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About this book

This book discusses contamination of water, air, and soil media. The book covers health effects of such contamination and discusses remedial measures to improve the situation. Contributions by experts provide a comprehensive discussion on the latest developments in the detection and analysis of contaminants, enabling researchers to understand the evolution of these pollutants in real time and develop more accurate source apportionment of these pollutants. The contents of this book will be of interest to researchers, professionals, and policy makers alike.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

1. Introduction of Measurement, Analysis and Remediation of Environmental Pollutants

Abstract
This book deals with contaminated Water, Air, Soil media and their Health Effects on population and Remedial measures to improve this situation. This book presents a synthesis with recent findings on air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution and human health. Each chapter, as applicable, discusses on abundance of pollutants in different media and highlights the plausible and effective tool to be implemented in order to control for it. There are twenty one chapters in this book. Initially, we discuss about major challenges in atmospheric research and then in second half part we focus on water and soil pollutants and their control as well as synthesis on human health perspectives. We have attempted to incorporate ongoing research from conventional to advance measurement techniques in all the aforementioned areas of scientific and engineering research. Our efforts have led to compilation of recent data set and its practical implications from many research aspects.
Tarun Gupta, Swatantra Pratap Singh, Prashant Rajput, Avinash Kumar Agarwal

2. Quantification of Airborne Particulate and Associated Toxic Heavy Metals in Urban Indoor Environment and Allied Health Effects

Abstract
The present chapter is an attempt to summarize the importance of indoor air quality, which can be considered as IAQ and to emphasize on the hazardous effects of particulate matter (PM) consisting of fine and ultrafine particles. Indoor air pollution is a leading cause of poor health outcome in India. Nano particles in indoor air have been linked to growing cardiovascular diseases and premature deaths in India. Metals are associated with particulate matter. Heavy metals are produced by non-exhaust discharges, fuel additives and by extraction processes. They are considered to be hazardous mainly because of their potential to produce reactive oxygen species in respiratory system. The purpose of this chapter is explained by a case study undertaken in Lucknow city where particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10) and associated heavy metals viz. Fe, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Mn were analyzed in three microenvironments namely (1) well planned, (2) densely populated and (3) roadside, over a period of two years (2012–2014). Identification of the main sources of the heavy metals was done through principal component analysis. Calculation of enrichment factors was also done for heavy metals to know their source of origin. Human health is generally affected by the accumulation of pollutants in the body. Even though the hazardous effects of heavy metals are known, still there is limited knowledge on association of a disease with inhalation exposure, particularly in indoor environment. The issue needs more focus to understand the causes, harm and to recommend actions to check the emissions and lower the ill effects.
Alfred J. Lawrence, Tahmeena Khan

3. In-situ Measurements of Aerosols from the High-Altitude Location in the Central Himalayas

Abstract
Aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, affect the Earth’s climate directly due to the absorption and scattering of solar radiation and indirectly by modifying the cloud microphysics. Due to the short lifetime of these aerosols, their distribution is non-uniform and large uncertainties exist in their estimates at global and regional scale. The characteristics of atmospheric aerosols vary largely from one region to another due to spatial and temporal variations in the emission sources, transport, atmospheric transformation and removal of aerosol particles. The aerosol measurements over the Himalayan region are of crucial importance in order to provide a far-field picture quite away from potential sources. The ground-based measurements of aerosols are utilized along with satellite data to explain various aerosol characteristics over the Himalayan region. The roles of different processes such as boundary layer dynamics, meteorology, regional and long-range transport are assessed. In addition, the aerosol variation over the foothills of the Himalayas in the Indo-Gangetic Plain region has also been studied and the role of the boundary layer dynamics and updraft/downdraft of aerosols is elaborated. The high-altitude location of Himalayas is characterized by the low aerosol loading specially in winter, while significant aerosol abundance is observed in the spring. However, the significant aerosol abundance is observed over the foothills location throughout the year. The strong confinement of aerosols in the foothill region is evident, which leads to the significant enhancement in the surface concentration of aerosols. Interestingly, in the spring season, significant aerosol abundance is seen over the Himalayan region as well. The investigation of the mixing layer depth and the vertical distribution of aerosols over this region in spring reveals the transport and buildup of aerosols from the foothills region to the Himalayan region. The role of absorbing aerosols in the radiation budget over the central Himalaya region is also discussed.
Hema Joshi, Manish Naja, Tarun Gupta

