Skip to main content
Top
Published in:
Cover of the book

2020 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

1. Microgrid Control Issues

Authors : Carlos Bordons, Félix Garcia-Torres, Miguel A. Ridao

Published in: Model Predictive Control of Microgrids

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Activate our intelligent search to find suitable subject content or patents.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

The evolution from the existing energy system based on fossil fuels to a new scheme with high penetration of renewable energy and electric transport systems introduces new challenges in architecture, control, and management of the electrical grid. This situation demands new schemes for the future electricity grids, where distributed generation, demand response, and energy storage systems may be easily integrated. The novel paradigm of microgrid that intends to provide a solution to these issues is presented in this chapter. The new control challenges that appear in microgrids are introduced, proposing Model Predictive Control (MPC) as a powerful tool to face them. This chapter presents an overview of the main topics on automatic operation and control of microgrids that will be tackled along the book, showing the most appropriate MPC technique to deal with them.

Dont have a licence yet? Then find out more about our products and how to get one now:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 390 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




 

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Footnotes
1
Black start is the process of restoring microgrid to operation without relying on the external power transmission grid to recover from a total or partial shutdown.
 
2
The word is formed from the words “producer” and “consumer”.
 
Literature
1.
go back to reference Alvarado I, Limon D, Muñoz de la Peña D, Maestre JM, Ridao MA, Scheu H, Marquardt W, Negenborn RR, De Schutter B, Valencia F, Espinosa, J (2011) A comparative analysis of distributed MPC techniques applied to the HD-MPC four-tank benchmark. J Process Control 21(5):800–815. Special Issue on Hierarchical and Distributed Model Predictive ControlCrossRef Alvarado I, Limon D, Muñoz de la Peña D, Maestre JM, Ridao MA, Scheu H, Marquardt W, Negenborn RR, De Schutter B, Valencia F, Espinosa, J (2011) A comparative analysis of distributed MPC techniques applied to the HD-MPC four-tank benchmark. J Process Control 21(5):800–815. Special Issue on Hierarchical and Distributed Model Predictive ControlCrossRef
2.
go back to reference Alvial-Palavicino C, Garrido-Echeverria N, Jimenez-Estevez G, Reyes L, Palma-Behnke R (2011) A methodology for community engagement in the introduction of renewable based smart microgrid. Energy Sustain Develop 15(3):323–324CrossRef Alvial-Palavicino C, Garrido-Echeverria N, Jimenez-Estevez G, Reyes L, Palma-Behnke R (2011) A methodology for community engagement in the introduction of renewable based smart microgrid. Energy Sustain Develop 15(3):323–324CrossRef
3.
go back to reference Anand S, Fernandes BG, Guerrero JM (2013) Distributed control to ensure proportional load sharing and improve voltage regulation in low-voltage DC microgrids. IEEE Trans Power Electron 28(4):1900–1913CrossRef Anand S, Fernandes BG, Guerrero JM (2013) Distributed control to ensure proportional load sharing and improve voltage regulation in low-voltage DC microgrids. IEEE Trans Power Electron 28(4):1900–1913CrossRef
4.
go back to reference Arce A, Del Real AJ, Bordons C (2009) MPC for battery/fuel cell hybrid vehicles including fuel cell dynamics and battery performance improvement. J Process Control 19(8):1289–1304CrossRef Arce A, Del Real AJ, Bordons C (2009) MPC for battery/fuel cell hybrid vehicles including fuel cell dynamics and battery performance improvement. J Process Control 19(8):1289–1304CrossRef
5.
go back to reference Arnold M, Negenborn RR, Andersson G, De Schutter B (2009) Model-based predictive control applied to multi-carrier energy systems. In: 2009 Power Energy Society General Meeting, PES ’09. IEEE, pp 1–8 Arnold M, Negenborn RR, Andersson G, De Schutter B (2009) Model-based predictive control applied to multi-carrier energy systems. In: 2009 Power Energy Society General Meeting, PES ’09. IEEE, pp 1–8
6.
go back to reference Bashash S, Fathy H (2011) Robust demand-side plug-in electric vehicle load control for renewable energy management. In: American Control Conference (ACC), pp 929–934 Bashash S, Fathy H (2011) Robust demand-side plug-in electric vehicle load control for renewable energy management. In: American Control Conference (ACC), pp 929–934
8.
