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About this book

This book discusses selected issues of modern electrical metrology in the fields of sensor technology, signal processing and measurement systems, addressing theoretical problems and applications regarding measurements in electrical engineering, mechanics, telecommunications, medicine and geology, as well as in the aviation and transport industries.

It presents selected papers from the XXII International Seminar of Metrology “Methods and Techniques of Signal Processing in Physical Measurements” (MSM2018) held in Rzeszów-Arłamów, Poland on September 17–20, 2018. The conference was organized by the Rzeszow University of Technology, Department of Metrology and Diagnostic Systems (Poland) and Lviv Polytechnic National University, Department of Information Measuring Technology (Ukraine).

The book provides researchers and practitioners with insights into the state of the art in these areas, and also serves as a source of new ideas for further development and cooperation.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Measurements of Gas Phase Velocity in Liquid Metal by Means of Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Method

The subject of the article concerns the measurement of the gas phase velocity in the liquid metal by the means of ultrasonic pulse-echo method. Velocity measurements in the case of ultrasonic sensors in the bottom of the container and on its side wall are discussed. In the case of the bubbles swarm movement to the velocity measurement, the method of cross-correlation of the signals was presented. The article also described the main sources of errors in the pulse-echo method in velocity measurements.

Artur Andruszkiewicz, Kerstin Eckert

Heat Resistant Monitoring System for Medical Sterile Containers

In this paper we focus on the issue of the increasing amount of treatments in modern hospitals and the need to increase on the one hand the efficiency and on the other hand to decrease costs without decreasing the safety. Therefore, this research is about the development of a tracking and sensor system, applicable in medical sterile containers including a thermal insulation protecting the electronics against the sterilisation process. Using this system can increase the efficiency by tracking the containers within a hospital and signalizing its status. For this reason different tracking technologies were discussed and sterilisation tests with several RFID transponders were made. Furthermore, the shown sensor system can increase the safety by providing data about the last sterilisation process and the overall state of the sterile container.

Lukas Böhler, Mateusz Daniol, Anton Keller, Ryszard Sroka

Autoclave Sterilization Powered Medical IoT Sensor Systems

The purpose of this study is to explore the possibilities of harvesting the thermal energy from steam sterilization process to power the IoT sensor node. Thermoelectrical generators based heat recovering have been used for powering IoT sensor nodes. The design process of the TEG based energy harvesting application is described in details. All vital parts of the system like choosing the suitable TEG module, heat storage material, power storage device, a power management system as well as insulation material to create the temperature gradient across the TEG were precisely described. The temperature-voltage characteristics of the module are analyzed within the test setup of standard steam sterilization. Power consumption of a CC2650 Bluetooth module is analyzed and optimized to maximize the power efficiency and the lifetime. During this study self powered Bluetooth IoT sensor node was developed. Power consumption software optimization have been applied resulting in the lifetime of over 10 days after single sterilization cycle.

Mateusz Daniol, Lukas Böhler, Anton Keller, Ryszard Sroka

Using an Input Data Segregation Algorithm to Minimise the Error of the Fuzzy Controller in the Metrological Correction System of Electric Energy Meters

The authors of this paper presented the possibility of using a fuzzy controller in the conversion factor correction system associated with the energy meter’s current channel. The accuracy of non-adaptive fuzzy controllers is significantly affected by the relevant expert knowledge in the form of rules stored in the database. In order to increase fuzzy controller accuracy, the k-means clustering method was used to group the input data of the controller (peak value of the output signal of the energy meter’s current transducer and its derivative). This analysis can be conducted to extract central points that represent particular input data groups. Based on computer testing of fuzzy controller output signals performed by the authors, the assignment of membership functions to the central points of the input data groups should be done by the expert at the beginning while designing the rules. Additionally, this paper presents the possibilities of tuning the fuzzy controller by changing its parameters.

