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weitere Buchkapitel

5. Weiterführende Tipps zu Teil I

In diesem Kapitel sind unterschiedliche weiterführende Quellen vorgestellt und noch einmal gebündelt zusammengefasst, die komplementär zu diesem Buch genutzt werden können. Dies sind unterschiedliche Blogs, die das Thema digitales Tourismusmarketing beleuchten und damit die Möglichkeit bieten, auf dem aktuellen Stand zu bleiben oder Nischenthemen genauer zu betrachten. Daneben dienen ausgewählte Literaturtipps dazu, die Inhalte der einzelnen Teile zu vertiefen. Es werden auch Anbieter von Studien rund um das Thema Digitalisierung vorgestellt, die Daten und Fakten zum digitalen Tourismusmarketing vorhalten. Schließlich sind Veranstaltungen – unabhängig davon, ob diese in Präsenz oder virtuell stattfinden – fast immer ein guter Weg, um Wissen zu vertiefen und sich über dieses auszutauschen. Daher werden wichtige Branchenevents hier ebenfalls genannt.

Eric Horster
30. Elemente des Mobile Marketings

Das Kapitel beschreibt die verschiedenen Elemente des Mobile Marketings, um Möglichkeiten für die Gestaltung von Angeboten im Destinationsmanagement aufzuzeigen. Hierbei werden verschiedene mobile Endgeräte wie Smartphones, Tablets und Wearables und deren Komponenten beschrieben sowie Anwendungsbeispiele von Virtual, Mixed und Augmented Reality vorgestellt. Darüber hinaus werden der Ansatz der Gamification und die Nutzung von RFID und NFC beschrieben.

Eric Horster
Validate Merchant Server for Secure Payment Using Key Distribution

Nowadays, growing and competitiveness of a financial sector and e-healthcare application developed rapidly and quicker ever so that mobile payment plays a vital role to make easier and quicker. In the existing paper, the cloud transmits the hash value straight to the merchant server without checking for fraud. This paper aims to provide a secure authentication mechanism between the cloud and the merchant server to avoid fraudulent merchant servers. For trustworthiness, our proposed system introduces secure key distribution between cloud and merchant server named as validate merchant server key distribution protocol (VMSKDP). Our proposed system improves security for mobile payments and reduces attacks like man-in-middle attacks, denial-of-service, etc.

A. Saranya, R. Naresh
Chapter 14. Financial Literacy and Consumer Debt: An Empirical Analysis Based on the CHFS Data

Against the backdrop of the rapidly expanding household debt in China, we have conducted this empirical analysis of the relationship between financial literacy and consumer debt. This paper focuses on the purpose of household borrowing, based on the data from Chinese Household Finance Survey (CHFS) data, and examines how exactly financial literacy affects actual household and consumer debt. This paper shows how financial literacy affects actual household debt accumulation and distribution. The main findings of the paper are as follows: (1) higher financial literacy is linked to household debt, but lower financial literacy correlates with excessive debt, which suggests that financial literacy helps households to rationally manage their assets, thereby effectively controlling household debt risk and reducing the risk of excessive debt. (2) Financial literacy has a strong positive impact on consumer debt, which has serious implications for the rapidly expanding household consumer finance market. Our study means that high level of financial literacy can push up consumer debt and in the process contribute to the expansion of the consumption market. Therefore, improving financial literacy can promote healthy borrowing behavior and reduce the risks associated with consumer finance and financial markets as a whole.

Cheng Tang
Kapitel 2. Management nach der Corona-Krise: Fokus auf Ganzheitlichkeit

Nach Beendigung der Corona-Krise gilt es jetzt nachzudenken, wie es gelingen kann, auch die ökonomische Krise zu beherrschen. Mit den althergebrachten Strukturen und Management- und Führungskonzepten wird das möglicherweise nicht gelingen. Die Corona-Krise hat Defizite sowohl im Risiko- bzw. Krisenmanagement und -Controlling als auch in der Entscheidungsfindung von Unternehmen sichtbar gemacht. Insbesondere beim ganzheitlichen Managementansatz ist deutlich nachzubessern. Auch wenn durch den Corona-Schock viele Unternehmen ihr Risiko-Management und ihre Geschäftsmodell(weiter)entwicklung intensiviert haben, passiert es zu oft, dass Firmen ein Risiko erst erkennen, wenn es eintritt. Ein gezieltes Handeln ist dann häufig unmöglich. Um die Situation zu verbessern, ist auch das Thema Risiko-Management auf der Agenda des Topmanagements nachhaltiger zu platzieren. Nicht jedes Unternehmen muss sein Geschäftsmodell von Grund auf neu denken. Vieles entwickelt sich, wenn man beginnt, über sein eigenes Geschäft nachzudenken und prüft, wie sich Kundenbedürfnisse verändern. Es ist zudem davon auszugehen, dass so gut wie alle Beteiligten davon profitieren können, gezielt Prozesse und Geschäftsbereiche zu digitalisieren. Diejenigen, die das nicht tun, drohen hinter jene zurückzufallen, die neue Technologien und Möglichkeiten annehmen. Das gilt auch für den Weg hin zu einem krisensicheren, modernen Führungsstil.

Andreas Krämer, Thomas Burgartz
Chapter 12. A Review of Machine Learning Models in Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is gradually being used to offset the impact of climate change and global warming. Various forecasting techniques have been introduced to enhance renewable energy prediction ability. The objective of this research is structured as follows: Firstly, this study examines machine learning methods for forecasting renewable energy resources. Secondly, this survey demonstrates the process implemented in the machine learning model for forecasting the performance of the machine learning model. Thirdly, the analyses of renewable energy forecasting models were conducted on the basis of mean absolute percentage error and correlation coefficient. Finally, at the conclusion of this study, several possible future work opportunities were identified.

Anuj Gupta, Kapil Gupta, Sumit Saroha
Chapter 6. Specific Issues under International Law

Technological development has always affected states’ behavior under international law. States, as with any other persons or entities, are eager to employ new technologies when needed.

Prof. Jaemin Lee
FinTech: Application of Artificial Intelligence in Indian Banking

Indian Banking system have a lot on their plate including the dynamism of emerging competitors, shifting demographics, augmenting expectations of customers, changing regulations and its compliance. Technology offers solutions in the form of FinTech applications. Using data from Report of working group on fintech and digital banking (2017) by Reserve bank of India, this study captures the role of financial technologies or fintech in the financial industry, banking sector in particular. The paper is believed to add value by extensively highlighting the recent trends and cutting edge innovations in fintech for Indian banking. Fintech is now an integral part of Indian banking system, it has transformed challenge into an open door for more adaptability, better serviceability in some areas of the bank. This study suggests a pathway for the evolution of a fintech in changing the business and customers. It will probe deeper into the structured evolution of fintech-based innovations and also relationship between fintech and financial inclusion. The analysis recommends that there can be frontier in creation of value in further exploration of the new insights on upcoming financial technology and its consequences on banking industry.

Khusboo Srivastava, Somesh Dhamija
Chapter 2. Physical Representation of the Supply Chain

When we attempt to describe the SC using a physical representation, on the one hand we want to highlight the players involved, and on the other the physical structures with which these players operate.

Antonio Rizzi
Chapter 10. Retail Central Bank Digital Currencies

This chapter picks up where the previous chapter left off, shifting focus to explore some of the distinguishing characteristics that differentiate retail CBDCs from wholesale CBDCs. After reviewing the key differences between token-based and account-based CBDCs, we proceed with a series of examples for the following approaches to retail CBDC: decentralised, direct, synthetic, two-tier, and platform.

Henri Arslanian
Challenges and Approaches of Non-pharmaceutical Interventions for Airport Operations During Pandemic Situations

During the COVID-19 pandemic, an uncontrolled spread of the virus worldwide was observed. To reduce the world wide spread of highly contagious viruses in the future, it is essential to target situations with a high risk for spreading contagious diseases. The risk of rapidly spreading of diseases is characterized by the fact that prevention measures cannot be applied as required, e.g., due to faulty execution. This situation has been observed during the COVID-19 pandemic in passenger transportation, especially at airports. Air transportation enabled the rapid exchange of people to and from different locations, which may have contributed to the spread of the virus, especially at the beginning of the pandemic before hygiene measures and vaccines were available. It would be particularly interesting for airports to use innovative guidance and tracking strategies and assistance systems to allow people to travel further and react fast in circumstances similar to the one observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper examines the challenges in preventing the uncontrolled spread of disease in air transportation of people and highlights the current state of the art. Furthermore, a new approach using technical systems is demonstrated and discussed in other scenarios, e.g., rail transport.

Ann-Kathrin Rohde, Birte Pupkes, Rafael Mortensen Ernits, Dennis Keiser, Michael Lütjen, Michael Freitag
Acceptance and Use of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning for Vocational College Students

Few research reports can claim that students have accepted MALL (Mobile-assisted language learning). Exploring the key influencing factors of students ‘mobile language learning will promote the ultimate effect of students’ language learning. However, there are little researches on MALL of students, especially vocational students. This study aims to explore the factors that influence the acceptance and use of MALL of Chinese vocational college students. UTAUT (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) was used to propose a behavioral model for the acceptance of MALL by vocational students. The questionnaire data were analyzed through SPSS25 and SmartPLS3, and the factors affecting the acceptance of MALL by vocational students were evaluated. The results show that ATT (Attitude towards behavior) and SI (Social influence) were the key influencing factors of BI (Behavior intention) and FC (Facilitating conditions) were the key influencing factors of BI and ATT. Recommendation: The relevant stakeholders of mobile language learning in higher vocational colleges should promote the convenience of MALL, influence higher vocational students, and improve the learning effect of MALL through community influence.

Yunyi Zhang, Ling Zhang, Tinghua Chen, Hai Lin, Shengke Ye, Jun Du, Tao Yu, Chuqiao Chen
Investment Value Analysis of Amazon

This paper analyzed the stock Amazon in different aspect to justify whether it is worth to invest or not. Some indexes and models such as PE ratio and SWOT analysis model were used to demonstrate the objective advantages and disadvantages of Amazon. These tools show the real condition of Amazon company. In view of its internal and external aspects, Amazon is worth to invest.

Beier Chen
Rural Digital Financial Inclusion and Poverty Reduction: Asymmetry and Performance Evaluation

This paper comprehensively considers the development of digital financial inclusion and rural finance, calculates the rural digital financial inclusion index at the provincial level from 2011 to 2018, and empirically analyzes the relationship between the development of digital financial inclusion in rural areas and poverty reduction. The research shows that the development of rural digital financial inclusion can indeed reduce poverty to a certain extent. In addition, the industrial structure, the level of financial literacy and the level of urbanization also have a significant impact on poverty reduction. By dividing 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions into four regions, namely, the northeast, the east, the central and the west, the heterogeneity of rural digital inclusive finance in these regions is proved. Finally, based on the conclusions of the empirical study, relevant policy suggestions are put forward to better play the effect of rural digital inclusive finance on poverty reduction.

Yanan Cao
Chapter 43. Unveiling a Novel Corporate Structure in World-Class Business, Merging Digital-Physical Environment in Hyper Famili Incorporation

In this paper we aim to design a brand new corporate structure which merges Physical and Digital Technology in World-Class Business, whilst utilizing new technologies based on digitalization drivers. We propose a method in which we have introduced a state of the art Organizational structure that surveys our world-class Business Model case studies and all of the mandatory technologies which shape the fundamental framework of such innovative business ecosystems that end up as the most important input for the decision making process in management levels. In the upcoming research we will be comparing this model with other models in different aspects like comparability in utilizing brand new technologies to building up the dominant share of global market.