4. Analysis of Atmospheric Pollutants During Fireworks Festival ‘Diwali’ at a Residential Site Delhi in India

Abstract
Globally, a number of firework events have been celebrated on a large scale in the names of different festivals. Diwali is one among the popular Indian festival held during October or November every year with huge fireworks. In the present study, various air pollutants like nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and ozone (O3) were analyzed in pre, during and post Diwali in two consecutive years i.e. October 2016 and October 2017 in capital city of India, Delhi. The results showed that the background values of particulate matter are exceeding 5–6 times in 2016 and 7–8 times in 2017 than permissible limits set by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), India. In Diwali-2016, the highest PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were about 8 times and 7 times higher than NAAQS limits respectively. For Diwali-2017, there was rapid increase in PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations that were about 10 times and 13 times higher than NAAQS threshold value respectively. Moreover, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in 2017, higher than 2016 were found to be 5–8 times more as compared to background concentrations. However, the concentrations of NOx and O3 look similar during background event, pre Diwali, Diwali and post Diwali periods in both the years of 2016 and 2017. The huge Diwali induced air pollution is influenced by transboundary air mass movements from nearby regions of Delhi and adjoining countries in both the selected years of 2016 and 2017 particularly in case of particulate matter in Diwali and Post Diwali. The study concludes that during background and in and around Diwali period receives the air masses containing the emissions from biomass burning which significantly increases the air pollution load.
Pallavi Saxena, Anju Srivastava, Shivangi Verma, Shweta, Lakhwinder Singh, Saurabh Sonwani

5. Organic Air Pollutants: Measurement, Properties & Control

Abstract
In last few decades, air pollution has emerged as a major threat to human health and different gaseous and particulates air pollutants are found to be influencing global climate directly or indirectly via altering radiative forcing or of cloud microphysical properties. Organic air pollutants contribute a substantial portion to the total pollutants load and usually, in polluted location, their contribution can go up to 90% of the total particulate phase air pollutants or aerosols. Organic particulate pollutants or aerosols can be both primary or secondary in nature and generally changes their characteristics significantly upon reacting with different atmospheric oxidants like ozone or hydroxyl radicals. Sources and characteristics of organic air pollutants generally display a wide range of spatiotemporal variability. Several techniques are available the detection and measurement of organic air pollutants but time resolution and types of organic pollutants detected by different techniques vary significantly. However, since the characteristics of the organic pollutants can change relatively quickly via atmospheric processing it is desirable to measure these pollutants in real time. Recent advances in mass spectrometric techniques have enabled the scientists to understand the evolution of these organic pollutants in real-time and that led to more accurate source apportionment and identification of factors that influence the formation of secondary organic aerosols. In this chapter readers will get a comprehensive overview of organic air pollutants characteristics, their sources, evolution in the atmosphere and possible ways to control their abundance.
Abhishek Chakraborty

6. Chemical Speciation and Source Apportionment of Airborne Coarse Particles at Kanpur

Abstract
The key objective of this study was to unravel the major sources of PM10-2.5 (defined as PM10-PM2.5 or coarse particles) within and near the city of Kanpur. Airborne particulate matter (PM) samples were collected from 1st April to 15th July, 2011. The average mass concentration of coarse particles was found to be 64.3 ± 51.16 µg/m3. In addition to the mass concentrations of coarse particles their black carbon (BC), water soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble ions and elemental composition were also determined. The size-resolved data set was processed via Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to carefully identify major sources and an attempt was made to quantify their respective source strengths. The contribution of these sources to the coarse PM mass concentration was also assessed. The identified sources and their contributions for the coarse particles were paved road dust (53%), vehicular emission (7%), coal combustion & brick kilns (2.5%), construction activities and incineration (0.5%), crustal dust (32%) and biomass burning and oil combustion (5%).
Pragati Rai, Tarun Gupta