Bartosz Dominikowski, Krzysztof Pacholski, Piotr Woźniak

Investigation of the Instrumental Components in Uncertainty of Extreme Random Observations

In this paper the instrumental components in the uncertainty of extreme observations are analyzed and quantitatively evaluated. In practice this method can be used to evaluate the uncertainty results of testing products, when during testing the most informative parameter is not the arithmetic mean but the extreme (minimal or maximal) observation. In the paper two main components of the uncertainty for such testing are studied: the statistical component - the variation of the measured parameter of a few tested specimens and the instrumental component - uncertainty of the measurement result of the appropriate parameter for each tested specimen. It is shown that the uncertainty of extreme observations depends in different ways on systematic and random effects in the measurements. If the standard uncertainty evaluated using the type B method (instrumental components) does not exceed (approximately) 1/3 of the standard uncertainty determined using the type A method (deviation values of observations), then the value of a coefficient which is used to calculate one-side expanded uncertainty of extreme observation can be determined approximately using a simplified method based on the ratio of both components of the standard uncertainty. The results of the research can be used to evaluate the uncertainty results in the quality testing of a wide variety of products in industry, agriculture and medicine when the result of the test depends on the minimum or maximum value of the parameter in the tested specimens.

Mykhaylo Dorozhovets, Ivanna Bubela, Anna Szlachta

Eliminating the Inertial Forces Effects on the Measurement of Robot Interaction Force

The paper presents the problem of eliminating the effects of inertial forces on the measurement circuit of the forces of interaction between a robotic manipulator and its environment. Inertial forces are among the most significant interferences in force measurement circuits. The causes and effects of this interference type are discussed. A concept is discussed, based on the measurement of acceleration of a manipulator end-effector. A test rig is discussed, as used for verification testing of a procedure for eliminating the effect of inertial forces on the measurement of interaction forces. Verification test results are shown which proved that the procedure is effective. The procedure developed in this work is highly significant for practical applications in robotized machining.

Piotr Gierlak, Andrzej Burghardt, Dariusz Szybicki, Krzysztof Kurc

System for Adhesion Control of Car Steering Column Couplers

This paper presents designed and implemented system to measurement of parameters of car steering column couplers. Described system is operating as a quality control machine and it is a part of production line in severe environmental conditions. This paper consist of diagnostic and metrological requirements, design solutions, registered measurement parameters and system software.

Józef Grzybowski, Dawid Janeczko

The Algorithm for Automatic Determination of Human Step Phases

The article presents an algorithm for automatic determination of steps and individual phases of human gait based on data from an inertial sensor. To obtain the necessary data, measurements were made using Xsens inertial sensors from the MTw Awinda set. Changes in the feet rotation angles during gait and acceleration data were investigated. After a thorough analysis of the data, an algorithm for determining the step phases was implemented, based on which an application was created for automatically dividing gait into steps and steps into individual phases, which allows later analysis of gait parameters, e.g. for medical diagnosis. The main function of the application is a graphical presentation of the algorithm’s operation, by generating a graph of data along with the selected step phases.

Svitlana Herasymenko, Piotr Bieńkowski, Piotr Kopniak

A Procedure for Validating Impedance Parameters of HF/UHF RFID Transponder Antennas

The performance of automatic identification in every RFID system is strongly dependent on proper operation of the transponders that are used to mark different kind of objects. The impedance matching between chip and connected antenna is the most significant component determining the design quality of transponder internal circuitry, and hence influencing overall system parameters such as shape and dimensions of interrogation zone, level of identification efficiency, etc. Taking into consideration the various types of RFID systems, the problem has to be considered differently with respect to the operating frequency. Moreover it has to be treated in a different way than it is known from the classical theory of typical radio communication systems. The authors have proposed and developed their own method for validating impedance parameters of RFID transponder antennas operating in the regular HF and UHF bands. It is based on a generalized model of the RFID transponders dedicated to different standards. The developed test procedure consists of four steps involving antenna designing, manufacturing, measuring and validating processes. The practical usefulness of the proposed method is confirmed by experiments conducted with using representative examples designed in research and development projects realized with partners from the industry.

