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About this book

This book focuses on new methods, architectures, and applications for the management of Cyber Physical Objects (CPOs) in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT).

It covers a wide range of topics related to CPOs, such as resource management, hardware platforms, communication and control, and control and estimation over networks. It also discusses decentralized, distributed, and cooperative optimization as well as effective discovery, management, and querying of CPOs. Other chapters outline the applications of control, real-time aspects, and software for CPOs and introduce readers to agent-oriented CPOs, communication support for CPOs, real-world deployment of CPOs, and CPOs in Complex Systems. There is a focus on the importance of application of IoT technologies for Smart Cities.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Cyber-Physical Systems: Opportunities, Challenges and (Some) Solutions

Abstract
The notion of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) has recently been introduced. The term describes the integration of information and computation technologies (ICT) with real, physical objects. In this chapter, we motivate work in this new area by presenting the large set of opportunities resulting from this integration. However, this requires coping with a number of challenges which we do also include in this chapter. The final main section of this chapter comprises solutions which demonstrate that it is feasible to address the challenges and find solutions, even though a major amount of additional work is required.
Peter Marwedel, Michael Engel

Cyber-Physical Objects as Key Elements for a Smart Cyber-City

Abstract
The continuous growth of the urban population has generated a drastic expansion of our cities. Nowadays, indeed, more than 50 % of the world’s population is urban, and they forecast that it will reach 70 % by 2050. Therefore, cities need to be ready to accommodate this huge amount of citizens and to face new challenges (e.g., traffic congestion, air pollution, waste management, etc.). The concept of cyber-physical systems, as integration of computation and physical processes, can help toward the realization of real smart cities capable to ensure sustainability and efficiency. To this purpose, this chapter investigates the cyber-physical system (CPS) and their cyber-physical object (CPO) as key units, in the context of a smart city concept. We survey the smart city vision, providing information on the main requirements, the open challenges, and highlighting the benefits; we also browse the European Commission initiatives for smart cities and some pilot projects that are in development.
Riccardo Petrolo, Valeria Loscri, Nathalie Mitton

Structuring Communications for Mobile Cyber-Physical Systems

Abstract
Mobile autonomous agents, particularly robots, are becoming commonplace in many application domains, e.g., search and rescue, demining, agriculture and surveillance. These so-called Mobile Cyber-Physical Systems (M-CPS) allow relocating sensors and actuators dynamically in the environment to improve some global performance metric. However, the necessary agents cooperation is hindered by their heterogeneity, dynamic communication links and network topology, and by an error-prone communication channel. This chapter focuses on the networking and middleware support for a class of M-CPS and proposes the Reconfigurable and Adaptive TDMA protocol to handle data transmission under communication-related uncertainties, and the RTDB shared memory middleware to provide seamless data access across the cooperating agents. This combination of network protocol and middleware layer is particularly suited to support state sharing among agents in dynamic teams. Several experimental results confirm the advantage over other potential options. Moreover, this protocol and middleware combination have been thoroughly validated in demanding operational scenarios namely in robotic soccer teams from RoboCup Middle-Size League, which exhibit the typical requirements and constraints of M-CPS.
Luis Almeida, Frederico Santos, Luis Oliveira

ANIMO, Framework to Simplify the Real-Time Distributed Communication

Abstract
This paper presents a communication framework developed for interconnecting multi-systems based on the Data Distribution Service (DDS). The newly built framework, called ANIMO, facilitates the integration of DDS in an application and the interoperability between the different data types of the Cooperating Objects (COs) with the great feature of real-time. Furthermore, a powerful tool to generate code has been developed bringing the incorporation and the updating of the data types as a very easy and simple task. In addition, a novel module has been performed to give the capacity to communicate the ANIMO framework with the ROS middleware that makes even easier the integration of mobile robots as another Cooperating Object. This paper explains the complete architecture of the ANIMO framework, its diversity of possibilities and two principal works where it has been applied. One is a distributed simulator to validate embedded control algorithms. The other is the task of the supervision and message passing between quadrotors in an experiment of coordination and cooperation involving multiple aerial vehicles.
Yamnia Rodríguez, Carlos Alejo, Irene Alejo, Antidio Viguria