Mohammad Khakzadeh, Fatemeh Saghafi, Seyed Milad Seyed Javadein, Mohammad Hossein Asmaie, Masoud Matbou Saleh
Chapter 2. Introduction of Big Data, the Core of Fintech

As we mentioned in Chap. 1 , the core of the development of FinTech in China is big data. Under the traditional financial system, due to the misallocation of economic structure and financial structure, small and medium businesses and customers in China cannot enjoy enough finance services. With the emergence of Internet technology and smart mobile phones, Internet users have generated a large amount of data from the online business activities. The generated big data provides some new information and can be used as collateral for financial services. As mentioned by Jack Ma, the founder of Alibaba, we are in an era of big data. In this chapter, we give a brief introduction of big data.

Zhigang Qiu, Xiaolin Huo, Yue Dai
Chapter 1. The Development of FinTech in China

In the last decade, FinTech is probably one of the hottest industries in the world, which also has a rapid development worldwide. As an innovation for finance, FinTech can undoubtedly bring subversive changes to the finance industry, but at the same time, it also produces various risks. The FinTech development in China is in a leading position in the world, but FinTech industry in China is also well known for unregulated and speculative market, which brings huge risks for investors. The coexistence of both financial innovation and risks has attracted attention from both academia and policy makers, so this field needs future thinking and research. This book focuses on China’ market and takes the development of FinTech and its accompanying risks as the main object, analyzing and discussing the economic principles of the development of FinTech. In the first chapter of the book, we give an overview of the development of FinTech industry in China.

Zhigang Qiu, Xiaolin Huo, Yue Dai
8. Operationserfahrungen bei der FIFA-WM 2006 und Nachhaltigkeit bei Sportgroßereignissen

Im Jahr 2004 war ich als Leiter Events und Marketing im aufwendig sanierten Olympiastadion Berlin tätig. Die damaligen Sanierungskosten lagen bei 240 Mio. Euro – für diesen Betrag hätte man ein neues Stadion bauen können. Insofern war der Umbau eine politische Entscheidung. In seiner Vielfalt und Anmutung ist das Stadion sicher eines der schönsten der Welt, aber leider eigentlich kein Fußballstadion. Im Rahmen meiner Tätigkeit war ich auch Ansprechpartner vor Ort für die anstehende FIFA-WM 2006. Im Herbst 2004 kamen Vertreter der FIFA und des Hospitality-Lizenznehmers iSe-Hospitality zu uns ins Stadion, um testweise für ein paar Tage für die WM-Sponsoren auf etwa 3000 qm ein Showcase aufzubauen, d. h. eine temporäre Hospitality-Stadt im Miniformat. Das Ganze sollte vor dem Stadion auf dem leeren Olympischen Platz erfolgen, quasi auf öffentlichem Gelände. Die Herren mussten aber feststellen, dass die Stadt Berlin für die Genehmigung einige Wochen oder gar Monate gebraucht hätte. Nach kurzer Überlegung schlug ich den Verantwortlichen vor, doch einfach auf den Vorplatz innerhalb des Stadions auszuweichen. Bis auf einige wenige Untergrundprüfungen sollte dies genehmigungsfrei sein. Und siehe da, die provisorischen kleinen Muster-VIP-Bereiche standen bereits nach 14 Tagen fertig zur Ansicht.

Klaus Brüggemann
The World’s Top Five Financial Centers: Geopolitical Uncertainties

The evolution of the world’s international financial centers is an ongoing process of reallocation with a recent marked shift in economic and financial activity towards Asia. The global financial landscape has always been an integral part of the power distribution system worldwide, as financial centers have helped redefine global economic and political dynamics. Accordingly, there is a pressing need to rethink and redesign the global financial architecture so that it can better serve the geoeconomics and geopolitical interests of countries. A number of institutions assess the need to update and improve the existing international and multilateral financial framework in order to accommodate the changing dynamics. Furthermore, there are pressing demands to enable emerging and developing economies to engage in this competitive process, a process that has been constructed by the world’s major economic powers guided by the USA, in line with their interests, with some recent inputs from countries such as China.Developing a broader context to help understand if the undergoing events contribute to reconceptualise the financial transactions and if they are showing signs of a fundamental shift from the “West” to the “East” is thus of paramount importance. Therefore, the analysis of financial centers and their dynamics emerges as a critical area of research, as they will be vital players in how economic and political power is going to be redefined over the next few decades.

Lucía Morales, Bernadette Andreosso-O’Callaghan
8. Analysing Innovation

Innovation can happen in a number of different ways and contexts. Therefore, it is important to analyse innovation by considering the situation in which it occurs. This chapter will focus on the way innovation can be understood in society, thereby including incremental or simple forms of innovation together with more radical ways of innovation. This helps to understand the complex way innovation evolves based on current social trends.

Vanessa Ratten
Chapter 8. Overcoming Financial Inclusion Challenges Through Digital Finance

Kenya is a leading economic country with the most developed traditional microfinance when compared to its neighboring countries. Despite that, the country banked population rate remains stagnant at a lower level. Recently, Kenya exerts more efforts to adopt mobile money, which enables the country to achieve relatively high financial inclusion compared to before. This study investigated whether the country would be able to achieve better financial inclusion by going beyond traditional microfinance through the adoption of mobile microfinance, rather than just transferring and receiving through mobile money. Hence, the study uses surveys and structured questionnaires to check the readiness of the unbanked Kenyan community, microfinance providers, mobile operators, and the government for adopting effective mobile microfinance. In addition, this study also describes the benefits accrued to them. The results showed that unbanked Kenya is engaged in microfinance-enabled jobs such as self-employment and retailers. The community which was found to be highly connected with a mobile phone has a lower awareness of mobile microfinance. While respondents admitted using electronic payment in limited situations, cash is still the dominant medium of making payments. Since the unbanked Kenyans are living in remote areas, mobile microfinance would help to improve their access to finance by reducing the cost of services, minimizing the physical distance to the access point, better documentation, and improving outreach by opening the untapped markets. The results of this study recommend that mobile microfinance intuitions and mobile operators need to exert joint efforts to promote more awareness and develop appropriate mobile microfinance products. On the other hand, the regulator intervention is needed to eradicate barriers such as high tariffs, bad corporate governance, and dispute resolution.

Abdelrahman Elzahi Saaid Ali
Chapter 2. Global Initiatives Toward Financial Inclusion

The practice of promoting inclusion, financially and socially, expedites economic activities which in turn facilitate the growth and development of a nation. Access to low-cost authorized financial products and services especially by disadvantaged and unrepresented masses can facilitate financial inclusion. Around the globe, a large percentage of population are excluded from holding valid accounts in financial institutions. And as such result regulators from all developed, developing, and under-developed countries have taken notable initiatives to group people under authorized financial networks, minimize income inequalities, and so on which ultimately accelerate the economic growth of the country. This chapter discusses multiple financial inclusion initiatives considered by regulators at the global level. The initiatives considered globally elucidated in this chapter will influence other countries to be part of their new agenda to achieve the target of financial inclusion. This chapter also enshrines review of related empirical as well as theoretical literature in the segments of studies based on global region. The research work includes studies from 1979. The study finds that regulators from different countries practice varied policies, though the objective is unique. Due to its global significance, many studies have been conducted by researchers and government agencies by considering micro-level data to macro-level data.

Sudarshan Maity, Tarak Nath Sahu
Mobile Apps in Retail: Usage Frequency Before, During, and After the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic – Insights from the German Market

In the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the increasing digitization of stationary retail, mobile apps in retail (MAR) have gained attention among many consumers. This study examines how the frequency of MAR usage changed before and during the pandemic and how consumers estimate how MAR usage will evolve after the pandemic. Additionally, the role of affinity to mobile devices usage (AMU) in this context is examined. Furthermore, the relevance of pandemic-specific MAR features is elaborated. Based on an online questionnaire with 167 responses, it can be shown that MAR have gained significant relevance in the context of the pandemic and will continue to be an important tool for customers when shopping stationary after the pandemic. A moderating role of AMU cannot be confirmed. Click & collect and online shopping are identified as the most important MAR functions in the context of the pandemic. Information about rules for pandemic compliant shopping doesn't play much of a role for consumers. The results are an important signal for retailers to continue their efforts in digitization and MAR development.

Atilla Wohllebe
Peripheral Instance Augmentation for End-to-End Anomaly Detection Using Weighted Adversarial Learning

Anomaly detection has been a lasting yet active research area for decades. However, the existing methods are generally biased towards capturing the regularities of high-density normal instances with insufficient learning of peripheral instances. This may cause a failure in finding a representative description of the normal class, leading to high false positives. Thus, we introduce a novel anomaly detection model that utilizes a small number of labelled anomalies to guide the adversarial training. In particular, a weighted generative model is applied to generate peripheral normal instances as supplements to better learn the characteristics of the normal class, while reducing false positives. Additionally, with the help of generated peripheral instances and labelled anomalies, an anomaly score learner simultaneously learns (1) latent representations of instances and (2) anomaly scores, in an end-to-end manner. The experimental results show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods on four publicly available datasets, achieving improvements of 6.15%–44.35% in AUPRC and 2.27%–22.3% in AUROC, on average. Furthermore, we applied the proposed model to a real merchant fraud detection application, which further demonstrates its effectiveness in a real-world setting.

Weixian Zong, Fang Zhou, Martin Pavlovski, Weining Qian
Financial Technology Development Around the World and Lessons for Emerging Markets

Fintech has always been a “hot” keyword for the banking and finance sector in the world. The US and China are the world leaders in fintech with a complete fintech ecosystem. Singapore and Indonesia are the two leading countries in Fintech in Southeast Asia. Looking at the current situation of the Fintech market in other countries and comparing it with the situation in Vietnam, it is possible to draw lessons from experience and make suggestions for parties to develop the Vietnamese fintech market.

Toan Linh Vu Le, Duy Khanh Pham
Chapter 16. Refining Mosca’s Theorem: Risk Management Model for the Quantum Threat Applied to IoT Protocol Security

Large-scale quantum computation (QC) presents a serious threat to many modern cryptographic primitives. This has profound implications to the critical information infrastructure (CII) as well. The main mitigation techniques involve migrating to cryptographic schemes that are postulated to be “quantum resilient”, i.e. there are no known quantum algorithms for them. The solution requires that all the known instances of the vulnerable cryptographic schemes are replaced with quantum resistant schemes. In a lecture at the NIST premises in 2015, Dr. Mosca gave his famous theorem of when different stakeholders should start upgrading their systems. This theorem is, however, very general and assumes the worst possible scenario. Does it apply equally well for all or even the majority of use cases of cryptography? Is the answer same across all domains of CII or all types of networks? Currently the most challenging environments are those with very little computational and networking capabilities, i.e. Internet-of-Things (IoT). IoT is today used in many CI subcategories, such as power grid (including SCADA), water supply, logistics, agriculture and dangerous goods handling. In this text, we develop a more detailed risk management model to prepare for QC and apply this model to survey the status of Internet-of-Things (IoT) protocols. We cover in total 17 different IoT protocols or protocol families.

Mikko Kiviharju
Chapter 12. Modern Problems of Digitalization of Environmental Protection in the Russian Federation

The chapter notes that the digitalization of the economy carried out in Russia has given rise to a new phenomenon—the digitalization of law, including environmental law. Environmental digitalization provides an opportunity to cope with the unprecedented environmental problems that are faced with the environment today, including climate change, increased pollution of air, water bodies, and soil, which poses threats to human life and health. It is digitalization technologies that can help change the situation, providing humanity with a secure and sustainable future. The use of digital environmental technologies for national environmental monitoring, improving the safety of industrial enterprises, in agriculture, and also in order to improve the comfort of life in an urban environment seems to be very promising.