Piotr Jankowski-Mihułowicz, Mariusz Węglarski, Wojciech Lichoń

Efficiency Problem of FMCG Identification in HF RFID System with Multiplexed Antennas for Commercial Refrigerator

The overriding goal of the research discussed in the article is to propose an RFID system with the set of multiplexed RWD antennas that could be implemented in a commercial refrigerator. The need to solve this type of a problem has been reported by the one of the authors’ partner from the industry. The main assumptions for designing the demonstration system consist in the possibility of obtaining 100% efficiency for the identification of electronically marked bottles with beverages as well as lack of significant interferences in the construction of the refrigerator that could disturb the operating and maintaining conditions. According to these requirements and meeting the partner’s needs and expectations, several configurations of the set of multiplexed RWD antennas have been designed, simulated and examined on the experimental stand in the authors’ laboratory. On the basis of obtained results the conclusions have been drawn regarding the construction of the RFID system, its implementation in the commercial refrigerators and suggestions for structural changes in the devices at manufacturing process. In addition, the usefulness of the proposed system should be considered in a broader context since the transponders applied to the bottles could be used in the whole life cycle of a FMCG product (production, logistics, marketing services, recycling and others).

Piotr Jankowski-Mihułowicz, Mariusz Węglarski, Wojciech Lichoń, Marcin Pilarz

Measurement Methods for End Winding Vibrations of Large Electrical Machines

In this paper measuring methods for the detection of end winding vibrations on large machines are presented and special requirements with regard to monitoring and diagnostic systems are discussed.Large end winding vibrations due to switching operations, grid disturbances or mechanical loosening may cause partial conductor breaks and damage of the end winding insulation. The damaged insulation can lead to a short circuit with damage or even complete destruction of the electrical machine. The resulting costs for operating failure and repair exceed the costs for continuous monitoring of the end winding condition by a factor of 1000 for large electrical machines like turbo-generators in power plants.In the first part of this paper, the causes and effects of end winding vibrations are discussed. Afterwards, modern methods for measuring end winding vibrations are presented.Subsequently, a combined method for modal operating mode analysis is presented, taking into account a learned reference state. This modal view allows to draw conclusions about vibration excitation and phenomena such as operation close to resonance. However, the plausibility and spatial arrangement of the individual bar vibrations used for a modal transformation must be critically examined, since errors in the measurement chain and an unsuitable sensor configuration lead to misinterpretations. The modal consideration of the end winding vibration thus always represents a supplement to other observation forms, such as the Fourier spectrum of a single bar vibration. By learning a reference state with the help of neural networks, even small changes in vibration behavior can be detected.Finally, the paper gives an outlook on the future developments and requirements of corresponding measurement systems

Christian Kreischer

Non-contact Robotic Measurement of Jet Engine Components with 3D Optical Scanner and UTT Method

This paper presents a method for the robot-assisted geometric inspection of an aircraft engine turbine stator segment, involving two robots. The first robot was an ABB IRB 1600 with an optical 3D scanner. The second robot was an ABB IRB 140, to automatically inspect the stator vanes at 168 points by the application of a UTT method. If the casting geometry tolerances are met, characteristic coordinates of points across the casting are determined for their further use during an alternative robot-assisted vane wall thickness measurement process. The operating principle of the test stand measurement system is presented, with a specific focus on the measurement strategy. The results of the wall thickness measurements performed on stator vanes are presented in the report. The correctness of the solution has been proved with scans and measurements of two turbine rotor guide vane segments of an aircraft engine provided by courtesy of Consolidated Precision Products Poland sp. z o.o.

Krzysztof Kurc, Andrzej Burghardt, Piotr Gierlak, Dariusz Szybicki

New Measures of Operational Readiness for Multi-states Avionics Integrated Systems with Reduced Efficiency

The paper presents a method of analysis and determination of partial operational readiness coefficients and a way of its assessment, as well as guidelines for making decisions in the field of rational management and efficient use of the aircraft with equipment that is partially non-airworthy under conditions of the occurrence of, e.g. armed conflict, state threat, and crisis state. It was indicated that for efficient management of the operation of military aircraft and helicopters under conditions of ensuring flight safety, it is necessary to support a decision-making process with the use of IT systems that allow for current determination of the partial and complete operational readiness level of individual aircraft on-board systems with many states with reduced usability.