7. Analysis of an Aerosol Environment in an Urban Region and Its Impact on Regional Meteorology

Abstract
The aerosol environment over a region is a potential parameter to perturb the regional meteorology and it remains as a large source of uncertainties. This chapter presents an analysis of the aerosol environment over Kolkata, a densely-populated metropolitan area in the Eastern India, near to the land-ocean boundary of Bay of Bengal. Along with the natural sources of aerosols, anthropogenic aerosols constantly contribute to the total aerosol loading in this region. This analysis shows how the spectral dependence pattern of aerosol optical parameters estimates the dominant type of aerosols over a region. Furthermore, the investigation shows the impact of the dominant type of aerosols on the boundary layer meteorology utilizing ground based observations. In the course of this discussion, the role of atmospheric black carbon (BC) aerosols in controlling the aerosol environment is focused. This urban region experiences much high BC concentrations mostly originating from incomplete combustion of fossil fuel used in vehicles. The chapter also includes a discussion on back trajectory analysis showing the influence of transported air masses on the regional aerosol environment. The investigation presented in this chapter depicts significant perturbation in the boundary layer temperature profile in association with the abundance of pollutant aerosols which in turn can affect the normal atmospheric convective processes over a region. This chapter contributes to a better understanding of impact of pollutant aerosols on the regional meteorology and thermodynamic processes.
Shamitaksha Talukdar, Animesh Maitra

8. Vertical Profiling of Aerosol and Aerosol Types Using Space-Borne Lidar

Abstract
Aerosol remote sensing has become a powerful tool to characterize the optical and microphysical properties of aerosols. Several satellite sensors such as MODIS, MISR, OMI, Tropomi and PARASOL utilize the solar electromagnetic radiation for retrieving aerosol properties from space. These instruments have high spatial coverage and can provide aerosol properties globally on a repeated basis. However, these passive sensors mostly lack the information regarding vertical distribution of aerosol and its types. Using active remote sensing technique however, provide valuable information to understand the vertical distribution of aerosols which is very useful to predict the lifetime of atmospheric aerosols, long-range transport and subsequent interaction with cloud droplets. CALIOP is an active sensor flying on board CALIPSO satellite provide height-dependent aerosol extinction repeatedly on a global basis. CALIOP aerosol retrieval algorithm retrieves aerosol information in 5 km horizontal resolution and 30–60 m vertical resolution. The latest updated CALIOP aerosol retrieval algorithm version 4 (V4) has the ability to identify ten aerosol subtypes; six for tropospheric aerosols and four for stratospheric aerosols. In this context, the annual, seasonal and diurnal variation of smoke aerosol have been investigated over central Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), South Asia using ten years V4 CALIOP profile data. We noted that for all the seasons, the highest smoke aerosol extinction observed near surface and contributed 40–60% to the total aerosol extinction during winter (DJF) and postmonsoon seasons (ON). In premonsoon (MAM) and monsoon (JJAS) seasons the highest contribution of smoke to the total extinction coefficient found at relatively higher altitude (premonsoon: 60% at 7–9 km, monsoon: 75% at 5–8 km). The day-night occurrence frequency of smoke aerosol found higher during the day time in winter at 4 km, while during monsoon the occurrence of the smoke was found higher at night time.
Alaa Mhawish, K. S. Vinjamuri, Nandita Singh, Manish Kumar, Tirthankar Banerjee

