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About this book

This book presents the skills required in business and management careers. The management tools provided within this text can be very useful for beginners in the study of management area, as well as to those pursuing a managerial career in different types of organization. It serves as a refreshment in the management sciences foundations. Subjects such as accounting, marketing, human resources, operations, finance are treated in detail, giving the reader the background that can be applied to a variety of real world business situations. The book also covers the latest developments in management research activity, promoting discussion and the exchange of information on principles, strategies, models, techniques, methodologies and applications in the management and business area.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Corporate Governance Foundations

The first part of this chapter is dedicated to corporate governance and to the different theories and models that can be found throughout the world, as well as to the analysis of the influence of local culture and law in the governance models. On a second step, the authors concrete the study in the Boards of Directors, and in some of the variables that mostly affect them, choosing six countries for an empiric study. Other important aspects, such as the board independence , the behavioral approach to analyze the board effectiveness , or the governance of nonprofit organizations, are analyzed in the last part of the chapter.
Nuria Bajo Davó, Víctor Manuel Martín Martínez, José Manuel Rodríguez-Carrasco

Knowledge as a Valuable Asset of Organizations: Taxonomy, Management and Implications

This chapter presents basic information about knowledge management . Knowledge is regarded as a valuable asset of organizations and knowledge -related processes play a critical role in business operations. Businesses that are successful in management of knowledge processes create value and gain competitive advantage. In this context, in order to provide an understanding about the term of knowledge, first part of the chapter has been spared for the essentials of knowledge topic. In this part, importance, definition and taxonomies of knowledge have been covered. The second part, on the other hand, has been spared for knowledge management issue. In this regard, origins, definitions and enablers of knowledge management issues have been covered. In this chapter, knowledge management has been taken from a process-oriented viewpoint and it has been defined as management of knowledge processes .
Yasemin Sen

The Culture of Management and the Management of Culture: An Introduction

Management is not an abstraction; rather, it is an active process conducted within a specific organizational environment. To be successful and effective, managers must appreciate the organizational environment within which they operate and align their efforts with its underlying system of assumptions, beliefs, and values—that is, with its culture. This chapter provides an introduction to the cultural forces at work within work-related environments: national cultures, organizational cultures, and organizational climates. It offers a broad and pragmatic insight into organizational culture and culture typologies. It also invites managers to explore the culture of their work and organizational environments, to determine the cultural elements and forces at work, and to select a managerial approach that is appropriate and culturally attuned.
David Starr-Glass

HRM in the Organization: An Overview

This chapter provides an overview of the Human Resource Management (HRM) function. In particular, the historical developments that combined to shape the modern HRM function are explored, and attention is paid to briefly overviewing current HRM activities that are common across many organizations. Woven throughout the chapter is the suggestion that HRM activities need to be viewed holistically, both with regard to being parts of an overall system that impact each other, and also in light of other organizational activities. An additional recurring theme concerns viewing people as one of the main determinants of achieving organizational goals. The chapter concludes by reinforcing the relationship between HRM and organizational success.
Deirdre O’Donovan

Desirable Characteristics of the Human Resources Director

This chapter presents the desirable characteristics of the human resources director. Starting from the base that human resources director needs a great responsibility in the decision-making, a series of necessary characteristics that facilitate their work are established. Among them is justified the need to have great humility, technical knowledge, initiatives, knowledge of their employees and extensive human training, command capacity, and exercise true leadership. All of them contribute to the improvement by the manager of the company’s human capital and therefore of its business competitiveness.
S. Gutiérrez-Broncano, P. Jiménez Estévez, J. Opute, Q. Pittendrigh

Age Management in a Formal Caregiving Organization: An Exploration of Managers’ Perceptions

This chapter addresses issues related to age management and active ageing in Portuguese non-profit associations that provide care and lifelong support for persons with disabilities. It focuses on managers’ perceptions about the caregiving activity, the human resource management practices that have been recently adopted, and the perceived importance of such practices in those organizations. The findings highlight managers’ awareness of the challenging and adverse effects of caregiving. It was also found that some human resource practices perceived as relevant are not being implemented in this type of organizations.
Filipa Luz, Regina Leite, José Alvarelhão

Social Customer Relationship Management in Small and Medium Enterprises: Overcoming Barriers to Success

This study uses a blended form of multiple theories to identify three specific capabilities—proactive engagement, learning and change management, and managerial support—which when leveraged by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) may make more likely the successful implementation of social customer relationship management (SCRM). We explore how these capabilities are related to perceptions of barriers to SCRM and the impact they have on the beneficial outcomes of SCRM. Using data from a sample of 540 Australian SMEs that implemented SCRM and employing ordered probit and multivariate probit models, we find that lack of time and knowledge are important stumbling blocks to successful SCRM implementation, while security risks are not insurmountable impediments as SMEs appear able to work effectively around these particular obstacles. The results show that SMEs, even when faced with implementation barriers, are able to realise the high-value benefits from their SCRM efforts when the above three capabilities are deployed and leveraged in tandem. The novel contributions of this study lie in its provision of empirical theory-based evidence of the basic building blocks for SCRM success in SMEs.
Nuttaneeya (Ann) Torugsa, Kritcha Yawised, Wayne O’Donohue

Operations Research and Emergent Technologies

The unstoppable rise of computer power and technological innovation in all aspects of everyday life is changing the way organizations function and make decisions. Artificial intelligence , big data analytics and blockchain are some of the emergent technologies that are impacting every industry , raising new challenges and enabling important opportunities in the development and application of operations research (OR). Many innovation paths arise from the hybridization between OR and these emergent technology domains: (i) using new technologies to apply OR , (ii) adopting new approaches to enrich OR methods and (iii) applying OR methods to enhance emergent technologies . Based on the scientific literature, this chapter explores the synergies between OR and emergent technologies , and highlights noteworthy application horizons and areas of research arising from their hybridization .
Gema Calleja, Jordi Olivella, Mariona Vilà

Institutional Factors and High-Performance Work Organisations (HPWOs) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)

This chapter focuses on the institutional factors that facilitate or impede the development of high-performance work organisations (HPWOs ) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) . It is based on the premise that the adoption of institutional perspective across regional hubs is pertinent in revealing and capturing the various factors influencing the creation of high-performance organisations in Africa. We argue that regulatory , normative , sociocultural institutional factors facilitate but also impede the development of HPWOs in SSA . Building on the high-performance work practice (HPWP) model, we uncover the interactive relationship between HPWPs and the ability, motivation and opportunity (AMO) model of human resource management and how organisations can deploy them for the attainment of HPWO status .
Raphael O. Oseghale, Richard B. Nyuur, Yaw A. Debrah

Human Resources Management in a Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise

Small-sized enterprises generate most of the jobs in Portugal; however, their informal way of working in what concerns human resources leads to an inefficient use of resources, both financial and human, that are invaluable values within this type of business . This work aimed to analyze how human resources management is developed in a small Portuguese family company, having as background the theoretical assumptions in the field of human resources management in SMEs , as well as to identify the factors that contribute to the implementation of the practices of human resources management in the organization . For this, empirical evidence of an exploratory case study is presented, carried out in a small family business , being the data collected through a semi-structured interview with the founder and CEO of the organization . Results show that the implementation of human resources management is determined by the relationship of the organization with larger client companies, with the most implemented practices being recruitment , selection , rewards , and training . However, there are major resource constraints to formalize and develop the most critical human resources management practices .
Adriana Faria, Carolina Feliciana Machado

Backmatter

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