The ancient Egyptian drawings in their temples indicate that the River Nile was used for transportation and inland navigation, for the raising of fish and livestock, and for the production of grain and other food commodities through agriculture. The central power of the state at that time was mainly concentrated in the hands of the Pharaoh or the king who was the donor of the land, the facilitator of optimum production, and the recipient of part or all the crops harvested from the land. The story of Prophet Joseph and the ruler of Egypt which was narrated in almost all holy books shows that Egypt was the place from which all surrounding countries obtain their stocks of grain and other food commodities (legumes, beans, lentils, onions, garlic, etc.).
Egypt, therefore, is not only the gift of the River Nile, but the country is also devoted, since the early days of history for the production of food and fiber, and the Egyptians are all born with their feet in the mud, i.e., they are all born with farming skills.
Throughout history, Egypt changed several times from small-scale farming to medium-sized farms and eventually to mega agricultural projects.
This chapter follows the rout of agricultural development in Egypt during the last 200 years until the present time; the mega projects will have more emphasis especially those established during the last 20–30 years.