. The system has good portability, a wide range of one-time measurement, and does not need to maintain the evaluation terminal, reducing the measurement cost. At the same time, the system has powerful functions of data statistics and Archives management. It is suitable for large-scale psychological survey and special personnel selection. It can establish and manage psychological files for the army.

Yishuang Zhang, Dongxue Chen, Yan Zhang, Yang Liao, Jian Du, Rong Lin, Duanqin Xiong, Liu Yang

Research on the Machine Character

Frontmatter
Mechanical Analysis of the Structure of a Large-Scale Pipeline System Detecting Robot

As an important tool for material transportation, the inner wall of the pipeline of large ocean going freighter is corroded all year round, which not only affects the normal work, but also endangers the safety of life and property. The existing maintenance technology is difficult to meet the complex needs of industry and life. In order to regularly inspect and repair the inner wall of the pipeline, a parallel robot structure that can adapt to the pipeline environment of cargo ships is designed. In order to realize and optimize the normal work of the pipeline robot, it is necessary to carry out mechanical analysis on the key parts and assembly parts of the robot, so as to be efficient. To complete this check accurately, with the help of computer finite element analysis software.

Siyi Xiang, Xinyue Ma, Duzhong Feng, Yangguang Li, Shengyao Zheng, Dengchao Liang, Bo Zhu
Design Point of Civil Aircraft Precooler Based on a Dimensionless Coefficient Method

Pneumatic system is the hub of many aircraft air consumer systems, which provide the air source after preliminary temperature and pressure regulation for cabin pressurization, air conditioning, anti-ice, fuel inerting. Precooler is the core component of pneumatic system to adjust temperature. So it is a key issue to confirm the design point in thousands of operating conditions, so that the design can cover the maximum heat load to satisfy the downstream system requirement. In this paper, a simple and efficient method combined with heat exchange and engineering experience is proposed, which calculating the dimensionless coefficient of heat transfer intensity directly only by engine and environment parameters. Meanwhile, evaluating the heat transfer intensity of precooler on different operation condition by a verified model of a civil aircraft type in service to demonstrate the reliability of this method is presented in the paper.

Zhiyong Min, Xiaodan Huang, Yi Cao, Huayan Liu, Xuhan Zhang
Research on Application of Stepper Motor in Cabin Pressure Regulation System

In order to realize the control of the small and high reliability cabin exhaust valve, adapt to the application of intelligent manufacturing technology, the paper studies high-performance stepper motor drive, solve the problem of the stepper motor step-out, vibration, heating, improves the ability of the stepper motor, and reduces the use of the device and improves the economy. According to the characteristics of two-phase hybrid stepper motor, Frequency Modulation (FM) of two phases is designed. On the other hand, aiming at the heating problem of stepper motor, poor controllability, optimization of stepper motor acceleration, deceleration dynamic characteristics, reduced jitter when starting and stopping, and reduced excess adjustment of the motor by using the sigmoid function as the basis. The experimental results show that, based on the soft breakdown stepper motor drive of Frequency Modulation (FM) technology has better performance than the traditional open-loop control method, the acceleration can reach 60 rpm/ms or more (28 V). During the stepper motor acceleration and deceleration, the starting current decreases by the excess 50%, and the continuous running current is not much than the 0.3 A, 0–10°/s speed change in 100 ms, which can satisfy the different type stepper motor control of the 0–10 mNm torque and strengthens the loading ability.

Ying Wang, Zhendeng Xing, Quanyi Zheng, Guoyuan Zhang
Analysis and Design of the Shopping Trolley for Elderly People Based on Ergonomics

Shopping trolley enjoys great popularity among the elderly products market, and it can bring certain convenience to the elderly. However, after the research about the actual using experience of them, it is found out that the current design can hardly meet users’ needs with the unreasonable structure and unsuitable size, being incompatible with the machine and environment led to a poor level of satisfaction. Based on ergonomics, this paper carried out systematic analysis mainly focused on the handle part and wheel part. Besides, according to the trouble found in the investigation, we made a improved design with more practical features, improved folding and braking function and more matched color choice, which aims to better the experience of using shopping carts for the elderly and enable them to play a helpful role in other life scenarios.

Yaxuan Song, Ding Ding, Runsen Wang, Hanzheng Di
Design and Development of Human Motion Capture System

In this work, a human motion capture system was designed to explore the influence of special equipment on the movement of human joints. In the system, 12 motion capture cameras were used to make the system equipment and configuration. The motion targets were designed according to the motion range and structural characteristics of different body segments. The motion measurement model was designed by using neural network algorithm, and the test software was developed. The test results suggested that the human motion capture system meets the static and dynamic multi-joint angle capture test requirements. It can realize the static detection of human activity and measure the range of motion of shoulder, elbow, wrist, finger, head and neck, waist, hip, knee, ankle and other joints in sagittal plane, coronal plane and horizontal plane, and the motion posture detection accuracy is up to 0.2°.

Yuhong Shen, Chenming Li, Xiyu Bi, Huilin Wei
Human–Machine Analysis and Design of the Handrail System in Changzhou Subway

At present, the subway is one of the major modes of transportation for people. The subway's handrail system is the greater factor that affects people's travel experience. In addition to the basic grip function, people have higher requirements for the design of the handrail system. This paper mainly focuses on the human-machine analysis and design of the Changzhou subway handrail system. By analyzing the current design of Changzhou Metro Line 1 handrail system with the online and field research, the problems are identified and the improvement directions are summarized. Eventually, a reasonable improvement plan is proposed based on Changzhou’s cultural characteristics and additional functions of the handrails, which improves the rationality, aesthetics and functionality of the handrail system in Changzhou subway.

Min Qu, Xinying He, Yilin Ou, Danning Hao
An Improved Force-Directed Automatic Layout Method for Undirected Compound Graphs

In software engineering, the undirected compound graph serves as a medium for human-machine communication, translating human intent into machine language to efficiently deliver and demonstrate people’s demands by utilizing its outstanding analysis capability. Still, the industrial adoption of goal models is hindered by the scalable data and the massive manual workload it incurs. Overt problems, including the uncertainty of iteration direction and the difficulty of controlling the number of edge crossings, remain unsolved. We introduce the method of graph folding, which continuously collapse indecisive nodes to reduce the data scale and remain the basic structure of the original graph simultaneously to provide a possible solution to this dire state. The folding method confirms the direction of the iterations and considerably reduces its number, which greatly improves the efficiency of the man-machine communication. We repeatedly operate adjustment and expansion of the graph to ensure the optimal solution, and the results are promising.

Junyao Liu, Zhongnan Wang, Jiamin Yu, Haitian Liu, Tong Li
Improved Design of Multimedia Podium Under the New Teaching Method

With the development of science and technology and the improvement of education level, the existing multimedia platform can no longer meet the new teaching methods that emerge as the times require, and there are various problems. The article analyzes these problems and proposes an improved scheme of multimedia podium under a new teaching method. We use the principles of ergonomics to improve the design of the overall size of the podium, the size of each part and the layout of each functional unit. At the same time, considering the needs of teachers in the new teaching method, we creatively propose a detachable teaching tablet and an integrated seat the design of the chair improves teachers’ teaching experience and teaching efficiency.

Jiarong Zhang, Zihang Chen
The Transmutation of the Traditional Instrument Performance Under the Visual Threshold of Science Technology Art

The Performing forms of traditional instruments can be summed up as “Performer - Instrument - Performance venue - Audience” such a field. With the development of science and technology, the performance in the form of traditional instrument audiovisual and experience are changed. Starting from the visual stimulus, auditory stimulus, Interactive stimulus three aspects, this paper sorts out the changes made by traditional Musical Instruments to performance, venues and instruments. The research finds that the traditional musical instrument performance has changed into a kind of artistic expression under the Science Technology Art, and has produced a qualitative difference with the traditional musical instrument performance. Performance is characterized by high behavioral participation, high interactive immersion experience and high technological content.