9. A Study of Optical and Microphysical Properties of Atmospheric Brown Clouds Over the Indo-Gangetic Plains

Abstract
Atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs), a dense and widespread layer of air, have significant implications to human health, air quality and regional climate. Being a habitat of more than 350 million human population, the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) is also one of the ABCs hotspots of the world. Considering the significant socio-economic impact of ABCs on lives of IGP’s populations, understanding of spatio-temporal characteristics of ABCs is necessary over the region. This study focuses on the frequency of ABCs occurrences and associated optical and microphysical properties using data from seven ground-based remote sensors situated across the IGP. We have used total ~5253 days of Level 2 aerosol measurements from seven AERosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) sites [Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur, New Delhi, Kanpur, Gandhi college and Dhaka University] for three seasons (Winter, Pre-monsoon and Post-monsoon). A well-defined algorithm based on extinction and absorbing properties of particles is used to characterize extreme pollution days (ABCs days) for each sites. Further, we have used spectral dependency of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD) to characterize aerosol types during ABCs days over IGP. The results indicate a unique feature of ABCs occurrences over the IGP. In general, the maximum frequency of ABCs days is found during pre-monsoon seasons over all the sites. However, other seasons have specific features over specific locations, for example, the maximum occurrence of ABCs days was found over Dhaka in post-monsoon (65%), followed by Delhi during pre-monsoon (61.29%), and Kanpur in pre-monsoon (44.29%). The results show that while extreme pollution days in pre-monsoon is dominated by dust polluted aerosols, biomass burning is the main source during winter and post-monsoon. This study provides a comprehensive climatology of spectral nature of AOD, AAOD, single scattering albedo (SSA), asymmetry parameter and size distribution of ABCs across the region.
Manish Jangid, Saurabh Chaubey, Amit Kumar Mishra

10. Spatial Variation of Airborne Allergenic Fungal Spores in the Ambient PM2.5—A Study in Rajkot City, Western Part of India

Abstract
Fungal spores in the fine particle is an emerging pollutant of the technological age, which can create adversely effect on human health and their surrounding environment. Probably the first time in the western part of India, an investigation was organized to assess the spatial distribution of PM2.5 associated fungal spore concentration levels in an urban city. Five urban locations selected to cover probably all major areas of a city to conduct the study by using fine particulate sampler with 24 hours’ interval. Highest (101.79 ± 8.09 µg m−3) concentrations of PM2.5 have been observed in the industrial area only. The highest (8.0 × 1013 Colony-forming unit (CFU) m−3) in industrial area and lowest (2.0 × 108 CFU m−3) fungal concentrations were found in the residential area. Spores of seven fungal species (i.e., Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cephalosporium and Mucor) were significantly predominant in all selected locations in the urban area. In these views, Aspergillus, Candida and Penicillium, and Fusarium species were the dominant fungi in Industrial, slaughter house and dump site, respectively. The highest concentration of fungal spores was reported in industrial area and poultry farm as compared to other locations. Outcomes of the current work suggested that fungal spores were observed in the respirable fraction (<2.5 μm) and so had the potential to penetrate the deeper part of the lungs. In addition, the meteorological parameters i.e., temperature and relative humidity, were recorded to understand the relationship between meteorology and enhanced viability of fungal spores.
Charmi Humbal, Sneha Gautam, Suneel Kumar Joshi, Mahendrapal Singh Rajput

11. Measurement, Analysis, and Remediation of Biological Pollutants in Water

Abstract
Clean water is vital for supporting human life and the ecosystem. However, the laxity and mismanagement of water resources have endangered the availability of fresh water significantly. Water pollution and associated diseases claim around 2.1 million human lives every year. The outbreak of water-related microbial infections such as diarrhoea, typhoid, and cholera are the primary cause of the loss of lives. Though there has been remarkable progress in the control and prevention of infectious diseases, microbial risks remain a leading cause of human mortality in India, and the rest of the world and children are the worst affected. In this context, a comprehensive analysis of the source, occurrence, fate, and control of biological contaminants in dirking water is of utmost relevance. The rapid and early detection of the pathogenic organism is also of importance in mitigating the menace. This chapter elucidates the growing significance to address the issue of microbial contamination in drinking water and its associated health implications from the past to the present, recent developments in the technologies for the detection, analysis and the remediation of pathogens in the water.
Uthradevi Kannan, S. Krishna Prashanth, Shihabudheen M. Maliyekkal

