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Mobile Commerce

weitere Buchkapitel

Chapter 1. Servicescapes and E-Servicescapes Design Issues in Emerging Markets: Imperatives, Challenges and Agenda Setting

Emerging markets present one of the significant challenges as well as opportunities for multi-national service firms, but the existing knowledge on the market is inadequate to address the same, even in the context of servicescapes. Servicescape plays a significant role in service delivery for services that are facility driven. The emerging markets are characterised by challenges in infrastructure, capital investments, cultural diversity, illiteracy, poverty and many other resource constraints. These different challenges become a major point of difference as against developed economies while considering designs in servicescapes. Drawing from literature in servicescapes designs, this chapter discusses the design issues that need to be addressed in servicescapes and e-servicescapes with particular reference to emerging markets and identifies the challenges that could limit the adoption of these designs. This chapter also offers a blueprint that would guide future research in this area.

Deepak S. Kumar, V. U. Vinitha

Mobile Application Software Usability Evaluation: Issues, Methods and Future Research Directions

Recently, the growth and advancement in mobile technology (such as mobile devices, smartphones, mobile wireless networks) have cushioned everyday lives of peoples across the globe. Interestingly, this can be attributed to the greater ease of developing mobile applications for diverse usages such as healthcare, finance, and agriculture. Another reason for this is that, there is the quest to rollout mobile device tailored application software having lower budget, quicker time of delivery, and top-quality product from the developers and the end-user’s perspectives. The challenges of appropriate designs frameworks; and the understanding of the needs of users (that is, the end users) have persisted long after their eventual rollouts. The concept of mobile app usability and accessibility evaluation were developed to enable developers to ascertain the level of usages and relevance of mobile applications in-use or prior release under diverse criteria such as maintainability, understandability, comprehensibility, as well as parameters specified by Usability Standards of ISO 9241-11 (that is, effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction). This study undertakes a systematic literature review (SLR) to discuss the subject of mobile application software usability under the specific scope of issues, methods and future research directions. To achieve these, a total of forty (40) peer-reviewed articles from diverse databases/sources of records were selected. The outcomes of this study revealed that, mobile applications usability evaluations and processes are domain-specific (or locality-dependent). Also, there are no generic approaches identified or developed for performing usability and accessibility of mobile applications due to the non-deterministic nature of the domain, and context-of-use.

Blessing Iganya Attah, John Kolo Alhassan, Ishaq Oyebisi Oyefolahan, Sulaimon Adebayo Bashir

5. E-Commerce


Ralf T. Kreutzer

3. BGB – Schuldrecht Allgemeiner Teil

Dieses Kapitel vermittelt u. a. Kenntnisse über die rechtlichen Grundsätze bei Schuldverhältnissen, einen zusammenfassenden Einblick in die rechtliche Verfahrensweise sowie die Rechtsfolgen bei Nicht- oder Schlechterfüllung von Pflichten aus einem Schuldverhältnis, Erläuterungen der in der Praxis wichtigen Bereiche des Rechts der Allgemeinen Geschäftsbedingungen und des Fernabsatzrechts.

Klaus Sakowski

Optimization in Big Data Analysis Based on Kolmogorov-Shannon Coding Methods

The article describes the optimization problem solving for multidimensional and bulks Big Data (data with more than 10 characteristics and $$10^8$$ 10 8 observations or higher), as well as machine-generated data of unlimited volume. It is difficult to analyze and visualize data of such volume and complexity using traditional methods. In contrast (and in addition) to machine learning methods widely used in Big Data analysis, it is proposed to use stochastic methods of data sets’ coding and approximation using Kolmogorov-Shannon metric nets, which are optimal for the entropy of the code. While adapting these methods, new methods are proposed for metrics construction for characteristics with nominal and ordinal scales.

Georgy K. Kamenev, Ivan G. Kamenev, Daria A. Andrianova

Chapter 2. E-Globalization and Digital Economy

The new era of information technologies is referring to the globalization of communication. The quick decrease of the communication costs enhanced the dealings among countries and is a vital foundation for the structure of a stronger universal civil society. In today’s technology-driven world, industry standardization, device interoperability, and product compatibility have turned out to be vital to advancing innovation and competition. The technologies and virtual places that represent cyberspace have been assimilated into the lives of people who accept the Internet as a tool for pursuing their common, real-world needs. E-government brings the government closer to citizens, defeating the barriers of bureaucracy, reducing corruption, and making decision-makers more reactive to people’s needs, which means that e-services of e-government are characterized by greater efficiency and transparency.

Georgios I. Zekos

Kapitel 12. Best Practices für KI im Handel – auch für Multisensorik?

Mittlerweile besteht kein Zweifel an der Erkenntnis, dass sich stationäre Händler neu erfinden müssen. So kämpft der stationäre Einzelhändler in der Stadt vielfach mit rückläufigen Kundenzahlen und stagnierenden Umsätzen, während Online-Händler weiterhin zulegen und sich zum Wachstumstreiber für die gesamte Einzelhandelsbranche entwickeln. Vor diesem Hintergrund sind neue Lösungen gefordert. Diesbezüglich können Systeme der künstlichen Intelligenz (KI) den Handel und dabei insbesondere in der personalisierten Kundenberatung und der Kundenkommunikation unterstützen. So erkennen smarte Displays vom Kunden ausgewählte Produkte und empfehlen passende zusätzliche Artikel wie z. B. bei Amazon 4-Star. Oder Mitarbeiter können ihre Kunden mit Hilfe von KI-gestützten Tablets personalisiert beraten wie z. B. bei Zara. Die Bezahlung erfolgt dann ohne Kassenstopp durch Bilderkennung der gekauften Waren und durch Zugriff auf das digitale Kundenkonto wie z. B. bei Amazon Go. Für den stationären Einzelhandel macht es insofern Sinn, sich intensiv mit der Thematik KI auseinanderzusetzen.

Gerrit Heinemann, Kerstin Sonntag, Marcus Groß

E-Commerce in Indian Retail Industry: Its Proliferation and Performance

The growth of the e-commerce industry in India has seen a multitude of growth since the growth of netizens in India has reached its peak post the demonetization in Indian economy. Research in e-commerce acts as a catalyst for studies in the field of digital innovation. The developments made by India in the field of e-commerce are notable by the world. India has made extensive use of the advancement in the field of technology. Recent years have seen a transformation in the way Indian shops and exchanges grew from cash mode payments to digital mode of service delivery and payments. This research is focused on studying the parameters that have acted as impetus in the expansion of e-commerce in the Indian retail sector.

Amala Siby, Jossy P. George

The Impact of Personality Traits Towards the Intention to Adopt Mobile Learning

Mobile devices have become increasingly more common in the digitally connected world. Mobile learning as a model of e-learning refers to the acquisition of knowledge & skills utilizing mobile technologies. The aim of this study is to identify the extrinsic influential factors for the adoption of mobile learning. This study proposes the use of an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) theory that includes variables of personality traits such as perceived enjoyment and computer self-efficiency. The participants of this study were 351 students at University Technology Malaysia who had experiences in e-learning. The study found that perceived usefulness as an extrinsic factor has the highest influence on students’ intention to adopt mobile learning through an investigation of technology acceptance toward mobile learning. Personality traits such as perceived enjoyment and self-efficacy have impact on behavior intention to adopt mobile learning.

Nesa Nabipour Sanjebad, Anup Shrestha, Pezhman Shahid

Antecedents of the Barriers Toward the Adoption of Unified Payment Interface

This study examines the influence of factors related to consumer resistance on the intention to continue using the Unified Payment Interface (UPI) for electronic payments. UPI facilitates advanced, peer-to-peer, immediate payment with seamless interoperability among banks in India. The study extends the innovation resistance theory by including two behavioral measures - privacy concerns and visibility - and two moderators - security concerns and word of mouth (WOM). It used cross-sectional data collected from 714 UPI users aged between 16 and 55 years to test the proposed research model. The findings suggest that privacy concerns and usage barrier are the two crucial factors to be addressed for breaking down consumer resistance towards continuing usage of UPI. The other significant factors are image barrier and visibility. In addition, security concerns and WOM are found to partially moderate the influences on the associations between the key variables and continuing usage of UPI.

Sayantan Khanra, Rojers P. Joseph, Amandeep Dhir, Puneet Kaur

3. How Industries Evolve, Mature, and Revitalize

Industries go through a similar process of evolution in pursuit of growth and efficiency. This chapter highlights that process and discusses each stage of their life cycle: start up, growth, maturity, and aging. The start-up phase is marked by significant growth and a lack of organization. Those who can create efficiency survive. In the growth phase, the challenge is to gain market share while becoming a full-line generalist. This is done by adopting one of the following strategies: market penetration, market expansion, complementary diversification, or product expansion. The maturity phase is when revitalization and the adoption of new technologies must occur for survival. Efficiency through scale typically results from the following scenarios: government mandates, regulated monopoly, shakeouts and mergers, and shared standards/costs. After an industry achieves scale efficiency and scope capabilities, it must evolve to revitalize to avoid death. The key drivers of market revitalization are substitute technologies, changing demographics, changing policy and regulation, and emerging markets. Emergence of middle-class markets presents significant opportunities for market revitalization in the twenty-first century.

Jagdish Sheth, Can Uslay, Raj Sisodia

Einführung in die Digitale Transformation

Dieser Beitrag skizziert die Auswirkungen technologischer Neuerungen auf die Gesellschaft und die Wirtschaft. Die Digitalisierung ist dabei Kerntreiber der Digitalen Transformation. Der Beitrag baut zunächst auf der Erläuterung zu technologischen Neuerungen auf. Darauf aufbauend werden die Auswirkungen auf die Gesellschaft und die Wirtschaft kontrastiert.

Tobias Kollmann, Holger Schmidt

Neuausrichtung des Multichanneling

Rettungsanker für den stationären Handel?

Zunehmend haben Online-Shops ihren Ursprung im stationären Handel, obwohl deren Marktanteil im Online-Handel immer noch bei weniger als 13 Prozent liegt (Heinemann 2019; bevh 2020). Sofern der Online-Shop unter gleicher Store Brand wie die Ladenlokale an den Start geht, handelt es sich im Ergebnis um einen typischen Multi-Channel-Händler, für den synonym auch der Begriff Omni-Channel-Handel Verwendung findet. Grundvoraussetzung ist dabei in jedem Fall die Kombination von stationärem Format und Online-Shop. Bei kombiniertem Katalogversand und Online-Shop handelt es sich demnach nicht um Multi-Channeling, sondern um hybriden Online-Handel. Derzeit erfolgt eine starke Polarisierung des Multi-Channel-Handels in einige sehr erfolgreiche Händler einerseits sowie viele weniger erfolgreiche Vertreter andererseits. Deswegen spalten sich die Meinungen in entweder „Omni-Channel ist gescheitert“ (Kolbrück 2017) oder aber „Multi-Channel-Händler sind auf dem Vormarsch und erzielen ein Viertel ihrer Umsätze online“ (Wiltscheck 2017). Ursache dieser Entwicklung ist zweifelsohne auch der unterschiedliche Umgang mit neuen digitalen Devices, denn der Mobile-Anteil am E-Commerce-Umsatz ist bereits auf annähernd 50 Prozent gestiegen, wobei die App-Umsätze überproportional anziehen (Criteo 2019). Vor allem die Smartphones ermöglichen eine neue Form der Kundenorientierung. So erwarten immer mehr Kunden, ihre stationären Einkäufe in Form des ROPO („research online and purchase offline“) unterwegs „anytime und everywhere“ vorbereiten zu können. Zugleich verzichten sie zunehmend auf persönliche Beratung in den Läden, die sie verstärkt als inkompetent erleben (kaufDA 2018). Insbesondere die Smartphones machen ein völlig neues Einkaufserlebnis möglich, das die Anbieter sich zunutze machen können, indem sie beispielsweise Konsumenten gezielt mit mobilen Werbeformen in ihre Geschäfte locken. Nur so ist zu verstehen, dass E-Commerce-Experten sagen: „Die Zukunft von online ist offline.“ Diesen Trend sehen insbesondere auch die Pure-Online-Händler. Diese bemerken, dass ihre Chancen deutlich steigen, wenn sie ihren Kanal um stationäre Geschäften oder Outlets ergänzen und damit ebenfalls zu Multi-Channel-Händlern werden. Da nun einmal im stationären Handel nach wie vor die meisten Kunden anzutreffen sind, ist zu erwarten, dass einige der reinen Online-Händler über kurz oder lang zusätzlich offline gehen und den Trend zum integrierten Multi-Channel-System zusätzlich befeuern werden. Die Kombination von Online-Handel und stationärem Handel, also die echten Multi-Channel-Systeme, können aufgrund sehr verschiedener Kompetenz- und Fähigkeitsanforderungen zweifelsohne als komplexeste Form des Einzelhandels angesehen werden.

Gerrit Heinemann

Einführung in das Online-Marketing

Im nachfolgenden Kapitel werden zunächst die Grundlagen des Online-Marketing erläutert. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden die Technik- und Medienaspekte des elektronischen Absatzes kontrastiert. Anschließend wird der Marketing-Mix, aufbauend auf den Marketinginstrumenten der Produktpolitik, Preispolitik, Vertriebspolitik und Kommunikationspolitik, angeführt.

Tobias Kollmann

Ein Überblick der E-Marktplätze im B2B-Bereich

Der vorliegende Beitrag erläutert die Grundlagen zu B2B E-Marktplätzen und ordnet diese Vertriebsform gegenüber anderen digitalen Geschäftsmodellen ein. Eine Gegenüberstellung der wichtigsten Vor- und Nachteile von B2B E-Marktplätzen bietet einen zusätzlichen Einblick in die Welt der digitalen Marktplätze. Darüber hinaus erläutert der Beitrag praxisnah, welche Erfolgsfaktoren und Barrieren sowohl Händler als auch Kunden bei der Nutzung eines E-Marktplatzes und ihren dortigen Aktivitäten zu berücksichtigen haben. Die Vorstellung eines Langlebigkeitsframeworks zeigt anschließend auf, welche Kriterien das Bestehen eines Marktplatzes beeinflussen. Einige Praxisbeispiele von existierenden B2B E-Marktplätzen sollen zeigen, welche Marktstellung diese heutzutage einnehmen und welche Geschäftsfelder sie bereits abdecken. Ein Ausblick auf zukünftig zu erwartende Entwicklungen im Bereich der B2B E-Marktplätze schließt diesen Beitrag ab.

Evi Hartmann

Micro-foundations of Artificial Intelligence Adoption in Business: Making the Shift

Artificial Intelligence has gradually materialized as an independent research field within information systems and business domains. The new forms of work evolving in the business require substantial experimentation, lead generations, and real-time recommendations. This has driven the extraordinary increase in the adoption of Artificial Intelligence technologies. Even with front runner organizations across the domain envisioning the advantages of early adoption of Artificial Intelligence technologies, some organizations scuffle the adoption owing to various barriers. This paper analyzes the characteristics that lead to and factors inhibiting the adoption of Artificial Intelligence at the organization-level. Through this paper, we report the results of Twitter conversations involving small and medium scale organizations about their level of adoption of Artificial Intelligence and barriers that they are facing. Through this analysis, we provide insights and agenda to help the executives of small and medium scale organizations to prepare for the adoption of Artificial Intelligence.

Amit Kumar Kushwaha, Arpan Kumar Kar

Chapter 2. Alibaba Group—The Evolution of Transnational Governance

This chapter analyzes the evolution of Alibaba Group’s corporate governance and the choices that the company has made regarding its overseas investments. First, key events in the development of Alibaba Group provide a summary of the company’s situation to form a preliminary understanding of the evolution of its strategic-organizational structure-corporate governance model. Equity changes in the parent company, the composition of the board of directors, and the evolution of control-rights are also analysed, demonstrating the company’s pathway to successful governance. Finally, Alibaba Group’s international development strategy and foreign entry mode choices are reviewed and subjected to analysis, along with the challenges faced by Alibaba Group as it grapples with complex transnational governance issues.

Runhui Lin, Jean Jinghan Chen, Li Xie

The FIRST (vF Interoperation suppoRting buSiness innovaTion) Project: Service Management for Virtual Factories

The H2020 FIRST project addresses the virtual factories, which are digital abstractions of real factories. The exploitation of virtual factories enables interoperability between real components inside a factory as well as between different factories belonging to the same supply chain. Moreover, virtual factories can be exploited to manage and compose services inside a factory, defining dynamic adaptation of set of services depending on high-level goals.In this paper we sketch the project results and its current state.

Yuewei Bai, Stephan Böse, Giacomo Cabri, Paul de Vrieze, Norbert Eder, Alexander Lazovik, Federica Mandreoli, Massimo Mecella, Hua Mu, Lai Xu

4. Techno Service Worlds? Digitization of Service Businesses

In this chapter, the focus is on exploring the role that technological innovation—including big data, robotics, artificial intelligence, online platforms and algorithms—has played in the emergence of new service business models and in new forms of service business and work. The emphasis is on the digitization of service operational processes and their impacts. This is a tension between the role service workers play in creating and delivering service experiences through face-to-face encounters versus the substitution of service workers by technology. On the one hand, service customization and the quality of a service experience is still founded around interactions between service producers and service consumers. On the other hand, there is the emergence of service encounters in which service workers are a hidden rather than a visible part of the service experience. Reading and managing service businesses must include an appreciation of the ways in which technological innovation is transforming the management of service businesses.

John R. Bryson, Jon Sundbo, Lars Fuglsang, Peter Daniels

4. Digital Readiness der Banken und Sparkassen

Generell lässt sich sagen, dass die Sparkassen eine gute Basis für die Plattformökonomie mitbringen und sich der Herausforderungen zum großen Teil bewusst sind. Was fehlt, ist die Umwandlung dieser Basis in Chancen und Vorteile. Sicherlich gehören bereits real existierende Plattformen zu den großen Bedrohungen der Branche, jedoch sind diese Anbieter in erster Linie bankenfremde Marktplätze und Vergleichsportale, die noch keine große Historie oder Expertise in Finanzprodukten jeglicher Art aufweisen. Zum jetzigen Zeitpunkt lässt sich nur darüber spekulieren, wie Amazon und andere reine eCommerce-Player ihr Angebotsportfolio hinsichtlich Finanzdienstleistungen visualisieren und aufstellen werden, jedoch sind Sparkassen und andere Finanzdienstleister aufgrund ihrer langjährigen Erfahrung inhaltlich klar im Vorteil und sollten sich hinsichtlich ihrer Online-Auftritte an den Best Practices der hier vorgestellten Studie orientieren.

Gerrit Heinemann, Klaus Kannen, Sebastian Bleil

1. Standortbestimmung der Plattformökonomie

Die Bankenbranche steht vor großen Herausforderungen. Plattformen und digitale Technologien sowie die dadurch initiierte Veränderung des Kundenverhaltens lassen einen rasanten Wandel im Banking erkennen. Dieser erinnert an die digitale Disruption bankenfremder Branchen durch Firmen, die als Vorreiter in der Plattformökonomie gelten: Google, Amazon, Facebook und Apple. stehen mit ihrer dominanten Marktstellung im Zentrum der digitalen Ökonomie, weswegen die sogenannte Plattformökonomie auch als „GAFA-Ökonomie“ bezeichnet wird.

Gerrit Heinemann, Klaus Kannen, Sebastian Bleil

Kapitel 3. Das Phänomen Digitalisierung

Nun da die Wertschöpfungsstruktur eines Messeveranstalters umfassend dargelegt ist, bedarf es der systematisierten Erfassung des Phänomens Digitalisierung, um im Folgeschritt dessen Auswirkungen auf die Wertschöpfung eines Messeveranstalters untersuchen zu können.

Christoph Menke

12. Independent or Interdependent Innovation: The Case of Huawei

Prior studies viewed interdependence as an important mechanism for coordinative innovation and examined its impacts on innovations. However, it is still not clear that how latecomer firms with limited innovation capabilities can strategically manage interdependence in order to catch up in global innovation competition. We proposed an inductive case study based on a polar case of Huawei and retrieved its innovation history. Focusing on Huawei’s innovation processes, the study provides insights into how latecomer firms can deliberately manage interdependence and independence in the catch-up process. The results help us to conceptualize and characterize the meaning of interdependence in innovation literature. We also draw implications from our findings for latecomer firms that need to shape their own specific approaches to managing interdependence in order to catch up with first-movers.

Xingkun Liang, Yue Xu

Smart Contracts in the Automotive Industry

The automotive industry has undoubtedly significantly changed our societies and daily life. It is among the most advanced, complicated, and innovative industries. The automotive industry is an essential driving factor of many other advanced industries, it requires the contribution of many other technologies like advanced manufacturing systems, cyber-physical systems, and robotics. Blockchain technology can be highly beneficial for the automotive industry, to enhance its data security, integrity and reliability, tracking and location management, enhanced connectivity, mobility-as-a-service, tamper prevention, and fraud detection. One of the emerging blockchain capabilities is smart contract enforcement and autonomy. In this article, a basic overview of smart contracts is given, early history, definition and concepts, relation with the blockchain, listing its benefits, data sources, design, and describing its importance, finally we highlighted some serious, outstanding and worth to mention steps toward activation and enabling the smart contracts and blockchain roles in the automotive industry specifically and the industry in general.