Jerzy Lewitowicz, Mariusz Zieja, Andrzej Szelmanowski, Andrzej Pazur

Synthesis of Three-Phase Waveforms Using the Selected Microprocessor – Analysis of Constraints

Waveform generators employed in student laboratories are often purchased instruments, while some their functionalities are not required. An important part of many test sets are multi-phase generators with an analog or digital structure. Designed based on the known concept, the construction of a three-phase sinusoidal signal generator and selected test results are presented. The requirements for properties of the output signals of the generator have been specified. The phase shift between sine waves are kept precisely at 120° and the amplitudes of the signals are controlled within the adopted frequency range. Low distortion of signals was also obtained. The model of the developed three-phase digital generator was described and the results of selected research were presented and then discussed. A short analysis of constraints related to the generators’ properties, mainly resulting from the features of the elements used in the project, was also carried out.

Romuald Masnicki, Adam Minczyk

Operational Estimating of Arcs Voltage of Arc Steel Furnace

In this paper the possibility of improving accuracy of maintaining the regime of melting metal by appropriate control of the arc voltages in electric arc furnaces is presented. For this purpose the methodology of the determination of the own and mutual inductances of the three flexible cables, are proposed and analyzed. This methodology based on realization experiments of the three-phase short network, as well as three biphasic short network when in the third phase arc is absent. The proposed methodology was implemented to determine the parameters of current propulsion of electric arc furnace type DSP-100. The determined cabel parameters (resistances and inductances) are used to form the control effect of the automatic control system by moving the electrodes and hence the power of the arcs of each phase.

Yaroslav Marushchak, Mykhaylo Dorozhovets, Damian Mazur

Modeling and Analysis of the AFPM Generator in a Small Wind Farm System

This paper reports measurements and simulations performed on the generator - matrix converter system designed for small vertical axis wind turbine. The presented coreless axial flux permanent magnet generator has 3 kW of rated power at 300 rev/min. The measurement system constructed for examination of the generator under investigation as well as the measured characteristics were presented. The system of grid connected matrix converter designed for the presented generator was simulated.

Damian Mazur, Lesław Gołębiowski, Andrzej Smoleń, Marek Gołębiowski, Zygmunt Szczerba

Assessment of Image Processing Methods for the Determination of Propagation of Squat-Type Defects in Rails

We demonstrate the idea of squat-type defect measurement in the rail and the concept of tracking of the defect development using the techniques of image acquisition and image processing as well as the methods of metric spaces. We introduce the concepts of a set diameter $$ \delta \left( A \right) $$ δ A and the metric $$ \rho_{1} $$ ρ 1 , which come from the properties of plane figures, to compare and to observe the development of the defects.We characterize the feasibility of the method to determine the dynamics of the defect development. The tests have shown that it is possible to apply the method with a camera during current diagnostic procedures provided that the distance to the rail is similar. Normalized metric enables easy comparison of the results and allows for the assessment of the reliability of the rails. The advantages of the method include simplicity and ability to observe the defects during the entire cycle of their development, which makes it possible to take the diagnostic decisions at the appropriate time.

Eligiusz Mieloszyk, Anita Milewska, Sławomir Grulkowski

The Multiplatform Environment for Simulation and Features Estimation of Mixed-Signal Devices