12. Occurrence, Contamination, Speciation and Analysis of Selenium in the Environment

Abstract
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and human. It serves as an antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic agent in humans. However, there is only a minuscule gap in intake concentration between deficiency and toxicity limits. Natural source of Se in the environment is due to weathering of selenium-containing parent bedrocks and atmospheric deposition. However, the magnitude of the release of Se into the environment has intensified by anthropogenic activities. The bioavailability and toxicity of Se depend on its chemical forms, exposure time, and concentration. Several studies have documented both the beneficial and adverse effects of Se on human and other biotic forms. In this context, understanding the fundamentals of selenium chemistry, occurrence, sources, toxicity, and exposure mechanism are important to control its intake and threshold uptake limit. The chapter reviews the literature relevant to the release of Se into the natural habitat, speciation, and its effects on humans and animals. The manuscript also renders outline on analytical techniques based on speciation and detection of selenium compounds.
M. S. V. Naga Jyothi, B. J. Ramaiah, Shihabudheen M. Maliyekkal

13. Bioleaching of Selected Metals from E-Waste Using Pure and Mixed Cultures of Aspergillus Species

Abstract
Printed circuit board (PCB) is an essential part present in electronic waste (e-waste). Rich metallic content including base, precious, and toxic metals makes PCB a secondary metal reservoir. Recycling of PCB is necessary to conserve natural resources and to protect the environment. Bioleaching process is preferred over the conventional metallurgical techniques for metal recycling from e-waste due to its better efficiency and environmental compatibility. Metal bioleaching from e-waste employing heterotrophic microorganisms like fungi is the comparatively less explored area. In this context, bioleaching of selected metals such as Cu, Ni, and Zn from e-waste in the form of desktop PCB using pure and mixed cultures of Aspergillus species was attempted. Aspergillus niger was chosen for its organic acid production ability to presumably help in bioleaching of metals. As the metals are usually embedded in the polymer matrix in the PCB, Aspergillus tubingensis was selected for its polymer-degrading ability. The bioleaching experiments were performed using pulverized waste PCB (WPCB) in the particle size range of 0.038–1 mm for a period of 33 days at 1 g/L of pulp density. Results showed that the pure culture of Aspergillus niger was able to leach a maximum of 71% Cu, 32% Ni, and 79% Zn. Similarly, the corresponding maximum metal leaching efficiency employing a pure culture of Aspergillus tubingensis was 54% Cu, 41% Zn, and 14% Ni. Using mixed cultures of Aspergillus species, there was a marginal increase in metal bioleaching for Cu and Ni with extraction efficiency of 76 and 36%, respectively. Extraction efficiency of 63% for Zn was observed using the mixed culture. Results indicated the practical feasibility of fungal bioleaching using pure and mixed cultures of Aspergillus species for metal recycling from e-waste for prospective beneficiation.
Amber Trivedi, Subrata Hait

14. Recent Advances in Micro-extraction Based Analytical Approaches for Pesticides Analysis in Environmental Samples

Abstract
Pesticides are auxiliary input to induce the quality and production of food. It is also considerate to minimize the postharvest losses of crops and to fulfill the increasing demand. Although pesticides are useful in food production, their versatile use had resulted in the occurrence of contamination and residues in all necessities of our life, i.e., food, water, and air. Nowadays, consumer perception about food safety and quality leads to transparency and traceability in various agricultural practices. The pesticide had a diverse meaning, it encompasses many hundreds of toxic chemicals, exhibiting enormously diverse chemical and physical properties. Thus to determine the level of pesticide residue in different commodities, a simple, effective and robust sample preparation and analytical determination technique is required. Further, technique includes both identification and quantification of analytes in food commodities, which strictly fulfill the international regulation on maximum residue limits. This chapter briefly discusses the modern analytical approaches, including different sample preparation technique followed by chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques.
Anshuman Srivastava, Minu Singh, Shiv Singh, Sheelendra Pratap Singh