Agnessa O. Inshakova, Denis E. Matytsin, Svetlana Yu. Kazachenok
Location Model of Overseas Warehouses of Japanese Cross-Border E-Commerce Based on Ant Colony Algorithm

The rapid development of overseas warehouses has brought new opportunities for cross-border e-commerce. Taking Japan’s cross-border e-commerce as the research object, this paper expounds the development model of cross-border e-commerce and the concept of cross-border logistics. Extracting the characteristics of Japan’s cross-border e-commerce development model, improve the cross-border payment environment, obtain the influencing factors of overseas warehouse location, predict the demand according to the past transaction data and future development trend, take the warehouse location as the variable, and construct the location decision model by using ant colony algorithm.

Jingxian Huang
Kapitel 2. Begriffliche und konzeptionelle Grundlagen

Zu dem Begriff standortbasierte Dienstleistungen (sogenannte Location-based Services) lässt sich eine Vielzahl von Definitionen in der Fachliteratur vorfinden.

Stefan Brinkhoff
Chapter 2. Technology Application in Tourism Festivals in Asia: Theoretical Discussions

Modern-day tourism festivals in Asia have greatly embraced technology to boost festival quality, attendee’s experience and marketing potential. With this development, technology enhances tourism festival demand, innovation, and attendance. This in turn boosts the market value since it creates a modernized, industrialized, and commercialized industry that can compete favorably on the global tourism market. Although the application of advanced technology particularly in festivals has been anticipated to be associated with several technical challenges, financial and human resource constraints, it is important to note that if appropriate and acceptable models are identified and factors that influence technological applied, a long-lasting impression on the minds of the festival visitors can be created. This study was done to both offer a theoretical overview of the application of technologies in tourism festivals and to inform development of strategy in the Asian tourism festival industry. Effective integration of innovative digital technologies in tourism festivals in Asia is anticipated to create a unique leisure experience, particularly in a unique form of festivals known as ‘Smart Tourism Festivals’. Besides sustainability, these highly impact on the key experience outcomes such as satisfaction and memorability of the festival attendees. The COVID-19 pandemic has given momentum to the current technological application processes in various film, music, culture, sport, art and other related carnivals and festivals in the tourism industry especially amongst the leading Asian economies such as China, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, India, Singapore, Bangladesh, Hong Kong and Thailand among others. This paper uses existing studies to provide a theoretical discussion of tourism festivals in the Asian context, areas of impact of digital technologies on festivals, emergence of smart tourism festivals, the underlying challenges and opportunities.

Emmanuel Sebata, Md. Ruhul Amin Mollah
Chapter 1. Setting the Scene

This chapter first begins the book as an overall primer for the reader to teach them about the digital ecosystem in China. Since there is no Google, Facebook, or Netflix, I will highlight, instead, the important equivalents. It will describe the creation of Alibaba, its evolution from the B2B, C2C and B2C businesses, diving deeper into the platform and the making of a Tmall store. It will also set the scene in terms of teaching the reader the other important internet players in China including apps owned by Tencent and Bytedance. Finally, it touches on the law that was recently passed in 2021 to break down the walled garden between apps, paving way to the interoperability of the internet ecosystem in China.

Sharon Gai
A–D

As part of decentralized finance (→DeFi), this →cryptocurrency is used to coordinate transactions on a decentralized lending marketplace. Aave allows to make loans (→crowdlending) and to form lending pools with various other →cryptocurrencies (e.g., →ETH, →DAI), as well as to conduct asset (→digital asset) and collateral exchanges. Aave’s →liquidity →token is based on →Ethereum’s →ERC-20 token and has also been used to establish other decentralized exchanges (→DEX) such as →Uniswap.

Rainer Alt, Stefan Huch
I–M

Approach for the administration of identities and permissions in companies, which is usually based on a separate →application system or module that is linked to other →application systems of the company. The aim of the master data, which are usually managed on a central →IDM server, is to achieve a high degree of consistency and integrity of the data, so that →front-, →middle- and →back-office areas, for example, can access the current data stocks for →authentication and →authorization purposes. Identity management is usually a prerequisite for channel strategies (→multi-channel, →omni-channel) and →SSO. With the opening towards →multi-bank relationships (e.g., due to →PSD2) and the use of digital identities in other areas of life (e.g., health, public administration), services for identity management have become established. In this field of application, also known as →KYC, there are centralized solutions (e.g., PostIdent, Verimi, Veriff or WebID) as well as decentralized solutions based on →blockchain technology such as Hyperledger Indy, Sovrin or Vetri (→SSI).

Rainer Alt, Stefan Huch
N–R

System of the Reserve Bank of India that processes payments as an →automated clearing house (ACH).

Rainer Alt, Stefan Huch
The Establishment and Strategies of Gambling Providers in French-Speaking Africa: The Case of Pari Mutuel Urbain (PMU)

Gambling is a growing business in Africa, and international gambling companies are showing increasing interest in African markets. In French-speaking Africa, horse racing is the most popular type of gambling. The French pari mutuel betting company, Pari Mutuel Urbain (PMU) has gained a ubiquitous position and strong influence via its African partners.This study describes the African PMU networks, their origins, contemporary operating logic and relationship to the French PMU using French and African newspaper material from Le Monde and Jeune Afrique.The results illustrate the peculiar history and contemporary structure of the horse betting industry in French-speaking Africa. The bulk of the article material particularly in Le Monde discussed corruption and mafia particularly from the perspective of the origins of African PMUs. Articles in Jeune Afrique also dedicate space to gambling industry strategies and gambling-related harms. The analysis shows that the rise and success of horse betting in French-speaking Africa is a result of the dominant position of French PMU races in the gambling product ranges of French-speaking African countries, and the domination of African PMU subsidiaries in their national economic and political landscape.

Sébastien Berret, Virve Marionneau
Chapter 3. Smart Port and Cyber-Physical System

Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is a new type of intelligent control system that integrates modern network communication technology into traditional digital control system and deeply combines physical system with information system through network communication technology. At present, the related technologies and applications of CPS have been not only the hot research issues in academic circles, but also promoted to the strategic level by many countries and regions and become the key research field. As a simple application of CPS, the IOT covers many fields such as medical and health care, smart home, transportation, logistics, industrial process, national grid, etc., and achieves informatization and intelligence in all areas.

Weijian Mi, Yuan Liu
Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION: Digital Transformation, Big Techs, and Public Policies

Digital transformation has profoundly affected economic, social, and political spheres for years, progressively creating a Digital Market Society. Today’s main actors are a few global platforms (so called ‘Big Techs’), which are at the core of a complex and multifaceted digital ecosystem cutting across all industries, markets, and societies. Their relevance in terms of economic and informational power is unprecedented, yet public bodies have struggled to deeply understand how to effectively discipline their activity and their impact on market dynamics and information pluralism. Recently, some important public actions have been taken, or planned, on both side of the Atlantic, in order to regulate Big Techs’ impact on economy and society.

Antonio Manganelli, Antonio Nicita
3. Digitalization in Air Transportation and Reflections on SCRM

Digitalization, which is the absolute necessity of business practices and business models in the twenty-first century, must be optimally reflected in the processes, philosophy, and stakeholder relations of supply chain management (SCM) applications. It is the risk management-based supply chain management system that guides these reflection efforts and provides reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of such optimization.

Marc Helmold, Ayşe Küçük Yılmaz, Tracy Dathe, Triant G. Flouris
Kapitel 3. Digitalisierung im Handel – Den Kundennutzen im Blick

„Alles, was digitalisiert werden kann, wird digitalisiert“ erklärte Carly Fiorina, ehemalige Chefin von Hewlett-Packard bereits vor Jahren. Betrachtet man die Bandbreite, in der Digitalisierung im Handel stattfindet, erscheint die obige Aussage nicht zu vermessen. Wie Graumann treffend in diesem Sammelband herausarbeitet, geht es beim Management der Digitalisierung im Kern um die Frage, wie Führungskräfte auf ihre Mitarbeiter in den Teilfunktionen des Unternehmens einwirken können, damit die Ressource der leistungsfähigen computerunterstützten Kommunikation zwischen Menschen oder Dingen in einen höheren Kundennutzen umgewandelt wird.

Achim Burkhardt, Jürgen Kumbartzki
A Novel GNN Model for Fraud Detection in Online Trading Activities

The previous graph neural network-based fraud detection techniques were usually realized by clustering the neighbors with different relationships. However, the graph-based datasets face the issues of imbalanced features, classifications, and relationships, which directly decreases the detection performance. In this case, this work proposes a novel real-time GNN model to address this issue. Firstly, the features are measured to find the entities which have the highest similarity to the fraudster. The entities are sampled to identify the fraudsters in training. The fraudsters are far less than the normal nodes in the dataset. We then combine the Under-Sampling algorithm and the long-distance sampling algorithm to find the nodes that are similar to the neighbors. Finally, a reinforcement learning (RL)-based reward and punishment mechanism is proposed for sampling the weight between the relationships. It is effective to the issue of imbalanced relationships in the graph-based dataset. Experiments show that the proposed technique is superior to the comparative models on the real-world fraud dataset.

Jing Long, Fei Fang, Haibo Luo
Error Serial Episodes Discovery from Mobile Payment Log in Distributed ETC

The Electronic Toll Collection (ETC), as a kind of distributed system, has become more and more mature in application of highways. The mobile payment system, distributed in main network links of ETC, possibly causes the functional failure of entire system if an error occurs. But the error message can be directly reflected in log. Therefore, effective analysis of mobile payment log is crucial to the stability of distributed system. In this paper, we propose a novel analysis method, which is error serial episodes discovery. This method converts mobile payment log in ETC into a long event sequence, and improves window truncation by WINEPI algorithm to explore the relevance of events in the log. We use real data from mobile payment log in ETC of a Chinese highway company. The experiments indicate that this method obtains a significant rule that multiple identical events will cause the error event to occur. This rule, which is found in actual scenarios, will provide a basis for data analysis of the log, and it has been recognized by business experts from relevant institutions.

Xiang Li, Yawei Zhao, Donghui Li, Wei Guan
8. Postscript

A fair and orderly business environment is the cornerstone of national development. Today, with the vigorous development of digital economy, the topic we face together is how to grasp the new situation of economic development to create a good governance environment, and to promote the digital transformation of society. With the rapid development of China's digital economy, Chinese government and enterprises have accumulated experience in optimizing the doing-digital-business environment. The environment for the development of the digital economy is constantly improving. China's practices in optimizing business environment are worth learning from other countries or regions in the world, which covers digital foundation, digital order, digital security, digital services and digital talents.

Xiaolong Li, Jiyin Li, Chunhui Yuan, Songliang Guo, Zhen Wang
Economic Effect Evaluation of Tourism Enterprises′ Wechat Marketing Based on Fuzzy Algorithm

Wechat is a new carrier of marketing in the Internet era, and more and more enterprises try wechat marketing. From the perspective of consumer behavior, this paper constructs the evaluation index system of wechat marketing effect of tourism companies according to ASAS model, and then uses Delphi method to solicit experts’ opinions on each index, and uses fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to evaluate the pseudo economic effect of wechat marketing of tourism companies, Put forward the corresponding wechat marketing strategy optimization suggestions.

Limin Yan
Short-Term Demand Forecasting Methods for Public Bicycles Under Big Data Environment

As the main form of urban slow traffic system, public bicycles are responsible for solving the “last mile” problem of urban public transportation. However, due to inadequate understanding of travel demand and deficiencies in planning and site selection, many cities still have the problem of no public bicycles to borrow or return to at peak times. The development and application of big data technology provides the possibility for refined analysis and prediction of public bicycle borrowing and repayment needs. In view of this, this paper establishes an autoregressive mobility model based on the historical data of public bicycle rental sites, and proposes a big data-based public bicycle demand forecasting method, and compares the forecast results with the forecast results of the exponential smoothing model. The results prove that, Compared with the exponential smoothing model, the autoregressive model used in this article is more accurate.