go back to reference Bidram A, Davoudi A (2012) Hierarchical structure of microgrids control systems. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 3:19631976CrossRef Bidram A, Davoudi A (2012) Hierarchical structure of microgrids control systems. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 3:19631976CrossRef
9.
go back to reference Bidram A, Lewis FL, Davoudi A (2014) Distributed control systems for small-scale power networks. IEEE Control Syst Mag 34(6):56–77CrossRef Bidram A, Lewis FL, Davoudi A (2014) Distributed control systems for small-scale power networks. IEEE Control Syst Mag 34(6):56–77CrossRef
10.
go back to reference Bollen MHJ, Zhong J, Zavoda F, Meyer J, McEachern A, Lopez F (2010) Power quality aspects of smart grids. In: Proceedings of international conference on renewable energies and power quality Bollen MHJ, Zhong J, Zavoda F, Meyer J, McEachern A, Lopez F (2010) Power quality aspects of smart grids. In: Proceedings of international conference on renewable energies and power quality
11.
go back to reference Bordons C, Ridao MA, Pérez A, Arce A, Marcos D (2010) Model predictive control for power management in hybrid fuel cell vehicles. In: 2010 IEEE Vehicle power and propulsion conference (VPPC). IEEE, pp 1–6 Bordons C, Ridao MA, Pérez A, Arce A, Marcos D (2010) Model predictive control for power management in hybrid fuel cell vehicles. In: 2010 IEEE Vehicle power and propulsion conference (VPPC). IEEE, pp 1–6
12.
go back to reference Bouzid AM, Guerrero JM, Cheriti A, Bouhamida M, Sicard P, Benghanem M (2015) A survey on control of electric power distributed generation systems for microgrid applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 44:751–766CrossRef Bouzid AM, Guerrero JM, Cheriti A, Bouhamida M, Sicard P, Benghanem M (2015) A survey on control of electric power distributed generation systems for microgrid applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 44:751–766CrossRef
13.
go back to reference Bozchalui MC, Hashmi SA, Hassen H, Cañizares CA, Bhattacharya K (2012) Optimal operation of residential energy hubs in smart grids. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 3(4):1755–1766CrossRef Bozchalui MC, Hashmi SA, Hassen H, Cañizares CA, Bhattacharya K (2012) Optimal operation of residential energy hubs in smart grids. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 3(4):1755–1766CrossRef
14.
go back to reference Camponogara E, de Lima ML (2012) Distributed optimization for MPC of linear networks with uncertain dynamics. IEEE Trans Autom Control 57(3):804–809MathSciNetMATHCrossRef Camponogara E, de Lima ML (2012) Distributed optimization for MPC of linear networks with uncertain dynamics. IEEE Trans Autom Control 57(3):804–809MathSciNetMATHCrossRef
15.
go back to reference Camponogara E, Jia D, Krogh BH, Talukdar S (2002) Distributed model predictive control. IEEE Control Syst 22(1):44–52CrossRef Camponogara E, Jia D, Krogh BH, Talukdar S (2002) Distributed model predictive control. IEEE Control Syst 22(1):44–52CrossRef
16.
go back to reference Capitanescu F, Martinez Ramos JL, Panciatici P, Kirschen D, Marano Marcolini A, Platbrood L, Wehenkel L (2011) State-of-the-art, challenges, and future trends in security constrained optimal power flow. Electric Power Syst Res 81(8):1731–1741CrossRef Capitanescu F, Martinez Ramos JL, Panciatici P, Kirschen D, Marano Marcolini A, Platbrood L, Wehenkel L (2011) State-of-the-art, challenges, and future trends in security constrained optimal power flow. Electric Power Syst Res 81(8):1731–1741CrossRef
17.
go back to reference Contreras SF, Cortés CA, Myrzik JMA (2018) Multi-objective probabilistic power resources planning for microgrids with ancillary services capacity. In: 2018 Power systems computation conference (PSCC), pp 1–8 Contreras SF, Cortés CA, Myrzik JMA (2018) Multi-objective probabilistic power resources planning for microgrids with ancillary services capacity. In: 2018 Power systems computation conference (PSCC), pp 1–8
18.