Yaru Zhu, Zhengqing Jiang
Design of Manned On-Orbit Maintenance Interface for Space Station

As a la long-term vehicle and a complex system in orbit, the space station experiences a harsh space environment. In order to ensure that the space station can operate permanently and stably in the complex space environment, on orbit maintenance has become an essential means. The long-term on orbit presence of astronauts provides the necessary guarantee for the maintenance of equipment on the space station, and the equipment maintenance interface on the space station must also be designed considering Astronaut’s ability and on-orbit environment must be considered during the design of the equipment maintenance interface on the space station. This paper analyzes The design characteristics of manned on-orbit maintenance interface was analyzed from the perspective of man, machine and environment. And the methods of on orbit maintenance interface design and ground verification were put forward. Finally, the effectiveness of maintenance interface design is verified by an on-orbit practice.

Zhihai Li, Haocheng Zhou, Wei Zhang, Xiangjun He
Time Series Prediction Model of Spacecraft Health Management System Based on Wavenet Convolutional Neural Network

In this paper, we introduce the Time Series Prediction Model Based on Wavenet Convolutional Neural Network. This means can give early warning for the future working state and possible faults of spacecraft in advance. As the signal of spacecraft thermal control system belongs to one-dimensional time series, this topic proposes to use the time series model based on WaveNet convolution neural network to predict the time series signal of spacecraft thermal control system and interpret the prediction information. The experimental results show that the time series prediction model of WaveNet convolutional neural network has good effect in fault prediction in a certain range

Ping Zhang, Xinyu Xiang, Jieren Cao, Chunjian Zhu, Qiang Yuan, Renping Li, Lijing Wang, Ke Li
Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithm and Simulation Verification Analysis for Automatic Control of Unmanned Vehicles

This study conducted research mainly on the proven applicability of controlling the unmanned vehicle using a deep reinforcement learning algorithm and relative performance improvements. In specific, this study chose the AirSim platform developed by Microsoft as the simulation environment and conducted simulations mainly in the indoor parking lot Unreal 4 environment. In the simulations, the deep reinforcement learning method applied is Deep Q Networks for its effectiveness as well as simplicity. To improve the performance of the trained network, object detection methodology YOLO v3 is applied as the detection algorithm for the unmanned vehicle, and the network is improved using the output of object detection as its input to accelerate the training process. The implementation of the algorithms has efficiently proven the feasibility of using deep reinforcement learning agents for the unmanned vehicle in the project and the implementation of effective object detection.

Yonghong Chen, Yuxiang Zhang, Jiaao Chen, Junyu Zhao, Ke Li, Lijing Wang
Autonomous Vehicles Based on Gesture Recognition Control Using CNN and CPM Model

In the autonomous motion control of unmanned equipment, in order to make the control more precise and efficient, in addition to the automatic operation of drones and unmanned vehicles, it is also necessary to introduce a certain amount of human-computer interaction. Therefore, in the control of unmanned equipment, it is very important to design a human-computer interaction program. In this paper, by analyzing the control requirements of unmanned equipment in specific cases and comparing with existing technologies, a gesture recognition program is established. The results show that it is feasible to control the movement of unmanned equipment through gesture recognition technology. Moreover, gesture control has the advantages of high accuracy, simplicity and efficiency, and can control multiple unmanned equipment in real time.

Xiulin Zhang, Chong Zhen, Quxiao Lei, Yifeng Wang, Jiaao Chen, Weiyi Jin, Ke Li, Lijing Wang
Research on Simulation Model System Integration and Interconnection Methods

Aiming at the application requirements of comprehensive integration of multi-source heterogeneous simulation resources in the construction of equipment system, the research on model integration and heterogeneous simulation system interconnection technology is carried out, the design ideas and technical approaches of the integration framework are proposed, and the application development toolset is developed to support the mixed assemblable and transparent interoperability of heterogeneous external simulation resources. Achieve consistent expression, unified management, hybrid assembly, and joint operation of heterogeneous resource integration.

Yan Hao, Jun Zhen, Ying Qu, YaFei Zhang
Detection of VOCs in E. Coli Based on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae, which is a ubiquitous microorganism in the environment and human intestinal trac. E. coli is one of the common foodborne pathogens which is a highly diverse species that include numerous types and strains with distinctive characteristics. Many methods are used to detect E. coli at present. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are all kinds of organic compounds with boiling points ranging from 50 ℃ to 260 ℃ at room temperature. Solid-phase Microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are the main methods to detect VOCs at present. In this paper, we firstly evaluated the relationship between culture days and activity of three different E. coli strains in the early stage and verified optimal incubation time of the strains for VOCs analysis. Then, we studied VOCs products of E. coli, E. coli BL21 (Escherichia coli BL21) and Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) under extraction conditions of 37 ℃ and 80 ℃ respectively, and screened out several iconic VOCs, which provided a theoretical basis for further detection.

Handong Yao, Shuang Nie, Shuxin Du, Qianqian Ni, Xun Liu, Fengfeng Mo
Design Suggestion of Epidemic Prevention System for Shared Car Based on Scenario and Data

Entering the post-epidemic era, the travel demand for shared cars is increasing day by day. In the normalized epidemic prevention and control, epidemic prevention in shared cars needs to be designed systematically. This paper analyzes the existing risk of COVID-19 propagation based on two perspectives: scenario and data, and discusses the existing means of protection. Then based on the existing measures, the design suggestions are given from two aspects: scenario-based and data-based. Based on the scenario, the layout design and disinfection is implemented in regard to various ways that COVID-19 is transmitted; based on data, travel data integration should be promoted to achieve macro-structural dynamic adjustment and integrated governance from the overall transportation system. In the context of the industries, the shared car industry should response to new trend immediately and implement innovative ideas to obtain a service that is better suited for individuals in the post-epidemic era. In the end, several major functions of design in terms of developing the urban transportation system are discussed.

Zhouce Huang, Quan Yuan
Prediction Model of Accident Vehicle Speed Based on Artificial Intelligence Decision Free Algorithm

Speeding is not only an illegal act, but also an important cause of traffic accidents. Judging whether the accident vehicle is speeding is an important work in the process of accident handling. This paper analyzes 903 traffic accidents in Beijing, China in 2020, extracts the time of occurrence, road characteristics, collision types, casualties, vehicle types and driver characteristics as variables, and constructs a decision tree to analyze whether the vehicle is speeding. The sample cases are classified into training set and test set with the proportion of 3:1. The training set is used for artificial intelligence machine learning, and the test set is used as an actual case to verify the accuracy of the model for overspeed prediction. Results show that the accuracy of the decision tree model in predicting vehicle overspeed is 77%. This paper discusses the application of the decision tree model in the intelligent identification of vehicle speed in road traffic accidents, which provides a basis for peers to carry out in-depth research.

Wei Ji, Tiantong Yang, Quan Yuan, Gang Cheng, Shengnan Yu
Control Design to Underwater Robotic Arm

Objective. In order to improve the operation ability and response speed of the underwater robotic arm in simulation training mission of space station, this paper focuses on solving the arm’s operability problem. Methods. Based on the man-machine ergonomic characteristics, the control design scheme is proposed from the aspects of control system architecture, motion control and human-computer interaction. Conclusion. The test and application results show that the arm has fine operability. It makes underwater training more efficient. Owing to the approximate function of the space station manipulator, it makes simulation training more realistic. At present, the underwater training missions are successfully completed from SZ–12 to SZ–14. It proves that the control design is reasonable and the goal of good operability has been achieved.