Olivér Hornyák, George Farid Alkhoury

Open Access

Chapter 1. Understanding Trust and Cloud Computing: An Integrated Framework for Assurance and Accountability in the Cloud

Trust is regularly cited as one the main barriers for increased adoption of cloud computing, however conceptualisations of trust in cloud computing literature can be simplistic. This chapter briefly introduces the trust literature including definitions and antecedents of trust. Following an overview of cloud computing, we discuss some of the cited barriers to trust in cloud computing, and proposed mechanisms for building trust in the cloud. We present a high-level framework for exploring assurance (trust building) and accountability (trust repair) in the cloud and call for a more integrated multi-stakeholder approach to trust research in this multi-faceted context.

Theo Lynn, Lisa van der Werff, Grace Fox

The Future of Retail: Innovations and Basic Trends

Modern economy conditions are so-called Industry 4.0 affected all the sphere as of humans’ life. One of the main among them is retail. Retail is a last link between manufacturer and consumer which gain profit for all the supply chain. Technological development became a key factor to succeed nowadays but today global economy is slouching through the recession during COVID 19 pandemia and there are many thoughts about the future of retail. As a pioneer of digital transformation, retail already has been adapting to modern clients’ queries and transition to e-commerce or mobile commerce. But not even e-commerce is a key factor to overcome difficulties. The main goal of the study is to analyze innovative models and technologies in retail and an experience of the most efficient implementation models worldwide.

N. V. Ivanova

Kapitel 7. Agenda für erfolgreichen E-Commerce

In diesem Abschnitt wird eine Agenda zur Umsetzung der vier Schlüsselfaktoren im E-Commerce vorgestellt. Dazu gehört auch ein zusammenfassender Workflow, der hilft, die Schlüsselfaktoren im Kontext von Kundenproblem und Innovationen zu etablieren. Ein Ausblick auf weitere Entwicklungsstufen der Digitalisierung beendet das Kapitel und damit das essential.

Dominik Große Holtforth, Richard C. Geibel, Robin Kracht

Trust Evaluation of User Behavior Based on Entropy Weight Method

Untrustworthy behaviors such as false redundant information flooding and malicious recommendation hinder the healthy development of social e-commerce, and predicting and evaluating the credibility of users is of great significance to social e-commerce marketing promotion. Giving objective and appropriate evaluation weights to decision attributes is the first step to predict the credibility of users. This paper proposes a dynamic trust quantification model based on entropy weight method, which can realize adaptive weight setting. Experiments show that compared with similar models, the model is more adaptable and has a higher transaction success rate.

Yonghua Gong, Lei Chen

Using Self Organizing Maps and K Means Clustering Based on RFM Model for Customer Segmentation in the Online Retail Business

This work based on the research of Chen et al. who compiled sales data for a UK based online retailer for the years 2009 to 2011. While the work presented by Chen et al. used k means clustering algorithm to generate meaningful customer segments for the year 2011, this research utilised 2010 retail data to generate meaningful business intelligence based on the computed RFM values for the retail data set. We benchmarked the performance of k means and self organizing maps (SOM) clustering algorithms for the filtered target data set. Self organizing maps are utilized to provide a framework for a neural networks computation, which can be benchmarked to the simple k means algorithm used by Chen et al.

Rajan Vohra, Jankisharan Pahareeya, Abir Hussain, Fawaz Ghali, Alison Lui

The Effect of Device-Affordance Alignment with the User Goal on User Experience

Building upon the conceptualization of affordances, this article leverages the theoretical framework of task-technology fit in e-commerce to explore the consequences of alignment and misalignment of technology’s affordances and user’s intended goals. More specifically, the objective of this article is to investigate the effect of the alignment between the affordances of technological devices and tasks performed on these devices on the user’s shopping experience. A within-subject controlled laboratory experiment was conducted. Twenty-five participants were asked to complete six digital-grocery related tasks of equivalent nature on both a computer and a smartphone. Study results highlight two primary findings. First, the affordances of the device on which digital shopping tasks are performed affect the user’s cognitive and emotional states. Performing digital shopping tasks on a smartphone generates a higher cognitive load (cognitive state), as well as a more positive emotional valence and greater arousal (emotional state) for users. Second, the results, however, do not provide enough evidence to conclude that the type of task (user goal) moderates the previously found relationship. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

Audrey Bond, Pierre-Majorique Léger, Sylvain Sénécal

Performance Marketing in der Online-Sphäre

Vom Audience Targeting zum Customer Life Time Value

In der Online-Sphäre treffen Unternehmen auf neue Herausforderungen in ihrem Touchpoint Management. Zu den analogen wie digitalen Kontaktpunkten der unternehmenseigenen Sphäre kommen neue, insbesondere digitale Kontaktpunkte in der unternehmensfernen Sphäre, die nicht mehr durch das Unternehmen steuerbar sind. Da diese aber einen wachsenden Einfluss auf das Kundenverhalten gewinnen, müssen Unternehmen einen Weg finden, sie in ihre Marketing-Prozesse zu integrieren, wie es bereits einige große Plattform- Anbieter vormachen.

Gerrit Heinemann, Stefan Zarnic

Red Tsunami

Wie Chinas Mobile-First-Gesellschaft das Marketing herausfordert

Wenn man versucht, das chinesische Mobile Internet Phänomen mit seinen wichtigsten Akteuren und Geschäftsmodellen sowie seiner zum Teil exotisch anmutenden Angebotsvielfalt auf wenigen Seiten zu skizzieren, ist das schon eine große Herausforderung. Wenn man dieses dann auch noch vor dem Hintergrund der aktuellen wirtschaftspolitischen und gesellschaftlichen Entwicklungen vornimmt und schließlich den sich abzeichnenden Zusammenstoß der antipodischen Internet-Ökosysteme von West und Ost aufzeigt, muss das eigentlich scheitern. Darüber hinaus gibt es bereits sehr viele und hervorragende Bücher, Studien, Internet-Artikel, Podcasts, Newsletter, WeChat-Gruppen, Konferenzen und Meetups, die sich ausführlich und tagesaktuell mit diesem Thema beschäftigen.

Heiko M. Stutzinger, Mark Wächter

Chapter 2. Electronic Commerce Items and Related Technology

This chapter presents e-commerce items including m-commerce, and a framework for e-commerceE-commerce . The items include trust and privacy, payment system, management and security and so on. The position and the importance of each topic in e-commerce are discussed extensively. Finally, a new framework for e-commerce is proposed. The framework has three-dimensions which are software technology dimension, hardware dimension and e-commerce application dimension. The criteria of a good framework is also indicated. It has been demonstrated that the framework is a natural and efficient framework. Furthermore, all items in e-commerce can fit into the framework very well.

Hua Wang, Jinli Cao, Yanchun Zhang

Chapter 1. Introduction

This chapter presents the motivation and objectives of this book. There are three sections in the chapter. In the first section, overview and motivation of the book are presented. It consists of Cloud computing, Internet of Things, and access control management. Three technology issues in e-commerceE-commerce with their unsolved problems are introduced in access control management. The objectives and organization of this book are described in the second and third section respectively.

Hua Wang, Jinli Cao, Yanchun Zhang

COVID-19 Pandemic – Role of Technology in Transforming Business to the New Normal

COVID-19 has disrupted our lives and the economy. In this paper, we outline approaches in which information technology can be used to implement business strategies to enhance resilience by coping with, adapting to, and recovering from adversity resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. We discuss how information technology such as digital supply chain, data analytics, artificial intelligence, machine learning, robotics, digital commerce, and Internet of Things can be used to enhance resilience and continuity of business.

Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, Keng Siau

A Comparison Study of Trust in M-commerce Between Qatari and Non-qatari Customers

Over the past few years, mobile commerce (M-commerce), which is a new channel for conducting online businesses has revolutionized the global market. In Qatar, due to lack of trust, an only small percentage of Qatari populations has shown an interest in mobile shopping although the average annual individual’s expenditure is impressive. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate antecedents of consumer’ trust in the context of mobile commerce [1]. The objective of this paper is to explore whether trust perceptions towards mobile shopping among diverse segments of consumers living in Qatar vary significantly or not by proposing a conceptual framework for trust based on the Technology Acceptance Model. An online survey was conducted to empirically validate the newly developed trust factors between consumers with different nationalities, genders, and age ranges by performing permutations and partial lease squares multi-group analysis algorithms. Our research findings revealed that nationalities differences related to the factor perceived usability had positive indirect effect on Qataris trust, female consumers’ trust could be enhanced by perceived usability, and young consumers could easily trust mobile commerce via the endorsement of social media influencers. The results also emphasized that perceived security was one of the most significant factors that affect drastically mobile commerce trust between all groups of consumers. We ended our work offering some valuable theoretical implications for scholars and interesting strategies for practitioners to help to create customer’s trust especially during crises, such as COVID-19.

Eiman Al-Khalaf, Pilsung Choe

Chapter 5. Data Integrity, Control and Tokenization

Data is the lifeblood within the digital ecosystem and more broadly the economies of the future. Whilst there is increasing focus on data protection (e.g. the EU General Data Protection Regulation ‘GDPR’), the broader role of data in enabling the development and growth of a convergent ecosystem has only recently been brought into sharp focus. Artificial intelligence, virtual reality, augmented reality, as well as many applications used in the digital environment require vast amounts of data inputs (sometime diverse sets of data that may be geographically dispersed) and vast computing resources to process these.

Bharat Vagadia

Efficient and Secure Two-Party Distributed Signing Protocol for the GOST Signature Algorithm

Mobile devices, such as Android and iOS devices, are often used for electronic/mobile commerce (e.g. payments using WeChat Pay and Bitcoin wallet). Hence, ensuring the security of a user’s private key stored on the device is crucial. To reduce the risk of private key leakage, a number of (t, n) threshold secret sharing protocols have been proposed in the literature. However, (t, n) threshold secret sharing protocols are generally not designed to mitigate key reconstruction attacks. Hence, in this paper we propose an efficient and secure two-party distributed signing protocol for the GOST signature algorithm, a Russian cryptographic standard algorithm. This allows us to separate a single private key to two mobile devices and generate a valid signature without reconstructing the entire private key. We then prove that our protocol is secure under non-standard assumption. Moreover, we implement our protocol using MIRACL Cryptographic SDK and evaluate its performance on two Android devices and two personal computers.

Yunru Zhang, Min Luo, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Li Li, Debiao He

Augmented Reality: What Motivates Late Millennials towards Fashion Mobile Apps?

Generation Z is expected to be a dominant demographic and economic group. Cyber-waviness, constant reliance on smart devices that allows them to be always connected are among some of their intrinsic characteristics. The combination of this reality with the ever-changing technological environment is compelling retailers to reshape their business strategies, to meet this group desires and expectations and to foster their engagement. Augmented reality (AR) is emerging as a technological solution that pleases both consumers and retailers. This paper aims to answer two main questions: (1) How does generation Z evaluate an AR experience? (2) Which attributes/benefits do they value or not during an AR experience? Drawing on a qualitative methodology – content analysis of 34 interviewees – we discuss six main dimensions the potential customer value of the relationship between them and AR experiences under retailer context.

Mafalda Teles Roxo, Pedro Quelhas Brito

13. Multikanalmanagement

In den letzten Jahren konnten Entwicklungen beobachtet werden, dass Anbieter und Händler zunehmend verschiedene Absatzkanäle parallel einsetzen. Unter Multikanalmanagement wird vor diesem Hintergrund die Kombination und Koordination verschiedener Absatzkanäle verstanden. Ziel ist es, dem Kunden durch die Vernetzung der Absatzkanäle ein kanalübergreifendes und konsistentes Einkaufserlebnis zu bieten, daraus resultierendes Umsatzwachstum abzuschöpfen und Kosten durch Synergieeffekte zu senken.Im Folgenden werden zunächst die Grundlagen und Entwicklungen im Multikanalmanagement beschrieben. Darüber hinaus erfolgt eine knappe Einführung zu den jeweiligen Absatzkanälen des Distanzhandels. Abschließend werden das Kundenverhalten im Multikanalkontext sowie wesentliche Herausforderungen aus Unternehmensperspektive skizziert.

Dieter Ahlert, Peter Kenning, Christian Brock

Chapter 14. e-Service Innovation Through Malaysian Consumer Perspectives: Case Studies of e-Hailing and e-Hypermarket

In recent decades, Malaysian Internet usage has rose rapidly. Malaysia Internet penetration rate has achieved 80% or equivalent to 26 million Internet users. With the rapid growth of the internet usage in Malaysia, consumers are now starting to purchase product and services via online medium. This chapter focuses on how Malaysian consumer value online services as alternatives of getting service. The chapter begins with the current trends of e-service in Malaysia. Two online services, e-hailing and e-hypermarket will be discussed. The gathered consumer value will help industry in providing better e-service.

Nur Fazidah Elias, Ruzzakiah Jenal, Hazura Mohamed, Siti Aishah Hanawi, Hazilah Mohd Amin, Roham Yeganegi, Nur Athirah Nabila Binti Mohd Idros

6. Organizing for International Growth

Organizing a multinational involves the following major decisions: location of activities in foreign markets, allocation of resources and capabilities to subsidiaries, the level of integration of subsidiaries, the direction of communication between headquarters and subsidiaries and among subsidiaries, the level of formalization of procedures and rules governing the life of subsidiaries, and their decisional autonomy. The decision about which locations we decide to develop and produce and sell our products and services in is a source of competitive advantage, and this may strongly impact the firm’s long-term competitiveness. We describe the pros and cons of the offshoring and offshoring outsourcing solutions (including the risk of commoditization) and overview the key factors in the “make or buy” decision. The configuration of the role of a foreign subsidiary is another important decision; a firm needs to consider its internationalization goals, the level of strategic importance of the target market where the subsidiary is located, the ability of headquarters to understand the target market’s competitive and cultural context, and the ability of a subsidiary to operate in relative autonomy from the rest of the firm. We fully agree with Professors C. Bartlett and S. Ghoshal that it is impossible for a modern multinational to operate as a uniform and symmetrical organization. Therefore, as an alternative to network and hierarchical organization, we propose heterarchical organization. Heterarchical multinationals are made possible by different approaches to people management based on a global mentality, broad involvement of employees, and specific hiring policies and career paths. Heterarchical organizations with these kinds of people management policies are difficult to implement, but also difficult to imitate. We conclude by emphasizing the importance of subsidiaries within multinational organizations as a source of innovation.

Olga E. Annushkina, Alberto Regazzo

Behaviour of Outsourced Employees as Sources of Information System Security Threats

There is an increased need for information systems to be protected against unauthorized access and retrieval, particularly from legitimate ‘insider’ outsourced employees. While most studies have focused on organisations’ employees as threats, only a few have focused on the role the outsourced employees’ play as a potential threat. The study seeks to investigate the insider threat behaviour of an outsourced employee in developing countries as security threats to information systems by virtue of their privileged access. The study is quantitative and adopts social bond and involvement theories for this purpose. The research sample was chosen from organisations in Nigeria and South Africa which are the largest two national economies in Africa. Close-ended questionnaires were used and the data were analysed using factor analysis. The study found that outsourced employees exploit information systems vulnerabilities because they are not actively involved in the organisation and lack moral values and beliefs. The findings of this study will assist organisations in developing countries to mitigate the information security threats posed by outsourced employees.

David Oyebisi, Kennedy Njenga

Digitization of the Health and Education Sectors in the Palestinian Society, in View of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

Policy- and strategy-makers, governments, and societies, in general, are facing nowadays, worldwide, a stage of transformation towards the digitization era through information and communications’ technology (ICT). People today, around the world, have access to mobile phones more than to life’s necessary basics, such as electricity and water. In addition, the amount of information generated globally is expanding exponentially at exceptional rates, as a result of the benefits offered by the ICT.

Hilmi S. Salem

Service Value von personalisierten Location-based Services – Eine differenzierte Analyse am Beispiel des deutschen Lebensmitteleinzelhandels

Der vorliegende Beitrag widmet sich dem Service Value von personalisierten Location-based Services, die während des Einkaufs im Geschäft zum Einsatz kommen. Das Ziel der Studie ist es, den Einfluss der verschiedenen Dimensionen des Service Value auf die Zufriedenheit mit personalisierten Location-based Services empirisch zu untersuchen. Ferner wurde analysiert, inwieweit die Zufriedenheit mit personalisierten Location-based Services ausgewählte Zielgrößen bezogen auf den mobilen Dienst einerseits (Loyalität gegenüber personalisierten Location-based Services) und bezogen auf den Händler andererseits (Zufriedenheit mit dem Händler und Loyalität gegenüber dem Händler) beeinflusst. Zur Prüfung der aufgestellten Hypothesen wurde eine Online-Befragung durchgeführt (n=170). Basierend auf den Ergebnissen der Strukturgleichungsanalyse lassen sich theoretische sowie praktische Implikationen ableiten.

Rabea Schrage, Peter Kenning

Legal Regulation of Digital Platforms: Reference Points of Modern Legislation

The paper analyzes the current state of Russian and foreign legislation regarding the regulation of digital platforms. The study is based on the differentiation of platforms according to the area of their activities and the main functional tasks. But at the same time, the authors insist on common reference points in the legal regulation of different platforms. Their analysis allows not only to assess the quality and completeness of legal regulation, but also to formulate a number of proposals for improving the current legislation. To the reference points of the rights of digital platforms the authors refer the following ones: the legal status of the platforms, the contractual basis of their activities, the responsibility of the parties for inappropriate goods (services), labor relations with employees of digital platforms, etc. These issues are considered in the article with reference to current legislation and modern judicial practice.

E. L. Sidorenko, I. Sh. Galstyan, A. A. Sitnik

Research on Crowd-Sensing Task Assignment Based on Fuzzy Inference PSO Algorithm

To solve the problem of load unbalance in the case of few users and multi-task, a fuzzy inference PSO algorithm (FPSO) crowd sensing single objective task assignment method is proposed. With task completion time, user load balancing and perceived cost as the optimization goals, the fuzzy learning algorithm dynamically adjusts the learning factor in the PSO algorithm, so that the PSO algorithm can perform global search in the scope of the task space, thus obtaining the optimal task assignment solution set. Finally, the FPSO algorithm is compared with the PSO, GA and ABC algorithms on the optimization objectives, such as the algorithm convergence, task completion time, perceived cost and load balance. The experimental results show that the FPSO algorithm not only has faster convergence rate than the other algorithms, and shorten the task completion time, reduce the platform’s perceived cost, improve the user’s load balance, and have a good application effect in the crowd sensing task assignment.

Jianjun Li, Jia Fu, Yu Yang, Xiaoling Wang, Xin Rong

Research on the Tax Base of Income Tax of Smart Mobile Commerce

With the rapid development of mobile communication technology and Internet intelligent terminal technology, mobile commerce with mobility and convenience has become a new direction of e-commerce development. Mobile commerce is a new e-commerce mode that carries out data transmission through mobile communication network and participates in various business activities by using mobile information terminals. Mobile commerce is the extension of e-commerce, which has greatly developed e-commerce, and its influence on economic development has been gradually enhanced. It is very different from traditional e-commerce. Mobile e-commerce is not limited by time and space, which is also one of the biggest advantages of mobile e-commerce compared with traditional e-commerce.However, the rapid development of mobile commerce, driving economic growth, but also brought a series of tax management problems. In the new environment of digital economy, e-commerce and mobile commerce, the existing tax management system has exposed many loopholes. The incomplete tax system of digital economy and e-commerce has led to serious tax loss, and the tax rate of digital economy is less than half that of traditional business model. At the same time, the absence of relevant laws also increases the difficulty of collection and administration, which is not conducive to maintaining the fairness of taxation. Therefore, the research on the tax management of mobile commerce is the protection of the tax rights of the country and also the general trend to adapt to the development. Among them, the tax base as the basis of calculating the tax payable, mobile commerce income tax base is the most important issue. Therefore, on the basis of the original e-commerce tax system and digital economy, combined with the actual situation in China, this paper further explored and improved the tax base of income tax under mobile commerce.International research on digital economy, e-commerce tax management is in full swing. In this context, this paper is divided into six parts from the perspective of improving the tax base. Firstly, the research background, current tax management status and existing problems of the emerging field of mobile commerce income tax are expounded. The second part expounds the relevant concepts of the income tax base of mobile commerce, the theoretical analysis of the composition scope and the determination principle at home and abroad, and studies the influencing factors of the tax system from the political, economic and social aspects. The third part discusses the determination of the income tax base of mobile commerce. Starting from the macro tax data, this paper specifically studies the taxable income, deduction items and tax preferences of mobile commerce income tax. The fourth part will focus on research the existing problems of tax management system in the tax base, as well as the problems of expense deduction, tax preferential policies, the fifth part, comparing the selected OECD countries based on the same taxable income, deductions, tax breaks for the analysis of the specific Settings and change trend of enterprise income tax base, the last part in view of the above analysis, combined with the actual situation of our country, put forward suitable for China’s national conditions of further optimization measures of mobile business income tax base and legislative Suggestions.