go back to reference De Brabandere K, Bolsens B, Van den Keybus J, Woyte A, Driesen J, Belmans R (2007) A voltage and frequency droop control method for parallel inverters. IEEE Trans Power Electron 22(4):1107–1115CrossRef De Brabandere K, Bolsens B, Van den Keybus J, Woyte A, Driesen J, Belmans R (2007) A voltage and frequency droop control method for parallel inverters. IEEE Trans Power Electron 22(4):1107–1115CrossRef
19.
go back to reference De Brabandere K, Vanthournout K, Driesen J, Deconinck G, Belmans R (2007) Control of microgrids. In: 2007 IEEE Power engineering society general meeting. IEEE, pp 1–7 De Brabandere K, Vanthournout K, Driesen J, Deconinck G, Belmans R (2007) Control of microgrids. In: 2007 IEEE Power engineering society general meeting. IEEE, pp 1–7
20.
go back to reference Deilami S, Masoum AS, Moses PS, Masoum M (2011) Real-time coordination of plug-in electric vehicle charging in smart grids to minimize power losses and improve voltage profile. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 2(3):456–467CrossRef Deilami S, Masoum AS, Moses PS, Masoum M (2011) Real-time coordination of plug-in electric vehicle charging in smart grids to minimize power losses and improve voltage profile. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 2(3):456–467CrossRef
21.
go back to reference del Real AJ, Arce A, Bordons C (2007) Hybrid model predictive control of a two-generator power plant integrating photovoltaic panels and fuel cell. In: IEEE conference on decision and control, pp 5447–5452 del Real AJ, Arce A, Bordons C (2007) Hybrid model predictive control of a two-generator power plant integrating photovoltaic panels and fuel cell. In: IEEE conference on decision and control, pp 5447–5452
22.
go back to reference del Real AJ, Galus MD, Bordons C, Andersson G (2009) Optimal power dispatch of energy networks including external power exchange. In: 2009 European control conference (ECC), 3616–3621 del Real AJ, Galus MD, Bordons C, Andersson G (2009) Optimal power dispatch of energy networks including external power exchange. In: 2009 European control conference (ECC), 3616–3621
23.
go back to reference Delfino F, Rossi M, Ferro G, Minciardi R, Robba M (2015) MPC-based tertiary and secondary optimal control in islanded microgrids. In: 2015 IEEE international symposium on systems engineering (ISSE), pp 23–28 Delfino F, Rossi M, Ferro G, Minciardi R, Robba M (2015) MPC-based tertiary and secondary optimal control in islanded microgrids. In: 2015 IEEE international symposium on systems engineering (ISSE), pp 23–28
24.
go back to reference Dimeas AL, Hatziargyriou ND (2005) Operation of a multiagent system for microgrid control. IEEE Trans Power Syst 20(3):1447–1455CrossRef Dimeas AL, Hatziargyriou ND (2005) Operation of a multiagent system for microgrid control. IEEE Trans Power Syst 20(3):1447–1455CrossRef
25.
go back to reference Dötsch C (2009) Energy storage. In: Technology guide. Springer, pp 362–367 Dötsch C (2009) Energy storage. In: Technology guide. Springer, pp 362–367
26.
go back to reference Fan Z (2012) A distributed demand response algorithm and its application to PHEV charging in smart grids. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 3(3):1280–1290CrossRef Fan Z (2012) A distributed demand response algorithm and its application to PHEV charging in smart grids. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 3(3):1280–1290CrossRef
27.
go back to reference Fathi M, Bevrani H (2013) Statistical cooperative power dispatching in interconnected microgrids. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 4(3):586–593CrossRef Fathi M, Bevrani H (2013) Statistical cooperative power dispatching in interconnected microgrids. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 4(3):586–593CrossRef
28.
go back to reference Ferrari-Trecate G, Gallestey E, Letizia P, Spedicato M, Morari M, Antonine M (2004) Modeling and control of co-generation power plants: a hybrid system approach. IEEE Trans Control Syst Technol 12(5):694–705MATHCrossRef Ferrari-Trecate G, Gallestey E, Letizia P, Spedicato M, Morari M, Antonine M (2004) Modeling and control of co-generation power plants: a hybrid system approach. IEEE Trans Control Syst Technol 12(5):694–705MATHCrossRef
29.