Jiahong She, Shang Huan, Shaoli Xie, Deli Zhang, Liangliang Han, Jian Yang
Research on Development of Vehicular High Power Microwave Weapons

Vehicular high power microwave weapon is a kind of directional energy weapon which destroys electronic equipment by high power microwave beam. It has the advantages of fast attack speed, large attack range, both soft and hard killing, high cost-effectiveness ratio and so on. In the future, it has broad development prospect in the field of air defense operation. This paper summarizes the research status of high power microwave technology, introduces the latest progress of vehicular high power microwave weapons in the United States, Russia and China, and analyzes the future development trend of vehicular high power microwave weapons.

Bing Qian, Wei Yu, Heyuan Hao, Haoran Zhu
The Near-Infrared Forearm Vessel Image Segmentation and Application Using Level Set

A robust level set-based near-infrared forearm vessel image segmentation method is proposed. First, a near-infrared forearm image capture device is developed. More than 500 forearm images are accumulated by using this device. Second, an image segmentation algorithm is designed. The multiscale second order local structure of image is considered to enhance the vessel edges. The distance regularized level set evolution approach is used to implement the vessel segmentation. Third, the proposed algorithm is employed to assist the searching of the potential Arteriovenous Fistula Thrombosis (AFT). Many experiment results have shown the proposed system and method can locate the superficial vessels of forearm correctly; and the recognition rate of AFT is better than 95%.

Haoting Liu, Yajie Li, Yuan Wang
Evaluation of CCGA Solder Pillar Grinding Effect Based on End-Face Imaging Analysis

Due to the advantages of Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) packaging technology such as the good thermal matching and vibration resistance, it is often used for the manufacturing of high-end chips. However, in practical engineering applications, CCGA has many process problems, such as the oxidation of bottom surface of lead column, and the poor coplanarity of welding column end. The CCGA welding column is manually ground for end face flatness processing, it is easy to lead to a poor end face coplanarity, skewing of the welding column and other issues, so that the grinding effect is difficult to be guaranteed. This paper proposes a CCGA column grinding effect evaluation method based on end face imaging analysis, and we use image processing, feature extraction, machine learning algorithms, and other technologies to achieve the binary classification of CCGA column grinding pictures. Compared with other related algorithms, the method proposed in this paper is highly targeted and its effect is stable. It puts forward solution ideas and methods for existing industrial problems.

Mengmeng Wang, Haoting Liu, Shaohua Yang
Near-Infrared Vascular Image Enhancement Using Deep Convolutional Neural Network

Near-infrared vascular images play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases. However, near-infrared vascular images often have problems such as low image quality and unclear vascular patterns. To solve these problems, we propose a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) auto-encoder for image enhancement to enhance vascular structures and suppress non-vascular structures. We also collect a datasets of 156 images for the training and validation testing of the model; and further we use the full-reference image quality assessment metrics, i.e., Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Structural SIMilarity (SSIM) to quantitatively evaluate the image enhancement effect of this model. The experimental results show: compared with the traditional image enhancement algorithm, the enhanced image quality of the Residual Convolutional Auto-Encoder (RCAE) model is better and more similar to the original image.

Yajie Li, Haoting Liu, Yuan Wang

Research on the Environment Character

Frontmatter
The Development and Suggests of Planetary Protection

Planetary protection is significantly important for the earth safety and the exploration of the origin of life. In this article, its current history and development are systematically reviewed. The categories of planetary protection are divided according to the different tasks. Then, based on the whole process of the planetary exploration, the measures of planetary protection are analyzed, which include forwarding contamination and back contamination. Finally, the development and implementary suggestions of planetary protection are proposed.

Lantao Zhang
Research on Calculation Method of Aircraft Cabin Inner Wall Temperature Based on Parameter Sensitivity Analysis

Aiming at the factors affecting the aircraft cabin inner wall temperature, this paper starts from the basic theory of heat transfer, combined with the sensitivity analysis method, structure thermal resistance R, cabin internal ambient temperature T1 and external ambient temperature T4 are determined to be sensitive factors within the scope of engineering experience. This paper innovatively proposes the dimensionless temperature θ, which is the ratio of the cabin inner wall temperature to the cabin air temperature difference and the external environment temperature difference. It provides a measurement of the relative temperature difference between the cabin inner wall temperature to the internal and external environments, which can characterize the temperature gradient along the heat transfer direction. Data dimensionality reduction is realized through dimensionless, and then the functional relationship between dimensionless temperature θ and skin thermal resistance R is obtained through data fitting. Finally, the calculation method of aircraft cabin inner wall temperature is deduced. This method fully considers the complete heat transfer link from the internal of the cabin to the external environment, and an estimation method of cabin inner wall temperature for designers is provided.

Yi Cao
Study on the Noise Control Technology in the Batching Room of a Dairy Production Enterprise

Dairy products have become an important part of people’s daily diet, but the noise in the batching room of the dairy production enterprise is harmful to workers’ occupational health especially the hearing system. Take the batching room of a dairy production enterprise as this research object, and the sound pressure levels and frequency distribution were detected by the noise meter. The sound pressure level of the batching workbench with all the side plates was 7.5 dB higher than the occupational exposure limit under present conditions, and the sound insertion loss capacity of the existing side panel was only 4.9 dB. The sound distribution was mainly in 500 Hz to 8 kHz, which indicates that the sound belongs to medium and high frequency and broadband noise. Base on the analyzing the results of octave band sound pressure level detection and the cause of exceeding the limit, a sound insulation encasing was designed in detail to reduce the noise.

Zhenfang Chen, Jianwu Chen, Qing Zhang, Bin Yang, Yanqiu Sun
Study on the Environmental Characteristics of UAV Swarm Anti-swarm

(Purpose) This paper is to study the environmental characteristics of the new combat style of UAV swarm and anti-swarm. (Methods) Conceptual analysis and comparative research methods are used in the research process. (Results) Three environmental characteristics of UAV swarm anti-swarm in battlefield, electromagnetic and social environment are sorted out, and the corresponding conclusions are drawn from the comparison with traditional anti-swarm methods. (Conclusion) It is concluded that the UAV swarm and anti-swarm has the features of wide range of battlefield environments, complex electromagnetic environment and social environmental safety. (Application direction) The research results of this paper can be applied to the construction of the UAV swarm anti-swarm system, which provides a certain reference for its operational use in different environments.

Zeliang Jiao, Qian Liu, Yanyan Ding, Hongyan Ou, Jiantao Liu, Hongyi Li, Weixin Liu
Research on the Comprehensive Evaluation of Environmental Comfort in Deep-Sea Confined Space Based on Entropy Weight Method

In order to provide a reference for improving the environment of deep-sea confined space and improving the comfort of the space environment, this study constructs a deep-sea confined space from four aspects: heat and ventilation environment, light environment, sound and vibration environment and comprehensive design according to the characteristics of deep-sea confined space environment. The environmental comfort evaluation index system has established a comprehensive index evaluation method, including index standardization, index weight determination based on entropy weight method, index comprehensive calculation and classification. A questionnaire survey was used to investigate and comprehensively evaluate the environmental comfort of a deep-sea confined space manipulation area (Area A), a residential area (Area B) and a dining area (Area C). The environmental comfort evaluation index system of deep-sea confined spaces is constructed from twelve dimensions, including temperature, ventilation, odor, humidity, noise, vibration, swing, lighting, color matching, space design, human factor design, and floor comfort. The research results put forward corresponding improvement suggestions for the environmental comfort of a certain deep-sea confined space manipulation area (Area A), living (B area) and dining area (C area).