Hongxiao Lin, Hui Sun
Chapter 4. Impact of Mobile Payments on Micro-Business Activities: A Developing Country Experience
Impact of Mobile Payments

While mobile payment has received much attention, little research has focused on the suitability of mobile payment technology for payment for micro-businesses. This exploratory study seeks to provide a deeper understanding of how technology improves payment transactions in trading activities. The study draws on the task-technology fit (TTF) theory and the transaction cost theory as the theoretical lens. Based on qualitative data from 20 micro-businesses, the research findings indicate that micro-businesses’ adoption of mobile payments generates strategic and operational benefits. Also, micro-businesses regard the use of mobile technology as suitable in their payment transactions. This study’s contribution lies in the use of the TTF theory to determine the impact of mobile payment and its linkage with user performance on micro-businesses’ livelihood. This study also provides guidelines for national policy discussions on payment systems and their legal framework development.

Eunice Yeboah Afeti, Acheampong Owusu
Chapter 16. The Mobiquitous Role of M-tourism Application in Driving Sustainable Tourism Sector in Thailand

The unprecedented growth of technological breakthroughs in the field of tourism is making a huge impact on the development and sustainability of the industry. The study focuses on the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in general and mobile based tourism related application (m-tourism) in particular to develop sustainable tourism sector in Thailand. The paper outlines and presents a comprehensive overview of the usages mobile based application in tourism industry from the viewpoints of both consumer (demand side) and service provider (supply side). The research then discusses the acceptance, costs, and affordability of m-tourism applications in the context of Thailand. The study views that m-tourism applications enable a consumer to search information, book or purchase, and evaluate, and service provider to operate and manage businesses in Thailand and globally anytime from anywhere in more flexible, ubiquity, adoptable, and attractive way. In addition, there are few challenges in m-tourism applications that have been addressed at the end of the chapter.

Hasanuzzaman Tushar, Md Abdus Salam, Rubaba Nawrin, Saima Rahman
Chapter 13. Technology Application in the Chinese Tourism Industry

Technology has brought exciting changes to our lives by altering our decision-making, communicating, learning, entertainment, etc. Tourism is a dynamic practice that needs tools for decision-making and competition in economic, social, and environmental sustainability demands. In the current era of high technology and development, big data, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, augmented reality, “3S” technology, and smart tourism are widely applied in all aspects of social life. It plays a good role in the promotion and growth of the tourism industry. This chapter intends to determine the significant technological changes, influences, and customers’ relationship with the industry in recent years. We defined and proposed philosophical, methodological, technical, and realistic uses of technology for the Chinese tourism industry to support advanced technical services to satisfy customers’ needs. Future technologies suitable for Chinese tourism are systematic planning and layout of scenic spots, investigation and evaluation of tourism resources, destination planning, tourism information management and application, tourism environment monitoring, etc. The future technology gradually becomes familiar for travelers to China since it promotes its tourism industry 3.0. and industry 4.0 worldwide. The Internet and the Internet of Things (IoT) include inserting sensors with vehicles, suitcases, buildings, etc., to make substantial improvements to the travel industry. Technical innovations and institutional changes are the reason for the evolution of the Chinese tourism industry.

Mohammad Musa, Preethu Rahman, Zhi-rong Kang, Syed Far Abid Hossain
Chapter 2. Technology Application in Tourism in Asia

The significance of the application of technology to tourism has been long confessed because it is one of the strategic forces of competitiveness in the global tourism. Recently, tourism destinations are in a tight race to launch new technologies that can efficiently and effectively advance services towards the satisfaction of touristic needs. The COVID-19 pandemic has made the adoption of technology essential rather than ancillary means of rendering many touristic services. Furthermore, the rapid growth of Asian tourism industry has accelerated the adoption of modern technologies including virtual reality, artificial reality, artificial intelligence, and so on in scenic spots, accommodation, transportation, catering and major sporting and non-sporting events. At present, several Asian destinations have built a strong technology base for providing ‘untact’ services. Research on technology adoption in tourism from western context has significantly increased in the past decade. However, there is a limited knowledge in tourism technology scholarship regarding the use of technologies in Asian tourism. This chapter provides a theoretical and conceptual analysis of technology adoption in Asian tourism. In particular, this chapter presents a critical review on how technology adoption is progressing the opportunities, and the prospects of its use in Asian tourism industry. This conceptualization is significant to better understand the status and progression of Asian tourism industry with respect to the application of various technologies.

Md. Ruhul Amin Mollah, Emmanuel Sebata
Channelising Digitalisation Amidst COVID-19 Outbreak: Case of Multichannel ICTs in Pakistan

The Coronavirus outbreak in 2020 brought the world to a standstill. In the aftermath of COVID-19, communication technologies were greeted as exquisite mode of virtual interaction and collaboration. However, COVID-19 soon started stripping several sectors off their digital pride by exposing under-digitalisation, rate of technology adoption and/or infrastructural gaps particularly in low-income countries. This paper looks at Pakistan’s approach towards ICTs and digitalisation particularly during the pandemic. The paper highlights the alternative channels of communication that has led to an increasing number of electronic services despite the reduced teledensity and broadband penetration. The paper explores the case of branchless banking as well as the role of digital identity that has been crucial for health, education and social sector in Pakistan.

Bisma Iftekhar, Hasnain Bokhari
Chapter 2. On China’s Economy and Financial Industry
Shusong Ba
Chapter 27. Development of Payment-Clearing Sector in Financial Reform of China

With economic restructuring and financial reform in progress across different sectors, the payment-clearing sector in China is also forging ahead continuously. In 2016, it witnessed two major changes: The first is the adoption of the reform-and-opening-up policy for the payment-clearing sector; the second is the kicking off the project of online payment-clearing platform dedicated to the payment agencies. These two measures will exert a major influence on the country’s payment-clearing market, pushing ahead the reshaping of the market with regard to its form and structure. Of the two measures taken, the opening up of the bank card-related payment-clearing market is expected to facilitate the development of a market of fair play and accelerate the further reform and innovative restructuring of payment service in China. It is also expected to promote a sound development of the economic and financial market, push forward economic restructuring and upgrading and strengthen international economic cooperation. The establishment of the online payment platform will help, among others, save social resources, improve the efficiency of payment and clearing, optimize the structure for market competition and ensure the transparency of supervision.

Shusong Ba
Chapter 25. Online Payment in China at Present: Impetus, Risk Assessment and Supervision

Known for its convenience and efficiency, the online payment service provided by non-financial institutes has seen a rapid development over the past ten years. It enriches the traditional payment service system dominated by commercial banks and makes changes happen in the system. But it also brings forth new risk factors, distribution patterns and correlations. This report looks into the security of online payment in China and gives advice about how to reduce online payment risks on the basis of the goals of supervision: (1) The development of safe environment for online payment should be pushed ahead mainly by governmental supervision departments, and the effort should be enhanced to prevent fraud and the unfavorable influence of network environment on online payment security; (2) the whole sector’s capacity of risk prevention and control on the basis of cooperation in the industrial chain should be enhanced to address the unlawful activities involving basic relationship and to eliminate the influence of supporting environment absence on online payment safety; (3) the risk management mechanism centering around online payment agencies should be enhanced to address the influence of inappropriate internal management of the agencies.

Shusong Ba
Chapter 26. Prospective Changes in Third-Party Payment in China with Emergence of NetsUnion Clearing Corporation (NUCC)

According to the Administrative Measures for the Payment Services Provided by Non-financial Institutions issued by the People’s Bank of China (PBC), third-party payment refers to the online payment (including Internet-based payment, mobile payment, fixed-line telephone-based payment and digital TV-based payment), prepaid card service, bank card acquiring service and other payment service stipulated by PBC.

Shusong Ba
Chapter 12. Transformation of Commercial Banks Under the New Normal

As China’s economy entered the new normal, the business environment of China’s banking industry has undergone great changes, and at the same time, it is facing new opportunities and challenges. Asset quality is yet to improve, and interest rate and exchange rate liberalization has been constantly promoted. New financial formats such as Internet finance are growing rapidly, and regulation has been strengthened. All has attracted much attention.

Shusong Ba
Chapter 9. China’s Banking Industry in Globalization 3.0
Shusong Ba
‘Hello, Is It Me You’re Looking for?’ Mobile Network Operators and Anti-Money Laundering: The Australian Case

In response to emerging technological developments, methods of money laundering (ML) continue to evolve in order to deliberately circumvent law enforcement efforts. To mitigate the risks that this entails, technological advances in financial services require constant monitoring and oversight, along with appropriate legislation and enforcement, in a manner that nonetheless promotes financial prosperity and inclusion. The structure, functioning and risks of new payment products and services (NPPS) require more effective regulation and operational measures in order to ensure that financial integrity risks are addressed effectively, so that NPPS are not developed at the expense of controls that mitigate the ML risks they pose. This chapter explores the ML risks posed by the expansion of NPPS in the telecommunications sector, which plays a vital role in our society and is constantly expanding the range of products and services available to consumers through its interconnectedness. One of the most relevant NPPS to the telecommunications sector is mobile payment services, which are the primary focus of this chapter.

Doron Goldbarsht
Research of Features of Payment Technologies in the Payment Industry

Retail payments research is on the rise in the digital economy. However, due to logical, conceptual similarity, the notion of “payment technology” is blurred in the studies of payment systems. Hence, there is a need to form the conceptual apparatus of payment technologies and to identify the features in the functioning and implementation of payment technologies. Due to the analysis of structural elements of the payment industry and identifying areas of payment technology used in the mechanism of retail settlements, it seems possible to form the features of payment technology. Their comparison with a number of principles and criteria of functioning in the future seems possible expediency of development of new technologies, which characterizes the practical significance of the research. The purpose of the research is to form a conceptual framework in the field of payment technology, namely, the definition of the concept of “payment technology” and the identification of features of their functioning, as well as the classification by analyzing the opinions of scientific researchers in the field of payment systems, banking and sciences related to financial technology. The originality of the research is that we formed a theoretical and methodological base of research in the field of payment systems, payment technologies and financial management of companies, industries that directly depend on the level of development of payment technologies, including retailers and payment service providers.

Ilya A. Nozhenkov, Albina N. Sokolova, Tatiana I. Demidenko, Tatiana N. Michnenko
Chapter 6. Money: Digital Payment Services, Credit, Banks, Venture Capital, and Other Resources
How to Get Money for Your Minority Business

Money is a major factor in minority business development, but it is not the only factor. Minority- and women-owned firms have survived without money, instead relying on creative persistence to succeed.

William Michael Cunningham

Open Access

Chapter 7. Major Green Technology Innovation and Implementation Mechanisms

The Chinese government has established ecological civilization as a basic strategy guiding China’s future development. The principles of “green development for a beautiful China” and “people-centered development” constitute the core values and visions for China in the new era of civilized development with a sound ecosystem

China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED) Secretariat
WatchID: Wearable Device Authentication via Reprogrammable Vibration

Prevalent wearables (e.g., smartwatches and activity trackers) demand high secure measures to protect users’ private information, such as personal contacts, bank accounts, etc. While existing two-factor authentication methods can enhance traditional user authentication, they are not convenient as they require participations from users. Recently, manufacturing imperfections in hardware devices (e.g., accelerometers and WiFi interface) have been utilized for low-effort two-factor authentications. However, these methods rely on fixed device credentials that would require users to replace their devices once the device credentials are stolen. In this work, we develop a novel device authentication system, WatchID, that can identify a user’s wearable using its vibration-based device credentials. Our system exploits readily available vibration motors and accelerometers in wearables to establish a vibration communication channel to capture wearables’ unique vibration characteristics. Compared to existing methods, our vibration-based device credentials are reprogrammable and easy to use. We develop a series of data processing methods to mitigate the impact of noises and body movements. A lightweight convolutional neural network is developed for feature extraction and device authentication. Extensive experimental results using five smartwatches show that WatchID can achieve an average precision and recall of $$98\%$$ 98 % and $$94\%$$ 94 % respectively in various attacking scenarios.

