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2023 | Book

mmWave Massive MIMO Vehicular Communications


About this book

This book proposes promising mmWave solutions to promoting safe and reliable vehicular communications. The authors include topics such as channel estimation, multi-user transceiver design, and advanced index modulation. For channel estimation, unique channel properties and hybrid structures are first introduced, followed by the development of a doubly-sparse doubly-selective channel estimator. For multi-user transceiver design, the concept of hybrid block diagonalization (HBD) is first introduced, followed by a generic HBD-based transceiver design to maximize the system capacity. For advanced index modulation, the generalized beamspace modulation for uplink multi-user scenarios are first introduced, followed by the precoded beamspace modulation for the downlink. Finally, this book discusses open problems and future research directions to inspire further studies in the field of mmWave vehicular communications.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Millimeter-Wave Vehicular Communications
This chapter works on presenting a background overview associated with vehicular communications and networking. The first part focuses on reviewing the recent advancements and progress booming in vehicular networking and standardization. As existing wireless solutions cannot guarantee safe, swift, and ubiquitous high-volume data transfer in future vehicular-to-everything communication, mmWave comes into play to help address the information bottleneck beyond the 5G era. Henceforth, the second part follows to provide a holistic overview of mmWave physical fundamentals and mmWave system properties. The chapter is concluded with a brief organization of this monograph studying mmWave vehicular communications.
Xiang Cheng, Shijian Gao, Liuqing Yang
Chapter 2. Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO Vehicular Channel Modeling
This chapter works on developing a novel three-dimensional (3D) non-stationary irregular-shaped geometry-based stochastic model (IS-GBSM) for beyond 5G and 6G vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) mmWave massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels. The proposed IS-GBSM utilizes distinguishable dynamic clusters and static clusters to explore the impact of vehicular traffic density (VTD) on channel statistics. Specifically, the developed method generates dynamic/static correlated clusters by an improved K-Means clustering algorithm. Then, by employing a birth-death process based on correlated groups, the consistency in birth and death between dynamic/static correlated clusters during time-array evolution is modeled. Finally, extensive simulations are carried out and demonstrate that space-time-frequency non-stationarity has been accurately captured, and the influence of VTDs on channel statistics has been successfully explored.
Xiang Cheng, Shijian Gao, Liuqing Yang
Chapter 3. Millimeter-Wave Vehicular Channel Estimation
This chapter works on designing an efficient channel estimator for hybrid mmWave massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) systems. The proposed doubly-sparse approach relies on a judiciously designed training pattern to decouple the convoluted channel. By doing so, it becomes convenient to exploit the under-investigated channel sparsity in the delay domain together with the well-known beamspace sparsity. Furthermore, dedicated probing strategies are accordingly developed to ensure compatibility with the hybrid structure while utilizing double sparsity. Compared with existing alternatives, the proposed mmWave channel estimator works exceptionally in doubly-selective (frequency-time) channels and can hugely reduce the training overhead, storage demand, and computational complexity thanks to the exploitation of double (delay-beamspace) sparsity.
Xiang Cheng, Shijian Gao, Liuqing Yang
Chapter 4. Generic Millimeter-Wave Multi-User Transceiver Design
This chapter works on crafting a generally enhanced transceiver explicitly for wideband multi-user (wMU) mmWave massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO), aiming to maximize mutual information (MI). The proposed scheme follows the prevalent hybrid block diagonalization (HBD-)based framework and further proves that HBD is optimal in the sense of MI. Specifically, the transceiver design decouples hybrid processing into two-stage analog and digital processing, with which one can derive the MI bounds associated with HBD. After demonstrating the bound tightness, we obtain the excellent HBD transceivers by optimizing the lower bound. The proposed HBD technique does not rely on substantial computational complexity, striking channel sparsity, or high-resolution analog beamformers and can achieve a superb MI performance even with inferior hardware configurations.
Xiang Cheng, Shijian Gao, Liuqing Yang
Chapter 5. Millimeter-Wave Index Modulation for Vehicular Uplink Access
This chapter works on proposing an advanced index modulation (IM) scheme to underpin mmWave vehicular uplink access. The designed IM roots from a spectrum efficiency (SE-) enhanced technique, namely generalized beamspace modulation (GBM), but has generalized it from the narrow-band to realistic wideband scenarios via a symbol-based modulating framework. Besides, the result wideband GBM (wGBM) is accompanied by a dedicated Doppler compensation module to enhance its robustness against Doppler. The proposed single-user wGBM is further extended to a wideband multi-user (wMU) scenario to support massive connection and ultra-fast speed for the next-generation cellular. A well-design detector is carefully devised for in wMU-wGBM based on the message-passing algorithm. It can effectively alleviate the computational complexity and maintain a near-optimal performance in large-scale systems. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations have been carried out to validate the advantages of wGBM in terms of error performance and energy efficiency.
Xiang Cheng, Shijian Gao, Liuqing Yang
Chapter 6. Millimeter-Wave Index Modulation for Vehicular Downlink Transmission
This chapter works on tailoring an index modulation (IM) for mmWave vehicular downlink access. The proposed wideband precoded beamspace modulation (wPBM) stems from the well-known spatial modulation. However, a careful adaptation has been conducted to combat time selectivity and remain compatible with hybrid wideband massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) systems. Relying on the previously developed hybrid block diagonalization (HBD-) based transceiver framework, we successfully extend the single-user wPBM to a downlink multi-user scenario. Following a dedicated low-complexity beamspace selection scheme, geometric mean decomposition is applied over the high-quality equivalent digital channel. Consequently, all users will be guaranteed to enjoy the fairness of Quality of Service in error performance. In addition, the performance merits keep remarkable in high mobility, indicating that wPBM is a promising candidate for vehicular communications.
Xiang Cheng, Shijian Gao, Liuqing Yang
mmWave Massive MIMO Vehicular Communications
Xiang Cheng
Shijian Gao
Liuqing Yang
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