Chuan Wang, Juan Wang, Ziying Wang, Zhibo Lu
Applicability Analysis of Adaptive Power and Thermal Management System

With the development of electronic integration technology, the heating power of airborne electronic equipment increases gradually, thus the demand for cooling is higher and higher. Meanwhile, the aerodynamic heating effect of supersonic makes the cooling capacity of air as heat sink limited. In order to meet the requirements of the flight mission with Mach numbers from 1 to 4.4, an adaptive power and thermal management system is proposed, which can efficiently manage the heat by taking the external duct air and fuel as heat sink, taking engine bleed air and ram air as refrigeration to suit in wide Mach number flight. The system includes both closed and open operating modes. The heat sink and refrigerant are selected according to the mode to meet the energy requirements of the mission. By calculating the fuel penalty, it’s provided a basis for system selection under cooling capacity and power generation requirements, analyzing the adaptability of each subsystem. Closed systems have less fuel penalty at low Mach numbers compared with open system, but require larger cooling capacity from fuel.

Junhao Zhang, A. Rong, Liping Pang, Xiaodong Cao
New Detection Technology for Food Pesticide Contamination

Food contamination is an increasingly serious social problem. It can be divided into microbial, chemical, and physical pollution according to its nature, among which pesticide pollution is the most common chemical pollution. The major constituents include organochlorine pesticides (OCP), organophosphorus pesticides (OPPS), carbamate, pyrethroid diphenyl, germicides, herbicides, etc. There are many technologies to detect pesticide pollution which can be roughly divided into laboratory and sensor detection technologies. Here, we briefly cover some new reports on laboratory detection and latest sensor detection technologies and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of these technologies. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated the future of pesticide detection technologies for food contamination through this paper.

Handong Yao, Dawei Tian, Fengfeng Mo, Shuang Nie
Noise Hazard Analysis and Sound Insulation Research of a Semiconductor Manufacturer

The demand for semiconductors is increasing day by day, but the noise hazard becomes more and more serious with the increase of semiconductor production. The noise was detected using sound level meter in semiconductor production workshop. The results shows that the noise intensity of a semiconductor workshop is about 93.1 dB (A)–94.7 dB (A), which exceeds the noise limit of 9.7 dB and mainly distributes in the frequency range of 1 k–8 k, so it is belongs to high frequency noise. A sound screen was set up at 0.7 m distance from the equipment for noise protection in this paper. On the basis of comparative analysis, the transparent PC board is selected as the sound insulation material. Through theoretical calculation, it is found that the height of sound insulation screen should be at least 1.6 m in order to achieve 20.5 dB sound insulation effect and meet the requirement of noise limit.

Zhenfang Chen, Jianwu Chen, Xiaotong Chen, Yanqiu Shun, Bin Yang, Weijiang Liu
Acoustic Target Recognition Based on MFCC and SVM

Feature extraction and classification are the main body of acoustic target recognition. Firstly, amplitude extraction based on harmonic set, MFCC and wavelet packet decomposition are selected as feature selection methods to extract the features of four kinds of measured sound signals respectively. Then, the feature vectors extracted by MFCC method with the best clustering effect are combined with GMM classifier, BP neural network, OVO-SVMs and multi-layer support vector machine as classifiers, and MATLAB is used for simulation recognition and classification. Finally, the recognition results are compared and analyzed. The results show that BP neural network has the best recognition effect, but its robustness is poor, the experimental results are unstable, and the selection of training and test data has a great impact on the recognition rate. The multi classification algorithm based on support vector machine has a better stable recognition rate.

Kai Ding, Shoujun Zheng, Xiaogang Qi, Shan Huang, Haoting Liu

Research on the Man-Machine Relationship

Frontmatter
Description Strategy Selection in Collaborative Spatial Tasks

Objective—To examine the efficiency of description strategies people used in collaborative spatial tasks. Methods—Study1 asked participants (N = 30) to describe the location of specific objects under different spatial conditions. The experimental conditions contained different spatial layouts (regular, irregular) and visibility of the interactive partner’s perspective (available, unavailable). We recorded all the utterances and categorized them by the description strategies involved. Study2 tested the efficiency of these strategies. Participants (N = 30) were guided by different kinds of descriptions to make spatial judgments. Results— (1) There are four spatial description strategies most commonly used: Addressee-centered, Exocentric, Object-based and Egocentric. (2) Participants’ spontaneous descriptions were affected by their partner’s viewpoint. When the partner's viewpoint is unavailable, they tend to represent spatial information exocentrically. (3) Organizing spatial instructions in an exocentric way led to better task performance. Conclusion—If the collaborators have common cognition of spatial directions and references, exocentric reference frame could maximize the efficiency of spatial interactions.

Ying Zhu, Duming Wang, Guangshan Liao, Liang Liu, Yunfei Chen, Lizhi Wang, Hanjun Yang, Wenhao Zhan, Yu Tian
Research on Human-Robot Cooperative Target Recognition for Spatial Sampling Task

Objective—A new type human-robot collaborative target recognition mode was designed to improve the performance of spatial sampling tasks. Methods—The new type not only presented the target attribute information recognized by the robot sensors to humans, but also expressed the credibility of the information determined by the algorithm through a designed interface. An experimental platform for simulating the physical and task environment of the lunar surface were constructed, on which the new type collaborative recognition mode as well as a traditional type mode were designed and simulated respectively. Results—The experiment results showed that the new type human-robot collaborative target recognition mode achieved a better accuracy of target recognition. Conclusions—In the new mode constructed in this research, the robot processed and presented the attribute information in a humanized manner which matched the human cognitive architecture, thereby achieving a better human-robot collaborative performance.

Shuqi Xue, Guangshan Liao, Lifeng Tan, Yu Tian, Yuan Wu, Yan Fu, Zhixian Zhang, Chunhui Wang
Interface Design of a Health APP Based on the Mentality of the Elderly

The health management of the elderly population is a topic of extensive research around the world. Starting from the mental model of the elderly, this paper explores the pain points and unique needs of the elderly in using mobile phone software, and explores the unique thinking logic of the elderly through questionnaires, interviews, literature search, observation and other methods. Using factor analysis to summarize the design factors of mobile phone software for the elderly, this paper refines and summarizes the principles of software design for the elderly. On this basis, an interactive interface of health management software based on the mentality of the elderly is designed, which is suitable for the present and the future, and provides new strategies for the theory and practice of age-friendly design.

Yanhui Xue, Jilei Yuan
Flight Deck Layout Design of a SSBJ

This thesis focuses on the design of the flight deck layout for a supersonic business jet (SSBJ). The main work written down is about following the whole design process to design the flight deck. The most critical design feature of the flight deck design is finding out the pilot’s field of view and fixing the pilot’s seat plane. Analysis and evaluation according to the ergonomics will be discussed in the thesis.

Guiqing Liu, Zheng Yang
Research on Man-Machine Interface Layout Method of Intelligent Command Cabin Based on GA-AA

Starting from the solution of man-machine interface layout problem, this paper proposes to combine GA and AA to form a GA-AA hybrid algorithm, which simplifies the actual problem into a mathematical model, through the cabin operator information processing model and the layout method based on cognitive characteristics, Research on the spatial layout technology of man-machine interface based on GA-AA: firstly, the genetic ant colony algorithm and the basic idea of layout optimization based on GA-AA are used to improve the solution efficiency; Secondly, through the evolutionary operation steps and the termination conditions of genetic algorithm, the layout scheme most in line with the law of cognitive characteristics is solved; Finally, ant cycle model is used to solve the best layout scheme.