Jerry Q. Cheng, Zixiao Wang, Yan Wang, Tianming Zhao, Hao Wan, Eric Xie
Phone Wallet for Mobile Payment in Algeria

E-commerce has become an integral part of citizens’ lives, due to the ease of use as well as the Covid_19 constraints that has limited direct interactions between people. In order to extend e-commerce, it is necessary to improve payment systems by allowing more comfort and security to citizens. This paper introduces a new payment system using a digital wallet supported by telephone operators. This solution integrates daily financial transactions and puts an end to the liquidity problem, which has become a major concern for many citizens in several countries. The creditor-debtor transaction is done by an exchange of information using a QR code. The payment process is carried out in real time with an acceptable level of security.

Abdelkader Belkhir, Maria Belkhir, Fayçal Bouyakoub
Solving Challenges in the Media Sector with DLT

Throughout history, media is a field that has been affected by technological development. Since the 1990s, the Internet has been the main driver of influence, profoundly affecting how people create, transmit and share information worldwide, consequently changing the structure of the media sector. Although digital technologies are transforming the media sector, various challenges are arising as seen in fake news and echo chamber. This chapter explores how distributed ledger technology (DLT) and blockchain technologies can contribute to solving new challenges in the media sector. This is worth exploring because the central advantages of blockchain/DLT are related to trust, and the new challenges in the media sector are mainly related to the lack of trust. This chapter provides a framework to show the benefits of using blockchain/DLT and discusses how those benefits can solve the challenges in the media sector.

Soichiro Takagi
Machine Learning Based and Reconfigurable Architecture with a Countermeasure for Side Channel Attacks

Cryptographic devices, which are embedded in SoC systems and mathematically secured algorithms, are used for operating it. But a side channel leakage may cause the secret data in these systems to be at high risk. Particularly, cryptography circuits like ECC algorithm are prone to power attacks like correlation power analysis (CPA) and differential power analysis (DPA). Hence, it is necessary to safeguard the sensitive information using proposed method having ECC with countermeasure. This paper focuses on protecting sensitive information using chaotic countermeasure as reconfigurable architecture by adopting ARTIX-7 board and offline ELM algorithm to detect the attack. In this, an effective countermeasure is designed and implemented using the FPGA for attack detection. Moreover, the proposed chaotic architecture has been integrated with ECC bit key mounted on ARTIX-7 board and tested nearly with 250 power traces recorded from the architecture. We have compared the proposed chaotic maps with the other current countermeasure technique, such as WDDL, IVR, and inductive ECC, in which the proposed design outperforms the above described existing structures in terms of area usage, power overhead, and frequency overhead. And to verify the strength of the encryption algorithm by using NIST to ensure that the given random number can be used for cryptographic purposes.

Babu Illuri, Deepa Jose, Shiela David, M. Nagarjuan
Chapter 7. Covid-19 and the Informal Sector

The most appropriate strategy to contain the spread of Covid-19 according to the WHO, government authorities and health experts is a set of measures that include social isolation, quarantine and lockdown, in addition to hygienic practices. Yet, developing countries have certain characteristics that make it difficult to implement these measures. For example, there is the lack of social protection systems, poor public and private infrastructure, the widespread informal job market and a large share of the population with low education levels. The chapter analyses the effects of the pandemic on the economy in the presence of a large informal sector. For the measures of physical distancing to take effect, it is necessary to implement public policies that provide subsistence conditions for individuals who are below the poverty line, i.e. those mostly working in the informal sector. Yet, the sheer size of the informal sector and the lack of social protection measures pose challenges to the fight against Covid-19 in developing countries. Consequently, the chapter provides, firstly, a reflection on the impacts of Covid-19 on the informal economy in developing and less developed countries, mainly analysing the public policies implemented for aiding the informal economy. Secondly, the chapter presents the expectations for the post-Covid-19 future. Finally, it presents policy recommendations to stimulate the recovery of the most affected countries.

Michele Romanello
Chapter 1. Internet of Things (IoT) Overview

This chapter introduces the foundation of IoT, formulates a comprehensive definition, and presents a framework to monitor and control things from anywhere in the world and provides business justifications on why such monitoring and control of things is important to businesses and enterprises. It then introduces the 12 factors that make IoT a present reality including convergence of IT and OT, the introduction of creative Internet-based businesses, mobile device explosion, social network explosion, analytics at the edge, cloud computing and virtualization, technology explosion, digital convergence/transformation, enhanced user interfaces, fast rate of IoT technology adoption (five times more than electricity and telephony) the rise of security requirement, and the nonstop Moore’s law.

Ammar Rayes, Samer Salam
1. Ausgewählte technologische Grundlagen

In diesem Beitrag werden ausgewählte technologische Grundlagen (Stand der Technologien: September 2021) mit Fokus auf dem Einsatz in Frontend-Services betrachtet, die zum Teil in den Kapiteln der Teile II bis V aufgegriffen werden. Zuerst werden begriffliche Grundlagen wie Service, Servitization sowie Frontend- und Backend-Services und deren Zusammenspiel behandelt. Die Konzentration auf den Einsatz der Technologien in Frontend-Services führt zur Auseinandersetzung mit dem Internet der Dinge (Internet of Things (IoT)) sowie mit Identifikationstechnologien wie Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) und Gesichtserkennungssysteme, Lokalisierungstechnologien z. B. auf der Basis von Satellitennavigationssystemen wie dem europäischen Galileosystem oder dem US-amerikanischen Global Positioning System (GPS), Interaktionstechnologien wie Touch-, Gesten- und Sprachsteuerung, Darstellungstechnologien wie Datenbrillen, Augmented Reality (AR) und Virtual Reality (VR) sowie Mobilkommunikationstechnologien wie Mobilfunknetze, Bluetooth und Near-Field-Communication (NFC). Den Abschluss bilden die Technologien 3D-Druck, mobile Roboter mit Fokus auf Service-, Assistenz- und Logistikaufgaben sowie Delivery-Systeme, die insbesondere in vielfältigen Pilotprojekten des Handels zur Überwindung der „letzten Meile“ getestet werden bzw. wurden.

Jürgen Hofmann
18. Digitalisierung in den Bereichen Handel und Konsumgüter

Der folgende Beitrag setzt sich mit der Herausforderung auseinander, strategische Digitalisierungskonzepte in der Handel- und Konsumgüterbranche nachhaltig zu etablieren. Besonderes Augenmerk gilt insbesondere der Betrachtung von Ursachen, Trends und Treibern sowie kritischen Erfolgsfaktoren. Anhand von ausgewählten internationalen Beispielen werden die Strategien und Geschäftsmodelle globaler Pioniere im digitalen Zeitalter genauer betrachtet und welche Vorteile sich daraus für Konsumenten und Verbraucher ergeben. Darauf aufbauend erfolgt eine Zusammenfassung der Reaktionen und Antworten des stationären Einzelhandels auf die dynamischen Veränderungen und Verschiebungen und wie sich dieser durch den Einsatz disruptiver Technologien der virtuellen Welt schrittweise nähert. Im Anschluss werden die wesentlichen Merkmale der innovativen Handelslogistik erläutert, da diese sowohl für neue als auch traditionelle Händler relevant sind. Den Abschluss des Beitrags bildet ein Ausblick auf den Handel im Jahr 2030.

Tobias Altmeyer
20. Digitalisierung im Möbelhandel

Der Möbelhandel in Deutschland muss zahlreiche Herausforderungen durch Digitalisierung und verändertes Kundenverhalten meistern. Früher spielte das klassische stationäre Möbelgeschäft als Point-of-Sale (POS) die zentrale Rolle für Information, Vergleich, Verkauf und Service. Heute können u. a. die Effekte Showrooming und Webrooming beobachtet werden, bei denen Kunden zwischen unterschiedlichen Vertriebskanälen wechseln. Zudem verändern zahlreiche neue, digitale Touchpoints die Customer Journey von Möbelkäufern massiv, eröffnen aber zugleich auch innovative Möglichkeiten der Vermarktung, z. B. durch Webshop, Shopping-App, Produkt-Konfigurator, Augmented und Virtual Reality, Digitalisierung am stationären POS sowie weitere digital gestützte Services bei Kauf, Bezahlung und nach dem Kauf. Daher gilt es für Möbelhändler, das geänderte Verbraucherverhalten zu antizipieren, Technologie intelligent zu nutzen und den eigenen Möbelhandel zu positionieren, um dadurch ökonomisch nachhaltig zu profitieren.

Christian Stummeyer
3. Technologische Grundlagen der digitalen Transformation

Nachdem nun mehrfach über (digitale) Technologien geredet wurde, sollen einige dieser Technologien nun in diesem Kapitel genauer vorgestellt werden. Das Problem an dieser Stelle ist jedoch, dass mittlerweile in immer kürzeren Abständen neue Technologien entstehen. Mit welchen dieser vielen Technologien sollen sich Unternehmen nun auseinandersetzen? Welche Technologien sollen in diesem Buch vorgestellt werden?

Mark Harwardt
Chapter 5. Negotiating Care Through Tangible Tools and Tangible Service Designing in Emergent Public Health Service Ecosystems

In shaping relations between service design and public health, one key challenge is how to meaningfully and systemically negotiate prospective services and long-term design-informed care support. In this chapter, we address this through a heuristic and exploratory ‘case’ centred in design-ethnographic and research through design qualitative inquiry by way of co-design with an inter-professional team in a non-dualist view of building care in PH. The focus is on the development and use of tangible tools in the early phase of service design to support processes of negotiation in this team concerned with building shared understanding and related strategies for allocating and connecting care in the context of establishing a new oncology ward at a leading Nordic hospital. The chapter assembled a transdisciplinary review of related research, drawing on developments in human–computer interaction on tangibility and tangible and embodied interaction. Tangible tools are three-dimensional, mediating artefacts designed to facilitate multimodal communication and interaction via situated actions afforded by an artefact’s designed physical attributes, representational and social semiotic properties. In discussion of transdisciplinary framings and actual use, we discuss the role of such tools in service design in PH and connect them to a wider approach to service ecosystems design, closing a positioning of the design-research in what we term ‘Tangible Service Design’.

Karianne Rygh, Andrew Morrison
Kapitel 2. Ausgewählte Einsatzmöglichkeiten

Im Folgenden werden insgesamt zwölf Möglichkeiten beschrieben, wie Smartphone Apps zur Verbesserung des stationären Einkaufserlebnisses beitragen können.

Atilla Wohllebe, Nina Wolter
Chapter 1. The Asia-Pacific Region: The New Center of Gravity for International Business

The main focus of this chapter is to discuss the context in which this book is conceived. By the turn of the twenty-first century, the Asia-Pacific region had emerged as an economic powerhouse. However, the century began with major developments which have resulted in great challenges as well as enormous opportunities. We identify six of these major developments, namely, economic integration, the global financial crisis, changing international environment, technological competition, an aging population, and the global pandemic; and analyze their implications for the Asia-Pacific region. We also explore how governments and firms in the Asia-Pacific region are beginning to recalibrate their outlooks and strategies, which has already resulted in remarkable transformations in the region. In particular, we examine these transformations from three perspectives: (1) Asia as the world’s manufacturing center, (2) Asia as a thriving consumer market, and (3) Asia as a leading hub for innovation. The chapter then outlines the structure of this book and summarizes the major theme of each chapter.

Nailin Bu, Terry Wu
Chapter 8. Emerging Dragons: How Do Chinese Companies Expand Overseas?