go back to reference Galus MD, Andersson G (2009) Power system considerations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on a multi energy carrier model. In: 2009 Power energy society general meeting, PES ’09. IEEE, July 2009, pp 1–8 Galus MD, Andersson G (2009) Power system considerations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on a multi energy carrier model. In: 2009 Power energy society general meeting, PES ’09. IEEE, July 2009, pp 1–8
30.
go back to reference Galus MD, Andersson G, Art S (2012) A hierarchical, distributed pev charging control in low voltage distribution grids to ensure network security. In: 2012 IEEE Power and energy society general meeting, pp 1–8 Galus MD, Andersson G, Art S (2012) A hierarchical, distributed pev charging control in low voltage distribution grids to ensure network security. In: 2012 IEEE Power and energy society general meeting, pp 1–8
31.
go back to reference Garcia-Torres F, Bordons C (2015) Optimal economical schedule of hydrogen-based microgrids with hybrid storage using model predictive control. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 62(8):5195–5207CrossRef Garcia-Torres F, Bordons C (2015) Optimal economical schedule of hydrogen-based microgrids with hybrid storage using model predictive control. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 62(8):5195–5207CrossRef
32.
go back to reference Garcia-Torres F, Valverde L, Bordons C (2016) Optimal load sharing of hydrogen-based microgrids with hybrid storage using model predictive control. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 63(8):4919–4928CrossRef Garcia-Torres F, Valverde L, Bordons C (2016) Optimal load sharing of hydrogen-based microgrids with hybrid storage using model predictive control. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 63(8):4919–4928CrossRef
33.
go back to reference Garcia-Torres F, Vilaplana DG, Bordons C, Roncero-Sanchez P, Ridao MA (2019) Optimal management of microgrids with external agents including battery/fuel cell electric vehicles. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 10(4):4299–4308CrossRef Garcia-Torres F, Vilaplana DG, Bordons C, Roncero-Sanchez P, Ridao MA (2019) Optimal management of microgrids with external agents including battery/fuel cell electric vehicles. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 10(4):4299–4308CrossRef
34.
go back to reference Gautschi M, Scheuss O, Schluchter C (2009) Simulation of an agent based vehicle-to-grid (v2g) implementation. Electric Power Syst Res 120:177–183 Gautschi M, Scheuss O, Schluchter C (2009) Simulation of an agent based vehicle-to-grid (v2g) implementation. Electric Power Syst Res 120:177–183
35.
go back to reference Giaouris D, Papadopoulos AI, Ziogou C, Ipsakis D, Voutetakis S, Papadopoulou S, Seferlis P, Stergiopoulos F, Elmasides C (2013) Performance investigation of a hybrid renewable power generation and storage system using systemic power management models. Energy 61:621–635CrossRef Giaouris D, Papadopoulos AI, Ziogou C, Ipsakis D, Voutetakis S, Papadopoulou S, Seferlis P, Stergiopoulos F, Elmasides C (2013) Performance investigation of a hybrid renewable power generation and storage system using systemic power management models. Energy 61:621–635CrossRef
36.
go back to reference Di Giorgio A, Liberati F, Canale S (2014) Electric vehicle charging control in smartgrids: a model predictive control approach. Control Eng Pract 22:147–162CrossRef Di Giorgio A, Liberati F, Canale S (2014) Electric vehicle charging control in smartgrids: a model predictive control approach. Control Eng Pract 22:147–162CrossRef
37.
go back to reference Gomez-Exposito A, Conejo AJ, Cañizares C (2018) Electric energy systems: analysis and operation. CRC Press Gomez-Exposito A, Conejo AJ, Cañizares C (2018) Electric energy systems: analysis and operation. CRC Press
38.
go back to reference Greenwell W, Vahidi A (2010) Predictive control of voltage and current in a fuel cell-ultracapacitor hybrid. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 57(6):1954–1963CrossRef Greenwell W, Vahidi A (2010) Predictive control of voltage and current in a fuel cell-ultracapacitor hybrid. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 57(6):1954–1963CrossRef
39.
go back to reference Gu W, Wu Z, Yuan X (2010) Microgrid economic optimal operation of the combined heat and power system with renewable energy. IEEE Power Energy Soc General Meet, 1–6 Gu W, Wu Z, Yuan X (2010) Microgrid economic optimal operation of the combined heat and power system with renewable energy. IEEE Power Energy Soc General Meet, 1–6
40.