Qi Wei, Peiyan Zhou

Research on the Issues and Countermeasures of VAT Legislation for China Mobile Business Users

Mobile commerce has become a new trend in e-commerce in recent years and a new engine of economic growth in the digital economy. However, the rapid development of this new business activity has brought about a series of tax problems while promoting economic growth. Firstly, this paper analyzes whether China’s current VAT-related regulations can adapt to the mobile commerce environment. Secondly, it sorts out the relevant measures of the international society on the digital economy and e-commerce environment, and analyzes the reasons for taking these measures. Finally, appropriate recommendations of Chinese mobile commerce VAT legislation are proposed in consideration of China’s specific national conditions, national interests and characteristics of mobile commerce.

Yun Ruan, Wanyu Li

Research on the Impact Factors of Quality Risk in the Mobile Supply Chain of Intelligent Manufacturing

The formation of global market pattern makes the market competition develop from the traditional competition among enterprises to the competition among supply chains. With the transformation of China’s manufacturing industry to intelligent manufacturing and the development of supply chain mobile application, the mobile supply chain (SC) facing intelligent manufacturing is endowed with more market elements, technical elements and innovative management elements. Therefore, mobile supply chain operation also faces some new potential quality risk factors. According to the characteristics of dynamic and complex supply chain environment, large loss of quality risk and wide range, this paper puts forward the research topic of mobile supply chain risk factor identification under intelligent manufacturing. Based on the application status of mobile supply chain in China’s manufacturing industry, this paper analyzes the quality risk path of mobile supply chain, discusses the measurement factors of supply chain quality risk, and designs the corresponding questionnaire. Then, a questionnaire survey was conducted in Zhejiang Province. SPSS software was used for correlation analysis, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The evaluation model of supply chain quality risk factors in the “intelligent manufacturing” environment is established. This study can provide theoretical support for manufacturing enterprises to prevent and deal with supply chain quality risk, so as to promote the healthy development of intelligent manufacturing mobile supply chains.

Caihong Liu, June Wei

Understanding Users’ Relationship with Voice Assistants and How It Affects Privacy Concerns and Information Disclosure Behavior

It is important to understand users’ relationship with technology, particularly considering the large data breaches and privacy concerns that have been plaguing users in the recent years. The CASA paradigm examines individuals’ social responses to technology which are triggered by cues in the interface. Emerging technology like voice assistants or conversational assistants are becoming more human-like, thus warranting a closer examination of the psychological mechanisms underlying users’ interaction with technology. Current research examining privacy concerns does not separate the agent (i.e. voice assistant like Siri or Alexa) and the device through which users interact with the agent (i.e. smartphone or smart speaker). This is important to consider as the cues triggering social responses could be different for the agent and the device, thereby having different effects on information disclosure behavior and privacy concerns. This paper aims to distinguish between the different psychological mechanisms underlying users’ interaction with the agent and the device, and examine how this distinction affects privacy concerns and information disclosure behavior.

Charulata Ghosh, Matthew S. Eastin

2. Overview of the e-Business Strategy Framework

In Part II of this book, we propose an overarching e-business strategy framework that can serve as a comprehensive basis for e-business strategy formulation. Besides, strategic thinking for e-business and critical success factors of e-business strategy are presented in this chapter.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

6. Creating and Sustaining a Competitive Advantage over Time

This chapter discusses the fundamentals of competitive advantage, the requirements for a successful imitation, the barriers to imitation, and how a company can create and sustain it and how to deal with the threats of a disruptive innovation in e-business. The ways that companies can follow in order to deal with a disruptive innovation are clarified. The chapter also provides some ways for selecting the appropriate cognitive frame (mindset) for an efficient response to a disruptive innovation.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

7. Exploiting Opportunities of New Market Spaces in e-Business

This chapter indicated that digitalization largely disrupts borders between sectors and analyzed how firms can break away from traditional forms of competition and redefine their value proposition by opening up new market spaces. This can be done first by gaining insights into new market spaces through the value curve. This chapter also discussed timing issues for market entry in e-business. More specifically, it analyzed the different types of early-mover advantages and disadvantages that an Internet venture can exploit (or should avoid).

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

17. Strategic Trends for e-Business

This chapter will provide a landscape of strategic trends for e-business and indicate what will fundamentally change and revolutionize e-business in the future. Businesses should consider how to manage these trends, seizing potential opportunities and devising strategies for next-generation e-business.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

22. DBS Transformation (b): Going Digital and Creating a 22,000-Person Start-Up

It had been a busy week in India for Piyush Gupta, CEO of DBS. The launch of DBS digibank in India on 26 April 2016 had gone well, and the months leading up to it, although intense, suggested the transformation of DBS from a world-class multinational bank to a 22,000-person start-up was well on track. The digibank team had delivered on time, leaving Gupta optimistic that they would achieve their ambitious new business targets. But was this enough? Ant Financial, the 3-year-old financial services spin-off from Alibaba, had just announced another successful funding round that valued it at US$60 billion. It already had a banking license in China, its payments arm had 451 million active users, and its wealth management business boasted $760 billion assets under management.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

1. Key Terminology and Evolution of e-Business

The purpose of this chapter is to set the stage for the remainder of the book. To create a clear and shared view of what this domain entails, this chapter introduces definitions of e-business-related terms and concepts as well as some strategy-specific perspectives. The concept of strategy and recognizing the different levels of strategy development is defined. This chapter also develops a framework that describes the typical stages of technological revolutions and positions the evolution of electronic business within this framework.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

14. Strategies for Social Commerce

Firstly, this chapter presents reasons why businesses should adopt social commerce strategies. Any new strategy should be well studied before being officially adopted by businesses. Secondly, this chapter classified various social commerce activities. Thirdly, social commerce has a special structural frame and characteristics. Strategists need to consider these structural distinctions and characteristics when applying and deploying social commerce in practice. Fourthly, marketing is a major business activity on social platforms. With advances in technologies, marketing approaches and mindsets are evolving from Marketing 1.0 to Marketing 3.0. Fifth, this chapter delineates what value co-creation is on the social web. Sixth, advertising strategies and commerce strategies are two main strategies to monetize social platforms. Lastly, in terms of today’s mobilized e-business, social commerce implementation should be in the mobile context. This chapter presented a three-layer design of mobile social commerce and presented a case to show that mobile social commerce is a feasible strategy in practice.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

12. Moving from Wired e-Commerce to Mobile e-Commerce and U-Commerce

This chapter started out by giving a definition of mobile e-commerce and depicting the players of the mobile value network. These include mobile equipment vendors for wireless infrastructure and hand-held devices, mobile network operators, IT enablers, application and content providers, as well as portal providers. By segmenting mobile e-commerce consumer and business services, this chapter illustrated the many uses of wireless applications. A detailed classification of mobile commerce services and applications, both for corporate and individual consumers, was also presented. Next, this chapter explained the main advantages of mobile e-commerce over wired e-commerce. Finally, a brief presentation of the ubiquitous commerce framework, which is considered to be the next stage in e-commerce evolution, highlights the new strategies and applications in the field.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

30. Nestlé: Developing a Digital Nutrition Platform for Japan

The Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS), a specialized biomedical research institute, was part of Nestlé’s global research and development (R&D) network. Over the last few years, the Institute had developed a platform that combined the processing and analysis of macro data (e.g., lifestyle, diet, and activity) and bioinformatics to create predictive models of health and disease. Nestlé’s ambition was to achieve the following:

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

21. DBS Transformation (a): Becoming a World-Class Multinational Bank

1 August 2013. Piyush Gupta, CEO of DBS, had just announced that the bank was walking away from its bid to acquire Indonesia’s Bank Danamon. This was a major setback to the bank’s plans to expand its presence in Asia’s growth markets.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

13. Strategies for Mobile Commerce

This chapter introduces strategic aspects of m-commerce. First, we conceptualize the m-commerce strategy and illustrate its elements to help readers understand its key tenets. Second, as mobile and commerce adoption is a prerequisite for its success, we discuss its potentially influential factors. Third, in order to let readers realize the tremendous value of m-commerce, its value for consumers and businesses is described. Fourth, since mobile payments are a strategic, novel, and profitable business, it is valuable for m-commerce adopters to delve into how they may capture more value. Fifth, practical m-commerce tools and apps are included in this chapter. In many cases, businesses do not need to work with their own apps and can use existing apps and tools to boost their m-commerce. Last but not least, m-commerce has its advantages over traditional commerce but also has diverse challenges that are discussed in the last section of this chapter.

Tawfik Jelassi, Francisco J. Martínez-López

Omni-Channel-Management und Customer Journey

Ann-Kristin Hölter und Inga Schmidt-Ross skizzieren in diesem Beitrag die Chancen und Herausforderungen, die sich aus der Integration der Vertriebskanäle im Rahmen des Omni-Channel-Managements ergeben. Insbesondere gehen sie dabei auch auf das Management der Customer Touchpoints entlang der Customer Journey ein.

Ann-Kristin Hölter, Inga D. Schmidt-Ross

Chapter 17. Examining the Relationship Between Customer-Oriented Success Factors, Customer Satisfaction, and Repurchase Intention for Mobile Commerce

Availability of smartphones at affordable prices and efficient data packs provided by telecom companies have shifted digitalization toward phone-enabled mobile commerce (m-commerce). This has forced the firms to reengineer their strategies to incorporate mobile commerce within their organizational models. The paper proposes a conceptual model that includes the variables such as m-commerce application success (MAS), customer satisfaction (CS), and repurchase intention (RI) toward mobile commerce. The conceptual model analyses the significance of the relationship between MAS with CS, CS, and MAS with RI. The model has been validated through a survey consisting of 530 respondents, mainly from northern India. The study was performed using structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Results validated the association of MAS with CS, and CS with RI. But, there exists no direct relation of MAS with RI. Future studies may extend the present model by incorporating loyalty framework.

Abhishek Tandon, Himanshu Sharma, Anu Gupta Aggarwal

Chapter 1. Introduction

Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a new approach for additive manufacturing, which is to create a 3D object by forming successive layers of materials.

Tin-Chih Toly Chen

A Value-Based Model of Consumer Smartphone Usage for Online Transactions: The Role of Consumer Characteristics and Purchasing Situation: An Abstract

With the rapid adoption of mobile technologies among different consumer segments, mobile commerce (m-commerce) has become a promising growth market for online retailers. Evidence exists that consumers adopting mobile channels to make online purchases increase their overall order rate and size with the retailer (Wang et al. 2015). However, there is sparse knowledge regarding the factors determining adoption. Owing to the unique characteristics of mobile online channels (e.g., ubiquitous use opportunities), knowledge cannot be directly transferred from research on electronic commerce. Hence, this research develops and empirically tests a value-based adoption model to elucidate consumers’ usage of mobile channels for online purchasing (i.e., mobile purchasing or m-purchasing). In detail, this work contributes to the literature in the following way: (1) the present study considers value enablers and inhibitors that occur at different steps of the m-purchasing process (i.e., from the product evaluation to the transaction); (2) this study additionally encompasses consumer characteristics and, more specifically, shopping styles to predict value creation. The analysis of the interactions between individual characteristics and the value determinants offers scholars a nuanced explanation of the consumer adoption of m-purchasing; (3) this study provides a differentiated view on the determinants and consequences of consumer perceived value by additionally uncovering the role of the purchasing situation (i.e., type of product category) in the formation of value perceptions.The findings of a scenario-based online survey among German smartphone users (n = 882) support that the greater the perceived value is, the greater the usage of mobile channels for online transactions. Consumers create the value by balancing costs (i.e., the security risk of transactions, the effort involved in product evaluation) and benefits (i.e., control over the shopping process, flexibility). Both, the purchasing situation and consumer characteristics, moderate the strength of value determinants. The latent moderated structural equation method revealed that consumers’ brand consciousness dampens the negative effect of effort on value. The multigroup analysis showed, among others, that the indirect effect of flexibility on the usage of m-purchasing is significantly stronger when buying jewelry than buying electronics or clothes. By contrast, the analysis demonstrated that the effect of the perceived effort of evaluating products via smartphones has a stronger effect on value formation for apparel and electronics than for jewelry. The findings offer scholars a nuanced explanation of the consumer adoption of m-purchasing. For retailers, the findings provide differentiated implications for how to promote m-purchasing.

Stefanie Sohn, Malte Fiedler, Wolfgang Fritz

3. Marketingmix im digitalen Wandel

Ein beliebtes Motiv neuer Marketingansätze ist es, den Tod des Marketingmix zu verkünden. Er hat dennoch in Praxis und Lehre bislang überlebt. Mit der Digitalisierung sind jedoch viele neue Optionen hinzugekommen. Die neuen Buzzwords sind beispielsweise Social Media-, Influencer-, Messenger-, Content-, SEO- oder Performance-Marketing. Der Wandel des Produkt-, Preis-, Place- und Promotion-Mix unter dem Einfluss der Digitalisierung wird in Kapitel 3 eingeschätzt. Nachfrager finden in der Plattform-Ökonomie rund um die Uhr ein nahezu unbegrenztes, transparentes Produktangebot. Die Distribution erfolgt zunehmend direkt durch Onlineverkauf oder über Verkaufsplattformen.

Doris Gutting

Kapitel 7. Digital Sensing: Organisation der Kundeninteraktion im digitalen Unternehmen

Beim ersten Gestaltungsfeld einer digitalen DNA geht es um den Aufbau veränderter Strukturen, um den Kunden im Kontext der Digitalisierung besser verstehen zu können. Die Grundlage bildet die Sensibilisierung aller Beteiligten für eine kundenzentrierte, digitale Kundeninteraktion. In diesem Kapitel wird der Einsatz neuer Verfahren, Methoden und Instrumente zum Aufbau der kundenzentrierten Organisation besprochen. Dazu zählen unter anderem Instrumente zur digitalen Kundenanalyse, zur Kundeninteraktion über verschiedene Kanäle hinweg, zum Customer Experience Management bis hin zum Einsatz sozialer Netzwerke und mobiler Medien in der Kundeninteraktion.

Kai Reinhardt

Efficient and Super-Efficient Use of Broadband Access by the US States

In an earlier study, Parajuli and Haynes (Growth and Change 43:590–614, 2012) used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess efficiency of broadband utilization across US states. They found that a number of states in the USA assumed an efficiency score of one for broadband adoption and use. While this is not unusual, the commonly used DEA methods—the Charnes, Coopers, and Rhodes and the Banker, Charnes, and Cooper extension—do not rank relative efficient decision-making units (DMUs) across the efficient frontier. The super-efficiency estimation presented here is one method that overcomes this inherent limitation and allows for ranking the efficient DMUs. This paper uses a super-efficiency method to rank states that were efficient in broadband adoption and use in the USA from 2005 through 2007.

Jitendra Parajuli, Kingsley E. Haynes

Kapitel 3. Explorative Modellbildung zur Entstehung von Akzeptanz

Auf Basis der im vorherigen Kapitel aufgeführten theoretischen Bezugspunkte widmet sich dieses Kapitel der explorativen Bildung eines Forschungsmodells zur Untersuchung der Akzeptanzentstehung bei EM Anwendungen im Rahmen der B2E-Domäne. Der Ansatz basiert auf neueren Forschungsbemühungen, welche ausgehend von generischen (Technik-)Akzeptanzmodellen wie TBP und TAM das Ziel verfolgen, solche Adaptionen zu entwickeln, die sich entgegen einer universellen Anwendbarkeit auf einen spezifischeren Betrachtungsgegenstand innerhalb der Wissenschaft beziehen. Als Beispiel kann etwa die Entwicklung von Modellen für Nutzerakzeptanz im Bereich Digitaler Bibliotheken, virtueller Welten oder hedonistischer Informationssysteme genannt werden.

Tim Taraba

Kapitel 2. Theoretische Bezugspunkte und konzeptioneller Zugang

Bedingt durch den Siegeszug der ITK bildet sich im Zuge der sogenannten Digitalen Transformation ein Wandel hin zur übergreifenden digitalen Vernetzung und Erweiterung der Realwelt ab. Der Begriff ist heute zwar in aller Munde, jedoch sucht man vergebens nach einer allgemeingültigen Definition. Grundsätzlich kann sie nach Leimeister (2015) als Durchdringung sämtlicher Ebenen der Gesellschaft durch die IKT verstanden werden.

Tim Taraba

The Effect of App Quality and Compatibility on Consumers’ Omnichannel (OC) App Adoption and Loyalty: Comparison of US and Korean Consumers

This paper proposes to empirically test a research model that evaluate the importance of selected antecedents of consumers’ omnichannel shopping loyalty. In particular, this paper examines the influence of two variables (i.e. compatibility, omnichannel app quality) in understanding consumers’ response to omnichannel retail service. Social cognitive theory and technology task fit theory are applied as theoretical frameworks, and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is applied as a reference framework for the empirical research model. The proposed model is assessed with the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), and the empirical data is collected from the U.S. and Korea. A web-based survey was developed to collect data from the U.S. and South Korean consumers who have experience using the OC apps. In total, 130 responses and 123 responses were used from the U.S. and South Korea, respectively for empirical analysis. This study finds the significant direct relationship of the 5 predictors (perceived quality of the OC app, perceived compatibility, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness) with the key construct – consumer loyalty.

Joonyong Park, Renee B. Kim

Chapter 6. Napify: A Case of Social Innovation and Market Value Capture

This case was developed based upon information provided by the founders of Napify as well as publicly available information. This case study details the struggles of a venture to discover a scalable business model that sustains its social mission, which considers digital technologies as key innovations that not only help resolve the originally addressed social problem (value creation), but also achieve a much higher value proposition in the market (value capture). Social innovation students will obtain a better understanding of how social entrepreneurship ideas fulfill their purpose through the identification of a market opportunity, where a value created can also be captured, beyond simply pursuing a means to a social end.Key research questions include: How can a social innovation mission merge with a for-profit market-oriented mindset to make them suitable for a viable business model? What is the role of the entrepreneurial team’s experience and social motivation in reaching a functional value proposition? What changes would be deemed necessary to adapt and capture the value that has been created when the context is rapidly evolving?

Guillermo J. Larios-Hernández, Lizbeth Puerta-Sierra

Kapitel 4. Elemente einer Digitalisierungsstrategie

Ohne klare Strategie bzw. Richtungsvorgabe irrt man früher oder später ziellos umher – auch wenn man die besten und angesagtesten Methoden („Taktiken“) einsetzt. In diesem Sinn sollte man sich zuallererst seiner Strategie klar sein bevor man Kooperationen mit Start-ups initiiert, Inkubatoren aufbaut, jede zweite Woche einen Hackathon veranstaltet oder plötzlich überall Scrum Teams etabliert. Das in Kap. 3 vorgestellte Modell des „Digital Navigator“, welches 3 Bereiche für die Digitalisierung vorschlägt kann genau dazu dienen, indem Ideen, Initiativen und Projekte darin kategorisiert werden können. Sie bilden die Inhalte der Digitalisierungsstrategie. Welche Inhalte das sein können bzw. wo man nach ihnen suchen kann, wird im Folgenden kurz beleuchtet. Dann folgt eine Übersicht der gängigen Werkzeuge und Methoden, mit denen man Digitalisierungsprojekte voranbringen kann, gefolgt von einem differenzierten Zielbild einer geeigneten Organisationsgestaltung für die Digitale Transformation.

Thomas Mohr

Enablers and Barriers for Mobile Commerce and Banking Services Among the Elderly in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

The rollout of mobile banking has taken over the traditional banking space in both developed and developing countries. Banking institutions are continuously seeking innovative digital solutions to stay ahead of competitors and be the first preference to consumers. Scholars have also shown some interest in investigating mobile commerce and banking implementation and adoption. However, research studies focusing on the elderly and mobile banking are scant. This paper seeks to understand the current state of knowledge regarding the enablers and barriers of mobile banking and commerce among the elderly by providing a systematic review of the existing literature on the phenomenon.The literature review showed that there is minimal research to date that has been conducted on this topic of interest. Consequently, issues of investigating enablers and barriers of mobile banking among the elderly have been fairly neglected. The main barriers noted in the literature include: security concerns, trust and privacy, a lack of personalization and limited technical knowledge of the elderly. Significant enablers that may be considered are: perceived ease of use of mobile banking applications, perceived value, convenience and consumer attitudes. Future directions for research and practice on mobile banking for the elderly are suggested.