Over the past two decades, many Chinese companies have successfully expanded into overseas markets and consequently become known as “emerging dragons.” However, we still don’t know how they achieved success. In this chapter, we examine 35 overseas Chinese companies, consisting of 25 firms selected from 80 Harvard Business Review Cases related to the overseas expansion of Chinese companies, and 10 firms listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchange Markets. To ensure the validity of our analysis, we only selected the private business and excluded the state-owned companies from our database. Our analysis reveals five strategic patterns: market dominators, export clusters, technology innovators, culture carriers, and overseas financial investment and supply chain integrators. Following the Political, Economic, Social, Technology (PEST) framework, we discuss how “emerging dragons” in each of the five strategic patterns capitalize on opportunities and avoid threats in uncertain foreign environments.

Man Su, Linda Hui Shi, Meng Zhao, Kang (Frank) Tan
Chapter 9. AI in Financial Portfolio Management: Practical Considerations and Use Cases

This paper focuses broadly on the application of various types of AI technology in the buy-side of financial services and more specifically on the application of AI to financial portfolio management. Current market volatility in response to the COVID-19 pandemic has given new urgency to the perennial challenge of achieving quality investment returns, and the ever-present trade-off between return and risk that all portfolio managers have to master. The complexity and volume of relevant information today, and the rate of change in the current environment, have only heightened the need for smarter financial choices. Various types of AI may be used to respectively achieve higher portfolio returns, increase operational efficiency, and enhance the customer experience. Successful AI usage will always involve an optimum mix of machine-provided and human-based services, where the AI enhances and accelerates human portfolio decision-making and saves labor costs.

Joseph Byrum
Chapter 4. The Past, Present, and Future of the Payment System as Trusted Broker and the Implications for Banking

The nature of payment systems is changing. In recent times, traditional financial institutions have provided the majority of payment services. Over the centuries, incumbent banks developed a reputation to act as trusted brokers. This is their main advantage today, yet we consider several scenarios for the future of payments, all of which entail a new basis of competition and a new locus of trust. While trust will be just as important in the future as in the past, the meaning of trust is changing fast. In a world of instant payments, universal connectivity between payment networks, and perhaps even central-bank accounts for ordinary citizens to keep their digital funds, the role of banks could be quite different than it has been for the last centuries.

Joseph Byrum
Construction of Blended College English Teaching Mode Based-On Internet Mobile Platform

With the advent of “the Internet plus” era followed by the popularity of portable mobile devices (smart phone), the blended college English teaching mode is inevitable. This paper analyzes the possibility, inevitability, and construction of the blended college English teaching mode based on the mobile platform. Used as a useful supplement to college English teaching in regular classroom, the advantages of the blended college English teaching mode are exemplified with a case analysis in this paper. As a result, there is no doubt that proficiency in English learning can be achieved.

Fuxian Zheng
An Empirical Study on Success Factors of Game Industry

With China and Southeast Asia at the center, Korea’s game industry is showing meaningful results. This study demonstrated and analyzed the relationship between the characteristics of the basic environment, such as management, technology, market, and industry, among Korean game companies. Through this, the company attempted to propose the growth of game companies and the advancement of global markets. As a result of this study, these achievements are being made through the development of leading and technological development in the game industry by identifying the competence of managers and the flow of markets and industries. In addition, securing intellectual property rights to sustain performance and expand the market was one of the important strategies. In other words, the performance of a game company depends on the ability of the manager to provide a new story and user services and its success or failure to apply and research and development in technology, market, and related industries. If the research so far has been on the external part of the game, i.e., the effectiveness and impact of the game, this study is different in that it comprehensively considers the internal part of the game company and the market and industry.

Seung Gyun Yoo
84. Adaptation Finance: A Review of Financial Instruments to Facilitate Climate Resilience

Adaptation finance describes new and additional funding for all climate adaptation efforts, including the development of adaptive capacity and expenditure on adaptation costs by public and private actors. Adaptive capacity includes the enhancement of general and specified resilience, which are attributes which may reduce efficiency or profitability. Adaptation finance faces a dual requirement to address both vulnerability and profitability. This complicates the design of financial instruments, giving rise to a need to compare the costs and benefits of resilience. The absence of a metric of adaptation performance beyond monetary investment implies that the gain in adaptive capacity cannot easily be compared with the loss in efficiency. This entry outlines a unified framework that integrates efficiency and vulnerability to determine the categories of financial instruments that can be utilized to direct capital toward the enhancement of adaptive capacity and resilience in specific situations. Instruments analyzed include insurance products, pay-for-success contracts, green and climate resilience bonds, asset-backed securities, biodiversity offset markets, and debt-for-nature swaps.

Satyajit Bose
Chapter 19. FinTech in the Post-COVID Period

This chapter deals with problems of financial technologies and its using at the Post-COVID Age. Technological innovations that take into account signals about consumer needs are opening up new opportunities for the financial market. This study showed that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a positive impact on the development of FinTech companies. However, their adaptation to post-COVID conditions may face certain difficulties due to a lack of understanding of the timing of economic recovery from the shock, regulatory uncertainty, financing problems, and, as a consequence, the ability to develop and provide new products and services.Within the framework of this work, the following hypothesis was formulated—the success of FinTech before and in the context of the pandemic determines the viability of this direction. The different levels of “economic immunity” financial institutions have to crisis phenomena will determine the speed of transformation from the modern global economy into a digital one.This study concludes that the new reality businesses are experiencing regarding technological cooperation, in the context of COVID-19, is likely to accelerate the development of interactions for the provision of financial services, with the potential to expand access to markets, the range of products/services offered, and convenience for consumers. Thus, FinTech has great development prospects in the post-COVID world, provided that the above aspects are addressed.

Natalia G. Adamchuk
Urban Form, Neighbourhood Governance, and Real Estate Management: Chinese Cities Fighting a Pandemic

Success in fighting a pandemic such as COVID-19 requires global collaboration. However, local leadership and efficient operations are the most critical contributing factors for saving lives and restoring urban normalcy. This chapter examines the intertwining relationship among urban form, neighbourhood governance, and the commercialised real estate management sector, and explores the dynamic impact this relationship generates on urban resilience. The chapter presents three effective urban approaches that facilitated China’s efforts to fight the pandemic: the formal quality of urban form and mixed-use nature of Chinese cities contributed to urban resilience; a territorial-based institutional structure with grid management rendered accountability of urban governance and formed an effective state–society synergy with full-scale public participation; and the recently emerged commercialised real estate management sector, accompanied with technology, offered merits in curbing the spread of the virus. In summary, the various characteristics through which Chinese cities and neighbourhoods were spatially formed, administratively governed, and financially operated helped save lives and shaped resilient multi-dimensional urban environments.

Bing Wang, Rong Zhou
Chapter 2. Internet of Things

Internet of things (IOT) is a kind of network that collects real-time information through various information sensing devices, connects any real object in the physical world with the Internet according to the pre-defined protocol. IOT carries out information transmission and interaction, to achieve the purpose of intelligent identification, accurate positioning, tracking and control of information.

Bo Wang, Xiangsheng Liu, Yaqi Zhang
Chapter 3. Vanguard of Internet Finance: Third-Party Payment

Third-party payment is credited as the “vanguard” of Internet finance. Though third-party payment is not invented specifically for Internet finance, it should be acknowledged that third-party payment has become an indispensable part of Internet finance. In the world of Internet finance, third-party payment is more than a payment instrument, but also a flow entrance and data accumulation platform which bears too many functions. At present, third-party payment also turns to be the focus of contention. In particular, mobile payment illustrates the main current in the future and also rests in the key to the success or failure in the future. But in the initial start-up stage, what counts most in third-party payment is data accumulation as usual. Market entities’ behavioral characteristics can only be comprehended with substantial accumulated authentic and reliable data. Correspondingly, it lays the foundation of credit investigation and expansion of business.

Qingyou Guan, Weigang Gao
Chapter 1. 40 Years of China's Legal Construction in Cybersecurity

In 1978, China entered the new era of reforming and opening up and socialist modernization construction. In that year's Report on the Work of the Government, it was proposed to energetically develop emerging science and technology, particularly to expedite the development of research on integrated circuits and electronic computers and to apply them extensively in all aspects.

Daoli Huang
Chapter 6. India’s Cyber Security Landscape

With the second-largest Internet user base and a leading Information and Communications Technology industry, India has quickly adopted digital technologies to emerge as a major actor in the global cyberspace. This thrust on digital and information technologies is accompanied by a rapid expansion of cyberthreats such as malware attacks, data breaches and cyber-enabled espionage operations. While there has been no major disruptive cyber-attack, India has faced multiple attacks from China and Pakistan—two countries with which it is locked in protracted border disputes. These two sources of threat are joined by non-state actors such as organised hacking syndicates and terrorist groups which have used the cyberspace to target Indian interests. This paper broadly examines the sources and nature of India’s cyberthreats. It also reviews the government’s policy measures to counter these threats. The paper argues that in tackling these threats, India maintains a precarious balance between its commitment to a liberal multi-stakeholder order in the cyberspace and the pressure to protect its national security interests.

Sameer Patil
11. Global Digital Marketing Strategy

This chapter looks at digitalization from a consumer perspective and from a corporate perspective. We start by pointing out how uneven the Internet penetration and the adaption of smartphones still are across the globe. Next, we take a closer look at the substantial differences in e-commerce and proximity mobile payment systems between countries. We argue that these differences are only partially a reflection of the variances in digital infrastructure, but are also a manifestation of profound differences in digital consumer behavior. Turning to corporations, we illustrate the staggering size of some of the key digital players. Subsequently, we discuss the digital divide between China and the rest of the world and take a closer look at important digital players in China. This includes a comparison between Baidu, Alibaba, and Tencent and their US counterparts. The chapter closes with a brief look at the digital landscape in India.

Bodo B. Schlegelmilch
2. The Global Marketing Environment

This chapter introduces different analytical frameworks to analyze foreign market characteristics. We discuss two approaches in depth: the CAGE framework, which looks at cultural, administrative, geographic, and economic differences between countries, and the PESTEL framework, which focuses on political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal aspects. Subsequently, we use the PESTEL framework to illustrate the relevance of some pertinent market characteristics in developing global marketing strategies.

Bodo B. Schlegelmilch
Chapter 13. Convergence, Consumer Behavior, and Change Management

Convergence, change management, and consumer behavior are closely related and affect each other. Especially, the TIME sectors comprising telecommunication, information, media, and entertainment are influenced by convergence and changes in consumer behavior. In this chapter, we briefly introduce the concepts of convergence and consumer behavior, then provide a detailed discussion about changes in consumer behavior and current trends. We show how consumers’ desires have changed and how this makes change management an essential organizational capability as marketers and organizations need to be able to adapt to different customer needs.

Ralf Terlutter, Katharina Ninaus
Chapter 8. Banking the Cocoa Farmer in Ghana: The Role of Mobile Technology

Mobile banking technology (for example, mobile money) plays a significant role in the Ghanaian cocoa value chain. In the cocoa payment chain, digital financial services provide the likelihood of enhanced proficiency and transparency. However, regardless of the advanced progressive state of mobile technology (for example, m-money) and the high level of knowledge of it among rural farmers in Ghana, the use of the service is presently restricted to personal money transfers and does not apply to farming activities or to the broader use of financial services that can boost their financial lives. The Ghanaian farmers’ situations outlined above address the need for some conceptualisations on how technology (and mobile technology in particular) can be leveraged for the improved delivery of financial services in Ghana’s cocoa sector by the licensed buying companies (LBC’s), farmers, and all critical stakeholders of the cocoa value chain. Therefore, this chapter proposes a Cocoa Farmer Access to Mobile Banking Technology Model that conceptualises fundamental ways through which mobile technology could be leveraged by cocoa farmers in rural areas as a way of bridging the financial inclusion gap.