go back to reference Guerrero JM, Garcia de Vicuña L, Matas J, Castilla M, Miret J (2005) Output impedance design of parallel-connected ups inverters with wireless load-sharing control. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 52(4):1126–1135CrossRef Guerrero JM, Garcia de Vicuña L, Matas J, Castilla M, Miret J (2005) Output impedance design of parallel-connected ups inverters with wireless load-sharing control. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 52(4):1126–1135CrossRef
41.
go back to reference Guerrero JM, Loh PC, Chandorkar M, Lee T (2013) Advanced control architectures for intelligent microgrids, part i: decentralized and hierarchical control. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 60(4):1254–1262CrossRef Guerrero JM, Loh PC, Chandorkar M, Lee T (2013) Advanced control architectures for intelligent microgrids, part i: decentralized and hierarchical control. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 60(4):1254–1262CrossRef
42.
go back to reference Hatziargyriou N (2014) Microgrids: architectures and control. Wiley-IEEE Press Hatziargyriou N (2014) Microgrids: architectures and control. Wiley-IEEE Press
43.
go back to reference Ipsakis D, Voutetakis S, Seferlis P, Stergiopoulos F, Papadopoulou S, Elmasides C (2008) The effect of the hysteresis band on power management strategies in a stand-alone power system. Energy 33(10):1537–1550CrossRef Ipsakis D, Voutetakis S, Seferlis P, Stergiopoulos F, Papadopoulou S, Elmasides C (2008) The effect of the hysteresis band on power management strategies in a stand-alone power system. Energy 33(10):1537–1550CrossRef
44.
go back to reference Janjic A, Stajic Z, Radovic I (2011) Power quality requirements for the smart grid design. Int J Circ Syst Signal Process Janjic A, Stajic Z, Radovic I (2011) Power quality requirements for the smart grid design. Int J Circ Syst Signal Process
45.
go back to reference Katiraei F, Iravani MR (2006) Power management strategies for a microgrid with multiple distributed generation units. IEEE Trans Power Syst 21(4):1821–1831CrossRef Katiraei F, Iravani MR (2006) Power management strategies for a microgrid with multiple distributed generation units. IEEE Trans Power Syst 21(4):1821–1831CrossRef
46.
go back to reference Katiraei F, Iravani R, Hatziargyriou N, Dimeas A (2008) Microgrids management. IEEE Power Energy Mag 6(3):54–65CrossRef Katiraei F, Iravani R, Hatziargyriou N, Dimeas A (2008) Microgrids management. IEEE Power Energy Mag 6(3):54–65CrossRef
47.
go back to reference Lasseter R, Akhil A, Marnay C, Stephens J, Dagle J, Guttromson R, Meliopoulous A, Yinger R, Eto J (2002) The certs microgrid concept. White paper for Transmission Reliability Program, Office of Power Technologies, US Department of Energy Lasseter R, Akhil A, Marnay C, Stephens J, Dagle J, Guttromson R, Meliopoulous A, Yinger R, Eto J (2002) The certs microgrid concept. White paper for Transmission Reliability Program, Office of Power Technologies, US Department of Energy
48.
49.
go back to reference Lee K, Eidson JC, Weibel H, Mohl D (2005) IEEE 1588-standard for a precision clock synchronization protocol for networked measurement and control systems. In: Conference on IEEE, vol 1588 Lee K, Eidson JC, Weibel H, Mohl D (2005) IEEE 1588-standard for a precision clock synchronization protocol for networked measurement and control systems. In: Conference on IEEE, vol 1588
50.
go back to reference Marwali MN, Jung J, Keyhani A (2004) Control of distributed generation systems-part ii: Load sharing control. IEEE Trans Power Electron 19(6):1551–1561CrossRef Marwali MN, Jung J, Keyhani A (2004) Control of distributed generation systems-part ii: Load sharing control. IEEE Trans Power Electron 19(6):1551–1561CrossRef
51.
