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2018 | Book

Metal Matrix Composites

Wetting and Infiltration

Authors: Dr. Antonio Contreras Cuevas, Dr. Egberto Bedolla Becerril, Dr. Melchor Salazar Martínez, Dr. José Lemus Ruiz

Publisher: Springer International Publishing


About this book

This book covers several aspects of the synthesis of composites by the pressureless infiltration technique. It describes the methods used to obtain green preforms, such as cold pressed and hot sintering, describing the heating time, load, and time required for pressing the preforms. Additionally, wettability phenomena, which is directly related on infiltration, is extensively described. Wettability process and interfacial reactions are analyzed in many ceramic-metal systems prior to fabricate the composites. A complete description of fabrication processes for Metal Matrix Composites is included. An extensive section on structural, chemical, and mechanical characterization of composites fabricated with aluminum and magnesium alloys as matrices reinforced with titanium carbide (TiC), aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC) and alumina (Al2O3) is included. Relevant techniques for joining composites, such as welding and brazing are addressed. As well as issues pertaining to the corrosion and wear of composites are discussed as well. Corrosion behavior of some composites exposed to aqueous media was analyzed. Corrosion of composites using TiC and SiC like reinforcement and Al, Ni, and some Al-Cux, Al-Mgx and Al-Cu-Li alloys like matrix is discussed extensively. The structural characterization techniques addressed include: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical microscopy (OM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). Mechanical testing including hardness, elastic modulus, tension tests, and impact tests were used in the characterization of composites. Theoretical models for prediction of some mechanical properties are included too.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction
This chapter gives a brief introduction of general aspect of composite materials, including characteristics of reinforcement, matrix, and interface, and makes introduction about the main types of composites like metal matrix composites (MMC), polymeric matrix composites (PMC), and ceramic matrix composites (CMC). Generally, the components used in the fabrication of composites are different in properties, being one light, strong, hard, and fragile, and the other can have good toughness and ductility. The composite materials usually are fabricated to obtain properties that are not possible to get in the monolithic materials. Additionally, this chapter describes a classification of composites according to the type of matrix and reinforcement, taking into account the form of reinforcement (particles, fiber, whiskers, plates). Finally, this chapter includes a brief description of the different routes and techniques used to fabricate composite materials, explaining that depending on the technique used, they have a great influence in the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness, modulus of elasticity, and wear resistance.
Antonio Contreras Cuevas, Egberto Bedolla Becerril, Melchor Salazar Martínez, José Lemus Ruiz
Chapter 2. Wettability
This chapter describes the main fundamental aspects considered during the wetting process. The wettability behavior of molten metals on a solid substrate has become the fundamental aspect in the manufacture of metal-ceramic composites, since in many stages of the process, liquid metal is in contact with a solid ceramic. The degree of wettability is measured from the contact angle (θ) between the molten metal and the ceramic. There are two different types: (1) reactive systems and (2) nonreactive systems. In addition, the main methods to measure wettability of a solid by a liquid metal at high temperature are described, as well as the suitable engineering methods used to improve wettability are addressed. An efficient approach is to apply coatings to the ceramic reinforcement. Another method is the addition of alloying elements that reduce the surface tension and improve wettability. In this chapter the authors analyzed wetting of TiC by pure Al, Mg, and Cu, as well as some binary Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloys. Additionally, some commercial Al alloys (1010, 2024, 6061, and 7075) were studied.
Antonio Contreras Cuevas, Egberto Bedolla Becerril, Melchor Salazar Martínez, José Lemus Ruiz
Chapter 3. Fabrication Processes for Metal Matrix Composites
This chapter includes an extensive review of the different methods used for the manufacture of composites. In addition, this chapter describes the main fundamental aspects considered during the fabrication of composites which are related to the process used, such as wettability and interfacial reactions between matrix and reinforcement. Main factors involve for each fabrication process were analyzed. Classification of fabrication process according to the temperature of the metal matrix during the processing includes liquid-state processes, solid-state processes, and gas- or vapor-phase processes. Greater emphasis is placed in the first classification, focusing on the infiltration process. Key parameters in infiltration processes such as wettability, temperature, chemical composition of the molten metal, percentage of reinforcement, and pore size, among others, are analyzed. The infiltration processes can be squeeze casting or pressure casting, gas pressure infiltration, or pressureless infiltration. Solid-state processes include powder metallurgy and consolidation, mechanical alloying, diffusion or roll bonding, and high-rate consolidation. Gas- or vapor-phase processes include mainly two processes, spray deposition and vapor-phase deposition.