Nkosikhona Theoren Msweli, Tendani Mawela

Chapter 24. Consumers Adoption Behavior Prediction through Technology Acceptance Model and Machine Learning Models

This paper is to uncover the key factors that influence purchase intention of customers through analysing technology acceptance theories/models, in the current online-to-offline (abbreviated as O2O) mobile commerce, and to improve the prediction accuracy of consumers’ adoption behaviour by utilizing machine learning based methods. With a huge amount of smart phone users, O2O mobile commerce derived from electronic commerce (abbreviated as e-commerce) has been growing vastly. There are many research interests has been attracted on online banking, digital wallet, E-tickets, order tracking, supply chain and so on. However, there is little specific study about O2O mobile APP consumers’ adoption behaviour. Motivated from the commonly used technology acceptance theories/models, especially, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model, this paper is to identify key influencing factors of O2O mobile APP consumers’ adoption behaviour. Then, a new model is proposed as an extended version of UTAUT. The new model has been validated through a survey questionnaire conducted in target groups. More significantly, treating consumers adoption behaviour as a binary classification problem, we apply two different types of machine learning based approaches(Linear Discriminant Analysis(LDA) and Logistic Regression(LR)) to predicate the possible action result by taking into consideration of all influencing factors from the collected survey data. Comparing against several other conventional approaches, Logistic regression shows the better predication accuracy. Hence, it will provide better guidance for promotion strategies in a more productive way.

Xinying Li, Lihong Zheng

“I See Myself, Therefore I Purchase”: Factors Influencing Consumer Attitudes Towards m-Commerce AR Apps

Mobile commerce (m-commerce) is starting to represent a significant share of e-commerce. The use of Augmented Reality (AR) by brands to convey information about their products—within the store and mainly as mobile apps—makes it possible for researchers and managers to understand consumer reactions. Although attitudes towards AR have been studied, the overall effect of distinct aspects such as the influence of others, the imagery, projection and perceived presence, has not been tackled as far as we know. Therefore, we conducted a study on 218 undergraduate students, using a pre-test post-test experimental design to address the following questions: (1) Do AR media characteristics affect consumer attitudes towards the medium in a mobile shopping context? Also, (2) Do the opinion and physical presence of people influence the attitude towards an m-commerce AR app? It found that AR characteristics such as projection and imagery positively influence attitudes towards m-commerce AR apps, whereas social variables did not have any influence.

Mafalda Teles Roxo, Pedro Quelhas Brito

Kapitel 5. Das Plattformzeitalter: Marktplatz-Alternativen zu Amazon

Im deutschen E-Commerce und speziell im Marktplatzsektor nimmt Amazon zweifelsfrei eine dominante Position ein. Will man seine Produkte über Marktplätze vertreiben, so scheint – zumindest in Deutschland – kein Weg an Amazon vorbeizuführen. Oft wird dabei übersehen, dass Amazon in vielen Ländern (noch) nicht präsent und auch in diversen Warengruppen nicht marktführend ist. Es ist durchaus zu erwarten, das Amazon sowohl geographisch als auch kategoriebezogen weiter expandiert. Stand heute gibt es jedoch viele sinnvolle oder zwingende Alternativen, wenn man sich mit den Potenzialen und Risiken des Marktplatz-Business auseinandersetzen will. So bieten alternative Marktplätze Eintrittsportale in viele Länder, die auf herkömmlichen Vertriebswegen schwer zu erschließen sind und wo zugleich Amazon keine Option ist, wie beispielsweise in Skandinavien oder den meisten Ländern Osteuropas oder Asiens. Ein weiterer Aspekt ist die Tatsache, dass gewisse Zielgruppen verstärkt auf anderen Marktplätzen zuhause sind. Dies gilt insbesondere für den B2B-Bereich, aber auch für viele B2C-Segmente wie z. B. Fashion, Uhren, Möbel, DIY oder Beauty- und Drogeriebedarfe. Aus Managementsicht spricht ein weiteres, eher taktisches Argument für die Auseinandersetzung mit alternativen Marktplätzen: Die Entwicklungen des Amazon Marktplatzes sowie der eigene Erfolg auf demselben kann erst dann fundiert bewertet werden, wenn man auch andere Marktplätze bespielt und entsprechende Vergleichswerte zu Rate zieht. Der nachfolgende Beitrag zeigt auf, welche Marktplatzmodelle es zu unterscheiden gibt, welche Vor- und Nachteile jeweils zu beachten sind und wie man bei der Erschließung von Marktplätzen vorgehen sollte.

Ralph Hübner

Motivators for the Second-Hand Shopping Through Mobile Commerce

This study aims to reveal the factors affecting the use of second-hand shopping through a mobile application. An extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), including economic advantage, natural conservation, sustainable consumption, trust, convenience, and subjective norms is constructed. A total of 318 questionnaires are collected from the users of one of the second-hand shopping application-Letgo. Regression analysis is used to reveal the relationships defined in the model. First, the results of the study confirm the relations defined in TAM in the context of second-hand shopping. Furthermore, behavioral intention to use is affected by perceived usefulness, subjective norms, convenience, and perceived ease of use. Perceived usefulness and subjective norms have a higher impact than others. Another result is that perceived ease of use, economic advantage, sustainable consumption, natural conservation, and subjective norms impact the feeling about the usefulness of second-hand shopping system. Among the factors, perceived ease of use and economic advantage have higher importance on perceived usefulness.

Cigdem Altin Gumussoy, Aycan Kaya, Sezin Bahar Unal

Chapter 5. Mobile Commerce in the Fashion Sector in China

This study aims at investigating drivers and effects of mobile commerce in the fashion sector in China. A model is developed and tested with a survey among 137 consumers, analyzing results using Structural equation modeling. Findings show that utilitarian factors influence the customer satisfaction in m-commerce in China, confirming previous studies. Moreover, enjoyment strongly mediates the effect of utilitarian factors on satisfaction as online shopping is highly experiential for Chinese customers. After the purchase, satisfaction increases e-WOM effects and is likely to accelerate Chinese mobile shoppers’ purchase decision. This study can be considered as a pre-test that provides theoretical contributions in the research area of m-commerce adoption to be verified in future research involving larger samples, not only from China, but also from other countries. Managerial implications for fashion firms operating in China are provided.

Lala Hu

Ein Vergleich von Herstellerkommunikation und kundenseitigen Akzeptanzfaktoren bezogen auf autonomes Fahren

Autonome Fahrtechnologien haben das Potential, die Art und Weise, wie Menschen sich fortbewegen, grundlegend zu verändern. Sowohl die öffentliche Debatte, als auch wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse zeigen, dass Sicherheitsbedenken und das Misstrauen potentieller Nutzer gegenüber autonomen Fahrzeugen große Hürden für die Adoption darstellen [17], [26]. Hersteller setzen hohe Erwartungen in die Technologie, wenngleich hochautomatisierte oder vollständig autonome Fahrzeuge derzeit noch nicht am Markt verfügbar sind.

Jan-Gerrit Grotenhermen, Gerhard Schewe

Exploring the Mediating Role of Interactivity Between Content Engagement and Business Performance in a Mobile-Marketing Strategy: A Quantitative Research in a Business-to-Business Context

M-commerce escalates at exponential rates, worldwide. Through a mobile device, i.e., smartphone/iPhone/android/tablet/iPad, we may buy almost everything at any time and any place. Companies may perform 360° marketing, integrating communication messages in a network context, through social media and interactive virtual stores, on a 24/7/360 basis. Network, interactive communication becomes an asset, on this one, providing add-value and new market expansion opportunities for its business users. In this paper we focus on content engagement and interactivity that, according to marketing literature, when involved properly in m-commerce strategies, may provide competitive advantage. To this end, we based upon extensive literature review and, especially, the UTAUT model of new ITs’ adoption. The preliminary research resulted in the formation of a quantitative research instrument, which was disseminated through the LinkedIn, used as the research field. The convenience sample comprised 181 social media and Internet/Mobile marketing managers working at respective Greek companies, that volunteer to participate, yielding 26.3% response. Research hypotheses were tested using SEM analysis. The findings imply that interactivity may have moderating effects in the relationship between content engagement in mobile b-to-b strategy and company performance, in terms of competitiveness, profitability and market expansion. Implications, limitations and future research are also discussed.

Gerasimos Ntarlas, Despina A. Karayanni

4. Die neue Kundenorientierung – Geschäftsmodelle und Geschäftssysteme der Zukunft im Einzelhandel

Kaum eine Branche ist derzeit größeren Herausforderungen ausgesetzt als der Einzelhandel. In den letzten Jahren finden Entwicklungen statt, welche die Rolle des klassischen oder stationären Handels dramatisch verändern und seine Daseinsberechtigung infrage stellen. Vor allem aus Kundensicht müssen sich die Händler digitalbasiert neu erfinden.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 1. Meta-Targeting und Geschäftsideen im Online-Handel

Mit der weiter zunehmenden Internetnutzung in Hinblick auf die Nutzerzahlen sowie die Nutzungsintensitäten steigen die Umsätze im Online-Handel nach wie vor rasant an. Dabei wird das digitale Universum immer mehr durch mobile Internetnutzung geprägt, die auch die Kundenorientierung erheblich verändert. Diese ändert sich ohnehin fortwährend durch neue Trends, die wiederum durch neue Kundenerwartungen genährt werden. Zugleich beschleunigt sich der Konzentrationsprozess weiter, wodurch der Abstand zwischen dem Marktführer Amazon und dem Verfolgerfeld und dabei vor allem den Traditionsunternehmen immer größer wird. Deswegen kommt der Beschleunigung digitaler Reifegrade und dem Abbau digitaler Barrieren ein hoher Stellenwert zu.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 3. Formen des Online-Handels

Die wenigsten Online-Händler kommen noch in reiner Form vor. Lediglich Start-ups oder neue Formen des interaktiven Online-HandelsOnline-Handel wie zum Beispiel Farfetch verfolgen zu 100 % ein einziges Geschäftsmodell. Schon die großen Pure Player wie Amazon oder eBay sind Mischformen. Diese unterscheiden sich deutlich danach, welche Warengruppen sie bedienen und welches Format sie verfolgen. Mittlerweile hat sich hier eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Betriebstypen herauskristallisiert, die sich anhand zentraler Merkmale beschreiben lassen und unterschiedlich entwickeln. Die Marktführer überschneiden sich zum Teil auf globaler und nationaler Ebene. Zunehmend sind neue Formen des Online-Handels zu beobachten, zu denen auch der weiterhin stark wachsende Mobile Commerce bzw. App- und Chat-Commerce zählen. Daneben entwickelt sich B2B-Online-Handel, also E-Commerce von Business für Business, zum „next big thing“.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 2. Geschäftsmodell des Online-Handels

Online-Handel ist zur wichtigsten Form des Distanzhandels geworden und hat im interaktiven Handel schon lange den Katalogversand abgelöst. Er stellt einen Teil des E-Commerce dar und profitiert von den Netzwerkeffekten der Plattformökonomie. Diese ergeben sich auch aus der Kundenzentriertheit, die deswegen Basis für das Geschäftsmodell eines jeden Online-Händlers sein sollte. Losgelöst von der funktional orientierten Marketinglehre rücken Leidenschaft und Glaubwürdigkeit der gesamten Unternehmensführung und ein bedingungslos am Kundenwunsch ausgerichtetes Unternehmen in das Zentrum der geschäftlichen Aktivitäten. Diese Art der „neuen Kundenorientierung“ durchdringt das komplette Geschäftssystem des Unternehmens und gibt Mitarbeitern zugleich einen Orientierungsrahmen für ihre täglichen Entscheidungen vor.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 4. Geschäftssysteme und Benchmarks im E-Commerce

Der Ausgestaltung des Geschäftssystems kommt eine Schlüsselrolle im Online-Handel zu. Sie ist auch Basis für Kanalexzellenz, die erfolgreiche Online-Händler auszeichnet. Diese sind in der Lage, mit ihren Leistungen im E-Commerce den Benchmark zu setzen, und nutzen alle Möglichkeiten der modernen Interaktion. Insgesamt sind acht zentrale Erfolgsfaktoren für das Vorliegen von Webexzellenz im B2C zu beachten. Eine große Herausforderung ist jedoch zunehmend die Nachhaltigkeit der Erfolgsfaktoren, da der Wettbewerb sich immer schneller anpasst.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 5. Best Practices und Risiken im Online-Handel

Best PracticesBest Practices im Online-Handel ergeben sich aus der bestmöglichen Umsetzung der Erfolgsfaktoren, die sie auf der anderen Seite aber auch maßgeblich mit bestimmt haben. Die folgenden Best Practices wurden durch Online-Recherchen identifiziert. Die Daten, Zahlen und Fakten dazu wurden größtenteils den aktuellen Geschäftsberichten aus 2018/2019 oder Informationen auf den Websites und aus der Presse entnommen.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 2. Untersuchungsgegenstand

In den folgenden Kapiteln wird der Untersuchungsgegenstand abgegrenzt. Zunächst wird unter Kapitel 2.1 der Begriff Conversational Interfaces definiert, um anschließend zu erfassen, wie Chatbots innerhalb dieser Technologie einzuordnen sind. Insbesondere erfolgt in diesem Zuge eine Abgrenzung, was in dieser Arbeit unter einem Chatbot zu verstehen ist.

Timo Diers

Mobile Commerce Adoption in a Developing Country: Driving Factors in the Case of Cameroon

In line with steady improvements in wireless communications, the number of people using mobile devices has skyrocketed globally while bringing about a veritable breakthrough in the use of mobile commerce (m-commerce). Against a backdrop of fast-evolving mobile commerce (including in developing countries), this study seeks to investigate factors predicting the consumer’s intention to adopt m-commerce in Cameroon, but also the moderating effects of the demographic variables on such prediction. Data were collected from 262 Cameroonian respondents aged less than 45, as this age category accounts for the bulk of unconditional IT users in the country. Then, a quantitative approach analysis based on the PLS-SEM algorithm was used to test the research model. Results showed no significant moderation effect of gender and age when verifying the following hypotheses: (1) A variety of services positively influence the consumer intention to adopt m-commerce; and (2) Behavioural intention positively influences the consumer intention to adopt m-commerce. Findings of this research are expected to help companies and organizations dealing with m-commerce to better develop marketing strategies, applications and services likely to attract more users.

Frank Wilson Ntsafack Dongmo, Jean Robert Kala Kamdjoug, Samuel Fosso Wamba

Kapitel 1. Einleitung

Die Omnipräsenz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien löste auch im Handel einen Paradigmenwechsel aus. Die ARD/ZDF-Onlinestudien zeigen seit 1997 deutlich, dass die Zahl der Internetnutzer in Deutschland durchgehend steigend ist (Projektgruppe ARD/ZDF-Multimedia 2018). Dabei wird nach dem TNS Convergence Monitor 2018 mittlerweile häufiger mit dem Smartphone als mit dem PC bzw. Notebook im Internet gesurft (Kantar Deutschland GmbH 2018, S. 3).

Stefanie Schreiber

Kapitel 3. M

Ludwig Gramlich, Peter Gluchowski, Andreas Horsch, Klaus Schäfer, Gerd Waschbusch

Development of Mobile Technology (3G, 4G, 5G)

This chapter describes the development of mobile communications systems from the late 2000s to 2018 and the relationship between mobile communications system and frequency assignment to mobile communications operators. This time period has witnessed the explosive growth of the smartphone since its introduction in 2008, along with the corresponding increase in mobile traffic and the vigorous construction of network infrastructure that has followed. From the point of radio administration, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (hereinafter referred to as MIC) has conducted frequency assignment to respond to growing traffic demands and has improved various environments (technical requirements, frequency reallocation, etc.) representative of prerequisites for frequency assignment.

Gaku Nakazato

Artificial Intelligence Theory in Service Management

Artificial intelligence (AI) is expected to be more promising in the coming years, with, for example, notable gains in productivity, although there may be a significant impact on job reduction, which may jeopardize labor sustainability. Accordingly, there is a need to better understand this phenomenon and to analyze it in the light of a particular theory. However, there is a scarcity of AI theories in the service management literature. In order to obtain a better understanding of the subject, we have conducted a systematic review of the literature to provide a comprehensive analysis of the theories developed regarding AI in service management. The results have showed a wide range of theories, but not all directly related with AI; the latter are smaller in number making it difficult to draw a clear pattern. At current days, researchers are slowly advancing with new AI theories and moving away from those already in use, such as in computer science, ethics, philosophical theories, and so on.

João Reis, Paula Espírito Santo, Nuno Melão

Japanese University Students’ Acceptance of Cross-border Electronic Commerce

With increasing smartphone penetration, online purchasing has become a common and representative purchasing channel. The development of the Internet, enabling online transactions, has led to the emergence of cross-border electronic commerce. Despite the fact that online shopping sites are developing very quickly, the factors that influence consumers’ purchase intention (PI) on cross-border online shopping sites are not clear. Furthermore, prior studies have not identified the perceived differences between domestic and cross-border online shopping sites.This study examines young people’s acceptance of both domestic and cross-border online shopping sites, and identifies the relationships among the variables involved in online shopping sites. This study indicates that the PI with online shopping sites is directly influenced by perceived usefulness (PU), trust (TR), and credibility of personal information protection (PIP) on online shopping sites. In addition, this study reveals the perceived differences between domestic and cross-border online shopping sites. In particular, credibility of PIP and TR of cross-border online shopping sites strongly influences PI, and PU weakly influences PI. On the other hand, PU, PIP, and TR of domestic online shopping sites have a similar influence on PI.

Takashi Okamoto, Jiro Yatsuhashi, Naoki Mizutani

Research on Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Method Based on Context and User Credibility

In the traditional collaborative filtering recommendation, similarity measurement methods only consider the user rating and the credibility of user rating is not taken into account, user’s contexts are considered inadequate in the mobile environment, and the scalability problem exists in the recommendation system. A parallel collaborative filtering model based on user context and credibility is proposed. This method firstly evaluates user rating credit degree. Secondly, the method builds the context vector of the user, calculates the context similarity between the target user and other users, and searches for similar nearest neighbors for the target user based on trust and context, and finally implements the parallel recommendation on the cloud computing Mapreduce. Experimental results show that this method achieved lower error values of MAE than the traditional recommendation method and higher recommendation accuracy, and effectively improved the performance of the recommendation system. This method could be applied in the contextual recommendation oriented the big data.

Hongli Chen, Shanguo Lv

Kapitel 4. Digitalisierung und Vernetzung

Der Theorie der langen Wellen zufolge treten in großen zeitlichen Abständen Basisinnovationen auf, die einzelne Industriezweige und damit die Gesamtwirtschaft grundlegend verändern. Seit Beginn der Industrialisierung wurden vier Zyklen beobachtet, von denen der letzte etwa 1950 einsetzte und insbesondere durch Innovationen in der Elektronikindustrie geprägt ist. Einige Autoren gehen davon aus, dass seit der Jahrthundertwende ein neuer, von den Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IuK) getriebener Zyklus begonnen hat.

Cordula Neiberger

Chapter 17. Chih-Han Yu: CEO Co-founder, Appier

In 2010, Chih-Han Yu co-founded Appier with Joe Su and Winnie Lee in Taiwan. Prior to Appier, Yu spent most of his career studying computer science in academe, earning a bachelor’s degree in the field from National Taiwan University, followed by a master’s degree at Stanford University, and finally, a PhD from Harvard University.

Ezra Ferraz, Gracy Fernandez

A Graph Database-Based Approach to Analyze Network Log Files

Network log files from different sources often need to be analyzed in order to facilitate a more accurate assessment of the cyber threat severity. For example, using command line tools, any log file can be reviewed only in isolation. While using a log management system allows for searching across different log files, the relationship(s) between different network activities may not be easy to establish from the analysis of these different log files. We can use relational databases to establish these relationships, for example using complex database queries involving multiple join operations to link the tables. In recent years, there has been a trend of using graph databases to manage data for semantic queries (e.g. importing a fixed amount of log data for subsequent analysis). Hence, in this paper, we propose a new approach to analyze network log files, by using the graph database. Specifically, we posit the importance of constantly monitoring log files for new entries for immediate processed and analysis, and their results imported into the graph database. To facilitate the evaluation of our proposed approach, we use the Zeek network security monitor system to produce log files from monitored network traffic in real-time. We then explain how graph databases can be used to analyze network log files in near-real time within a network security-monitoring environment. Findings from our research demonstrate the utility of graph data in analyzing log data.

Lars Diederichsen, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Nhien-An Le-Khac

The Japanese B2C Retail Industry in the Digital Age

This chapter shows (a) how digitalisation has impacted the way Japanese consumers behave in the B2C retail industry and (b) how successful players adapted to the new purchasing habits, technology improvements and service challenges. It will be of interest to business practitioners and academics as well in Japan as overseas.The development of E-commerce and M-commerce in the world’s second largest retail market has been a challenge for traditional businesses and a game-changing factor. Nowadays, Japan has shrugged off its initial reluctance. Business conditions have diversified; traditional retailers have transformed. Non-store retailers have flourished together with the spread of the Internet and mobile phones, as shown by market data. Several payment options have also become available. Online shopping has been central to both the economising and the nesting trends. In short, the traditional “Japanese consumer mindset” has been impacted.This chapter discusses the impact of digitalisation on Japanese consumer behaviours. The shift in attitudes of consumers stems from structural factors such as the digital revolution, the emergence of a less materialistic younger generation, the economic downturn and the “post March 11 consumer” effect. Among the consumer changes, let us highlight (i) spending more time surfing the Internet, (ii) buying differently and comparing prices anonymously and (iii) another perception of ownership.The chapter also identifies how retailers adapted. At the beginning, key players have been reluctant to invest online and to reinvent themselves (limited use of up-to-date technology), as online stores and physical stores are run differently. Illustrating with concrete examples, a focus will be done on online food, apparel and second-hand retail as well as luxury goods.Finally, the paper issues recommendations for building a successful online retail business, as B2C digital marketing and reinforced online presence (in Japanese) have become key. Successful brands increasingly rely on social media promotion and word-of-mouth marketing.