The use of simulation laboratories is gaining popularity in the domains of engineering programs. However, the experience in teaching shows that the simulation itself is not very effective in didactic processes. Teaching processes in the field of specialist subjects, designed for students of technical universities, should be based on direct operations performed by the student on real devices. At the same time, at the later stages of didactic processes, modern computer tools and techniques that enable modeling, simulations and measurements of projected systems or devices cannot be omitted. The article presents an example of applications of computer technology in the analysis of system properties at the stage of their designing, commissioning and testing of prototype properties. Based on the chosen hybrid system, in mixed analog-digital technology, the novel techniques of testing its functional properties were presented. The multiplatform combined with graphical programming and simulation software and hardware allows comparing a schematically captured circuit with a prototype of the same design. The platform based on NI myDAQ instruments and the Multisim Circuit Design software is presented. To illustrate its capabilities, the generator of the sawtooth wave with a mixed analogue-digital structure was tested. The integration between NI Multisim and NI myDAQ makes possible to correlate real and simulated measurements in a single interface. The possibility of presented techniques combined use allows optimizing the processes of designing, commissioning, testing and teaching the properties of electronic circuits.

Krystyna Maria Noga, Beata Palczynska, Romuald Masnicki

Monitoring the Parameters of Industrial Robots

The article presents two commercial tools used to monitor the parameters of robot operation. They are briefly characterised, and their advantages, disadvantages and limitations described. The indicated shortcomings led to the development of a proprietary program, which allows for monitoring the parameters of ABB robot operation. The application’s task is to collect data about the parameters of the robot’s movements and store them as variables intended for further use. The study method was to capture the data transmitted between the controller and the program. The Wireshark software was used to identify the manner of communication, syntax and content of the data packages transmitted. The obtained data enabled the writing of a program for communication and registration of the defined robot parameters using a Matlab script file. In order to check the correctness of application performance, a numerical experiment was carried out, which involved connecting to a virtual controller, and an experiment involving connecting to a real controller. The performed tests confirmed the correctness of the developed application.

Paweł Obal, Andrzej Burghardt, Krzysztof Kurc, Dariusz Szybicki, Piotr Gierlak

Signal Reconstruction from Sparse Measurements Using Compressive Sensing Technique

The paper presents the possibility of applying a new class of mathematical methods, known as Compressive Sensing (CS) for recovering the signal from a small set of measured samples. CS allows the faithful reconstruction of the original signal back from fewer random measurements by making use of some non-linear reconstruction techniques. Since of all these features, CS finds its applications especially in the areas where, sensing is time consuming or power constrained. An electromagnetic interference measurement is a field where the CS technique can be used. In this case, a sparse signal decomposition based on matching pursuit (MP) algorithm, which decomposes a signal into a linear expansion of element chirplet functions selected from a complete and redundant time-frequency dictionary is applied. The presented paper describes both the fundamentals of CS and how to implement MP for CS reconstruction in relation to non-stationary signals.

Beata Palczynska

Power Grid Frequency Estimation Based on Zero Crossing Technique Using Least Squares Method to Approximate Sampled Voltage Signal Around Zero Level

The article presents the application of the least squares method to the estimation of voltage transition points through the zero level in order to determine the frequency of the power grid system. A linear approximation of the quantized voltage signal samples near zero has been applied, which ensures effective noise suppression and reduces measurement errors. An even sampling of the sinusoidal voltage disturbed by noise was assumed, and on this basis the corresponding mathematical relations were derived. The presented algorithm for processing signal samples is computationally simple and can be easily implemented in a microprocessor system. The dependence of the accuracy of the signal frequency measurement on: SNR signal ratio, ADC converter resolution, signal sampling rate and the number of samples used for approximation were investigated. The simulation tests of the presented method were carried out and the results were presented, which enable proper design of the measurement system (ADC converter resolution, sampling rate, number of points to approximate) depending on the expected signal SNR ratio and the expected accuracy of measurements. In order to verify the presented method in practice, a measuring system was implemented using the National Instruments NI USB 6009 Data Acquisition Card and a personal computer. The measurement algorithm was implemented in the LabVIEW environment. The structure of the program was presented and the method of implementation of the most important parts of the algorithm was discussed, as well as examples of measurement results. The developed method can be used to build an independent measuring instrument or it can be an element of a larger measuring system.