Antonio Contreras Cuevas, Egberto Bedolla Becerril, Melchor Salazar Martínez, José Lemus Ruiz
Chapter 4. Fabrication and Characterization of Composites
This chapter describes the fabrication process and characterization of MMC in the following systems: Mg/TiC, MgAZ91/AlN, Mg/AlN, Al-Cux/TiC, Al-Mgx/TiC, Al(1010/2024/6061/7075)/TiC, MgAZ91/SiC, Ni/Al2O3, and MgAZ91/TiC. Currently, the most widely used materials as reinforcement are TiC, SiC, AlN, Al2O3, and graphite, which have been used in Al, Mg, Cu, Ni, and its alloys with the purpose of improving its mechanical properties such as the module of elasticity, hardness, corrosion, and wear resistance, among others. In this chapter, the research work performed by the authors includes TiC, AlN, SiC, and Al2O3 used like reinforcement. The composites fabricated have a high content of reinforcement, and most of them were fabricated by infiltration. Some results of the processing, sintering preforms, kinetic infiltration, and characterization of these composite systems obtained by the authors were addressed. This chapter contains the main results about characterization of different composite systems in which the group had worked for more than 25 years. Characterization of the composites includes microstructural, mechanical, thermal, and electrical mainly.
Antonio Contreras Cuevas, Egberto Bedolla Becerril, Melchor Salazar Martínez, José Lemus Ruiz
Chapter 5. Joining of Composites
In this chapter, the underlying science of joining metal matrix composites (MMC) is described. Some specific examples of production of joining MMC produced by the authors are given to illustrate the key factors involved. A wide range of joining MMC is now available commercially. The properties of the MMC/metal ensembles can be related directly to the joining technique as well as the parameter and its effect in thermodynamics and mechanism involved, which must be controlled during joining processes. The choice of the best joint technique is related to the joining materials, final required properties, and the intended applications. The properties of the MMC/metal combinations depend on the joining interface of reaction zone produced during joining, which, in turn, depends on a joining route and subsequent thermal treatment. Some characteristics of diverse joining methods, as well a mechanic evaluations techniques to MMC joints, are analyzed. The effect of a reaction layer on the interface formed during joining of composites was studied. Additionally, some fundamental aspects and conditions to prepare ceramic-metal joints are analyzed.
Antonio Contreras Cuevas, Egberto Bedolla Becerril, Melchor Salazar Martínez, José Lemus Ruiz
Chapter 6. Corrosion of Composites
This chapter describes the main research performed in corrosion of composites using TiC and SiC like reinforcement and Al, Ni, and some Al-Cux, Al-Mgx, and Al-Cu-Li alloys like matrix. The corrosion behavior of MMC is of great importance to predict its behavior in corrosive environments that can be exposed during service. The corrosion resistance of commercial aluminum alloy (2024) and binary Al-Cux and Al-Mgx alloys reinforced with TiC particles using a pressureless infiltration method has been evaluated in 3.5% NaCl solution. In addition, the corrosion behavior of some heat-treated composites, either artificially or naturally, was analyzed. Additionally, electrochemical study of nickel and Ni/TiC composite immersed in synthetic seawater was carried out. Effect of TiC as reinforcement into the Ni matrix was evaluated. The mechanism of corrosion was cells of differential aeration (pits and crevice). Finally, the corrosion behavior of Al-Cu-Li/SiC and Al-Cu/SiC composites in NaCl solutions with different pH values was studied. The addition of lithium and copper on the corrosion behavior of the composites was evaluated.
Antonio Contreras Cuevas, Egberto Bedolla Becerril, Melchor Salazar Martínez, José Lemus Ruiz
Chapter 7. Wear of Composites
This chapter includes an extensive review of the fundamental science aspects of tribology, focusing mainly on wear and friction of metal matrix composites (MMCs), specifically those made from light alloys and reinforcements of ceramic materials. In addition, this chapter deals with some fundamental aspects in the study of the wear of materials taking into account the different factors on wear rate of MMC, such as normal applied load, sliding speed, quantity, size, and shape of reinforcements used in the manufacture of the composites. Finally, some research work done by this working group studied the wear behavior of AZ91E/TiC and AZ91E/AlN composites. For AZ91E/TiC composites it was found that the higher normal load applied the higher weight loss. It is presumed that higher load causes fractures and debonding of reinforcing particles increasing wear. For AZ91E/AlN composites fabricated by the stir casting process adding 10, 15, and 20 vol.% AlNp, the wear behavior was evaluated. Additionally, some effects of heat treatments applied to MMC on the wear resistance were evaluated.
Antonio Contreras Cuevas, Egberto Bedolla Becerril, Melchor Salazar Martínez, José Lemus Ruiz
Metal Matrix Composites
Dr. Antonio Contreras Cuevas
Dr. Egberto Bedolla Becerril
Dr. Melchor Salazar Martínez
Dr. José Lemus Ruiz
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