go back to reference Mehrizi-Sani A, Iravani R (2010) Potential-function based control of a microgrid in Islanded and grid-connected modes. IEEE Trans Power Syst 25(4):1883–1891CrossRef Mehrizi-Sani A, Iravani R (2010) Potential-function based control of a microgrid in Islanded and grid-connected modes. IEEE Trans Power Syst 25(4):1883–1891CrossRef
52.
go back to reference Mendes PRC, Valverde L, Bordons C, Normey-Rico JE (2016) Energy management of an experimental microgrid coupled to a v2g system. J Power Sour 327:702–713CrossRef Mendes PRC, Valverde L, Bordons C, Normey-Rico JE (2016) Energy management of an experimental microgrid coupled to a v2g system. J Power Sour 327:702–713CrossRef
53.
go back to reference Mesbah A (2016) Stochastic model predictive control: an overview and perspectives for future research. IEEE Control Syst Mag 36(6):30–44MathSciNetCrossRef Mesbah A (2016) Stochastic model predictive control: an overview and perspectives for future research. IEEE Control Syst Mag 36(6):30–44MathSciNetCrossRef
54.
go back to reference Negenborn RR, Houwing M, De Schutter B, Hellendoorn J (2009) Model predictive control for residential energy resources using a mixed-logical dynamic model. In: International conference on networking, sensing and control, pp 702–707 Negenborn RR, Houwing M, De Schutter B, Hellendoorn J (2009) Model predictive control for residential energy resources using a mixed-logical dynamic model. In: International conference on networking, sensing and control, pp 702–707
55.
go back to reference Nunna HK, Doolla S (2013) Multiagent-based distributed-energy-resource management for intelligent microgrids. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 60(4):1678–1687CrossRef Nunna HK, Doolla S (2013) Multiagent-based distributed-energy-resource management for intelligent microgrids. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 60(4):1678–1687CrossRef
56.
go back to reference Olivares DE, Mehrizi-Sani A, Etemadi AH, Cañizares CA, Iravani R, Kazerani M, Hajimiragha AH, Gomis-Bellmunt O, Saeedifard A, Palma-Behnke R, Jimenez-Estevez GA, Hatziargyriou ND (2014) Trends in microgrid control. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 5(4):1905–1919CrossRef Olivares DE, Mehrizi-Sani A, Etemadi AH, Cañizares CA, Iravani R, Kazerani M, Hajimiragha AH, Gomis-Bellmunt O, Saeedifard A, Palma-Behnke R, Jimenez-Estevez GA, Hatziargyriou ND (2014) Trends in microgrid control. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 5(4):1905–1919CrossRef
57.
go back to reference Palizban O, Kauhaniemi K (2015) Hierarchical control structure in microgrids with distributed generation: Island and grid-connected mode. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 44:797–813CrossRef Palizban O, Kauhaniemi K (2015) Hierarchical control structure in microgrids with distributed generation: Island and grid-connected mode. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 44:797–813CrossRef
58.
go back to reference Palizban O, Kauhaniemi K, Guerrero JM (2014) Microgrids in active network management part i: Hierarchical control, energy storage, virtual power plants, and market participation. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 36:428–439CrossRef Palizban O, Kauhaniemi K, Guerrero JM (2014) Microgrids in active network management part i: Hierarchical control, energy storage, virtual power plants, and market participation. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 36:428–439CrossRef
59.
go back to reference Parisio A, Glielmo L (2011) A mixed integer linear formulation for microgrid economic scheduling. In: 2011 IEEE International conference on smart grid communications (SmartGridComm). IEEE, pp 505–510 Parisio A, Glielmo L (2011) A mixed integer linear formulation for microgrid economic scheduling. In: 2011 IEEE International conference on smart grid communications (SmartGridComm). IEEE, pp 505–510
60.
go back to reference Parisio A, Rikos E, Glielmo L (2014) A model predictive control approach to microgrid operation optimization. IEEE Trans Control Syst Technol 22(5):1813–1827CrossRef Parisio A, Rikos E, Glielmo L (2014) A model predictive control approach to microgrid operation optimization. IEEE Trans Control Syst Technol 22(5):1813–1827CrossRef
61.
go back to reference Parisio A, Rikos E, Tzamalis G, Glielmo L (2014) Use of model predictive control for experimental microgrid optimization. Appl Energy 115:37–46CrossRef Parisio A, Rikos E, Tzamalis G, Glielmo L (2014) Use of model predictive control for experimental microgrid optimization. Appl Energy 115:37–46CrossRef
62.
