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About this book

This SpringerBrief investigates and reviews the development and various applications of mobile crowd sensing (MCS). With the miniaturization of sensors and the popularity of smart mobile devices, MCS becomes a promising solution to efficiently collect different types of information, such as traffic conditions, air quality, temperature and more, which is covered in this brief. The features, novelty, and applications of MCS are elaborated in detail in this brief. In addition, the basic knowledge about auction theory and incentive mechanism design is introduced.

Incentive mechanism design plays a key role in the success of MCS. With an efficient incentive mechanism, it is possible to attract enough mobile users to participate in a MCS system, thus enough high quality sensing data can be collected. Two types of incentive mechanisms with different system models are introduced in this brief. One is the reputation-aware incentive mechanism, and another is the social-aware incentive mechanism.

This SpringerBrief covers the significance and the impacts of both reputation and social relationship of smartphone users (SUs) in MCS and presents extensive simulation results to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed incentive mechanisms compared with some existing counterparts.

The target audience for this SpringerBrief is researchers and engineers in the area of wireless communication and networking, especially those who are interested in the mobile crowd sensing or incentive mechanism design. Meanwhile, it is also intended as a reference guide for advanced level students in the area of wireless communications and computer networks.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to Mobile Crowd Sensing

Abstract
In recent years, we have been witnessing the explosive growth of mobile users with sensor-embedded smartphones. Firstly, with the development of wireless communication technology and the increase in personal income, mobile devices (e.g., smartphone, ipad, PDA, etc.) have been becoming more and more popular. For instance, smartphones have become the central communication device in people’s daily lives [1]. Based on the latest Ericsson mobility report [2], the number of worldwide mobile subscriptions has reached 7.5 billion in 2017 and will approach 9.1 billion in 2022. Secondly, with the development of hardware technology, the size of sensors has become smaller and smaller. Moore’s law [3] tells that the number of transistors in a densely integrated circuit doubles about every 18 months. With the miniaturization of sensors, most mobile devices are embedded with various types of sensors (e.g., GPS, accelerometer, camera, digital compass, magnetometer, barometer, gyroscope) [4]. Thus, devices such as smartphones, smart wearable devices (e.g., Google glasses, Apple Watch and Mi Band), unmanned vehicle, and in-vehicle sensing devices (GPS, OBD) can be used to collect information from the surrounding environment. We can use these devices to sense the noise level, traffic situation, temperature, etc. Meanwhile, these devices can upload the sensed data to the server of a data collector through wireless access networks such as cellular system or WiFi at the convenience time and location.
Fen Hou, Yingying Pei, Jingyi Sun

Chapter 2. Auction Theory and Incentive Mechanism Design

Abstract
Auction theory is a branch of economics which deals with how people sell or buy objects. The history of auction can be date back to 500 bc, at which time it was recorded that auctions of women for marriage were held annually in Babylon [1]. Nowadays, numerous kinds of commodities such as antiques, arts, bonds, wireless spectrum, and so on, are sold by means of auction. For instance, auctions are used to sale and disposal of assets such as the open bidding for government procurement, construction works, and right to natural resources (e.g., oil, natural gas, etc.). In recent years, auction has been widely used in spectrum resource allocation, e-commerce websites, online advertising, etc.
Fen Hou, Yingying Pei, Jingyi Sun

Chapter 3. Reputation-Aware Incentive Mechanism Design

Abstract
During the collection of sensing data, the service provider (SP) aims to obtain a large amount of data. However, in addition to the quantity of the collected data, the quality of each collected data is also important. Smartphone users (SUs) may submit some erroneous or unreliable data intentionally or unintentionally, and the low-quality data will impact the accuracy of data analysis result, degrade the satisfaction of an SP. Therefore, the quality of sensing data is one of the most critical factors in the collection of sensing data, and should be considered in the incentive mechanism design.
Fen Hou, Yingying Pei, Jingyi Sun

Chapter 4. Social-Aware Incentive Mechanism Design

Abstract
In the previous chapter, we propose two reputation-aware incentive mechanisms RAIM and RAIM-H by taking the reputation of SUs into consideration. RAIM can guarantee the properties of truthfulness and individual rationality while maximizing the weighted social welfare. Particularly, by considering SUs’ reputation, the quality of sensing data can be improved.
Fen Hou, Yingying Pei, Jingyi Sun

Chapter 5. Conclusions

Abstract
This book firstly investigates and reviews the development and various applications of MCS. With the miniaturization of sensors and the popularity of smart mobile devices, MCS becomes a promising solution to efficiently collect different types of information such as traffic condition, air quality, temperature, etc. In addition, The auction theory and the incentive mechanism design are briefly introduced. Incentive mechanism design plays a key role in the success of MCS. An efficient incentive mechanism is a key factor to attract enough number of SUs to participate in an MCS system, then enough number of high-quality sensing data can be collected. Efficiently addressing incentive mechanism design enables the success of MCS applications such as air quality monitoring and dynamic traffic monitoring. These applications are tightly related to our daily life and society, especially the achievement of the smart city and Internet of Things.
Fen Hou, Yingying Pei, Jingyi Sun
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