15. Role of Microorganisms in Degradation and Removal of Anticonvulsant Drugs: A Review

Abstract
Over the past few years, large amounts of pharmaceutical compounds along with their active metabolites are emerging as environmental pollutants, which enters into water systems from different sources, such as sewage (human and animal excretion), landfill sites, wastewater from pharmaceutical industries and hospitals. In recent years the wide use of anticonvulsant drugs is one of the environmental concern due to its frequent use and determination in the environment. Anticonvulsant drugs and their metabolites are present in trace concentrations of µg L−1 to mg L−1 in water bodies. Biodegradation of these drug depends upon the different factors, such as physicochemical properties of drug, environmental factors (i.e. pH, light, temperature) and type of microbial strain. Different microbes like fungal strains (Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 9245, Umbelopsis ramanniana R-56) and Bacillus and Streptomyces species of bacteria have been reported with the ability to degrade pharmaceutical compounds via metabolic and metabolic pathways. This chapter summarizes the knowledge about biotransformation or biodegradation of anticonvulsant drugs and their metabolic pathways.
Neha Alok Sinha, Vipin Kumar

16. Oxidative Potential of Particulate Matter: A Prospective Measure to Assess PM Toxicity

Abstract
It is now broadly accepted that particulate matter exposure can lead to multiple adverse health effects. The capability of airborne particulate matter (PM) to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), known as “oxidative potential” (OP) is suggested to be one of the most relevant indicators of PM toxicity. Redox active chemical species in PM, of both inorganic and organic nature, facilitate ROS generation, causing oxidative damages, which are harmful for cells, ultimately leading to different chronic diseases. Therefore, OP has been proposed as a new additional metric for PM toxicity which is better associated with biological responses to PM exposures, thus could be more informative than particulate mass alone. However, the mechanisms of toxicity and its relation with the physico-chemical properties of PM are still largely unknown and need further research. Several chemical assays exist to assess the oxidative potential of PM. They differ from each other in sensitivity to the ROS generating chemical constituents of PM. The consumption of dithiothreitol (DTT), which is primarily based on the capability of redox active compounds to transfer electrons from DTT to oxygen, is used as the most widely applicable acellular method to assess the OP of PM. The potential of PM to deplete antioxidants such as glutathione, ascorbic acid and uric acid are a few of the other methods used to measure OP with respect to time. Another method, electron spin resonance (ESR) with 5,5-dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap, measures the ability of PM to induce hydroxyl radicals in the presence of H2O2. The current understanding of oxidative potential of PM, its analysis methods, along with its spatial distribution across the globe are presented here. Effect of various particle sizes, chemical composition, and nature of origin in exhibiting oxidative potential and its impact on health are additionally discussed.
Suman Yadav, Harish C. Phuleria

17. Monitoring and Processing of Data for Effective Wasteload Allocation Modeling in India

Abstract
Many rivers, especially in developing countries are getting polluted because of increased waste load emanating from industrial and urban sectors. Although many pollution abatement efforts have been taken up but no comprehensive effluent standards based on waste load allocation modeling (WLA) have been developed and implemented to control the river pollution. This chapter presents the overview of this method and the related impediments such as data collection, processing and its use to facilitate WLA modeling in India. It begins with the concept and components of waste load allocation modeling. The data required to carry out WLA modeling using QUAL2E simulation tool is also discussed. Finally it concludes with an emphasis on the need for a coordinated effort involving the policy makers, scientists, engineers and the academia. It is opined that incorporating the requisite data collection and processing in routine functioning by government agencies will pave the way for developing robust WLA models and facilitate state of the art research in this field. This eventually would lead us towards development of realistic pollution control management plans for the ailing rivers.
Dipteek Parmar, A. K. Keshari