Philippe Huysveld

6. App-Marketing

Apps sind einfache Software-Anwendungen für mobile Endgeräte. Es handelt sich um Programme, die nicht für den Betrieb der Endgeräte selbst wichtig sind, sondern die für die Nutzer andere Funktionen erfüllen. Sie zeichnen sich durch eine einfache, idealerweise intuitive Bedienung und eine begrenzte Funktionalität und geringe Funktionstiefe aus (vgl. Sjurts 2018).

Ralf T. Kreutzer, Andrea Rumler, Benjamin Wille-Baumkauff

Chapter 7. Online Channels and the Country of Origin

This chapter focuses on the relationship between the online channel and the COO. Indeed, the online channel is rapidly assuming a growing role in the international distribution, but studies on the relationships between the online channel and the COO not yet seem to have a consolidated framework. In the context of marketing channels, it is relevant to explore what role the online channel can play in creating value for the market through the COO. The online channel allows conveying the COO and has become crucial to presence and competitiveness in international markets. Moreover, the COO can serve as an important research reference for online customers who recognize the value of certain products. Against this background, this chapter explores the current and potential roles of the online channel in the valorization of the COO from the perspective of omnichannels, taking into account specific experiences in international markets. In particular, based on abundant data collected through a digital method approach, this study primarily considers the US food and beverage sector, including olive oil and wine products.

Giovanna Pegan, Donata Vianelli, Patrizia de Luca

2. Electronic Commerce

Vor dem Hintergrund der steigenden Relevanz von elektronischen Geschäftstätigkeiten ist häufig die Rede von ‚Electronic Business‘ (EBusiness) und ‚Electronic Commerce‘ (E-Commerce). Diese Begriffe finden allerdings keine einheitliche Verwendung in der Literatur. Folgend wird eine Abgrenzung und Definition der beiden Begriffe vorgenommen und teilnehmende Akteure dargestellt.

Rainer Olbrich, Carsten D. Schultz, Christian Holsing

5. Kundenfokus im eCommerce

Nachdem Sie dieses Kapitel gelesen haben, können Sie …

Jan-Frederik Engelhardt, Alexander Magerhans

10. Controlling im E-Commerce

Die Erfolgsmessung und Steuerung des Onlineshops basiert auf der Analyse von Kennzahlen als Bestandteil eines aussagekräftigen Controllings. In diesem Kapitel wird ein fundiertes Basiswissen dazu vermittelt.

Frank Deges

1. Grundlagen, Bedeutung und Rahmenbedingungen des E-Commerce

Im einführenden Kapitel werden Grundlagen und Rahmenbedingungen der Kommerzialisierung des Internets durch E-Commerce thematisiert und es wird ein fundiertes Basiswissen geschaffen.

Frank Deges

2. Marktformen und Marktakteure im E-Commerce

Dieses Kapitel thematisiert die Marktmechanismen, Marktformen und Marktbeziehungen im E-Commerce und vermittelt dazu ein fundiertes Basiswissen.

Frank Deges

4. Kaufprozess und Kaufverhalten im E-Commerce

Im E-Commerce hat sich durch die immense Produktvielfalt, verbunden mit der Preis- und Anbietertransparenz, das Informations- und Kaufverhalten der Konsumenten nachhaltig verändert. Dieses Kapitel thematisiert die Auswirkungen des E-Commerce auf den Kaufprozess und das Kaufverhalten und vermittelt ein fundiertes Basiswissen darüber.

Frank Deges

7. Cross-Channel und Omnichannel im E-Commerce

Online- und Offlinevertriebsmodelle können sich gewinnbringend ergänzen. Unternehmen versuchen dem durch eine enge Verzahnung der Absatzwege zu entsprechen, indem sie die Vorzüge der stationären mit der virtuellen Präsenz verbinden. In diesem Kapitel wird darüber ein fundiertes Basiswissen geschaffen.

Frank Deges

13. Mobile Marketing

Mobile Marketing ist aufgrund der Ortsunabhängigkeit und der Größe des Displays der mobilen Endgeräte hinsichtlich der Erfolgszusammenhänge abzugrenzen vom stationären Online Marketing. Wissenschaftliche Studien haben sich in den letzten Jahren insbesondere mit situativen Faktoren wie dem technologischen Kontext, de Nutzerkontext und Umweltfaktoren beschäftigt. Des Weiteren haben Studien erste Erkenntnisse zu Personalisierungsmaßnahmen und der optimalen Anzahl auszusteuernder Werbemaßnahmen geliefert. Dieses Kapitel erarbeitet grundsätzliche Erfolgszusammenhänge auf Basis wissenschaftlicher Studien und gibt Handlungsempfehlungen für das Mobile Marketing.

Dennis Ahrholdt, Goetz Greve, Gregor Hopf

14. Erfolgszusammenhänge beim Online-Shop

Für Anbieter von Waren- und Dienstleistungen wird als wichtigster Schritt des Online-Marketings der Aufbau und die Pflege eines eigenen Online-Shops gesehen. Im nachfolgenden Kapitel erfolgt die praxisrelevante Aufbereitung von Ergebnissen und Erfolgszusammenhängen zum Thema Online-Shop, die vornehmlich in wissenschaftlicher Forschung diskutiert bzw. identifiziert wurden. Abgeleitet werden Management-Tipps als mögliche Ansatzpunkte für ein innovatives und effektiveres Online-Shop-Management, für einen etwaigen Vorteil – nicht nur im Wettbewerb mit allein ca. 625.000 Online-Shops im deutschsprachigen Raum.

Dennis Ahrholdt, Goetz Greve, Gregor Hopf

Video-Based Content Extraction Algorithm from Bank Cards for iOS Mobile Devices

This paper proposes an algorithm for information fields detection and recognition of bank cards in video sequences, obtained from the iOS mobile device camera. For this, we use two basic steps. The first step is preprocessing for localization of symbols. The second step is symbol block recognition using OCR system. Preprocessing algorithm includes card edge detection, information fields segmentation, segments enhancement, symbols edge emphasizing and the final step is symbol block recognition using OCR system. Based on our approach and iPhone SDK frameworks, OpenCV and Tesseract library the bank card details recognition software is implemented. For experiments our database of the real static images and video sequences was used.

Rykhard Bohush, Alexander Kurilovich, Sergey Ablameyko

Kapitel 2. Allgemeine Grundlagen des B2B-Marketings und -Vertriebs

Das zweite Kapitel des Buchs befasst sich mit Grundlagen des Marketing- und Vertriebsmanagements. Zunächst wird die Evolution der beiden Funktionsbereiche vorgestellt, um die historische Entwicklung von Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts bis in die Gegenwart wissenschaftlich und praxisorientiert einordnen zu können. Darauf aufbauend werden die Aufgaben des Marketings und Vertriebs als Managementprozess aufgezeigt und der Rahmen für die M&V-Schnittstelle gesetzt. Mit konkreten Beispielen werden die Aufgaben des Marketing- und Vertriebsprozesses beleuchtet, um bereits an dieser Stelle die hohe Relevanz für die Zusammenarbeit der beiden Funktionseinheiten zu unterstreichen. Trends und Herausforderungen, wie neue Technologien, Digitalisierung, Globalisierung sowie sich verändernde Marktplätze oder Kundenbedürfnisse wirken sich heute wie auch morgen auf das Marketing und den Vertrieb aus. Das Kapitel zeigt auf, welche Ansätze es für das Marketing und den Vertrieb gibt, um sich diesen Trends und Herausforderungen zu stellen. Zuletzt befasst sich dieses Kapitel mit einem zentralen Thema des Marketings und Vertriebs: dem Management von Kundenbeziehungen. Gerade im Kundenbeziehungsmanagement (CRM) und der Customer Journey ist die „integrierte Zusammenarbeit von Marketing und Vertrieb“ unverzichtbar und von herausragender Bedeutung. Aus diesem Grund werden die beiden Themenbereiche wissenschaftlich und praxisorientiert vorgestellt.

Wolf-Dieter Hiemeyer, Dominik Stumpp

Kapitel 4. Aufmerksamkeit und Interesse wecken durch Marketing- und Kommunikationsmaßnahmen

In Ihrer Marketing-, PR- oder Content-Strategie haben Sie Ziele festgelegt – und Maßnahmen, um diese zu erreichen. In diesem Kapitel geht es um Einzelbausteine Ihres Aktivitätenplans. Für eine maximale Wirkung sollten diese möglichst gut aufeinander abgestimmt sein.

Dr. Birgit Lutzer, Angelika Howind

Chapter 12. E-commerce

The enhanced role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in everyday human life and the urge of e-commerce applications have given birth to various cyber threats and attacks on them. Sensitive data from 65 organizations all over the world was compromised. This year Verizon 2017 Data Breach Investigations Report includes analysis on 42,068 incidents and 1935 breaches from 84 countries (Verizon 2017). In today’s era of Digital world, the use of Internet is very common so as the use of it for online shopping (E-shopping). Nowadays, maximum customers are using online shopping due to its advantages over traditional physical shopping such as low-cost, real-time, interactive, and personalized, cross domain, etc. Due to the use of online shopping, human life has become easier with the good virtual experience. The percentage of customers using the E-shopping is increasing rapidly because it is fast, efficient and which is of economic advantage too. The consumer’s interest in the adaptation of E-commerce affected by three factors which are consumer attitude towards online transaction systems, Security and the last is trust in the reliability of online product suppliers. Debit or Credit card fraud and personal information security are major concerns for customers and merchants.

Ramjee Prasad, Vandana Rohokale

Kapitel 9. Sporthandel zwischen stationärem Handel, E-Commerce und „Own-Retail“

Der deutsche Sporthandelsmarkt ist, obwohl er den offiziellen Zahlen nach definitionsgemäß ein gesättigter Markt mit wenig Wachstumspotenzial ist, ein sich aktuell mehr denn je verändernder und spannender Markt. Zum einen verändert sich die Handelslandschaft im letzten Jahrzehnt so schnell wie noch nie durch die Einflüsse der Digitalisierung im Allgemeinen und im Speziellen durch das immer relevanter werdende Online-Shopping. Zum anderen strömen immer noch neue Handelsformate und Investoren in den aufgrund seines Volumens wichtigen und attraktiven deutschen Sporthandelsmarkt. Hinzu kommen neue Strategien der Sportmarken, die immer aktiver selbst in das Endverbrauchergeschäft einsteigen, was dem klassischen Sporthandel eine ganz neue Dynamik gibt.

Marc Scheiner


Media management is a young academic field that has yet to establish a universally accepted set of theoretical foundations (Küng 2007, Mierzejewska & Hollifield 2006). Albeit its strong growth in academic teaching and scholarly output, it remains a confused field. The field is neither clearly defined nor cohesively organized. It remains rather a loose agglomeration of work by researchers from various scientific fields.

Paul Clemens Murschetz

Overview of E-commerce Technologies, Data Analysis Capabilities and Marketing Knowledge

The E-commerce trends are showing a growing rate in the last decade for both B to B and B to C trade. The e-commerce technologies enable firms to collect a huge amount of data regarding the profile of consumers, the habits of consumption, the frequency and amounts of purchases, the payment details, the level of satisfaction and also the intention to repurchase the product or equivalent products in the future. The e-commerce technologies are then helping managers to collect relevant data and orient strategic and tactical marketing decisions. The problem that faces small and medium enterprises nowadays is the lack of customer information analysis capabilities that treat the large, heterogeneous and volatile aspects of the data collected with the e-commerce tools. This paper proposes a survey of the main e-commerce technologies and tools that collect consumer data and the potential contribution of each type of data in generating relevant customer knowledge that orient the marketing decisions. This research highlights all the stages of the process from the e-commerce technologies that collect data, then the analytical phase for the extraction of knowledge and finally the marketing decision orientation.

Safa Kaabi, Rim Jallouli

Chapter 6. Context-Aware Computing: Telecom Perspective

A pervasive computing system has been used in several domains. This chapter elaborates on its use in the telecom industry. The mobile user needs various information like traffic updates and weather conditions. From the perception of mobile users, this chapter begins with the layered architecture of context-aware system. The interaction of the telecom industry with the media context has been increased in the last few years. This chapter discusses several context-aware services offered by the telecom industry. The services include content, location, session and identity. The chapter continues to discuss telecom SOA architecture. The chapter finally concludes with a discussion on a context-aware business model which includes perception from the user, network and third party.

Parikshit N. Mahalle, Prashant S. Dhotre

Chapter 18. Why Every CEO Needs to Be Future Smart: From AI to Sustainability

We are living in a world where fundamental changes in technology and lifestyle are emerging in an unprecedented speed. These changes are shaping an entirely new era that will transform markets, society and the economy. Thus, to be prepared to thrive within this radically changed environment, companies need to be led into this future by a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) who is aware of these fundamental future trends, by a CEO who is Future Smart. This describes the ability to see signals that will create a trend and to explore possible future scenarios to better prepare for them today. More than ever, being Future Smart is a vital competency for every business leader. Two mega trends CEOs need to prepare their companies for are sustainability and artificial intelligence (AI) as their impact on the firm’s viability is tremendous. Ten questions are proposed that business leaders should ask about sustainability and artificial intelligence (AI). Being Future Smart will help to answer these questions, leverage both trends and their synergies and thus, gain and maintain competitive advantage in the future. This requires rethinking and adapting strategy with effective strategic management frameworks and processes as well as a Future Smart organization.

James Canton

Chapter 18. Role of Cyber Security in Retail

As the digital retail landscape is rapidly evolving, retailers find themselves to be poorly equipped to handle increasingly sophisticated cyber threats. In the past, retailers gave little importance to IT security. IT security requirements were narrowly framed as ‘checkbox compliance’ given by payment card industry (PCI) for data protection specification and outsourced implementation to individual stores. As the consumer habits are changing, security also should be given a redefined focus. Compliance and privacy requirements are making data protection a very essential and critical task. The paper addresses gaps and solutions for cyber security in retail domain, especially in the backdrop of digitalization and omnichannel retailing.

Kosha Joshi, K. B. Akhilesh

“Why Would You Buy from a Stranger?” Understanding Saudi Citizens’ Motivations and Challenges in Social Commerce

Consumers in many countries like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are increasingly turning to social media platforms like Instagram and WhatsApp to buy and sell products and services. Commercial activities within these platforms are increasing in popularity because of important qualities they provide, such as convenience of use, social aspects, and the variety of the types of products available. Using social media in this way has become popular, even though social platforms lack support for conducting e-commerce. In our study, we aim to understand this new trend, to investigate the needs of social media consumers within KSA, and to investigate how social platforms can be better designed to meet those needs. Using data collected through interviews with 26 social media users, we discuss and propose design directions and trust mechanisms for supporting commercial activity within social media platforms with the aim of improving user experience and increasing user acceptance.

Aisha Ahmed AlArfaj, Ellis Solaiman, Lindsay Marshall

Adoption and Use of Tablet Devices by Older Adults: A Quantitative Study

Information and communication technologies have become essential for everyday activities. Recently, ubiquitous or mobile computing is the new trend whereby information and services can be accessed anywhere and anytime. However, not all groups of society are taking advantage of its benefits, of which the older population is one of such groups. This study aims to identify and evaluate the factors that influence the adoption, use and diffusion of tablet devices within the older population (aged 50 and above) in UK. From an online survey of 203 completed responses, Compatibility, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived ease of use, Trust, Attitude and Perceived behavioral control were identified as factors that affect the adoption and use of tablet devices. This study also provides the implications of the research to academia, industry and policy makers.

Uchenna Ojiako, Jyoti Choudrie, Ukamaka Nwanekezie, Chike-Obuekwe Chikelue

Prioritizing Use Cases for Development of Mobile Apps Using AHP: A Case Study in To-Do List Apps

With the rapid development of communication technologies, the uses of mobile apps have increased in a significant manner over the past few years. Every day many different types of mobile apps are uploaded to mobile application markets. However, it is very difficult for the apps to stay competitive and survive in these marketplaces. Covering the requirements fitting the needs of users is one of significant factors in mobile apps’ success in the market. In this regard, this study aims to use Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate the use cases for the development of mobile apps. The results show that AHP provides an efficient tool which can be used to determine importance of the requirements in mobile apps considering users’ preferences.

Onur Yildirim, Serhat Peker

Chapter 1. Key Issues in Managing Innovation in a Global and Digital World: An Introduction to the Festschrift in Honor of Cornelius Herstatt

The technological revolution of the previous 20-25 years, especially the one brought about by the Internet and other telecommunication technologies, has led to the creation of general purpose technologies (GPTs) that facilitate high quality, easy-to-use and cost-effective solutions (Teece, 2018). The ensuing “democratization of innovation” has led millions of individuals across the world to turn into innovators (von Hippel, 2005). The availability of vastly affordable communication at high bandwidth – in conjunction with globalization – has set free innovational and entrepreneurial spirit that was never possible before in the memory of the humanity.

Rajnish Tiwari, Stephan Buse

Proposing a Service Quality Framework for Mobile Commerce

Customer satisfaction influences the profitability of organizations and can keep competitive advantages. One of the critical factors in customer satisfaction is the availability of a quality scale that measures the service. The service quality aims to ensure that the service delivered meets customer expectations. However, with the popularity of using mobile devices, there are many electronic businesses shifted to mobile platforms. Mobile platforms have unique features that differ from Personal computers, such as mobility, portable, wireless. Mobile business is a category of business development refers to new business platforms that enabled by using the technology of wireless and mobile devices. In this case, measuring of service quality of the mobile business is necessary nowadays to ensure the delivered services with the best quality. Due to the lack of a comprehensive framework to evaluate service quality at the mobile business, the business sector uses electronic service quality measurement to evaluate mobile business services, which results in difficulties in identifying accurate results. Using the theoretical base model of offline service quality “SERVQUAL” and the online service quality model “E-S-QUAL,” the researchers were able to propose a framework of service quality to evaluate the services provided through mobile commerce. The proposed service quality framework is consisting of six dimensions that are application design, reliability, responsiveness, trust, efficiency, and system availability. The proposed service quality framework helps business providers for better development of business strategies and leads for best customers’ expectations due to the compatibility of the proposed model with the unique features of mobile devices with considerations of the environment of business sectors.

Abdulla Jaafar Desmal, Mohd Khalit Bin Othman, Suraya Binti Hamid, Ali Hussein Zolait, Norliya Binti Ahmad Kassim

An Investigation on Sharing Economy Mobile Service Adoption: How Perceived Risk, Value, and Price Interact?

Originally developing from redistribution of idle resources, the sharing economy has expanded rapidly since its emergence because it enhances the efficiency of asset utilization through paid rentals of surplus resources, creating a win-win situation between users and re-source owners, and the subversive business opportunities brought by its business model attract global attention. However, related research on discussing user’s adoption towards sharing economy mobile services (M-services) is still lacking. As we know, a solid understanding of user perception enables a more robust definition of better market alignment. The contribution of this study is to discuss the key elements of sharing economy M-service adoption by including contingencies in which low and high user experience existed. We applied three theories – perceived risk (including security uncertainty and performance uncertainty), perceived value (perceived usefulness), and perceived price – and hypothesized that each had a different effect on sharing economy M-service adoption. The hypotheses were tested by multi-group SEM approach with 509 responses in Taiwan.Our findings verified that users’ perceived usefulness is a major driver to the widespread adoption of sharing economy M-services for both low and high- experienced contingencies. Also, the effects of security uncertainty and performance uncertainty are both mediated by perceived usefulness for high experienced users; while the mediated effect of perceived price does not exist. In addition, there were significant differences in the influence of perceived price on adoption intention in low and high-experienced contingencies, and thus illustrated different strategies have to be proposed for sharing economy M-service marketing. Implications and future research is suggested.

Shu-Ping Lin, Ya-Hui Chan

Chapter 1. Transnational, Ethnic and Returnee Entrepreneurship: Perspectives on SME Internationalization

The concept of transnational entrepreneurship (TE) has attracted much attention in scholarly literature in recent times. Transnational entrepreneurs have a bifocal orientation and maintain business and personal relationships in two different geographical spaces spanning across national borders (i.e. in their home and host countries) while running their enterprises. Returnee entrepreneurship (RE) deals with entrepreneurs who establish enterprises in their home countries on returning from host countries after having gained educational or business experience. While TE is a first step towards international entrepreneurship (IE), ethnic entrepreneurship (EE) is another facet that links TE and returnee entrepreneurship (RE) through the facilitating role played by the diaspora community comprising immigrants from the home country. This chapter provides an overview of the research on TE, RE and ethnic entrepreneurship and explains how they are facilitated by the diaspora of the new generation of opportunity and capability-based immigrants. It further provides an overview of the different theories about SME internationalization with special reference to transnational and returnee entrepreneurs. The concluding part of this chapter explains the role played by different factors such as market/political conditions, technological developments, production networks, social networks and human capital in facilitating or posing challenges to the internationalization process of SMEs, especially of TEs and REs.