Robert E. Hinson, Louis Numelio Tettey
Chapter 2. Digital Channels Catalysing Businesses in Fast-Expanding African Markets

This study investigates how digital technologies advance the dual goals of profitability and social impact in fast-expanding markets and the role of social networks in upscaling these markets. Digital financial services take on many forms, including long-distance remittances, micropayments, and other mobile financial services such as digital banking, digital transfers, and digital payments. Social networks, webs of social ties that bind individuals together based on factors such as friendships, common interests, and shared professional activities become even more dynamic when they evolve into social ecosystems, which are complex forms of overlapping social ties that interact with others in other social networks at the same or different times. Our research context is the fast-expanding markets of Ghana and Kenya. Digitisation in these markets has opened up several marketing opportunities in multiple tech hubs, working spaces, and accelerators that provide innovation, creativity, and entrepreneurship in order to ensure sustainability. To answer our research question, we first conducted rigorous and systematic secondary research to expose key constructs related to the goals of profitability and digitisation of financial services firms. We followed up with a qualitative study in the form of phenomenological interviews conducted with 15 dyads of financial services providers and their microenterprise customers in Ghana and some microenterprises in Kenya. We contribute to the upscaling framework for financial services to meet the dual goals of profitability and social sustainability.

Esi A. Elliot, Robert E. Hinson, Anthony Annan, Martin J. Eppler
Chapter 3. The Role of African Founded Firms in the Growth of the Digital Economy

The internet and the plethora of economic activities that it enables assumed a high degree of importance during the Covid 19 pandemic as e-Commerce, logistics, taxi-hailing, and media and entertainment were conducted digitally. The digital economy now contributes substantially to the gross domestic product of several developed countries. In Africa, access to the internet and the digital economy it facilitates, are still comparatively small but have gathered greater impetus in recent years. The main thesis of this chapter is that African Founded Firms (AFF) played a significant role in developing the digital infrastructure that has increased access to the internet. Additionally, African Founded Firms are the main providers of digital services. Using mainly secondary data, the chapter examines the policies and investments that have facilitated the birth, growth, and expansion of the digital economy in Africa. The findings reveal that African Founded Firms are the main drivers of the digital economy as they lead in investments in digital infrastructure and various digital services that include digital platforms, edtech, fintech, healthtech start-ups, while their investments have made Africa the premier region for mobile money adoption. The clear implication for policy makers is to develop strategies that will support the growth and expansion of African Founded Firms.

Ebimo Amungo
Chapter 4. Case StudiesCase studies

As The People’s Republic of China has become more accessible to Western scholars, evidence has mounted that the country suffers from a wide range of upper-class criminality. Some features unique to the country, such as its numerous state-owned enterprises, exacerbate the problem. In China, SOEs represent a sizable part of the overall economy; there are 109 Chinese corporations listed on the Fortune Global 500, but only 15% are privately owned. The effects of white-collar and corporate crime mirror those of street crime; profit-seeking behavior can result in both financial loss and violence for victims. Though just as injurious, strained system capacity makes detecting and sanctioning major financial crimes more difficult. The following summaries of known cases of lawbreaking from information contained in both domestic and international media accounts over the past 20 years highlight these points in the causation and reactions to various forms of offending, which are also categorized by crime type.

Adam K. Ghazi-Tehrani, Henry N. Pontell

Open Access

Financial Systems in the Digital Age: Perspectives from Europe and Japan

Despite the global nature of finance, the institutions and business of finance have until today retained national features that are clearly discernible.

Markus Heckel, Franz Waldenberger

Open Access

Digital Currencies and the Future of Money

Most countries now share an established model of providing money to the economy through a two-tiered structureModern Monetary systemtwo-tiered structure, which consists of a central bank and commercial banks. The future of the monetary system will necessarily be shaped by both public and private initiatives, and to issue private-based and two-layered digital currencies denominated by sovereign currency units can be a promising option.

Hiromi Yamaoka

Open Access

Chapter 20. Promises, Social, and Ethical Challenges with Biometrics in Remote Identity Onboarding

Issuance of identity documentsIdentity Document (ID) has commonly relied on face-to-face customer onboarding. Checking a person's physical presence and appearance has been an essential part of identity enrolling procedures to avoid the risk of identity forgeryIdentity forgery. Yet, several weaknesses, including face morphing attacksFace morphing attack, have been identified in document issuing processes. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, increasing international mobility, and a greater focus on user convenience, established onboarding rules and procedures have been disrupted. Solutions are being sought which would eliminate the barriers that stem from physical distance while offering at least equal or even better onboarding processes than in-person identity verification. Recently, novel remote onboarding solutions have appeared on the market. They vary from human-assisted video identification procedures to biometricBiometrics-based automated verification procedures. The main social and ethical issues with biometricsBiometrics in remote identity onboarding are (1) the risk of harming integrity of personal identity and misuse of it; (2) the risk of privacy invasion and function creep; (3) ethical issues that are raising from algorithmically driven actions and decisions; and (4) public perception and social acceptance of technology. These non-technical requirements need to be addressed in developing identity verification technologies based on biometrical algorithms and security techniques.

Katrin Laas-Mikko, Tarmo Kalvet, Robert Derevski, Marek Tiits
Chapter 6. Big Data and Its Implication in China

The big data is a new conception in Informational Technology (IT) field. However, the application of big data has changed the Internet industry with its unique value. The government of China realized the value of big data in early phase then supported the development of big data with several measures. Hence, the big data industry has seen rapid development for the past years and played an important role during the COVID-19. Based on the prevention system led by the central government of China, big data from different parts were combined in one platform to track the infection source, epidemical research and economic recovery in China. The applications during the COVID-19 will be great fertilizer for the development of big data in China in forming a model for application of big data. However, the constitution of model of big data will be the most important challenges in the opportunities brought by big data.

Zuquan He, Jinling Hua, Bismark Adu Gyamfi, Rajib Shaw
Real-time Face Recognition System for Remote Employee Tracking

During the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the human-to-human interactions have been stopped. To mitigate the spread of deadly coronavirus, many offices took the initiative so that the employees can work from home. But, tracking the employees and finding out if they are really performing what they were supposed to turn out to be a serious challenge for all the companies and organizations who are facilitating “work from home.” To deal with the challenge effectively, we came up with a solution to track the employees with face recognition. We have been testing this system experimentally for our office. To train the face recognition module, we used FaceNet with KNN using the Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) dataset and achieved 97.8% accuracy. We integrated the trained model into our central system, where the employees log their time. In this paper, we discuss in brief the system we have been experimenting with and the pros and cons of the system.

Mohammad Sabik Irbaz, MD Abdullah Al Nasim, Refat E Ferdous

Open Access

Chapter 1. Introduction: Digitalization as a Driver of the Contemporary Economy

Milena Ratajczak-Mrozek and Paweł Marszałek discuss how digitalization and digital technologies are impacting markets, firms and financial institutions. They stress the need for adopting the interdisciplinary (taking into account not only economic, but also legal and social dimensions) approach in research on digitalization, as such approach provides a comprehensive view of the process, its manifestations, features and impact. The authors also identify six channels through which digitalization has had an impact on the economy. They argue that digitalization may be considered in the context of both challenges and opportunities set by digital technologies for business models and business operations and markets, as well as the main driver of growth and competitiveness for markets and firms/businesses. In this context, the authors introduce 10 chapters of the book and present the links between different level of analysis—micro, mezzo and macro.

Paweł Marszałek, Milena Ratajczak-Mrozek
Chapter 9. East Asia and East Africa: Different Ways to Digitalize Payments

Financial digitalization has led to a global payment revolution. M-payment is one of the essential digital payment methods, and it increases the efficiency of financial and economic activities, especially in developing countries. This chapter presents different development paths and adoption models of m-payment in East Asia and East Africa. China and South Korea are examples of third-party platform-led mobile payment models; Japan is an example of a bank-based mobile payment model; while East African countries originally implemented a mobile operator-led model, before moving toward a hybrid model with the greater involvement of banks and mobile operators. The chapter rounds off with some concluding remarks and reflections on other world regions.

Qing XU
5. Digital Transformation of the Omni-personal Customer Journey

In this chapter, we derive a new omni-personal model to examine the transformation during the customer’s journey along the awareness, engagement, conversion, fulfillment and loyalty phases, up to the ultimate question of how to base that transformation on data. Here, you will also find omni-personal use cases and insights gained through experience and interviews with industry leaders.

Rebecca Schmitt, Arnaud Rossi, Albert Bensoussan
Kapitel 27. Growth Equity Funds: Unlocking Value for Both Innovators and Investors

Young enterprises seeking capital often have a choice among various sources – from business angels to government grants to private equity. The picture changes when companies have reached a phase where they have grown and plan to expand organically (e.g., grow into new markets) or inorganically (through acquisitions), which also means facing new challenges. Then, financing tends to be much more difficult to come by – despite the fact that growth-stage investing can be particularly rewarding. Specialized growth equity funds fill this gap. In addition to organizing the capital so urgently needed by growth-stage companies, they work closely with management teams to further develop their business. Leveraging their expertise and contact network, they make decisive contributions to ensuring that the value creation potential is captured, and growth is put on a solid footing. Management receives practical support and investors benefit from high returns with an attractive risk profile.

Patrick Beitel, Felix Freudenberg, Julian Mattes
Solar Energy Radiation Forecasting Method

After the oil crisis in 1973, the planet has got to believe requirement of alternative source of energy aside from conventional energy resources. Watching out the current situation, it is becoming important to increase the electricity generation using renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, tidal, biomass, hydropower, and wave energy. Solar energy among these energy sources has a lot of potential for producing electricity. As a result, in order to make effective use of energy PV systems, it is important to accurate forecasting of solar energy because it is intermittent, less reliable, and site specific. Accurate solar forecasting is necessary for the proper performance, planning, and managing of electric power produced by stand-alone photo voltaic plants and interconnected solar power plants. Here in this chapter, a detailed analysis of the techniques used to forecast solar irradiance is presented. This method help to choose the correct forecasting methodology as required. All important parameters and finding of models are given in tabular model. It also discusses the effect of climatic variables, forecasting horizons, decomposition technique on the performance of the model. This research founds that neural network-based models perform better than other forecasting techniques in simulating various complex problems, and that their accuracy can be further enhanced by combining the two models or performing preprocessing on the input data. The performance analysis of these methods outperforms the traditional method. This chapter also discusses the metric used to evaluate the efficiency of forecasted model.

Anuj Gupta, Kapil Gupta, Sumit Saroha
10. Nairobi Innovation System

Africa, especially the sub-Saharan region, is a hot spot of “frugal innovation,” which focuses on technology that meets the market’s needs. While this sounds trivial, frugal technology’s precise alignment to specific needs is unlike industrialized Western nations, where products come with hundreds of surplus features that consumers will never be able to use. As an illustrative example of this overfeaturing, it would clearly be overkill for a consumer intending to get some fresh milk from the farmer around the corner to buy a Ferrari to drive there.The high-speed undersea Internet cable arrived in Kenya in 2009 and, combined with increasingly affordable mobile phones, meant that ordinary Kenyans had consistent access to high-speed Internet on mobile devices. This access drove the demand for the applications and infrastructure development that connected Kenyans to the rest of the world. Companies like Safaricom, Jamii Telecommunications, and Zuku have joined the government in efforts to spread fiber connectivity. Companies like Fireside Communications bring last-mile connectivity to Kenyans across the country.

Linet Kwamboka Nyang’au, Ludovit Garzik
7. Building the Full Data Awareness Capability of “Digital Twins”

The IT systems of the informatization era are essentially function-based, siloed, and enclosed, and can be used only by a small number of trained professionals within an enterprise. We trust these IT systems and rely on them to guide decision-making, but these are systems in which all data is entered manually. So what if someone makes a mistake?