Aiguo Lu, Bo Dong, Xiaoye Tong, Wen Li
Research on the Recognition and Decision-Making of Carrier-Based Aircraft Interception and Landing Based on Visual Information

This paper proposes to use image and video means to judge the blocking and landing status of carrier-based aircraft, and studies the intelligent sensing technology of carrier-based aircraft tail hook recognition and arresting cable mounting status based on visual information. First, identify and locate the tail hook of the carrier-based aircraft. Then, the neural network is used to learn the dynamic spatiotemporal deformation characteristics during the contact between the arresting cable and the tail hook and the drawing process, and then make a judgment.

Xi Wan, Wen Li

Research on the Man-Environment Relationship

Frontmatter
Research on the Adaptability Drills of Special Forces in Swimming Across Low Temperature Seawater

Armed swimming drill is a basic training content for special forces to cross the sea and land on the island. In actual combat, the seawater temperature around the swimming area shows seasonal and regular changes, especially the low temperature water environment can reduce the combat effectiveness of crossing the sea and land on the island, hindering or even destroying the completion of the combat mission. Carrying out swimming and swimming adaptation drills in low temperature water, especially the swimming and swimming adaptation drills in low-temperature waters at sea, can enable special forces to adapt to the sea environment in advance. Better grasp the characteristics of sea waves, ocean currents, tides, and sea horizons in low-temperature waters, and achieve pre-adaptation to the low-temperature sea environment, so as to improve combat effectiveness and successfully complete the mission of crossing the sea and landing the island.

Chunlai Wang
Impact of Continuous Night Shifts on Crew Performance in 9-day Isolated Environment Shift Experiments

Continuous night shifts in isolated environments such as cabins, submarines, and space stations have a negative impact on the circadian and cognitive function of the crew. Therefore, 9-day simulated isolated environment experiments were conducted to reveal the negative impact of continuous night shifts on crew performance. A 6-shift-per-day schedule was established, in which there were 3-night shifts, namely a 0–4 shift, a 4–8 shift, and a 20–24 shift respectively. The operational performance was evaluated using the Multi-Attribute Task Battery II (MATB-II) platform. The subjective feelings were evaluated by NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and job satisfaction scale. Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) were established to test the fixed effect estimates of potential influencing factors on crew performance. The analysis results showed that subjects had the worst performance in the 4–8 shift and the later experimental periods, namely Day 7 to Day 9.

Zezheng Qiu, Liang Guo, Chenyuan Yang, Liping Pang
Modeling of Human Cold Stress in Low Temperature Environment

In this paper, a physiological model of human cold stress was developed to analyze and study the stress response of human body in low temperature environment and to predict human injury. The physiological model of human cold stress includes two parts: passive system and active system. The passive system divides the human body into 22 segments and 98 nodes, which are used to simulate the heat conduction, heat convection and blood perfusion heat transfer of the human body. Among them, the active system mainly simulates four kinds of thermoregulatory responses, including skin blood perfusion rate, arteriovenous anastomosis (AVA) blood flow, tremor and sweating. The verification tests of core temperature and multi-site skin temperature under cold exposure condition (−5 ℃) were carried out by using environmental climate chamber. The tests confirmed that the physiological model of human cold stress accurately simulated the response of human cold stress and predicted the changes of human skin and core temperature.

Yuhong Shen, Chenming Li, Ting Zou, Huilin Wei
Study on Prediction Model of Human Heat Stress in High Temperature Environment

In this work, the prediction model of human heat stress in high temperature environment was studied to evaluate the thermal physiological response and heat stress of personnel during all kinds of training activities in high temperature environment. The prediction model of human heat stress covers both passive system and active system. The passive system divides the human body into 21 sections, each of which is divided into three to five layers according to the structural characteristics to simulate the heat transfer process of the human body. Among them, the active system mainly simulates the regulation of human thermal physiological state by vasodilation, vasoconstriction, trembling and sweating. The thermal physiology and thermal stress prediction and evaluation model software were compared and verified by using human thermal response experimental data. The results verified that the model accurately predicts the average human skin temperature in a high temperature environment.

Chenming Li, Yuhong Shen, Ruoshi Xu, Huilin Wei
Thermal Comfort Assessment of Occupants in Special Vehicle Cabin

Due to the specific function and ventilation limitation, the cabin of special vehicles is generally narrow and enclosed, in which occupants are faced with uncomfortable conditions such as high heat load, less cold source, and lack of fresh air. The thermal comfort assessment method is a crucial research premise of thermal environment and thermal comfort. Therefore, it is necessary to study the thermal comfort assessment method of occupants in the special vehicle cabin. Firstly, this paper analyzed the distribution characteristics of a variety of typical environmental parameters and the subjective assessment results of the occupants on the surrounding air environment in order to obtain the thermal boundary conditions necessary for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) steady-state flow field simulation of the special vehicle cabin. Then according to the research of occupants’ thermal comfort in the special vehicle cabin, the changes in thermal comfort temperature due to thermal adaptation of the occupants are investigated to obtain the thermal comfort assessment model that meets the needs of different seasons and different mission phases.

Sijuan Zheng, Feina Shi, Fang Xie, Qiufang Wang, Zhongliang Wei
Research on the Selection of Cognitive Status Test Items and Indicators for Workers in Confined Spaces

The working environment in the confined space is harsh, and long-term continuous operation may lead to the depression of the mood and the decline of cognitive ability of the operator, which affects the operation performance and operation safety. In this paper, from the six aspects of reaction time, attention function, working memory, time perception, spatial perception, and operational stability, the indicators for the identification of abnormal cognitive status of operators in confined spaces are selected to monitor the cognitive status of operators in real time, so as to reduce operational risks and ensure safe control. By reviewing the existing neurobehavioral testing tools, combined with the actual test situation of this paper, a set of work ability indicator system is screened out to evaluate different cognitive states, including a total of 8 tests, namely: simple reaction time, discriminative reaction time, choice response time, attentional stability, working memory ability, time perception ability, spatial perception ability, operational stability.The research results can better identify abnormal states of various basic cognitive abilities under the influence of emotion, fatigue, stress, mental or neurological disease, thereby helping operators reduce human errors and improving the operation safety and performance, which has practical significance for the evaluation of operator's work ability and the prevention of human error.

Chuan Wang, Ting Wang, Yi Chen, Xiaojun Wang, Ziying Wang
Research on the Evaluation of Abnormal Cognitive Status of Workers in Confined Spaces

The operating environment in the confined space is harsh, and the long-term continuous operation leads to the depression of the operator and the decline of cognitive ability, thus affecting the operation performance and operation safety. In order for the operator to receive, transmit and execute instructions normally, cooperate as a team, and thus complete the operational tasks he is responsible for, the cognitive state of the operator, such as perception, attention, memory function, etc., is indispensable. The identification of abnormal cognitive state of operators has always been an important subject in the field of ergonomics and human factors engineering, which involves the integration of multiple fields of physiology, psychology, neuroscience and behavioral science. According to the actual situation of workers in confined spaces, this paper explores the evaluation methods of abnormal cognitive state from two levels of neurobehavioral core test and computerized neurobehavioral evaluation, and provides reasonable suggestions for cognitive state testing tools for workers in specific environments and specific positions. The research results provide theoretical guidance for the evaluation of cognitive abnormalities of operators in confined spaces, and have practical significance for the evaluation of operators’ operational ability and the prevention of human errors.

Chuan Wang, Qianxiang Zhou, Xiaojun Wang, Ziying Wang

Research on the Machine-Environment Relationship

Frontmatter
Analysis on Loitering Attack Missile Application in Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict

In the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, “Harop” as the representative of the loitering attack missile record is not bad, the precision strike effect is prominent. This paper briefly introduces the situation of the loitering attack missile used by Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, analyzes the performance characteristics of the loitering attack missile and discusses the impact of the loitering attack missile on Armenia from the aspects of detection and identification, tracking and strike, survival and protection, and analyzes the reasons for the failure of Armenia in fighting the loitering attack missile from the aspects of air defense system, air defense strength and electronic warfare.