go back to reference Pecas-Lopes JA, Hatziargyriou N, Mutale J, Djapic P, Jenkins N (2007) Integrating distributed generation into electric power systems: a review of drivers, challenges and opportunities. Electric Power Syst Res 77(9):1189–1203CrossRef Pecas-Lopes JA, Hatziargyriou N, Mutale J, Djapic P, Jenkins N (2007) Integrating distributed generation into electric power systems: a review of drivers, challenges and opportunities. Electric Power Syst Res 77(9):1189–1203CrossRef
63.
go back to reference Petrollese M (2015) Optimal generation scheduling for renewable microgrids using hydrogen storage systems. PhD thesis, University of Cagliari Petrollese M (2015) Optimal generation scheduling for renewable microgrids using hydrogen storage systems. PhD thesis, University of Cagliari
64.
go back to reference Richardson P, Flynn D, Keane A (2012) Optimal charging of electric vehicles in low-voltage distribution systems. IEEE Trans Power Syst 27(1):268–279CrossRef Richardson P, Flynn D, Keane A (2012) Optimal charging of electric vehicles in low-voltage distribution systems. IEEE Trans Power Syst 27(1):268–279CrossRef
65.
go back to reference Rodriguez J, Pontt J, Silva CA, Correa P, Lezana P, Cortés P, Ammann U (2007) Predictive current control of a voltage source inverter. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 54(1):495–503CrossRef Rodriguez J, Pontt J, Silva CA, Correa P, Lezana P, Cortés P, Ammann U (2007) Predictive current control of a voltage source inverter. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 54(1):495–503CrossRef
66.
go back to reference Rouzbehi K, Miranian A, Candela JI, Luna A, Rodriguez P (2014) Intelligent voltage control in a DC micro-grid containing PV generation and energy storage. In: 2014 IEEE PES T&D conference and exposition, pp 1–5, April 2014 Rouzbehi K, Miranian A, Candela JI, Luna A, Rodriguez P (2014) Intelligent voltage control in a DC micro-grid containing PV generation and energy storage. In: 2014 IEEE PES T&D conference and exposition, pp 1–5, April 2014
67.
go back to reference Scattolini R (2009) Architectures for distributed and hierarchical model predictive control a review. J Process Control 19(5):723–731CrossRef Scattolini R (2009) Architectures for distributed and hierarchical model predictive control a review. J Process Control 19(5):723–731CrossRef
68.
go back to reference Schaltz E, Rasmussen PO (2008) Design and comparison of power systems for a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle. In: 2008 IEEE Industry applications society annual meeting, IAS’08. IEEE, pp 1–8 Schaltz E, Rasmussen PO (2008) Design and comparison of power systems for a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle. In: 2008 IEEE Industry applications society annual meeting, IAS’08. IEEE, pp 1–8
69.
go back to reference Thounthong P, Chunkag V, Sethakul P, Sikkabut S, Pierfederici S, Davat B (2011) Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source. J Power Sour 196(1):313–324CrossRef Thounthong P, Chunkag V, Sethakul P, Sikkabut S, Pierfederici S, Davat B (2011) Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source. J Power Sour 196(1):313–324CrossRef
70.
go back to reference Unamuno E, Barrena JA, Review and classification of control strategies, (2015) Hybrid AC/DC microgrids. Part ii. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 52:1123–1134 Unamuno E, Barrena JA, Review and classification of control strategies, (2015) Hybrid AC/DC microgrids. Part ii. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 52:1123–1134
71.
go back to reference Ustun TS, Ozansoy C, Zayegh A (2011) Recent developments in microgrids and example cases around the world: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15(8):4030–4041CrossRef Ustun TS, Ozansoy C, Zayegh A (2011) Recent developments in microgrids and example cases around the world: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15(8):4030–4041CrossRef
72.
go back to reference Vahidi A, Greenwell W (2007) A decentralized model predictive control approach to power management of a fuel cell-ultracapacitor hybrid. In: 2007 American Control Conference, ACC’07. IEEE, pp 5431–5437 Vahidi A, Greenwell W (2007) A decentralized model predictive control approach to power management of a fuel cell-ultracapacitor hybrid. In: 2007 American Control Conference, ACC’07. IEEE, pp 5431–5437
73.