Mathew J. Manimala, Kishinchand Poornima Wasdani, Abhishek Vijaygopal


Machine Learning oder maschinelles Lernen umfasst unterschiedliche Formen des Selbstlernens bei Systemen der Künstlichen Intelligenz und der Robotik. Diese erkennen beispielsweise Regel- und Gesetzmäßigkeiten in den Daten und leiten Schlüsse und Aktionen daraus ab. Ethem Alpaydin drückt es so aus: „Maschinelles Lernen heißt, Computer so zu programmieren, dass ein bestimmtes Leistungskriterium anhand von Beispieldaten oder Erfahrungswerten aus der Vergangenheit optimiert wird.“

Oliver Bendel


„Schlüsselqualifikation“ ist ein Sammelbegriff für all diejenigen Fähigkeiten und Kompetenzen, die notwendig oder auch wünschenswert für die erfolgreiche Beherrschung von in einem bestimmten Kontext wiederkehrenden Anforderungen sind.

Oliver Bendel

Chapter 4. The Adoption and Use of Tethered Electronic Personal Health Records for Health Management

Information Technology becomes a crucial part of the health-care system and it is getting more attention worldwide. Health IT includes well-known systems that have transformed the health sector such as Electronic Health Records (EHR), Electronic Medical Records (EMR), and Electronic Personal Health Records (ePHR). ePHR aims at enabling patients to take more active role in their care by giving them the ability to access their health records in a secure and safe environment. ePHR allows greater patient-provider engagement. The provider’s adoption rate of the ePHR as a tool to connect with patients and to enable them to have access to their records is increasing at an accelerated rate. However, the patient’s ePHR adoption rate remains low. In the USA, the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) reports an increase in the number of office-based physicians’ and hospitals’ adoption of the EHR. The number of office-based physicians adopting EHR increased from 17% in 2008 to 58% as of 2015. Similarly, it shows that the nonfederal acute care hospitals with certified EHR rate increased from 9% in 2008 to 84% as of 2015 [1]. Despite the efforts to encourage the health-care providers’ adoption of certified EHR and ePHR, the adoption rate by patients remains below expectations [2]. This rate is expected to increases due to the wide attention and efforts led by governments and health-care providers to engage patients in their care. The forecasts of future ePHR adoption are expecting 75% of adults to adopt and use ePHR by 2020 [3]. More attention is needed to improve the patient’s adoption of ePHR.

Saeed Alzahrani, Tuğrul Daim

Approaches for Steering Multichannel Retail Companies

This contribution explains steering concepts for multichannel business models. In doing so, the scope and characteristics of single channels (stationary, print, and online) and the objective of a multichannel strategy are described first. Resulting challenges for management accounting are derived. The solution comprises the adaption of general steering dimensions with a focus on the customer perspective. Modern approaches for the steering of “customers” in a multichannel context are explained. Further typical performance indicators are highlighted to observe multichannel developments.

Philipp Graf von Arnim

Chapter 12. A Mobile Cloud Framework for Context-Aware and Portable Recommender System for Smart Markets

Smart city systems are fast emerging as solutions that provide better and digitized urban services to empower individuals and organizations. Mobile and cloud computing technologies can enable smart city systems to (1) exploit the portability and context-awareness of mobile devices and (2) utilize the computation and storage services of cloud servers. Despite the wide-spread adoption of mobile and cloud computing technologies, there is still a lack of solutions that provide the users with portable and context-aware recommendations based on their localized context. We propose to advance the state-of-the-art on recommender systems—providing a portable, efficient, and context-driven digital matchmaking—in the context of smart markets that involves virtualized customers and business entities. We have proposed a framework and algorithms that unify the mobile and cloud computing technologies to offer context-aware and portable recommendations for smart markets. We have developed a prototype as a proof-of-the-concept to support automation, user intervention, and customization of users’ preferences during the recommendation process. The evaluation results suggest that the framework (1) has a high accuracy for context-aware recommendations, and (2) it supports computation and energy efficient mobile computing. The proposed solution aims to advance the research on recommender systems for smart city systems by providing context-aware and portable computing for smart markets.

Aftab Khan, Aakash Ahmad, Anis Ur Rahman, Adel Alkhalil

Chapter 9. Exploring Omnichannel Retailing Differences and Preferences Among Consumer Generations

This chapter discusses differences and preferences among consumer generations, e.g. ‘Baby Boomers’, ‘Generation X’, ‘Generation Y’ (Millennials) and ‘Generation Z’, regarding their use of omnichannel retailing including their purchase and fulfilment needs, willingness to use this format, attitudes and behaviors, and subsequent effects on their satisfaction and loyalty. The development of omnichannel and fulfilment strategies is of increasing concern for international retailers. However, strategic challenges go beyond just targeting consumers via various communication and distribution channels to include the ongoing development and integrated management of such strategies to foster appropriate online purchasing and fulfilment and two-way communication with target generations for mutual data and information exchange. A systematic literature review was undertaken of omnichannel’s theoretical and practical dimensions and its relation to consumer generations. Subsequent analysis found consumer willingness to accept omnichannel options grows over time of use and that use is highly dependent on age moving through generations from Baby Boomers through Generations X, Y and Z. Suggestions for strategic development of these generational segments and fulfilment applications were lacking and this chapter concludes with suggestions for future research and practical applications in expanded strategic areas to address this gap and enable retailers to better meet generational needs and provide appropriate purchase and fulfilment strategies to increase satisfaction and loyalty.

Iulia Diana Popa, Dan-Cristian Dabija, David B. Grant

Open Access

Smartphones as an Opportunity to Increase Sales in Brick-and-Mortar Stores: Identifying Sales Influencers Based on a Literature Review

The increasing popularity of smartphones, the constant rise of e-commerce turnover and plungingdepartment storesales have a significant impact on brick-and-mortar stores revenue. Nevertheless, brick-and-mortar revenue still makes up 90% of total retail revenue. This gives rise to the question of how smartphones affect sales in brick-and-mortar stores. In order to investigate the impact of smartphones on brick-and-mortar store sales, this article presents the results of a literature review, summarizing statements about the impact of smartphones on brick-and-mortar store sales into sales influencers. These sales influencerswere categorized into three main types of sales drivers, namely: Utilitarian drivers, cost and time reduction drivers and hedonic drivers. Subsequently, the categorized statements were evaluated according to their potential positive or negative influence on sales. The resulting overview provides information about the current status of research in the field of smartphones as sales influencers in brick-and-mortar stores. It reveals extensively as well as partially researched sales influencers. Hence, the overview also acts as call for future research, encouraging research progression in the field of smartphone influenced sales in brick-and-mortar stores. It can be concluded that, according to the current literature, smartphones have the potential to increase sales in brick-and-mortar stores. However, the variety of sales influencers identified suggests that research is scattered. Hence, future research is needed to analyse how strongly each individual sales influencer affects sales in brick-and-mortar stores.

Robert Zimmermann, Andreas Auinger, René Riedl

Kapitel 7. Mit Sprachassistenten verkaufen?!

Das Kap. 7 widmet sich der Frage nach Vertrieb und Umsatzgenerierung mit Sprachassistenten. Welche Angebote auf Sprachassistenten unterstützen direkt den Kaufvorgang der Kunden? Welche Anwendungsfälle eignen sich besonders, um Kaufabschlüsse über diese herbeizuführen? Dabei werden direkte wie auch Cross-Channel-Ansätze (z. B. „say and collect“) berücksichtigt.

Thomas Hörner

An App for Who?

An Exploration of the Use and Adoption of Mobile Ordering Applications Among Aging Populations

With the ubiquity of smart and connected devices such as smartphones, and the ease of downloading Apps from various marketplaces, it has become standard practice for companies to enhance their service experience by releasing their own mobile apps. In one particular vertical, Fast-Food Restaurants, these applications have started to offer customers a chance to place mobile-orders. While mobile ordering comes with a variety of benefits such as skipping lines, order customization, and personalization features, it is not clear that current design can benefit all users. This study is part of a larger project that attempts to provide a service experience design that includes the needs of older users. As a first step toward this goal, in this study we assess the adoption, user experience (UX) and overall usability of an actual mobile ordering applications in an organization with respect to generational differences.

Christopher Chagnon, Ryan LaMarche, Soussan Djamasbi

Mobile App Stores from the User’s Perspective

The use of smartphones has become more prevalent in light of the boom in Internet services and Web 2.0 applications. Mobile stores (e.g., Apple’s App Store and Google Play) have been increasingly used by mobile users worldwide to download or purchase different kinds of applications. This has prompted mobile app practitioners to reconsider their mobile app stores in terms of design, features and functions in order to maintain their customers’ loyalty. Due to the lack of research on this context, this study aims to identify factors that may affect users’ satisfaction and continued intention toward using mobile stores. The proposed model includes various factors derived from information systems literature (i.e., usefulness, ease of use, perceived cost, privacy and security concerns) in addition to the dimensions of mobile interactivity (i.e. active control, mobility, and responsiveness). The study sets out 13 hypotheses that include mediating relationships (e.g., perceived usefulness mediates the influence of ease of use, active control, responsiveness and mobility; perceived ease of use mediates the influence of active control). As well as outlining the proposed research method, the research contributions, limitations and future research recommendations are also addressed.

Abdullah M. Baabdullah, Ali Abdallah Alalwan, Nripendra P. Rana, Ata Al Shraah, Hatice Kizgin, Pushp P. Patil

Understanding the Factors Influencing Mobile Commerce Adoption by Traders in Developing Countries: Evidence from Ghana

The proliferation of wireless communication networks and relative reduction in cost of mobile devices have contributed to exponential growth in mobile device usage, and mobile commerce (m-commerce). Increasingly, mobile devices are being used in various ways by traders. This study analysed the factors that influence m-commerce adoption by traders and the role of Gender in mobile device adoption. The work extends the User Acceptance and Use of Information Technology (UTAUT2) model by highlighting the role of Trust. This study took place in one of the biggest markets in Ghana which is a hub for sale and distribution of agricultural and farm produce. The study analysed responses to a survey of two hundred and fifteen (215) traders using regression analysis. It was discovered that gender has moderating effect on Performance Expectancy, Facilitating Conditions, Habit, Price Value, and Trust and therefore, confirming the need for extension of the UTAUT2 model in relation to the study of adoption and use of m-commerce.

Mercy Kwofie, Joseph Kwame Adjei

Explaining Performance Expectancy of IoT in Chilean SMEs

The purpose of this paper is to validate a research model that explains performance expectancy of IoT from psychological and cognitive variables: personal innovativeness of information technology (PIIT) and social influence respectively. Data were collected from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Chile. A confirmatory approach using PLSc was employed to validate the hypotheses. The conclusions of the study are (a) Chilean SMEs companies do not use IoT massively, (b) goodness of fit indicators allowed to validate the proposed research model successfully, (c) both constructs, social influence and personal innovativeness of information technology, explain 61% of performance expectancy of IoT.

Patricio E. Ramírez-Correa, Elizabeth E. Grandón, Jorge Arenas-Gaitán, F. Javier Rondán-Cataluña, Alejandro Aravena

Analyzing the Prospects and Acceptance of Mobile-Based Marine Debris Tracking

Marine litter has been considered as a growing concern within different coastal areas around the world and to address this issue, there have been apprehensions from various stakeholders including international regulatory bodies and governmental institutions, among others. Amongst the different technologies being promoted by key stakeholders, mobile-based marine debris tracking is being promoted due to the widespread utilization of mobile devices. However, although a few mobile based marine debris reporting, and tracking tools have emerged, limited research has been undertaken about the acceptance of such solution by end users. Assessment of acceptance of this technology is important in order to understand aspects that impact future adoption. To address this gap, this paper investigates and analyses the acceptance of mobile-based marine debris tracking. In order to achieve the purpose of this paper, an application called “Mau Marine-Litter Watch” was developed and assessed through application of the Technology Acceptance Model.

Ashley Thanacoody, Girish Bekaroo, Aditya Santokhee, Suraj Juddoo

Chapter 1. Introduction: Sport Technology and Innovation

The primary objective of this chapter is to describe the processes of innovation involving sport technology to facilitate an understanding about the components of this book. In order to initiate a technology innovation there needs to be some degree of creativity about its usages in sport. This can occur in a variety of different forms from incremental to radical shifts in the way sport integrates technology innovation. Despite the practical usage of technology innovation in sport, the academic literature is still at a nascent stage. This introductory chapter to the book will describe the changes in the way technology is viewed in sport as a way of starting the discussion for the resulting chapters in the book.

Vanessa Ratten

Chapter 4. Technology Commercialization

This chapter focuses chiefly on the recent advances in sport technology innovation by looking at commercialization outcomes. There is a prodigious body of literature about technology innovation in general but less devoted to sport. This chapter attempts to draw out transferrable lessons for sport technology management by focusing on how entrepreneurship facilitates the innovation process. To do so the chapter discusses how technology innovation is forging a new path for sport organizations through interactive and new media applications. In this chapter, I will focus on technology-driven determinants for sport innovation by examining the role of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Technology is important for enhancing the performance of sport organizations but a better understanding is needed about the commercialization process.

Vanessa Ratten

Chapter 6. Communities of Practice

The focus of this chapter will cover ground associated with technology innovation in sport through a communities-of-practice perspective. My perusal of technology innovation texts failed to find any systematic examination of sport, thus it is useful to build on existing research in other fields. Thus, it is important to study sport technology innovation from a community perspective rather than just focusing on technology innovation in a sports environment. The core message of this chapter is that a new theory of sport technology innovation is needed that builds on the teamwork and communities inherent in sport. To really learn about the evolving nature of sport we need to study technology innovation by looking at knowledge management and strategy. Sport organizations differ in their attitudes toward technology innovation and exhibit higher levels of innovative behavior when engaged in a community of practice.

Vanessa Ratten

Digital Wallets ‘Turning a Corner’ for Financial Inclusion: A Study of Everyday PayTM Practices in India

Financial transactions are intimately bound with social interactions and woven into everyday economic lives. In this paper we focus on PayTM, a digital wallet, and a specific set of users of PayTM, street vendors in urban India. Through an ethnographic investigation we offer to unpack two questions: 1. Can digital forms of money create financial inclusion by opening up access to the marginalized 2. Can digital platforms amplify socio-economic capacities of low literate users enhancing financial literacy? We argue that digital and financial literacy are an immersive component of digital wallet use acquiring ‘everyday life’ in specific socio-economic ecosystems. Our study captures daily practices of digital money staking a claim in advancing the understanding of financial inclusion as a lived process accumulating habits, practices and stakes to expand socio-economic capabilities.

Tanmay Joshi, Sharmistha Swasti Gupta, Nimmi Rangaswamy

G. Schlussteil

Im Folgenden werden die wichtigsten Erkenntnisse der vorangegangenen Kapitel stichpunktartig in Thesen zusammengefasst. Im Anschluss erfolgt ein Fazit mit einem Ausblick auf weitere mögliche Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen.

Lisa Kammann

C. Mobile Commerce

Unter Mobile Commerce versteht man Geschäftsabschlüsse unter Verwendung mobiler Endgeräte.267 Der M-Commerce läuft somit ortsungebunden ab — im Gegensatz zum stationären E-Commerce, der einen festen Zugang zu den Datennetzen voraussetzt.268 Grundsätzlich ist der Vertrieb über mobile Endgeräte mit dem Vertrieb über stationäre Computer vergleichbar. Beide Vertriebsarten gehören zum E-Commerce und unterliegen den gleichen gesetzlichen Regelungen. Auch die Umsetzung der gesetzlichen Pflichten kann in vielen Bereichen ähnlich ablaufen. Der wichtigste Unterschied zu einem stationären Computer liegt in der Größe des Displays, auf dem die Applikationen oder Internetseiten angezeigt werden.269 Auf kleinen Displays kann jeweils nur ein geringer Textumfang angezeigt werden, was bei längeren Texten ein aufwendiges Scrollen oder Zoomen zur Folge hat.270 Auch die Übersichtlichkeit ist durch den begrenzten Raum schwieriger zu gewährleisten. Da in den sonstigen Bereichen kaum Unterschiede zum Vertrieb über stationäre Computer bestehen, soll im Folgenden nur auf die Gestaltung und Einbeziehung der AVB und die Erfüllung der Informationspflichten eingegangen werden.

Lisa Kammann


Oliver Bendel


„Schlüsselqualifikation“ ist ein Sammelbegriff für all diejenigen Fähigkeiten und Kompetenzen, die notwendig oder auch wünschenswert für die erfolgreiche Beherrschung von in einem bestimmten Kontext wiederkehrenden Anforderungen sind.

Oliver Bendel

Kapitel 4. E-Commerce

In diesem Kapitel erfahren Sie, welche Phasen beim E-Commerce zu unterscheiden sind, welche Anforderungen an die Waren-, Informations- und Finanzlogistik beim Aufbau des E-Commerce zu berücksichtigen sind, wie die Online-Präsenz für Einzelhändler zielorientiert ausgestaltet werden kann und wie eine überzeugende Angebots-Positionierung vor der Entwicklung eines Online-Shops erfolgen kann. Nach dem Lesen dieses Kapitels verstehen Sie die Grundlagen des E-Commerce und können dessen Erscheinungsformen einordnen und Sie können den Multi-Channel-Ansatz kommunikativ und distributiv ausgestalten.

Ralf T. Kreutzer

Kapitel 3. Instrumente des Online-Marketings

Nach der Durcharbeitung dieses Kapitels verstehen Sie, wie eine Corporate Website aufzubauen ist, Sie können Sie die Usability sicherstellen und wissen, wie der Frequenzaufbau erfolgt. Außerdem sind Sie imstande, verschiedene Formate der Online-Werbung zu unterscheiden und relevante Kennzahlen zur Bewertung einzusetzen, Sie können Suchmaschinen-Werbung zielorientiert einsetzen und Sie kennen sich damit aus, worauf bei der Online-Werbung zu achten ist. Weiterhin beherrschen Sie nach der Lektüre Grundlagen der Suchmaschinen-Optimierung und Sie können verschiedene Maßnahmen zur On-Site- und Off-Site-Optimierung konzipieren. Sie beherrschen die Grundlagen des E-Mail-Marketings und können dessen Erfolgsfaktoren berücksichtigen. Sie beherrschen die Grundlagen des Mobile-Marketings und können Anwendungsfelder unterscheiden. Zudem beherrschen Sie die Ausgestaltungsformen und Ziele des Social-Media-Marketings, Sie sind in der Lage, die relevante Plattformen für das Social-Media-Marketing einzusetzen, und Sie kennen die Möglichkeiten, um den Einsatz des Social-Media-Marketings zu überwachen.

Ralf T. Kreutzer

Kapitel 1. Die Grundlagen des E-Business

E-Business ist die Nutzung der Informationstechnologien für die Vorbereitung (Informationsphase), Verhandlung (Kommunikationsphase) und Durchführung (Transaktionsphase) von Geschäftsprozessen zwischen ökonomischen Partnern über innovative Kommunikationsnetzwerke. Doch worauf basiert die elektronische Wertschöpfung, um digitale Geschäftsmodelle im E-Business erfolgreich umsetzen zu können? Als Basis dienen zunächst innovative Entwicklungen im Bereich der Informationstechnik und -technologie wie z. B. die zunehmende Vernetzung und immer schneller werdende Datenübertragung. Diese ermöglichen den virtuellen und zeit- sowie ortsunabhängigen Informationsaustausch sowie die zunehmend ökonomische Nutzung digitaler Informationen für betriebswirtschaftliche Zwecke. Somit entsteht die Informationsökonomie rund um den zentralen elektronischen Wertschöpfungsprozess auf Basis des Informationsaustausches als Ausgangspunkt für die Digitale Wirtschaft. Der daraus resultierende Informationswettbewerb eröffnet neue Möglichkeiten für innovative digitale Geschäftsmodelle im Web 1.0, Web 2.0, Web 3.0, Web 4.0 und Web 5.0.

Tobias Kollmann

Securing Internet-of-Things

In this survey, we first present some vulnerabilities and attacks on IoT systems, and classification of IoT devices, we then show the evolution of the development of lightweight cryptography for securing IoT, the metrics for the design of lightweight cryptography, and the applications in privacy preserving authentication protocols. We use examples including the development of Simon, Simeck, and sLiSCP/sLiSCP-Light lightweight ciphers to demonstrate those approaches.