Lingpeng Kong, Heyuan Hao, Lin Liu
Research on UAV Swarm Operations

In recent years, UAV swarm technology has become more and more mature, it has been a kind of newly-typed operations to conduct air strike by applying UAV swarms, and UAV swarm operations are leading the developmental trend of combat mode all over the world with the rapid development of artificial intelligence and big data. Combined with the concept on UAV swarms, This paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of UAV swarm operations. From the two aspects of information war and offensive war it discusses the main combat means and actions of UAV swarms centering on electronic warfare, cyber warfare, psychological warfare, formation attack and collaborative operations. It has a certain reference and significance for further analyzing counter-UAV swarm operations.

Lingpeng Kong, Zaochen Liu, Li Pang, Ke Zhang
Analysis on the Operation of Bionic UAV in Tropical Mountain and Jungle

In view of the tropical mountain jungle environment to the traditional combat forces in surveillance reconnaissance, ground operations, coordination command, combat support aspects of negative effects, using bionic unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in stealth missions, accurate battlefield awareness, reduce casualties and adapt to extreme environment and efficient implementation of combat support aspects of superior performance, the bionic UAV combined with traditional combat power, explore the methods of fighting against the threat of high-tech weapons and the specific application in combat operations, so as to provide suggestions for optimizing the operational application of bionic UAV in future battlefield operations.

Jiwen Sun, Heyuan Hao, Jianfeng Li, Junlong Guo, Tao Li
Energy System Simulation for Low-Altitude Solar-Powered UAVs

Due to the special energy type of solar aircraft, the endurance capability of the long-haul aircraft type is very prominent. However, the solar vehicle energy system has a significant impact on performance. This paper studies the energy system design optimization and system simulation of low-altitude solar aircraft. Firstly, an optimization method for low-altitude long-endurance UAV energy system is proposed, which fully considers the influence of date and environmental factors on energy harvesting and consumption of solar aircraft. Secondly, according to the energy optimization method, the UAV energy system is optimized, and the simulation results verify the ability and reliability of the UAV’s continuous long-haul flight.

Dapeng Zhou, Yang Zhang, Ke Li, Bin Zhao, Meixian Wang, Ning Wang, Lijing Wang
Research on the Configuration of Radar Jamming Force in Air Defense Operation

(Purposes) Radar jamming force is an important part of electronic air defense force, and its effect of covering targets is highly related to whether its configuration is correct or not. This paper proposes a solution for the configuration of radar jamming force through research, and gives full play to the combat effectiveness of radar jamming force. (Method) According to the operational characteristics of radar jamming force, it analyzes the configuration basis and studies the configuration method. (Results) Moreover, three typical configuration styles and specific configuration methods are proposed. (Conclusion) These configuration styles can adapt to different combat needs, and configuration methods can ensure that the radar jamming force can complete the combat mission. (Application direction) This paper can provide reference for radar jamming force commander to configure weapons and equipment.

Xilian Tan, He Wu, Yanyan Ding, Yujin Wang
The Research on Optimal Design of Drawing Die for Non-circular Long Parts in Processing Environment

The shape of the outer contour of the non-circular elongated part is not formed by the rotation of the bus bar around the axis. The first condition for the optimal design of this kind of mold is to avoid the lateral accumulation of materials or breakage due to excessive thinning. By discussing the three transition modes for deep drawing of non-circular elongated parts, namely oval transition, elliptical transition, and circular transition, it is determined that circular transition is adopted, from circular blank to cylindrical, and then to Oval, finally to oblong pieces, The number of times of drawing and the process parameters of each drawing were further determined, and an optimized design system for drawing dies for non-circular long parts under the processing environment was constructed. The use of this system framework can effectively solve the problems of mold utilization and adaptability, and realize the matching of workpiece requirements and functions, thereby expanding mold functions and optimizing system performance. It maximizes the performance of the die and provides users with an optimal design method for the drawing die for non-circular elongated parts under the processing environment that meets the goals of safety, efficiency, economy, health and comfort. The research has certain practical significance and theoretical value, and provides a guiding method for the optimization design system of the drawing die for non-circular elongated parts under the processing environment.

Wobo Zhang, Jianguo Shi, Huichao Liu

Research on the Overall Performance of Man-Machine-Environment System

Frontmatter
Correlation Analysis of Traffic Accident Severity of the Heavy Trucks Based on Logistic Model

With the increase of truck ownership year by year, traffic accidents involving heavy trucks occur frequently and the consequence is more serious. The accident is the result of the maladjustment of various factors in the “man-vehicle-environment” system. In this context, using the data of 305 traffic accidents of heavy truck in a province of China in 2020, 11 influencing factors are selected from the three aspects of people, vehicle, and environment. The scientific analysis of the factors affecting the severity of heavy truck accidents is carried out by the Logistic regression model. Mining the influence of “man-machine-environment” system disharmony on the severity of the accident. The result shows that the main factors affecting the severity of heavy truck accidents are driving on the wrong side of the road, failing to yield as required, involving pedestrians, vehicle fault and without traffic control. Based on the above five factors, countermeasures to prevent heavy truck traffic accidents are put forward in order to reduce casualties and property damage caused by accidents. It is of great theoretical significance and practical application value to improve the level of road traffic safety in China.

Rufen Jiang, Xuejun Niu, Huairui Zhang
Thoughts on Strengthening the Management of Dangerous Sources in Air Defense Force Training

Military training is the basis for the construction and development of air defense forces and the fundamental way to improve combat effectiveness. At present, our army is setting off an upsurge of military training and war preparation. All levels attach great importance to training safety, and training accidents are particularly sensitive. The most fundamental and effective way to prevent training accidents is to effectively curb hazard sources. Therefore, strengthening the research on the management of hazard sources in the training of air defense forces is of great significance to ensure the safe and smooth training of air defense forces. This paper summarizes the significance of hazard source management in air defense force training, combs the main problems existing in hazard source management in air defense force training, and puts forward countermeasures to strengthen hazard source management in air defense force training from four aspects: strengthening organization and leadership, strengthening publicity and education, paying attention to team construction and perfecting system.

Lie Wang, Zhenguo Mei, Chunxin Wang, Kun Cao, Weifei Wu
Prominent Problems and Management Countermeasures of Military Safety Work

In recent years, with the continuous deepening of the army’s military struggle preparation and the gradual normalization of actual combat training, some prominent problems in safety work have increasingly become important factors affecting the generation of the combat effectiveness. How to solve these problems based on the existing conditions, so as to realize management itself is for war and improve the combat effectiveness has become a practical problem faced by the army. Therefore, starting from the reality of military safety management, this paper analyzes the current prominent problems related to safety education, hidden danger, laws and regulations, safety quality; explores the reasons behind, and puts forward countermeasures, which provides basic methods and ideas for the army to solve these security problems.

Kun Cao, Zhenguo Mei, Yanjiao Wang, Weifei Wu, Peng Gong
Safety Risk Prevention and Control in Army Training: Model and Strategy

With the continuous advancement of real combat training, unsafe factors have increased. Safety risks become increasingly prominent, and accidents occur from time to time. Therefore, it is imperative to strengthen safety risk prevention and control in training. At present, safety risk prevention and control in army training still lacks science and rationality and relies on experience, which lead to low quality and efficiency. The root causes of this problem include unclear understanding of complex training safety risk factors, inaccurate recognition of the causal mechanism of training accidents, and lack of theoretical guidance on training safety risk prevention and control. Based on the modern risk management concept, this thesis sorts out three types of safety risk factors in training, analyzes the cause of training accidents from the perspective of prevention and control shield failure, explores the construction of training safety risk prevention and control model, and innovatively proposes a three-level training safety risk prevention and control system featuring “personnel, material and technology prevention”, “management prevention” and “cultural prevention” and relevant strategies. The thesis provides theoretical guidance and basic principles for the army to carry out training safety risk prevention and control scientifically.