Eligiusz Pawłowski

Measurements of Gas Streams with Disturbed Velocity Distribution by the Means of an Elbow Flowmeter

The subject of the article concerns the measurement of flow streams with disturbed velocity distribution by the means of elbow flowmeter. The velocity disturbances were forced by a different setting of the aperture located at the inlet to the installation. In the article, flow coefficients for the elbow flowmeter for exemplary disturbances of velocity distribution were determined and deviations in relation to the flow without disturbances were calculated. For the exemplary disturbance, numerical calculations were performed, the results of which were compared with the actual results of the experiment.

Piotr Piechota, Piotr Synowiec, Artur Andruszkiewicz, Wiesław Wędrychowicz

Analysis of the Accuracy of Liquid Flow Measurements by the Means of Ultrasonic Method in Non-standard Measurements Conditions

The article presents the results of ultrasonic flow measurements performed after the hydraulic elbow. Ultrasonic flowmeter with applied head set in accordance with the Z-type was used to carry out the measurements. The results of flow measurements after the hydraulic elbow were referenced to measurements made on a straight section of the pipeline before the elbow, where the flow was stabilized, and the velocity profile was symmetrical with respect to the pipe-line axis. Measurements, with the maintaining a constant volumetric stream flow, were made for 12 different angles of the flowmeter head settings in 16 distances from the hydraulic elbow. The results of the measurements were compared with the velocity values obtained from the flow simulation performed in the ANSYS CFX program. On the basis of the comparison of the measurement results with the simulation results, and also based on the analysis of the velocity profiles, it was found that at the appropriate angle of the head setting, measurements can be made using the ultrasound method at a distance smaller than the one described in the standards. The optimal location of the measurement can be selected on the basis of a computer flow simulation, which is a representation of geometry and measurement conditions. This action scheme can be used in the flow measurements, which are carried out after the obstacle which is disturbing the flow, in the pipelines with large diameters (for example power plants, electrical power and heating plant, chemical industry) where finding a straight section with a length of 15–20 pipeline diameters is problematic.

Piotr Piechota, Piotr Synowiec, Artur Andruszkiewicz, Wiesław Wędrychowicz

Marker Method of Determining the Speed of Fluid Movement During the Flow Visualization

This paper contains a description of a method applied for determination of local velocities of liquid flow around a vortex generator. The postulated method involves the visualization of von Karman Vortex Street and determination of the local velocities of the liquid. The investigation is based on capturing images of tracing particles introduced into a liquid flow. The study is performed for various exposition times and the traces of the particle motion are registered in the image captures. The analysis of the images leads to the determination of the length of the traces and on this basis the velocity of the liquid flow can be calculated. The presented method yields an accuracy in the range of a few per cent in relation to the measured value. This paper also contain the description of the measurement and design of the experimental setup. The results of the study are presented along with the assessment of the measurement uncertainty.

Mariusz R. Rzasa, Beata Czapla-Nielacna

Measuring Methodology of Conducted Disturbances Generated by Avionic Systems in Aircrafts

The problems connected with measurements of conducted disturbances emission for on-board devices installed in aircraft have been presented in this paper. The electromagnetic environment of aircraft has been characterized. Referring to the requirements determined in Section 21 of the RTCA/DO-160G standard, the categories of avionics systems, acceptable disturbance values for individual categories, construction and requirements for test setup have been described. For the dedicated drive for the unmanned aerial vehicle, the results of the emission measurement were presented using the elaborated scripts in the Rohde&Schwarz EMC32 program.

Wiesław Sabat, Dariusz Klepacki, Kazimierz Kuryło, Kazimierz Kamuda

The Concept of Measuring Luminous Flux Distribution Emitted from Sports Facilities Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

The dynamic development of cities is associated with a significant increase in the luminance of architectural buildings, advertisements or usable spaces. Objects that emit a significant amount of luminous flux to the environment are also various types of sports buildings, such as city stadiums, football pitches or tennis courts. The need to protect the environment determinates the need to reduce and prevent the effect of light pollution. The article analyzes the possibilities of using unmanned aerial vehicles to assess light pollution by measuring the distribution of luminous flux emitted by sports facilities. The method of light measurement based on a goniometric system using unmanned aerial vehicles was presented and their positioning in three-dimensional space was taken into account. A method for controlling the photometric probe and calibrating the measurement system has been proposed.