Guang Gong

Toward an Understanding of the Antecedents of E-Marketing Orientation: The Role of the Fit

Nowadays, firms have realized the importance of using the Internet-based technology for supporting services to their customers and suppliers. For achieving a higher value in operating activities, firms must emphasize on R&D and technological development to fit with customer needs and develop the capabilities for searching and acquiring information via e-business tools. Thus, it is important for firms to know how to acquire market information to satisfy customers’ needs. In this vein, electronic marketing (e-Marketing) is regarded as a strategic weapon for firms to accomplish it. It not only includes the deployment of marketing activities in the Internet but also includes using technology to support services for customers. Drawing on the concept of fit, this present research tries to explore the effect of fit between market orientation and IT adoption strategy on e-Marketing orientation (the antecedents of e-Marketing orientation). Empirical data for hypothesis testing are collected from top-ranked companies in Taiwan, yielding 140 valid samples. Performance implications of fit are examined using fit as covariation approach. The findings indicated that the fit of market orientation and IT adoption strategy plays an important role in explaining e-Marketing orientation.

Hui-Ling Huang, Yue-Yang Chen

Chapter 2. Introduction to Money

This chapter provides an introduction to money. The chapter analyses the origins and nature of money, evolution of central banks and the transition from the gold standard to fiat money. The chapter then analyses the standards and qualities of money, making a distinction between economic money and legal money. The chapter also discusses the nature of the payment system and the role of its various players. Apart from providing an overview of the historical development of money, the chapter also looks at emerging forms of money and the challenges these new forms of money present. For example, most forms of digital forms of money like Bitcoin are private money and not state-regulated. Is this a signal of a shift in the sovereign foundations of money?

Sunduzwayo Madise

Kapitel 3. Werkzeuge der digitalen Transformation

Im Rahmen der digitalen Transformation stehen Unternehmen eine Vielzahl von Werkzeugen zur Verfügung. Die Konzepte und Ideen hinter diesen Werkzeugen sind mannigfaltig und (noch) nicht alle Ideen finden ihre praktische Anwendung in Unternehmen. Im Folgenden werden die wesentlichen sechsundzwanzig Konzepte der Digitalisierung vorgestellt und mit praktischen Beispielen angereichert.

André Kieviet

Chapter 5. Female Entrepreneurship in the African Fashion Industry: A Review of Its Determinants and Characteristics

This chapter reviews the role of women, especially young women, in entrepreneurship in the fashion sector, and defines some of the features that characterize them on a personal level.

Hashim Sabo Bello

Chapter 2. Fashion Sector Outsourcing to African Countries: Taking Advantage of Low-Cost Labor?

This chapter analyzes how globalization has affected the fashion industry over time. The ecosystem of fashion, the different agents it contains and the relationships between them are studied in depth. The chapter ends by exploring the main challenges facing the sector.

Renato Botti

Kapitel 2. Praktische Grundlagen und Prozess des Affiliate-Marketing

Obwohl der Ursprung des Affiliate-Marketing oft dem Online-Händler Amazon im Jahr 1997 oder dem Musikhändler CDNow Ende 1995 zugeschrieben wird, sind die Anfänge des Affiliate-Marketing früher zu finden. William J. Tobin, der Gründer des Unternehmens PC Flowers and Gifts, entwickelte bereits 1994 eine Methode, Transaktionen nachverfolgen und anschließend vergüten zu können, die dem heute bekannten Affiliate- Marketing sehr ähnlich ist. Diese Methode ließ er sich 1996 patentieren.

Patrick Mark Bormann

Kapitel 2. China – Die einzige Mobile-First-Gesellschaft

„Mobile First“ hat sich in den vergangenen zwei bis drei Jahren als regelrechtes Buzzword etabliert und mobiles Einkaufen wird als Zukunft des E-Commerce gehandelt. Die Gründe liegen auf der Hand: Das Handy kann überall mitgenommen werden und wenn wir ganz ehrlich sind, haben wir unser Smartphone tatsächlich immer griffbereit. In China ist das Mobiltelefon kaum noch wegzudenken. Der Alltag der Chinesen wird mittlerweile so stark von mobilen Anwendungen gesteuert, dass man sich kaum noch vorstellen kann, dass es mal eine Zeit vor dem Handy gab.

Elena Gatti, Christina Richter

Kapitel 8. Chinas Millennials – die neuen Superkonsumenten?

Chinas Millennials sind eine neue Generation von Verbrauchern, die die Zukunft des Handels mitgestalten werden. Mehr als 400 Mio. stark und in der Zeit der Ein-Kind-Politik geboren und aufgewachsen – das sind wohl ihre wichtigsten Merkmale. Es sind die „kleinen Kaiser und Kaiserinnen“, denen ihre Eltern alles nur Denkbare ermöglichten. Es ist eine ganze Generation von Einzelkindern. Und genau das unterscheidet sie von Millennials aus anderen Ländern.

Elena Gatti, Christina Richter

2. Technological Background

Technology is becoming part of retail settings, by enhancing consumers’ experience with new exciting and attractive elements. Thus, the technology can be successfully integrated within the physical point of sale, outside the point of sale through interactive storefront windows or becoming more ubiquitous through mobile devices acting as interactive pervasive shopping assistants (anytime and anywhere). This chapter will outline these different technologies and illustrate how retailers have actually integrated within their strategies with different examples.

Eleonora Pantano, Charles Dennis

Chapter 3. Leverage Points for Sustainable, Innovative Logistics Considering Consumer Lifestyles

This article addresses the interrelations between the perpetual growth of the logistics industry and logistics services on the one hand and changing consumption behaviors and lifestyles on the other. More specifically, we look at how consumption patterns can influence the development and expansion of sustainable logistics structures and services along the supply chain of products found in conventional grocery stores and fashion products distributed through online retailing.Through horizon scanning and qualitative expert interviews, we developed potential approaches for increasing sustainability in the logistics industry with respect to consumption behaviors. Integrating logistics into the “container” of sustainability, integrating (more) sharing economy elements into logistics services, and taking advantage of existing areas of consumer awareness, such as regional products, for promoting sustainable logistics to end users are only some examples for potential approaches.

Rosa Strube, Thomas Wagner

12. An Exploratory Investigation into the Consumer Use of WeChat to Engage with Luxury Fashion Brands

This chapter explores the behaviours and impact of consumer engagement with luxury clothing brands on the WeChat social media platform. It presents an investigation into how young Chinese fashion consumers use WeChat to understand and engage with luxury fashion brands and how they engage with other consumers and interested stakeholders during their shopping experience. Our results suggest that consumers do use WeChat extensively to engage with luxury clothing brands, but in doing so currently place the greatest trust for their fashion and product knowledge in the opinions of those in their WeChat friendship groups and WeChat fashion bloggers rather than directly with the brands themselves.

Noreen Siddiqui, Mike Mannion, Ruth Marciniak

1. The Historical Development of Social Commerce

Despite its increasing relevance in academia and business, the concept of social commerce (s-commerce) still remains under-investigated in a marketing context. While its roots can be traced back to the late 1990s, the explosive growth of s-commerce started only a decade ago. Until today, most empirical research is related to information technology. This chapter is based on a literature review with the goal of depicting the historical development of s-commerce and deriving implications for marketing managers today. Analysing literature from the areas of computer sciences, information technology, marketing, and communications led to a holistic view on its progress over time. Implications for the strategic use of s-commerce are provided, for example, the integration of customers in online communications or the strategic use of user-generated content.

Nina Bürklin, Claudia E. Henninger, Rosy Boardman

Kapitel 17. Mobiles Internet und Mobile-Marketing

Einordnung, Entwicklung, Trends

Um es gleich klar zu sagen: Dieses Kapitel soll keine Konkurrenz für die in jüngerer Zeit erschienene Literatur zum Thema „Mobile-Marketing“ oder „Mobile-Commerce“ sein. Mir geht es zunächst nur um eine Einordnung in den Gesamtkontext des Online- Marketings und um eine Sensibilisierung meiner Leser für eine Entwicklung, die ziemlich große Kreise ziehen wird. Eine Entwicklung, die viele Geschäftsprozesse und damit auch das Online-Marketing stark verändern wird.

Erwin Lammenett

Chapter 7. Prospect of the VLSI Architecture for Massive MIMO Detection

With respect to the manufacturing industry, in the 5G times, apart from intelligent terminals, the background network equipment of the 5G technology will encounter revolutionary changes as well. In this era, the network equipment manufacturing industry is no longer proprietary for conventional communications equipment manufacturers. Manufacturers who provide open computation equipment, storage equipment, and network equipment can also participate in the competition. To satisfy both the scalability and ultra-low delay requirements of computing capability on terminal devices, the new rising mobile edge computing (MEC) technology emerges as a promising paradigm in 5G communications. The basic thought of MEC is to offload cloud computing platform to the edge of mobile access network to enable the user equipment to offload computation tasks to the nodes at the edge of network, which is beneficial for 5G services to fulfill technical indicators such as ultra-low delay, ultra-high energy efficiency, and ultra-high reliability. This chapter probes into the future application scenarios and hardware development from three aspects: server, mobile terminal, and edge computing, which correspond to the subsequent sections.

Leibo Liu, Guiqiang Peng, Shaojun Wei

V-Commerce in Retail: Nature and Potential Impact

V-commerce is an emerging phenomenon that is gaining traction in marketing and business literature and is becoming specifically more prominent in content related to retail practices. However, interpretations and explanations as to what exactly v-commerce refers to and comprises are inconsistent. This paper addresses the fluid conceptualisation of the v-commerce terminology and advocates the usage of v-commerce terminology exclusively for referring to, and as an abbreviation of, virtual commerce—for which a unified definition will be proposed. Taking a business-to-consumer approach, the current implementations of virtual commerce in the retail sector, as well as the potential and future research implications will be discussed.

Anouk de Regt, Stuart J. Barnes

Kapitel 5. Best Practices für Web-Exzellenz im Online-Handel

Best PracticesBest Practices für Web-Exzellenz ergeben sich aus der bestmöglichen Umsetzung der Erfolgsfaktoren, die sie auf der anderen Seite aber auch maßgeblich mit bestimmt haben. Die folgenden Best Practices wurden durch Online-Recherchen identifiziert. Die Daten, Zahlen und Fakten dazu wurden größtenteils den aktuellen Geschäftsberichten aus 2017/2018 oder Informationen auf den Websites und aus der Presse entnommen.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 4. Geschäftssysteme und Benchmarks im E-Commerce

Der Ausgestaltung des Geschäftssystems kommt eine Schlüsselrolle im Online-Handel zu. Sie ist auch Basis für Kanalexzellenz, die erfolgreiche Online-Händler auszeichnet. Diese sind in der Lage, mit ihren Leistungen im E-Commerce den Benchmark zu setzen, und nutzen alle Möglichkeiten der modernen Interaktion. Insgesamt sind acht zentrale Erfolgsfaktoren für das Vorliegen von Web-Exzellenz im B2C zu beachten. Eine große Herausforderung spielt jedoch zunehmend die Nachhaltigkeit der Erfolgsfaktoren, da der Wettbewerb sich immer schneller anpasst.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 3. Formen des Online-Handels

Die wenigsten Online-Händler kommen noch in reiner Form vor. Lediglich Start-ups oder neue Formen des interaktiven Online-HandelsOnline-Handel wie zum Beispiel Farfetch verfolgen zu 100 % ein einziges Geschäftsmodell. Schon die großen Pure Plays wie Amazon oder eBay sind Mischformen. Mittlerweile hat sich hier eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Betriebstypen herauskristallisiert, die sich anhand zentraler Merkmale beschreiben lassen und sehr unterschiedlich entwickeln. Zunehmend sind neue Formen des Online-Handels zu beobachten, zu denen auch der weiterhin stark wachsende Mobile Commerce zählt. Daneben entwickelt sich B2B-Online-Handel, also E-Commerce von Business für Business, zum „next big thing“.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 2. Geschäftsmodell des Online-Handels

Die Kundenzentriertheit muss Basis für das Geschäftsmodell eines jeden Online-Händlers sein. Losgelöst von der funktional orientierten Marketinglehre rücken Leidenschaft und Glaubwürdigkeit der gesamten Unternehmensführung und ein bedingungslos am Kundenwunsch ausgerichtetes Unternehmen in das Zentrum der geschäftlichen Aktivitäten. Diese Art der „neuen Kundenorientierung“ durchdringt das komplette Geschäftssystem des Unternehmens und gibt Mitarbeitern zugleich einen Orientierungsrahmen für ihre täglichen Entscheidungen vor.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 1. Neues Meta-Targeting im Online-Handel

Mit der weiter zunehmenden Internetnutzung in Hinblick auf die Nutzerzahlen sowie die Nutzungsintensitäten steigen die Umsätze im Online-Handel nach wie vor rasant an. Dabei wird das digitale Universum immer mehr durch mobile Internetnutzung geprägt, die auch die Kundenorientierung erheblich verändert. Diese ändert sich ohnehin fortwährend durch neue Trends, die wiederum durch neue Kundenerwartungen genährt werden. Zugleich beschleunigt sich der Konzentrationsprozess weiter, wodurch der Abstand zwischen dem Marktführer Amazon sowie dem Verfolgerfeld und dabei vor allem den Traditionsunternehmen immer größer wird. Deswegen kommt der Beschleunigung digitaler Reifegrade und dem Abbau digitaler Barrieren ein hoher Stellenwert zu.

Gerrit Heinemann

Evaluation of Innovative Tools for the Trade Enhancement of Fresh Agrifood Products

The e-Marketplaces have become the global platform for exchange, which have modified social and economic behavior. The digital revolution has opened the doors of the global village to industries, services, cities, and territories. Information and communications technology (ICT) can be a tool for the development of rural and agricultural areas, as demonstrated by real experiences reported in the literature. The advent of new technologies has also led to major changes in consumer buying processes and market relationships. The interest in shopping places is shifting from large shopping malls to “zero-km” shopping and e-commerce.The new e-commerce frontier is represented by logistics adaptations for zero-km sale of fresh produce and same-day delivery.The objectives of this study were to contribute to the knowledge of the phenomenon of e-marketplaces in the Italian agrifood economy and to analyze the new e-commerce models for fresh fruit and vegetables in Italy.

Luisa Sturiale, Alessandro Scuderi

Integrierte Plattformen im Handel

Die Digitalisierung eröffnet Handelsunternehmen ungeahnte Möglichkeiten, das Kundenerlebnis zu perfektionieren und Kosten durch Prozessoptimierungen drastisch zu reduzieren. Traditionelle IT-Architekturen sind zu starr und bieten nicht die nötige Flexibilität, um agil auf die neuen Herausforderungen zu reagieren. Die Zukunft liegt in integrierten, intelligenten Plattformen. In diesem Artikel werden die Auswirkungen der Digitalisierung auf die Customer Journey beleuchtet, der Ansatz der integrierten Plattformen dargestellt und die Chancen und Herausforderungen erläutert, die integrierte Plattformen im Handel bieten.

Thomas Vetter, Rafael Morasch

Mobile Eats the Retail World

Nach der Adoption von Online als Vertriebskanal befindet sich der deutsche Handel mit Mobile Shopping kurz vor seiner zweiten großen digitalen Disruptionswelle. Der weltweite Anteil mobiler Nutzung überstieg 2016 mit 51,3 % erstmals den Desktop-Traffic mit 48,7 %. Dieser Steigerung der mobilen Interaktion werden in den nächsten Jahren steigende Umsätze folgen. In dieser neuen mobilen Shopping-Welt steht der Marktführer noch lange nicht fest. Aus der Veränderung der Spielregeln im E-Commerce entsteht also eine noch auszugestaltende und zu besetzende Lücke und somit eine historische Chance für den deutschen Handel. Der deutsche Handel nutzt bisher allerdings nicht die sich bietende Chance. Denn seine Konzepte zahlen nach wie vor kaum auf die erwähnten Entwicklungen des Nutzerverhaltens ein, sondern versuchen die vergangene E-Commerce-Systemlandschaft auf kleine Displays zu übertragen.Der Bedarf an innovativen Verkaufskonzepten für den deutschen Markt scheint also groß zu sein. Dementsprechend werden die wichtigsten Bausteine, die ein großartiges Mobile-Konzept auszeichnen, in diesem Beitrag vorgestellt. Der Spielraum für neue, innovative Verkaufsansätze ist immens groß. Deshalb werden sich die Mobile-Verkaufsansätze zwischen verschiedenen Produkt- und Servicekategorien weiter ausdifferenzieren. Perspektivisch werden wir also deutlich mehr Vielfalt durch Mobile Commerce erleben. Das Erlebnis selbst wird mehr im Mittelpunkt stehen, und es werden sich branchenspezifische Verkaufskonzepte entwickeln, die sich viel stärker als momentan voneinander unterscheiden.

Ruppert Bodmeier, Daniel Scheck, Katharina Lieber

Das goldene Zeitalter des Konsumenten – Wie die Digitalisierung, der demografische Wandel und die Veränderung der Werte unserer Gesellschaft das Konsumentenverhalten beeinflussen

Die Bedürfnisse der zunehmend befähigten Konsumenten zu erfüllen wird immer komplexer. Das nächste Jahrzehnt wird voraussichtlich das goldene Zeitalter der Verbraucher sein, mit mehr Auswahl und Kontrolle als je zuvor. Ihnen wird eine wachsende Palette von Produkten und Dienstleistungen präsentiert, die oft auf ihre spezifischen Bedürfnisse und Wünsche zugeschnitten sind. Die Verbraucher werden weiterhin Preis- und Qualitätstransparenz sowie eine breite Palette praktischer Erfüllungsoptionen verlangen. Insgesamt wird die Erfahrung im Einzelhandel für sie inspirierender, aufregender, einfacher und bequemer, abhängig von ihren sich ständig ändernden Bedürfnissen. Durch die neuen Technologien entsteht der hyperverbundene Verbraucher. Die traditionellen Faktoren von Kosten, Auswahl und Bequemlichkeit sind immer noch relevant, doch jetzt werden Kontrolle und Erfahrung ebenfalls wichtig. Der Handel allgemein, vor allem der stationäre Handel, steht somit enorm unter Druck. Die Kundenerwartungen sind geprägt durch die neuen Möglichkeiten und immer stärker personalisierten Angebote, die durch die Digitalisierung geschaffen wurden. Der Handel muss sich mit den sich rasant ändernden Bedürfnissen und Wünschen der Konsumenten auseinandersetzen, um relevant zu bleiben. Wie erreicht und gewinnt man also den deutschen Verbraucher? Was bewegt ihn und wie verhält er sich?

Judith Weuthen

Zukünftige Payment-Lösungen im digitalen Zeitalter – Bestandsaufnahme und aktuelle Trends

Seit 2001 hat das ECC Köln das Thema Payment im Online-Handel in zahlreichen Studien analysiert und dabei das Spannungsfeld zwischen den Interessen der Konsumenten und denen der Online-Händler aufgezeigt. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt, basierend auf den Ergebnissen der ECC-Payment-Studie Vol. 22, den Status quo im Payment-Markt auf. Trotz sich festigender Präferenzen ist wieder Bewegung in den Markt gekommen: Noch ist die Zahlung auf Rechnung vorherrschend, aber PayPal holt weiter auf, und auch weitere Zahlungsverfahren, wie beispielsweise Amazon Payments, gewinnen an Relevanz. Obwohl das Bedürfnis nach Bequemlichkeit seit vielen Jahren unter Konsumenten stetig ansteigt, bleibt das Thema Sicherheit für Händler und Verbraucher das wichtigste Kriterium bei der Wahl eines Zahlungsverfahrens. Online-Händler unternehmen dabei immer intensivere Bemühungen, den Bezahlprozess abzusichern. Die Zukunft des Payments im (Online-)Handel wird durch zahlreiche Treiber und Barrieren bestimmt. Technologisch werden neue Lösungen vor allem durch das Smartphone und das Internet der Dinge (IoT) getrieben. Die entsprechenden Bezahllösungen bieten noch mehr Bequemlichkeit, ohne dabei jedoch den Sicherheitsaspekt zu vernachlässigen. Damit dürften zum Beispiel automatisierte Zahlvorgänge und biometrische Verfahren an Relevanz gewinnen. Auch Instant Payments haben das Potenzial, den Bezahlprozesses weiter zu beschleunigen. Neben den rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen wird aber der Konsument entscheiden, wie er morgen einkauft und bezahlt – im Online-Handel genauso wie im Ladengeschäft.

Kai Hudetz, Svenja Brüxkes

Zukunft des Handels und Handel der Zukunft – treibende Kräfte, relevante Erfolgsfaktoren und Game Changer

Keine Branche ist derzeit größeren Herausforderungen ausgesetzt als der Einzelhandel. Der direkte Kontakt zu den Endkunden bringt mit sich, dass die Handelsbetriebe als erste Kontaktstelle unmittelbar von den Änderungen des Kaufverhaltens betroffen sind, das durch die zunehmende Internetnutzung induziert wird. Allerdings nicht in gleichem Ausmaß, weswegen eine Differenzierung nach Kontaktprinzip, Format sowie Warengruppe erforderlich ist. Vor allem Food und Non-Food entwickeln sich recht unterschiedlich und bedürfen deshalb einer differenzierten Betrachtung. In jedem Fall führt aber die Digitalisierung zu einer Neuausrichtung der Wertschöpfungsstufen sowie einer Neuordnung der Wettbewerbsregeln, die bisher vor allem die Internetgiganten aus den USA („GAFAs – Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple“) sowie aus China („TABs – Tencent, Alibaba, Baidu“) begünstigt haben. Der Handel der Zukunft gestaltet sich dabei vielfältig und ermöglicht bereits „Mehrwert“-Schöpfung in neuen Märkten und mit innovativen Geschäftsideen, wie aktuelle Best Practices zeigen. Auch die Gestaltung von Geschäftsmodellen und Geschäftssystemen eröffnet im Zuge der digitalen Revolution neue Möglichkeiten der Wertschöpfung, vor allem für stationäre Händler und damit für Innenstädte bzw. Shopping Center.