Zhenguo Mei, Qian Shen, Weifei Wu, Kun Cao, Peng Gong
Discussion on the Control of Major Hazard Sources in Unit Training

With the continuous increase in the intensity and difficulty of actual combat training, the training of unit has also shown the characteristics of normalization and frequency, and the sources of danger involved in training have become more and more numerous and more complex, and it is an important task to strengthen the effective control of major sources of danger and ensure the safety of the training of unit at present and even in the coming period. Based on the actual situation of unit training, this paper puts forward targeted countermeasures and measures for the control of major hazard sources in unit training, providing scientific reference for the control of major hazard sources in unit training, in order to improve the safety management level of unit training.

Weifei Wu, Zhenguo Mei, Kun Cao
Risk Assessment in Air Defense Forces Unit Training

As an essential effort in air defense forces (ADF) unit training risk management, risk assessment plays an central and critical part in ADF unit training risk management. To conduct proper and effective risk assessment, some certain basic principles should be followed, and an overall assessment process need to be clearified, thus providing scientific basis for ADF unit to control training risks, as a contribution to the effective control of training risks, to promote safety in ADF unit training. In this context, this thesis focused on the principles for risk assessment in ADF unit training, the basic steps included in risk assessment process, and some issues needed particular attention in risk assessment as attentions to Longford Trap, distortion of assessment conclusion, and identification of critical risk points.

Qian Shen, Zhenguo Mei, Xuechen Yao, Weifei Wu
A Framework of Aircraft Error-Prevention Verification Based on Routine Maintenance During Flight Test

The Proportion of flight accidents caused by human error is increasing year by year. error-prevention design, as the most fundamental way to overcome human error, is very important for aviation equipment. However, at present, the error-prevention verification during flight test is mainly aimed at single equipment, which lacks systematiceness and comprehensiveness. In this paper, we firstly analyzed the characteristics of routine maintenance and the correlation between it and error-prevention evaluation. Secondly, a multi-dimensional error-prevention evaluation criterion is constructed, and on this basis, an error-prevention daily verification system is formed, which can not only effectively improve the systematicness and comprehensiveness of error-prevention verification, but also improve the efficiency and accuracy of error-prevention verification. At present, this method has been applied to a type of helicopter, and the evaluation results can strongly support the maintainability design improvement.

Yuqi Zhang, Feimin Li, Hongjiao Wu
Study on Quantitative Evaluation Method of Aviation Equipment Error-Prevention

The proportion of flight accidents and accident symptoms caused by human error is increasing year by year. Error prevention design, as the most fundamental way to overcome human error is very important for aviation equipment. At present, the error prevention level evaluation method during flight test is mostly qualitative, for single equipment, lacking of systematicness and quantitation. So, based on the theory of the man-machine ring and maintenance event, we established the evaluation indicator system. Then, from the perspective of security, combined with the incorrect consequences, aviation equipment error prevention quantitative evaluation method is established. The method has been applied to the maintainability evaluation of some aviation equipment, and scientific and reasonable evaluation results have been obtained.

Yuqi Zhang, Tao Ma, Bao Lv
Improvement of Work Efficiency of Intelligent Manufacturing Operator 4.0 from the Perspective of HCPS

“Human- Cyber- Physical System” (HCPS) provides a theoretical basis for the development of human-centered intelligent manufacturing. Human has also changed its role with the development of modern information technology. Operator 4.0 was born under this background. It emphasizes man-machine cooperation with production equipment more, and its work efficiency greatly affects the process of the whole intelligent manufacturing system. This paper expounds the connotation and system composition of HCPS for the new generation of intelligent manufacturing, analyzes 11 key technologies of operator 4.0, and further explains how the emerging technologies improve work efficiency and corresponding technical limitations, then put forward the path and mechanism model of intelligent manufacturing technology empowering enterprises and promoting the transformation of enterprise business model. Finally, based on HCPS, put forward three suggestions for the development of related fields: paying attention to man-machine symbiosis, promoting human factors into system design and promoting system integration.

Chaoan Lai, Ruobing Zhao
Research on the Mechanism of Intelligent Operations Command

Based on the application background of artificial intelligence technology in the military field, this paper studies the conceptual system of intelligent operations command; uses theoretical analysis and system engineering design methods to discuss the conceptual connotation of intelligent operations command and the relationship of man-machine intelligence integration. It focuses on operations command needs to study and design the functional framework of intelligent operations command, and explores the characteristics and mechanism of intelligent operations command. The research results effectively promote the research on the conceptual system of intelligent operations command, which can promote the deepening of intelligent operations command in modern operational systems.

Haimin Hu, Weixin Liu, Hao Liu, Lei Tang, Hongyan Ou, Junfei Wang
Research on Operational Effectiveness Evaluation of a Certain Type of Equipment

(Purpose) By comparing different evaluation methods, find a better method to evaluate the operational effectiveness of a certain type of equipment. (Method) AHP is used to construct the model, expert evaluation and step-by-step evaluation of the operational effectiveness of a certain type of equipment. (Results) An evaluation method is selected, the hierarchical evaluation model of operational effectiveness of a certain type of equipment is established, the judgment matrix of operational effectiveness evaluation is constructed, and the hierarchical ranking of operational effectiveness evaluation is carried out, and the basic conclusions and targeted countermeasures are put forward. (Conclusion) It is feasible to evaluate the operational effectiveness of a certain type of equipment by AHP, and the results are consistent with the actual application results of the equipment. This paper have theoretical significance for evaluating and improving the operational effectiveness of a certain type of equipment.

Hongyan Ou, Qian Liu, Di Wu, Junfei Wang, Shuxin Wang, Weixin Liu
An Analysis of the U.S. Red Flag Military Exercises

Red Flag is one of the most successful training exercises in the history of the world. By simulating the realistic actual combat environment, it has made outstanding contributions to maintaining the air superiority of the U.S. military in the high-intensity and difficult military exercises, by testing weapons and equipment, studying tactical methods of operation, and tempering the technical, tactical and psychological quality of pilots. The paper introduces the basic overview of the Red Flag from the pespectives of exercises purpose, confrontation form, battlefield condition, information support and evaluation method. The paper focuses on analyzing the distinctive characteristics of the Red Flag exercises, so as to provide a mirror for our exercises.

Weixin Liu, Hao Jiang, Hongyan Ou, Shuxin Wang, Kang Yu
Demand Analysis of Air Defense Unit Training Evaluation System

The construction of digitalization and informationization has put forward higher requirements for the training of air defense unit in scientific evaluation, correct decision-making and rapid response. At present, the manual evaluation method is not easy to query, classify, summarize and analyze the data information scientifically, and it cannot meet the needs of the modernization of the army. It is of great practical significance to study and establish the training and evaluation system of air defense unit to guide the training of troops and make scientific decision.

Hao Liu, Yanyan Ding, Haimin Hu, Hongyan Ou, Weixin Liu, Junfei Wang
Application of Grey AHP in Occupational Health Risk Assessment of Maintenance Operation in Xi’an Subway

With the increasing number of subway lines and subway workers, their occupational health risks should be paid attention to. As the workplace, operation content, operation time, operation frequency and operators of metro operation and maintenance posts are determined according to the actual needs, the type, concentration or intensity, number of people, time and frequency of occupational hazards factors exposed are uncertain, and the risk is in a gray state, so it is difficult to evaluate their occupational health risk by quantitative evaluation method. Therefore, this paper takes a maintenance operation of Xi’an subway as the research object. The occupational health risk AHP model of subway maintenance operation was established from four aspects, which were occupational hazard factors, environmental factors, human-computer interaction factors and management factors. The gray analysis method was used to evaluate its uncertain risk. The comprehensive risk assessment results of occupational health for subway maintenance workers is between low and low risk level, which shown that the grey AHP can be used in the occupational health risk assessment of subway maintenance workers.