18. Methane Emission from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills—Estimation and Control

Abstract
Methane gas can be generated from the Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill due to the presence of organic fraction and bacterial activity occurring over a period. Methane production in landfills and the resulting emissions to the atmosphere, representing the second largest anthropogenic methane source; hence, there is a need to estimate methane generation rate accurately followed by devising various technique to mitigate the emission. As the methane generation rate is governed by various factors like waste temperature, waste composition and density, pH within landfill, concentration of substrate, moisture content and toxins, several numerical and mathematical tools have been developed considering one or more of the outlined factors to estimate the landfill gas generation. Moreover, the estimation of methane gas generation and emission is also essential for predicting the settlement, in specific, differential settlement that could occur in the engineered landfills. The differential settlement could lead to the initiation and propagation of cracks on the soil barrier. This in turn, might be able to set a free drainage path for the escape of methane gas. In this chapter, a brief assessment on various existing models to predict the estimation of methane generation rate is discussed. The accuracy of the predicted values obtained from various models is estimated from the experimentally observed dataset. This chapter also highlights the need for the evaluation of methane gas generation rate in modeling the settlement of MSW landfills. In addition, various techniques used to mitigate the emission of the methane from the landfill are also discussed.
S. Rajesh, S. Roy, V. Khan

19. Low-Cost Adsorptive Removal Techniques for Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products

Abstract
The production and consumption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have grown ominously over the last 3–4 decades. PPCPs, often considered as emerging contaminants, are being perceived as a serious risk to receiving environments, especially water bodies, due to their ecotoxicological effects. Further, many of the PPCPs are generally persistent, leading to their environmental accumulation, which is evident from the several PPCPs detected in rivers, lakes, groundwater, and soils at variable concentration levels. Although high-end and energy intensive systems like membrane processes are fairly effective in the removal of PPCPs from water or wastewater, conventional treatment technologies often fail to remove PPCPs, and hence treated effluents from various sewage treatment plants have been reported to contain PPCPs from parts per million (ppm) to parts per trillion (ppt) levels. This chapter will discuss the cost effective technologies, especially adsorptive removal methods, being developed for the remediation, recovery, and treatment of PPCPs. A series of low-cost natural and synthetic adsorbents are being investigated, and have shown variable effectiveness and potential for the removal of PPCPs. The chapter will include a state-of-art literature summary on various low-cost adsorbents tested for the removal of selective PPCPs.
Dina Zaman, Manoj Kumar Tiwari, Swati Mishra

20. Measurement, Analysis, and Remediation of Bisphenol-A from Environmental Matrices

Abstract
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the important emerging contaminants, which has been widely used as a raw material for the preparation of epoxy and polycarbonate. They are mainly present in our daily use products such as the lining of water containers, canned food and beverages, infant bottles, and medical devices due to its heat resistance and elasticity property. BPA is an alkyl phenol, find its primary route to environmental matrices by leaching out from the final consumer product containers or during the manufacturing process. The various factors responsible for leaching of BPA include temperature, the presence of acids, and storage time. It is an endocrine disruptor and causes an adverse impact on humans as well as aquatic organisms. Therefore, many countries have banned their usage, especially in infant bottles and other food containers. Conventional wastewater treatment technologies have been inefficient for degrading these type of persistent compounds. Advanced treatment techniques are sustainable approaches for the removal of persistent compounds from water. Further, the measurement and analysis of BPA and their conjugates requires sophisticated analytical instrumentation. This chapter provides a detailed review of available measurement and analysis methods for determination of bisphenol-A. Further, the chapter also reviews the various treatment technologies for the removal of BPA from environmental matrices.
Sukanya Krishnan, Ansaf V. Karim, Swatantra Pratap Singh, Amritanshu Shriwastav

21. Removal of Chromium Ions from Water Using Eco-friendly Based Adsorbents

Abstract
In recent years, individual access to clean water becomes one of the most critical challenges around the world owing to the presence of various toxic pollutants in water. Chromium is one of the important heavy metal pollutants and posing significant threat to human beings due to its severe adverse effects. Because of its potential adverse effects on humans and other species, remediation becomes an absolute necessity. Whilst many techniques have been reported for the removal of chromium ions from polluted water, adsorption-based technologies gained more consideration as being inexpensive, simple, easy handling, etc. Furthermore, bio-based adsorbents are being extensively studied over other adsorbents for the removal of chromium due to their excellent adsorption capability, non-toxicity, biodegradability and availability. Therefore, the foremost aim of this chapter is to review the various bio-based adsorbents used for the removal of chromium ions from polluted water.
Karthik Rathinam, Swatantra Pratap Singh
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