Gerrit Heinemann

Mehrwert im Handel durch Location-based Platforms am Beispiel von Bonial

Einzelhandels-Marketing hat sich in den letzten zwei Jahren mehr verändert als in den vorangegangenen 50 Jahren. In einer Welt, in der Kunden sich selbst informieren, sind Apps die persönlichen Manager für lokales Einkaufen. Eine Mobile-First-Perspektive ist für den stationären Einzelhandel und für die Frequenz in den Innenstädten daher unerlässlich. Deutschlands Shopper werden immer anspruchsvoller: Die Erwartungen an das digitale Angebot von Einzelhändlern in Innenstädten sind groß. Dabei spielt das Smartphone eine Schlüsselrolle für die Zukunft des stationären Handels – und zwar sowohl bei der Shopping-Vorbereitung als auch bei der Frequenzgenerierung des innerstädtischen Handels. Die Botschaft kommt bei immer mehr Händlern an: Das Internet ist nicht der Feind, sondern es bietet im Gegenteil großartige Chancen, sich mit Amazon und Co. zu messen.

Gerrit Heinemann, Frederic Handt

An In-Store Mobile App for Customer Engagement: Discovering Hedonic and Utilitarian Motivations in UK Grocery Retail

This paper investigates the hedonic and utilitarian motivations that may influence UK grocery consumers to adopt and use new features proposed for an in-store mobile app. The scope of this research is to develop a conceptual model that reflects the motivations for using an in-store mobile app to engage customers. Two pilots were conducted to explore possible attributes for hedonic and utilitarian motivations found in literature, and factor analysis was used to test their validity. A survey with the final items selected was used to collect data from a large UK grocery retailer resulting in a sample of 633 customers. The results supported that utilitarian motivations for grocery shopping include time convenience, performance expectancy and information availability. For the hedonic motivations, the attributes supported include idea motivation, personalisation, value motivation and experiential shopping. Although previous research conceptualised user control as an important utilitarian motivator, this research found that this attribute correlates similarly to both, hedonic and utilitarian motivations. Possible implications are that regardless of customers’ hedonic or utilitarian preferences, it is always essential for customers to have the ability to choose and customise what data and communications they share and receive for successful in-store mobile app engagement.

Joanne Pei-Chung Wang, Anabel Gutierrez

Chapter 3. From Neoliberalism to Post-development: Development Theory’s Decline and Redefinition

Moving away from the nation-state as a unit of analysis towards human-centred development, Van der Merwe and Dodd highlight some of the late-twentieth-century trends and thinking by covering the global spread of capitalism and neoliberalism through globalisation. The chapter describes neoliberal theory as the dominant framework through which globalisation occurred, and as a global political-economic project and policy framework. The counter-currents in the literature such as those presented in post-development and critical development theory are also covered. The chapter suggests that contemporary praxis has continued to underdevelop countries in the Global South, albeit through new, deceptive means. These processes have had an uneven effect on development as almost no area of human life remains untrammelled. Placing the ‘human’ at the centre of these debates restores some of the initial optimism upon which the development project was founded.

Justin van der Merwe, Nicole Dodd

Kapitel 19. Blue Ocean Strategy® in China—Successful Examples in E-Commerce

The objective of this article is to analyze the Blue Ocean Strategy® in China, especially in e-commerce. This contribution mainly focuses on four e-commerce companies by analyzing their business-models and developments. In China, Blue Ocean Strategy® has been ardently discussed since the Chinese market has become increasingly mature. According to data from World Bank, its GDP is 9.24 trillion US dollars and accounted for about 15% of the world GDP in 2013.

Weifangzi Li, Thomas Heupel

A Robust Remote Authentication Scheme for M-Commerce Environments

With the rapid growth of electronic and mobile commerce today, how to design a secure and efficient remote user authentication scheme with resource-limited devices over insecure networks has become an important issue. In this paper, we present a robust authentication scheme for the mobile device (a non-tamper-resistant device in which the secret authentication information stored in it could be retrieved) to solve the challenging lost device problem. It tries to satisfy the following advanced essential security features: (1) protecting user privacy in terms of anonymity and non-traceability, (2) supporting session keys with perfect forward secrecy, and (3) secure even for the case of lost devices, in addition to the conventional security requirements. The security of our scheme is based on the quadratic residue assumption, which has the same complexity as in solving the discrete logarithm problem. However, the computation of the quadratic congruence is very efficient. It only needs one squaring and one modular operations in the mobile device end, which is much cheaper than the expensive modular exponentiation used in those schemes based on the discrete logarithm problem. Thus, using the quadratic congruence, our scheme can achieve robustness and efficiency, even for the non-tamper-resistant mobile device.

Shih-Yang Yang, Jian-Wen Peng, Wen-Bing Horng, Ching-Ming Chao

Chapter 7. Conclusion: Urban Rural Flows with Online Urbanization

The urban and rural structural patterns are related to their social relations. The combination of technology and local communities has rendered the space of flows more grass-rooted, and has expanded the space of flows paradigm to much larger scale. The Internet of everything is coming upon us. The Space of flows is so pervasive, that maybe there is practically no non space of flows. As discussed previously, the phenomena in rural China are references of this trend.

Li Zi

Chapter 1. Introduction

Through description of phenomenon of ecommerce in rural China农村电商 e-commerce in rural China/ rural E-commerce , I try to explain the influence on China’s urban-rural relationship in a framework. The propose is not to find a solution for existing problem of urbanization in China, but try to reply research questions: 1. What is rural ecommerce? 2. What is the urban-rural spatial relationship under the influence of rural ecommerce in China?

Li Zi

Kapitel 2. Logistische Netzwerke

Das zweite Kapitel beschäftigt sich mit den wesentlichen Aspekten von logistischen Netzwerken. Es geht darum, die Auswirkungen von relevanten Megatrends, vor allem die der Digitalisierung, auf distributionslogistische Netzwerke abzuleiten und zu bewerten. Darüber hinaus werden die Potenziale und Grenzen von Supply Chain Management aus Theorie und Praxis miteinander verbunden und kritisch reflektiert.

Christoph Tripp

Showrooming im stationären Facheinzelhandel

So vielfältig wie die Begriffe und Formen des stationären Facheinzelhandels ausfallen, sind die Herausforderungen und Perspektiven, mit denen er konfrontiert wird. Deshalb wird in diesem Kapitel ein detaillierterer Blick auf die Situation des Showroomings im stationären Facheinzelhandel geworfen. Ferner wird speziell der Einfluss der Digitali-sierung betrachtet, d. h. Onlineshops als virtuelle Facheinzelhandelsgeschäfte sowie das Kundenverhalten bei Kaufentscheidungen im Multi-Channel-Kontext.

André Schneider

Predicting the Risk Factors Influencing the Behavioral Intention to Adopt Mobile Banking Services: An Exploratory Analysis

Mobile Banking is a next big challenge in the technologically dependent era after Mobile Commerce and there are many factors that are influencing the use of M-banking Services, perceived Risk is one of them. Although perceived Risk as a single construct has been studied by many researchers but in this paper, empirical research has been done to find out the actual characteristics of Perceived Risk and the reason for refusing the use of m-banking services by the users in the technologically advanced era. In order to study the reason behind the reluctance in using m-banking services, a more detailed study of attributes of Perceived Risk has been conducted. This research work is intended to examine the six components of Perceived Risk. In this study EFA was applied on various measures of Risk to ascertain the different underlying variables affecting the individual’s Behavioral Intention to adopt m-banking services. After applying EFA researcher has applied SEM in order to investigate the association between the factors. The results of this empirical testing found that out of all the six variables only four variables i.e. Social Risk, Psychological Risk, Time Risk and Financial Risk were statistically significant as per results of this study and these are the main factors affecting the influence of Behavioral Intention towards using m-banking services in the Indian context.

Nitin Nayak, Vikas Nath, Nancy Singhal

Mobile Agent-Based Mobile Intelligent Business Security Transaction Model

The flexibility and convenience of mobile commerce is more in line with the needs of e-commerce in the new era, but it also brings a series of unique security issues in the mobile environment. The serious information asymmetry between the two sides of the transaction creates more opportunities for fraud. This has caused consumers to lose trust in the mobile commerce market. The phenomenon of mobile commerce fraud and lack of trust has become one of the main factors hindering the development of mobile commerce. The paper proposes a dynamic trust computing model which is based on mobile agent, which realizes the qualitative and quantitative conversion of trust. To stop malicious users from credit hype and deception, a special attribute evaluation method and trust punishment method are proposed. The new user trust degree assignment method has been improved, and a method of dynamically setting the initial trust degree of new users based on the minimum trust degree of the previous system is proposed, which resists the ruin behavior of abandoning the reputation data at random. By adopting the transaction evaluation system and weights. The system introduces a multi-factor mechanism. The model better reflects the influence of subjective factors such as individual preference and risk attitude on trust calculation, and enhances the sensitivity of trust algorithm in trading individual attributes. Detailed theoretical analysis and a large number of simulation experiments verify the mechanism can solve the problem of trust computing in mobile network transactions.

Wei-Jin Jiang, Jia-Hui Chen, Yu-Hui Xu, Yang Wang

Marketing 4.0

Digitale Technologien haben dem Marketing eine neue Dimension hinzugefügt. Während die Prinzipien des traditionellen Marketings unverändert Gültigkeit haben, ermöglichen technologische Neuerungen, dass Unternehmen und Verbraucher näher zusammenrücken.Auf Seiten der Verbraucher sind durch internetbasierte Anwendungen wie etwa die sozialen Netze Foren geschaffen worden, die Meinungsäußerungen von Privatpersonen über deren unmittelbares Umfeld hinaus verbreiten. Private Meinungsäußerungen im Internet stellen eine der signifikantesten Veränderungen des Verbraucherverhaltens dar. Die gleichfalls geschaffene, zunehmend unkomplizierte Möglichkeit zur VernetzungVernetzung der Verbraucher untereinander, auch grenz- bzw. kulturüberschreitend, gilt als Treiber einer der tiefgreifendsten Veränderungen der Instrumente und Methoden des Marketings.Auf Seiten der Unternehmen muss man sich darauf einstellen, schneller auf veränderte Erwartungen internetaffiner Kundengruppen einzugehen. Das professionelle Management von Kundenrezensionen im Netz ist dabei eine besondere Herausforderung. Chancen bieten sich den Unternehmen im Bereich der Datenverarbeitung und -nutzung. Zum einen stellt die datenbasierte Entwicklung personalisierter EmpfehlungssystemeEmpfehlungssystem, die dem Suchprofil eines Kunden entsprechende Angebote unterbreiten, eine neue Dimension der Verkaufsförderung dar. Zum anderen können auf der Grundlage großer Datenmengen, zusammengetragen aus unzähligen „Fußabdrücken“, die ein Nutzer im Internet hinterlässt, Profile von Personen erstellt werden, die – weg vom Massenmarketing – die Gestaltung und Übermittlung personalisierter Werbebotschaften ermöglichen.

Britta Bergemann

Steuerung der Wahrnehmung von Dienstleistungsqualität durch den Einsatz typischer Qualitätsinformationen

Service outcomes are basically intangible. Therefore it is difficult for consumers to evaluate the service quality prior to their consumption. For this reason potential customers usually rate the service environment as well as tangible service attributes to make a quality evaluation within the buying process. The service provider can use tangible service elements to send dedicated quality information to reach dedicated marketing objectives – e.g. catch the attention of new customers or create a specific image in the market.This article discusses the perception of such quality information within the scope of service consumption based on the concepts of cognitive patterns and stereotypes. The effects of typical and untypical service attributes on consumers are discussed. Above that the article shows levers for service companies to apply tangible elements in the service environment that are either perceived typical or untypical to achieve positive and desired behaviors by consumers.

Dirk Steffen

5. Open Innovation Ecosystems

As you learned from open innovation, partnerships accumulate knowledge and accelerate innovation and growth. This chapter builds upon research on value constellations and their role in open innovation as an iterative model with the ability to create an ecosystem. Innovation ecosystems that are strategically linked through firms to foster idea generation, co-development, and collaboration are explored. As the first, we introduce hyperconnectivity as one fundamental principle of a business ecosystem. The world is a digital network, characterized by interdependency and integrated collaboration where everything is connected; hence, value can only be generated through mutual exchange. We broaden your understanding about how incumbents, fintechs, and non-banks link financial services to create ecosystems that provide clients with new experiences and added value. By tapping into the Silicon Valley, as the case in point of a geographically localized ecosystem, we introduce other smaller ecosystems relevant for blockchain like the Crypto Valley. The financial inclusion ecosystem of Ningbo represents how they can be used for developing rural areas and fighting poverty. In contrast, highly efficient cross-sector ecosystems that emerged in China out of the Alibaba Group became rapidly a dominant force also because they are increasingly spreading their reach into financial services. Based on our research, we discuss the success factors of an ecosystem incubator. Like economic areas and alliances, we assume global competition will be between ecosystems without borders of sectors rather than companies.

Daniel Fasnacht

Mobile Malware Detection - An Analysis of the Impact of Feature Categories

The use of smartphones and hand-held devices continues to increase with rapid development in underlying technology and widespread deployment of numerous applications including social network, email and financial transactions. Inevitably, malware attacks are shifting towards these devices. To detect mobile malware, features representing the characteristics of applications play a crucial role. In this work, we systematically studied the impact of all categories of features (i.e., permission, application programmers interface calls, inter component communication and dynamic features) of android applications in classifying a malware from benign applications. We identified the best combination of feature categories that yield better performance in terms of widely used metrics than blindly using all feature categories. We proposed a new technique to include contextual information in API calls into feature values and the study reveals that embedding such information enhances malware detection capability by a good margin. Information gain analysis shows that a significant number of features in ICC category is not relevant to malware prediction and hence, least effective. This study will be useful in designing better mobile malware detection system.

Mahbub E. Khoda, Joarder Kamruzzaman, Iqbal Gondal, Tasadduq Imam

Chapter 9. The State of the Indian ICT Sector

This section describes the current state of the Indian ICT ecosystem. Along with a brief history of ICT in India, the section also discusses the various forces that are often at play regarding the ICT ecosystem: India’s geographic and socio-economic conditions, cultural factors, business models, the economy, technology adoption, regulations, trends, constraining factors, and so on. It shows the usage, and development of ICT, and the initiatives of the government.

Sriram Birudavolu, Biswajit Nag

Exploring the Perceived Usefulness and Attitude Towards Using Tesys e-Learning Platform

In this paper we present a study that aims at exploring two components of the Technology Acceptance Model. As an evaluation environment, we used Tesys e-Learning platform, R programming language for data processing, and Google Forms for data collection. The study intended to explore if there are significant differences between genders regarding the perceived usefulness and attitude towards evaluation using online educational environment. The questionnaire exploring the above-mentioned components was applied to a group of full-time students that have never used e-Learning platforms. The results showed that the questionnaire was reliable and there is no cross-gender difference regarding students’ perceived usefulness of e-Learning platforms and their attitude towards using them. The overall feedback received from each of the explored items is positive with a grade above four on a five Likert scale.

Paul-Stefan Popescu, Costel Ionascu, Marian Cristian Mihaescu

Kapitel 7. Dialogmarketing und Connected Cars

Dialogmarketing umfasst alle Marketinginstrumente, die eingesetzt werden, um eine gezielte und direkte Interaktion mit Zielpersonen aufzubauen und dauerhaft aufrecht zu erhalten, und hat das Ziel, eine messbare Reaktion (Response) auszulösen. One-to-One Marketing ist die individuellste Form von Dialogmarketing, dabei steht die Gestaltung der Beziehung mit der einzelnen Person im Vordergrund. Die Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre haben die Einsatzmöglichkeiten des Dialogmarketings und die Palette der nutzbaren Medien ausgeweitet. Durch den technischen Fortschritt und die Kreativität der Anwender entwickeln sich ständig neue Dialogmedien. Das crossmediale Dialogmarketing, und dabei speziell die Integration von Online- und Offline-Medien, führt zu einer Verstärkung der Kommunikationswirkung. Das Resultat sind messbare ökonomische Variablen und psychologische Effekte. Das Connected Car kann, ähnlich dem Smartphone, als ein mobiles Endgerät betrachtet werden und damit in die Kategorie Mobile Marketing eingeordnet werden. Mobile Marketing beschreibt die Marketingaktivitäten auf mobilen Endgeräten und stellt eines der Instrumente von Online-Marketing dar. Eine Personalisierung der Nachrichten und Marketingbotschaften an den Kunden im Rahmen des Dialogmarketings bzw. One-to-One Marketings kann nur durch die Erhebung von relevanten Kundendaten stattfinden. Die Kombination verschiedener Daten ermöglicht es dem Automobilhersteller Inhalte von Relevanz und Interesse für den Kunden zu präsentieren. In diesem Kapitel werden Hypothesen aufgestellt und bewertet, die den Einsatz des One-to-One Marketing in Verbindung mit Connected Cars konkret untersuchen sollen.

Heinrich Holland

Kapitel 5. Adoption von Connected Cars

Die Adoption von Connected Cars durch die Endnutzer in Deutschland wird direkt sowie indirekt durch mehrere Dimensionen beeinflusst, welche zum Teil Interdependenzen aufweisen. Hierzu gehören die Dimensionen der Innovationseigenschaften, der persönlichen sowie sozioökonomischen Eigenschaften und der wahrgenommenen Risiken sowie die makroökonomische und politisch-regulatorische Dimension. Innerhalb der Dimension der Innovationseigenschaften wurde festgestellt, dass die Darbietung von relativen Vorteilen eine signifikante Rolle für die Adoption von Connected Cars durch die Endnutzer einnimmt. Daher wurde angenommen, dass die wahrgenommenen Vorteile, die derzeitig in Deutschland über die Konnektivitätsfunktionen im Fahrzeug angeboten werden, nicht ausreichend sind, um die Bildung eines positiven Standpunktes gegenüber Connected Cars zu bewirken. Weiterhin spielt die Interoperabilität aus der makroökonomischen Dimension eine bedeutende Rolle für die Wahrnehmung der relativen Vorteile durch die Endnutzer in Deutschland. Die Errichtung einer einheitlichen Big-Data-Plattform, mit der Fahrzeuge aller Fabrikate verbunden werden und kommunizieren können, wäre ein erster Schritt in Richtung der Realisierung der Interoperabilität. Die Bildung eines positiven Standpunktes gegenüber Connected Cars wird gestärkt, wenn eine Wahrnehmung der Verständlichkeit sowie Übersichtlichkeit der Funktionen gegeben ist. Die reibungslose Funktionalität der Konnektivitätsfunktionen im Fahrzeug entspricht derzeitig nicht vollständig den Erwartungen der Endnutzer in Deutschland. Dies ist durch die fehlende Zusammenarbeit aller beteiligten Akteure zu begründen. Daher wurde eine noch fehlende wahrgenommene Kompatibilität mit den vergangenen Erfahrungen sowie Bedürfnissen angenommen, welche die Entstehung eines positiven Standpunktes gegenüber Connected Cars beeinflusst.

Heinrich Holland

Kapitel 4. Marketing und Verkauf im Einzelhandel

Dieses vierte Kapitel befasst sich mit Konsum sowie Marketing und Verkaufsaktivitäten in China. Zu Beginn werden Trends im Onlineverhalten näher betrachtet, wobei Social Media und Suchmaschinen im Mittelpunkt stehen, die auch interkulturell reflektiert werden. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird anschließend der Umgang mit chinesischen Kunden von der Erstansprache über den Verkauf bis zur langfristigen Bindung besprochen. Der Schwerpunkt liegt hierbei auf den Möglichkeiten im (grenzüberschreitenden) E-Commerce.

Yahui Luo-Alt, Jonas Polfuss

Improving the Mobile Payment Experience and Removing the Barriers

Sitting in the intersection of commerce, banks and mobile revolution, mobile payments are expected to grow by double-digits in the forthcoming years. There has been an increasing and intensive interest in mobile payments domain from banks, telecom companies and technology giants. Notwithstanding the introduction of numerous innovative mobile payment solutions, mobile payment experience is still frictional and restricting. This paper analyses the current mobile payment market starting with a historical development perspective and proposes a new solution to improve the mobile payment experience. The advantages of proposed solution for customers, merchants and banks are discussed in detail and compared with existing solutions.

Ersin Unsal
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