Miao Zhang, Jianwu Chen, Zhenfang Chen, Hong Yang, Yan Wang

Theory and Application Research

Frontmatter
Human Factors Design for Space Station

Manned spacecraft provides the necessary environment for astronauts’ survival, life and work. In order to meet the requirements of astronauts’ long-time work and life in the space station, it is necessary to study the human factor design method for the space station. Combined with the human factor design characteristics of China space station, this paper puts forward the human factor design principles of manned spacecraft, and puts forward the human factor design methods for configuration layout, safety, maintainability and livability. These methods are applied in the human factor design of China Space Station. Astronauts have lived and worked in the core module of the China space station for about seven months, which shows that the proposed human factor design method ensures the efficient work and life of astronauts on orbit, and improves the livability and reliability of manned spacecraft. It provides a practical engineering method for human factors.

Wei Zhang, Yongqing Hou, Jian Jin, Bing Wu
Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering in System of Systems Content

Aiming at the problem that the traditional man-machine-environment system engineering (MMESE) revolves around system, there is a lack of consideration in the design process of the new form of man-made engineering system, the system of systems (SoS). On the basis of summarizing and analysing the new characteristics of SoS and SoS engineering, a man-machine-environment system engineering model in the content of the SoS is proposed, which focus on the social network constructed by men in the SoS, the system network constructed by machines, the adversary system in the environment, and the mission planning and command and control of the commander's use of the SoS, and some main points of consideration of the above contents are analysed This paper provides a reference for carrying out man-machine environment system engineering work in the content of the SoS.

Baiqiao Huang, Peng Zhang, Kunfu Wang
Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering Based Mine Ventilation System Safety Analysis Method Study

The traditional safety analysis of mine ventilation system is mainly based on empirical analysis, lacks systematic method guidance, and the focus of safety analysis is on ventilation technology and environmental factors, and does not pay enough attention to human factor analysis. In order to ensure the safe and efficient production of coal mines and improve the safety and economic benefits of mines, the human-machine-environment system engineering method is introduced, and the three aspects of “human”, “machine” and “environment” affect the operation of the mine ventilation system. The safety factors are systematically sorted out, and the failure mode influencing analysis method is used to analyze the failure mechanism and countermeasures of the safety factors. Finally, taking a mine ventilation system as the application object, the method proposed in this paper is used to carry out the safety analysis of the mine ventilation system, and the feasibility of the method is verified.

Hanqin Su, Baiqiao Huang
Design of Artificial Intelligence Monitoring and Early Warning System in Safety Manufacturing Based on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

Manufacturing safety has increasingly become a concern of the whole society. Existing manufacturing safety measures are inefficient and costly, which no longer meet the requirements of modern large-scale manufacturing. The latest development of artificial intelligence technology provides new solutions for intelligent monitoring and early warning in manufacturing By analyzing the needs of manufacturing safety, this paper proposes the design of artificial intelligence monitoring and early warning system in manufacturing safety based on human-machine-environment system engineering, aiming to improve the manufacturing safety level of the whole society.

Peng Zhang, Baiqiao Huang, Kunfu Wang, Wei Feng, Jun Zhen
Application of Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering in Yacht Driving Simulator

The design of yacht driving simulator includes yacht driving operation space design and human psychological space design. Based on the theory of man machine environment system engineering, this paper analyzes the main factors affecting the space design of yacht driving simulator, and further analyzes the human-computer interaction connotation and typical design process of display and control equipment. This paper explores the application research of yacht driving simulator based on man-machine environment system engineering. In this method, the factor classification of man-machine interaction design, man-environment interaction design and machine-environment interaction design is fully considered. Finally, an application example shows that the design of yacht driving simulator based on man-machine environment system engineering can improve the work efficiency of yacht drivers, It can provide theoretical guidance for the interactive operation of yacht driving simulator.

Kunfu Wang, Li Guo, Wei Feng, Peng Zhang, Baiqiao Huang
Emergency Search and Rescue Command Simulation Equipment Based on Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering

Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering (MMESE) has been widely used in engineering problem. In this paper, we introduce the interactive characteristics of emergency search and rescue command simulation equipment first. Then we analyze the relationship between emergency search and human-computer interaction. We propose a method to form a framework about emergency search and rescue command simulation equipment with MMESE. In our method, the relationship among man, environment and machine is considered in design process. From the examples, it is shown that the efficiency of MMESE and the advanced performance in emergency search and rescue command simulation equipment.

Ruolin Xing, Jun Zhen, Yan Hao, Yafei Zhang
Perceptual Evaluation on the Man-Machine-Environment System of Music Library

Music library is not only a library with artistic characteristics, but also an integrated system of man-machine-environment. This research takes the music library of Tsinghua University Library as an example to evaluate and analyze the corresponding man-machine-environment system. Firstly, the man-machine- environment system of the music library is established and classified. Then, the environment, including the luminous environment, the thermal environment, the acoustic environment and the spatial environment is evaluated in terms of the human comfort in applications. This paper discusses the improvement of thermal environment for superior human comforts and the coordinated control of acoustic and luminous environment in the library. The results of this paper may provide a significant reference for the humanized service improvement of music library.

Kunzhu Zhang, Haoyu Yang, Quan Yuan
Research on Man-Machine–Environment Design of Stratospheric Airships

Stratospheric airship needs to consider the interaction of man-machine-environment due to the complexity of its design and the particularity of its working environment. Aiming at the deficiencies in the traditional stratospheric airship design, this paper proposes a comprehensive design method for the man-machine ring, and builds the design process. On this basis, the multi-disciplinary design concept is introduced, and it starts from the aspects of safety design, environmental adaptability design, splicing module design, system configuration design, visual accessibility and operability design of equipment layout, and flight control design, carried out the overall design of man-machine-environment integration. The research results show that this design method of human-machine-environment interaction is reasonable and feasible, and can make up for the shortcomings of traditional design to a certain extent, and improve the comprehensiveness of the design. We will consider using this method to further realize the unification of “man-machine-environment”, and provide more guidance and help for the design of stratospheric airships.

Jing Lv, Yuanping Zhang, Qian Wang, Heng Gao
Hand Operation Ergonomics Study and Design of CCGA Grinding Process

An ergonomics study and design of Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) grinding using hand operation are performed. A systemic CCGA grinding process procedure is developed. First, the typical grasp method of CCGA chip is defined. Eleven points in chip are selected. Second, the operation order of grinding parts are designed and the grinding times is also proposed. The common grinding order is the front part, middle part, and back part of the CCGA chip; and the grinding time should be large than 3. Third, two indices are considered to evaluate the grinding operation effect, i.e., the grinding time and CCGA flatness degree. The CCGA flatness degree can also be used for grinding effect evaluation (rather than the grinding operation effect). Many experiment results have shown that the proposed grinding method can improve the grinding effect and quality stability of CCGA chip.

Haoting Liu, Jianyue Ge, Yuan Wang, Shengjie Wang, Pengrong Lin, Shaohua Yang, Duming Wang
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering
Editors
Prof. Shengzhao Long
Prof. Balbir S. Dhillon
Copyright Year
2023
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-19-4786-5
Print ISBN
978-981-19-4785-8
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-4786-5

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