SERAPH: Service Allocation Algorithm for the Execution of Multiple Applications in Heterogeneous Shared Sensor and Actuator Networks

Abstract
Shared Sensor and Actuator Networks (SSAN) represent a new design trend in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that allows the sensing and communication infrastructure to be shared among multiple applications submitted by different users, instead of the original application-specific WSN design. In this paper, with the goal of fully utilising the network infrastructure and inspired by a service-oriented architecture, we modeled applications as sets of primitive services to be provided by sensor nodes. By using such approach, sensor nodes can perform different roles according to the services they offer and it is possible to identify common services required by different applications so that leveraging service sharing and optimizing the use of the network resources. With these premises, we propose an adaptive service selection and allocation algorithm called SERAPH that can efficiently utilise the underlying heterogeneous hardware resources, and yet provide the desired QoS level for multiple applications. Experimental results show that SERAPH provides competitive performance regarding energy efficiency, making it a promising task allocation algorithm for SSANs.
Claudio M. de Farias, Wei Li, Flávia C. Delicato, Luci Pirmez, Paulo F. Pires, Albert Y. Zomaya

A Smart Platform for Large-Scale Cyber-Physical Systems

Abstract
Recent advancements in the fields of embedded systems, communication technologies and computer science, have laid the foundations for new kinds of applications in which a plethora of physical devices are interconnected and immersed in an environment together with human beings. These so-called Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) issue a design challenge for new architecture in order to cope with problems such as the heterogeneity of devices, the intrinsically distributed nature of these systems, the lack of reliability in communications, etc. In this paper we introduce Rainbow, an architecture designed to address CPS issues. Rainbow hides heterogeneity by providing a Virtual Object (VO) concept, and addresses the distributed nature of CPS introducing a distributed multi-agent system on top of the physical part. Rainbow aims to get the computation close to the sources of information (i.e., the physical devices) and addresses the dynamic adaptivity requirements of CPS by using Swarm Intelligence algorithms.
Andrea Giordano, Giandomenico Spezzano, Andrea Vinci

Towards Cyberphysical Digital Libraries: Integrating IoT Smart Objects into Digital Libraries

Abstract
Digital libraries are distributed software infrastructures that aim at collecting, managing, preserving, and using digital objects (or resources) for the long term, and providing specialized services on such resources to its users. Service provision should be of measurable quality and performed according to codified policies. Currently, modern digital libraries include a wide range of conventional digital objects: text document, image, audio, video, software, etc. In the emerging domain of the Internet of Things (IoT), cyberphysical smart objects (or simply smart objects) will play a central role in providing new (smart) services to both humans and machines. It is therefore challenging to include smart objects, the newest type of digital objects, into digital libraries as novel first-class objects to be collected, managed, and preserved. However, their inclusion poses critical issues to address and many research challenges to deal with. This paper aims at paving the way towards such a novel inclusion that will enable effective discovery, management and querying of smart objects, so establishing cyberphysical digital libraries. In particular, our approach is based on a metadata model purposely defined to describe all the cyberphysical characteristics (geophysical, functional, and non-functional) of smart objects. The metadata model is then used for a seamless integration of smart objects into digital libraries compliant with the digital library reference model proposed by the DL.org community. The proposed approach is also exemplified through a simple yet effective case study.
Giancarlo Fortino, Anna Rovella, Wilma Russo, Claudio Savaglio

Cooperation of Smart Objects and Urban Operators for Smart City Applications

Abstract
The project “TETRis—TETRA Innovative Open Source Services” has delivered a technological infrastructure for enabling innovative services for Smart City/Smart Territory. This paper describes the software tools and intelligent platforms for collecting, representing, managing and exploiting data and information gathered from sensors and devices deployed in the territory. Tools and platforms are integrated into a complex smart environment that provides advanced services to citizen and operators for environmental monitoring, urban mobility and emergency management. Although the project is mainly based on the utilization of the communication protocol TETRA, the application scenarios may work with other network protocols as well.
Simona Citrigno, Sabrina Graziano, Domenico Saccà
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