go back to reference Valverde L, Bordons C, Rosa F (2016) Integration of fuel cell technologies in renewable-energy-based microgrids optimizing operational costs and durability. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 63(1):167–177CrossRef Valverde L, Bordons C, Rosa F (2016) Integration of fuel cell technologies in renewable-energy-based microgrids optimizing operational costs and durability. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 63(1):167–177CrossRef
74.
go back to reference Valverde L, Rosa F, Bordons C (2013) Design, planning and management of a hydrogen-based microgrid. IEEE Trans Ind Inf 9(3):1398–1404CrossRef Valverde L, Rosa F, Bordons C (2013) Design, planning and management of a hydrogen-based microgrid. IEEE Trans Ind Inf 9(3):1398–1404CrossRef
75.
go back to reference Valverde L, Rosa F, Del Real A, Arce A, Bordons C (2013) Modeling, simulation and experimental set-up of a renewable hydrogen-based domestic microgrid. Int J Hydrog Energy 38(27):11672–11684CrossRef Valverde L, Rosa F, Del Real A, Arce A, Bordons C (2013) Modeling, simulation and experimental set-up of a renewable hydrogen-based domestic microgrid. Int J Hydrog Energy 38(27):11672–11684CrossRef
76.
go back to reference Vasquez JC (2009) Decentralized control techniques applied to electric power distributed generation in microgrids. PhD thesis, Polytechnic University of Catalonia Vasquez JC (2009) Decentralized control techniques applied to electric power distributed generation in microgrids. PhD thesis, Polytechnic University of Catalonia
77.
go back to reference Vasquez JC, Guerrero JM, Miret J, Castilla M, Garcia de Vicuña L (2010) Hierarchical control of intelligent microgrids. IEEE Ind Electron Mag 4(4):23–29CrossRef Vasquez JC, Guerrero JM, Miret J, Castilla M, Garcia de Vicuña L (2010) Hierarchical control of intelligent microgrids. IEEE Ind Electron Mag 4(4):23–29CrossRef
78.
go back to reference Vergara-Dietrich JD, Morato MM, Mendes PRC, Cani AA, Normey-Rico JE, Bordons C (2017) Advanced chance-constrained predictive control for the efficient energy management of renewable power systems. J Process Control Vergara-Dietrich JD, Morato MM, Mendes PRC, Cani AA, Normey-Rico JE, Bordons C (2017) Advanced chance-constrained predictive control for the efficient energy management of renewable power systems. J Process Control
79.
go back to reference Wang C, Nehrir M (2008) Power management of a stand-alone wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell energy system. IEEE Trans Energy Conversion 23(3):957–967CrossRef Wang C, Nehrir M (2008) Power management of a stand-alone wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell energy system. IEEE Trans Energy Conversion 23(3):957–967CrossRef
80.
go back to reference Wu J, Guan X (2013) Coordinated multi-microgrids optimal control algorithm for smart distribution management system. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 4(4):2174–2181CrossRef Wu J, Guan X (2013) Coordinated multi-microgrids optimal control algorithm for smart distribution management system. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 4(4):2174–2181CrossRef
81.
go back to reference Zhang Y, Jiang Z, Yu X (2008) Control strategies for battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage systems. In: 2008 IEEE Energy 2030 Conference, ENERGY 2008. IEEE, pp 1–6 Zhang Y, Jiang Z, Yu X (2008) Control strategies for battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage systems. In: 2008 IEEE Energy 2030 Conference, ENERGY 2008. IEEE, pp 1–6
82.
go back to reference Ziogou C, Ipsakis D, Elmasides C, Stergiopoulos F, Papadopoulou S, Seferlis P, Voutetakis S (2011) Automation infrastructure and operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system based on renewable energy sources. J Power Sour 196(22):9488–9499CrossRef Ziogou C, Ipsakis D, Elmasides C, Stergiopoulos F, Papadopoulou S, Seferlis P, Voutetakis S (2011) Automation infrastructure and operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system based on renewable energy sources. J Power Sour 196(22):9488–9499CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Microgrid Control Issues
Authors
Carlos Bordons
Félix Garcia-Torres
Miguel A. Ridao
Copyright Year
2020
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-24570-2_1