Magdalena Sielachowska, Damian Tyniecki, Maciej Zajkowski

Estimation of the Angular Positioning Inaccuracy in Avionics Helmet-Mounted Cueing Systems with Magnetic Method

The paper presents methods for estimating the inaccuracy of determining the angular position of the pilot’s helmet dedicated to the NSC-1 Orion helmet-mounted cueing system with a magnetic method, intended for the W-3PL Głuszec multi-purpose helicopter with integrated avionics system ZSA. A flat coil with two separated rings, which generates a magnetic field with a curved profile from the axis of symmetry, developed in the Polish Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT), was presented. The magnetic field curvature causing errors of determining the angular position of the pilot’s helmet in relation to the aircraft cabin reference frame was described with the use of relationships formulated for the flat coil with two separated rings (inner and outer). The inaccuracies determined on the basis of computer simulations of the developed mathematical relationships were compared with experimental data obtained from the magnetic field measurements using the integrated ADIS 16405 triaxial sensor (with a measurement resolution of 0.5 mgauss/LSB). In order to improve the accuracy of determining the angular position, an original algorithm for specifying linear deviations of the pilot’s helmet from its neutral position, determined during the adjustment process of the helmet (located on the axis of symmetry of the flat coil) was used. It allowed to determine the current curvature of the generated magnetic field and to make corrections.

Andrzej Szelmanowski, Mariusz Zieja, Andrzej Pazur, Paweł Janik

Robot-Assisted Quality Inspection of Turbojet Engine Blades

This paper presents the design and construction of a module for measuring the geometry and orientation of turbojet engine blades. The measurement module forms a component of a robotic processing station for grinding of turbojet engine blades. The robotic processing station comprises an industrial robot manipulator with a dedicated gripper, the measurement module with proximity sensors, and blade grinding tooling components. The measurement outputs were transferred by TCP from the measurement module to the controller of the robot manipulator. The measurement outputs could be applied in blade grinding, displayed on a control panel, or processed into a measurement test report.

Dariusz Szybicki, Andrzej Burghardt, Piotr Gierlak, Krzysztof Kurc

Frequency Components of Signals Producing the Upper Bound of Absolute Error Generated by the Charge Output Accelerometers

The paper presents an assessment of frequency components by the time-frequency representation of signals with one constrain producing the upper bound of the absolute error generated by charge output accelerometers. The constraint concerns the amplitude resulting from the measuring range of an accelerometer. This assessment was carried out by using a wavelet analysis implemented in MATLAB. Mathematical basis regarding both modeling charge output accelerometers and determining the absolute error were presented. Shapes of signals producing the upper bound of error and results of analysis for selected parameters of the accelerometer model are also presented and discussed.

Krzysztof Tomczyk, Marek Sieja

Differential Measurements of TGS Samples – Unbalanced Bridge Concept and Model

In this paper, we investigate a theoretical model of measurements of the phase transition in triglycine sulfate (TGS) samples using the idea of unbalanced bridge and four electrode sample setup. Four-electrode samples and differential measurements present some interesting results that can be explained by blurred phase transition in two areas of the sample. Our previous experiments proved some kind of order in the paraelectric phase, which resulted in a pyroelectric response to the fast temperature pulses above the critical temperature. We also observed a switching effect in the four-electrode samples. Many authors have investigated phase transition and structural changes of TGS and its doped crystals by various methods. We hope that the results of our model will encourage further researches to find the “evolution” of local order despite the order/disorder character of the phase transition in TGS single crystals.

Mariusz Trybus

The Mechatronic Device for the Hand and Forearm Rehabilitation

The mechatronic device has been designed and implemented based on the comprehensive rehabilitation of the paretic upper limb. This system has been prepared for an individual approach to the recovery process including diagnostics, passive or active exercises with biofeedback and reports. The mechatronic device consists of a three basic cooperating parts: mechatronic frame with module for hand and forearm rehabilitation, glove for the hand rehabilitation and module for health hand. This mechatronic device was developed in order to realize a passive exercises and active exercises with paralysed limb using the healthy limb to conduct these exercises. A very important part of rehabilitation is to introduce biofeedback (e.g. visual and auditory) to motion exercises. This paper presents the main technical characteristics of the project, especially design, kinematics and dynamics of the device and the details of the hardware/software system. This paper suggests a new approach to the rehabilitation device for the spastic upper limb of stroke survivors. The functionality of the mechatronic device for hand and forearm rehabilitation have been presented during the first tests, and preliminary assessment of usability and acceptance is promising.

Jacek S. Tutak, Wojciech Kłos

The Mechatronic Device Which Provides Comfort and Safety for the Elderly and Disabled People

This article describes the device which provides comfort and safety for the elderly and disabled people. The system can be installed in any room, particularly in a flat or a house. The device is dedicated for the elderly and disabled people who are lonely. The project is based on the system that analyzes the pattern of the user’s behavior. Signals are received from many sensors and transform to the form which is readable. Based on the collected data, it is possible to detect early symptoms of illness and to inform the family. The article describes in detail the developed system, including: its diagnostic capabilities (in case of decreased activity, longer stay in bed, consumption of less food, compared to previous period reported in the developed system, may indicate the occurrence of the first symptoms e.g. depression); reporting to the doctor’s recommendations (in case the patient’s compliance with the diet, movement or recommended amount of sleep); comfort (adjust lighting/temperature/humidity to the user’s current behavior) or safety (information about dangerous situations, such as falling, or fading. The system observes a flat or a house while user is absent and can simulate presence through change light level or open/close windows). A great asset of the system is the low cost of implementation and no need to interfere with the existing infrastructure of the building.

Jacek S. Tutak, Wojciech Puzio

Analysis of the Accuracy of Crime Scene Mapping Using 3D Laser Scanners

The use of a 3D scanner at the crime scene i.e. the use of its measurements and the final spatial documentation of the crime scene, must meet the conditions of reliability and accuracy. Acquisition of spatial data can be important from the point of view of investigating and verifying hypotheses. Verification can be subjected to either the mutual location of the elements within the scene or their mutual distance. To test the accuracy of measurements on 3D scans a series of measurements was made at the actual scene, and then the same measurements were made in 3D scans. In the research, we considered that the accuracy of a crime scene mapping, depends on the surface characteristics. The measuring noise also increases with the distance from the scanner. The scanning density, as well can significantly limit the actual accuracy of the point measurement. Measuring distances based on indicating a point by the user is also characterized by an error resulting from the operator’s competences, as well as the ambiguity of the position the characteristic point. It cannot be clearly stated what the real accuracy of mapping, with a 3D scanner, of a crime scene is.

Tadeusz Wieczorek, Roman Przyłucki, Joanna Lisok, Adrian Smagór

Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Identification of Geological Formations on the Basis of Well Logging Data – A Comparison of Computational Environments’ Efficiency

The paper presents the application of artificial neural networks in lithology identification on the basis of well logging data. The problem is very important considering petroleum geophysics as it allows to find sweet spots -potential deposits of hydrocarbons (oil and gas). The use of advanced statistical methods such as artificial neural networks is expected to improve geological interpretation of geophysical data. Moreover, such methods are capable of dealing with big data sets since well logging provides more and more information about petrophysical (e.g. porosity, density, resistivity, natural gamma radiation, sonic wave propagation) and chemical rock properties (mineral content and element abundance). Therefore, the analyzed data comprises around 56000 records. Two different computational environments has been used in order to examine their efficiency in terms of accuracy of a lithological classification. Computation was done in R software, which is an open source environment, and STATISTICA v. 13 which is a commercial one. As an input, logging data from three boreholes drilled in the Baltic Basin, North Poland were used. The results show that R offers more possibilities of modification of a net. However, STATISTICA provides more user-friendly interface and better accuracy of lithology identification.

Marcin Zych, Gabriel Stachura, Robert Hanus, Norbert P. Szabó

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