Yun Ma, Hao Du
4. Geschäftsprozessmanagement und Anwendungssysteme

Das Kapitel befasst sich mit den Bereichen Geschäftsprozessmanagement und Anwendungssysteme. Nach einer Einführung in die Thematik wird in ► Abschn. 4.2 auf Geschäftsprozesse und deren Modellierung eingegangen. Dabei wird dargestellt, wie Prozesse und Modelle im Rahmen dieses Buches definiert werden. Es werden sowohl der Nutzen als auch die Voraussetzungen zur Modellierung von Geschäftsprozessen und verschiedene Methoden der Prozessmodellierung erläutert. Im Anschluss an diese theoretischen Grundlagen zur Modellierung von Geschäftsprozessen werden praxisnahe Notationssprachen vorgestellt. Die Modellierungssprache BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) wird eingeführt und ihre Elemente veranschaulicht. Mit Hilfe von Anwendungsbeispielen werden die Grundlagen geschaffen, mit denen der Leser dieses Buchs in der Lage sein wird, selbstständig Geschäftsprozesse in abstrahierter Form grafisch darzustellen, zu dokumentieren und zu analysieren. Voraussetzung dafür ist das Verständnis des ARIS-Modells, um die Zusammenhänge zwischen der Modellierung von Geschäftsprozessen und den betrieblichen Informationssystemen erkennen zu können. Im nächsten Schritt werden Referenzmodelle thematisiert und Beispiele für diese geliefert. Danach wird mit dem Thema Process Mining eine neue Entwicklung in Forschung und Praxis präsentiert, die Prozessforschung und Methoden des Data Mining kombiniert. In ► Abschn. 4.5 werden daraufhin Anwendungssysteme vorgestellt. Dabei werden branchenspezifische und branchenneutrale (operative) Anwendungssysteme sowie Managementinformationssysteme und Entscheidungsunterstützungssysteme beschrieben. In ► Abschn. 4.6 liegt das Hauptaugenmerk auf Anwendungssystemen in der Praxis.

Jan Marco Leimeister
Euros from the Heart: Exploring Digital Money Gifts in Intimate Relationships

Advances in financial technology open up new ways to exchange gifts in personal relationships across distance. Digitally transmitted monetary gifts are particularly relevant in our mobile centric lifestyle. As is widely known money has cultural restrictions in intimate exchange and is limited in its emotional appeal. Previous research in HCI studied currently practiced digital money gifts, their use, and technological developments. In this paper, we contribute by exploring plausible futures of such trends in intimate relationships with two speculative design scenarios, PregMoments and FriendBit. We conducted a series of focus group interviews to understand people’s underlying values and concerns. The results underline a concern about the change in intimate relationships by the more efficient forms of exchange and its increased adoption. We found five key themes that need to be addressed to deepen intimacy: ‘spent time and thought’, ‘get-together’, ‘intensified emotions’, ‘memory’, and a ‘distinction from the commercial’.

Freya Probst, Hyosun Kwon, Cees de Bont
Adapting Constraint Solving to Automatically Analyze UPI Protocols

UPI (Unified Payment Interface) is a system in India for electronic payment using mobile phones. Here, a group of UPI servers act as intermediaries between customers, merchants and banks. Customers can register themselves to UPI servers using registration protocols and send the details of payments using payment protocols. Recently, these registration protocols were shown to have exploitable flaws using manual analysis [24]. However, automatic analysis is very much desirable, since manual inspection may not reveal all flaws in protocols, as often observed. With this motivation, we have developed and implemented a technique using the Constraint Solver tool for cryptographic protocol analysis [22] (which is based on Guttman-Thayer-Herzog’s strand space framework [29]) to automatically analyze UPI protocols. In this paper, we explain the technique and illustrate our implementation.

Sreekanth Malladi, Jonathan Millen
Chapter 4. Technological and Financial Integration in the BRI

As early as 1990, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) defined the concept of human development in the first Human Development Report, shifting development thinking and strategies away from excessive preoccupation with economic growth: “Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. The most critical ones are to lead a long and healthy life, to be educated, and to enjoy a decent standard of living. If these essential choices are not available, many other opportunities remain inaccessible” (UNDP, 1990: 10).

Li Sheng, Dmitri Felix do Nascimento
Theoretical Aspects and Practical Tools of Smart City Concept Implementation

Today, the concept of creating a “smart city” has become widespread, but ist practical implementation might differ from city to city. The paper presents the content of the “smart city” concept, the author's proposals for the definition of “smart city” are given. It is shown that in some large cities the necessary conditions have already been created for the introduction of some digital economy elements and innovative technologies into the urban space. It has been substantiated that clusters contribute to the creation of innovations for “smart cities”. Examples of real tools for the “smart cities"creation are presented.

L. V. Ivanenko, A. S. Zotova, A. A. Chudaeva
Kapitel 5. Digitalisierung: Weg zum Next-Generation-Banking

Die Digitalisierung hält auf vielfältige Weise Einzug in die Finanzindustrie: Neue Marktteilnehmer (Fintechs und Internetkonzerne) strömen auf den Markt und besetzen mit innovativen Ideen und benutzerfreundlichen Technologien klassische Geschäftsbereiche von Banken. Das induziert und verstärkt Kostendruck und Ertragsverfall. Um diesen Herausforderungen zu begegnen, kommt dem Innovationsmanagement von Banken und Finanzdienstleistern zentrale Bedeutung zu.

Heinz Benölken

Open Access

Chapter 2. Dualism and Development

Historical ‘source’ of dualism in Indonesia is first discussed, with a particular emphasis on the relevance of Boeke’s concept of dualism. Despite the presence of various policies to address the issue, the inequality between regions in the country is large by international standard. The productivity gap of micro-small enterprises and large businesses are also stark. As policy goals tend to be ambiguous, some proposed measures are not well received by the MSMEs.

Iwan J. Azis
Demonstration + Natural Language: Multimodal Interfaces for GUI-Based Interactive Task Learning Agents

We summarize our past five years of work on designing, building, and studying Sugilite, an interactive task learning agent that can learn new tasks and relevant associated concepts interactively from the user’s natural language instructions and demonstrations leveraging the graphical user interfaces (GUIs) of third-party mobile apps. Through its multi-modal and mixed-initiative approaches for Human-AI interaction, Sugilite made important contributions in improving the usability, applicability, generalizability, flexibility, robustness, and shareability of interactive task learning agents. Sugilite also represents a new human-AI interaction paradigm for interactive task learning, where it uses existing app GUIs as a medium for users to communicate their intents with an AI agent instead of the interfaces for users to interact with the underlying computing services. In this chapter, we describe the Sugilite system, explain the design and implementation of its key features, and show a prototype in the form of a conversational assistant on Android.

Toby Jia-Jun Li, Tom M. Mitchell, Brad A. Myers
An Empirical Study on Mobile Payment Credential Leaks and Their Exploits

Recently, mobile apps increasingly integrate with payment services, enabling the user to pay orders with a third-party payment service provider, namely Cashier. During the payment process, both the app and Cashier rely on some credentials to secure the service. Despite the importance, many developers tend to overlook the protection of payment credentials and inadvertently expose them to the wild. Such leaks severely affect the security of end-users and the merchants associated with the apps, resulting in privacy violations and actual financial loss. In this paper, we study the payment credential leaks for four top-tiered Cashiers that serve over one billion users and tens of millions of merchants globally. Through studying practical mobile payment systems, we identify new leaking sources of payment credentials and find 4 types of exploits with severe consequences, which are caused by the credential leaks and additional implementation flaws. Besides, we design an automatic tool, PayKeyMiner, and use it to discover around 20,000 leaked payment credentials, affecting thousands of apps. We have reported our findings to the Cashiers. All of them have confirmed the issue and pledged to notify the affected merchant apps, while some of these apps have updated the leaked payment credentials afterward.

Shangcheng Shi, Xianbo Wang, Kyle Zeng, Ronghai Yang, Wing Cheong Lau
Chapter 9. US–China Tech Wars: Shaping Africa’s Agency

This chapter discusses the growing digitalization and increasing use of AI tools against the backdrop of geopolitical contestations between America and China, and asks questions about the likely impact of this tech war on Africa’s digital pathways. The chapter contends that African governments should strenuously safeguard their right to choose from the broadest possible range of foreign policy partners and technology options that suit their countries’ digital needs, including 5G networks, based on objective criteria that serve their development needs rather than the interests of foreign suppliers. Importantly, African countries need to build robust digital infrastructure and upgrade human capital if they want to integrate meaningfully in the global economy.

Mzukisi Qobo
Chapter 14. A Study on the Factors Affecting Intention of Using Online Banking Services in Vietnam

Online banking services have become a new type of banking service and been used widely. However, there is limited knowledge about consumer behavior in Vietnam because it is a complicated socio-technical phenomenon and involves many factors. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the main factors affecting the intention to use online banking services in Vietnam. The proposed research model is based on the extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM) with new factors including perceived risk, brand image, user innovativeness, and government support. Based on valid collection from 356 online banking users, the data were processed using SPSS including descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s alpha, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and regression analysis. The results show that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, brand image, user innovativeness, and government support have a positive impact on customers’ intention to use online banking services, while perceived risk has a negative influence. These results can help online banking service providers implement their user development strategies as well as become references for related research in the future.

Van Phuc Le, Song Huong Do, Hoang Ngoc Linh Nguyen
Chapter 35. An Empirical Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Switching Intention from Cash Payment to Mobile Payment in Vietnam

Mobile payment with huge advantages in the independence of time and location offers customers faster, safer, and easier payment experience than traditional methods. However, before accepting innovation technology, users must decide to continue paying by the current method or switching to one of its substitutes. To understand the main determinants that affect customers’ switching intention from cash payment to mobile payment in Vietnam, this study illustrates a conceptual model that combined the technology acceptance model (TAM) and push–pull–mooring (PPM) framework. The results show that alternative attractiveness is the most impact pull factor, followed by mobility. Regarding push factors, low satisfaction and inconvenience of cash payment have great influences on both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Finally, regarding mooring effects, personal innovativeness has the significant influence on perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and switching intention, whereas perceived risk has a negative influence and the effect of mobile payment knowledge is not confirmed. Moreover, the relationships between the variables are influenced only by habit, while the impact of switching cost is not found.

Thao An Tran, Yen Vinh Thi Tran
Chapter 3. A Taxonomy of FinTech Innovation

This chapter provides a detailed overview of the importance of innovation in the financial sector and highlights key areas of FinTech growth. It is divided into two main parts. In Part 1: Introduction to Innovation we begin by outlining an important role for innovation in driving economic change, based on the seminal work of (Schumpeter, J. A. (1939). Business cycles (Vol. 1, pp. 161–174). New York: McGraw-Hill.) and his concept of ‘circular flow’, which attempts to explain how innovation can be a driver of economic change. Having established a theoretical importance for innovation as a harbinger of economic change and development, it then proceeds to discuss the role of innovation in the financial industry including the main drivers of innovation and channels through which innovation can improve economic welfare. In Part 2: A Taxonomy of FinTech Innovation based on Patents. the second half of the chapter focuses on identifying and discussing the major areas of FinTech based innovation. We begin by identifying key area of FinTech development based on worldwide patents filed with the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). From the patents data we identify four broad areas of FinTech development and then proceed to discuss FinTech development within these four areas.

James Bowden, Timothy King, Dimitrios Koutmos, Tiago Loncan, Francesco Saverio Stentella Lopes
Digitalization Strategy in the BRICS Countries: Towards the Partnership

The scale of the global digital economy is huge, and in the future the process of economic integration will be dominated by knowledge-intensive technologies and IT industries. The world's largest international organisations and economic powers are actively responding to the trend of the digital economy by constantly suggesting and updating their policies and directions for the development of the digital economy. BRICS is a representative group of the largest emerging economies in the world?Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. These countries are actively developing the transition to a digital economy and improving national information and communication technology infrastructure. This study focuses on the strategy and policies for developing the digital economy in the BRICS countries. The aim of the study is to develop a set of strategies for international cooperation on the digital economy within the BRICS framework. The results of the study show the common features and differences in the digitalisation process of the BRICS countries, allowing for the development of comprehensive measures to support BRICS activities in this area. The practice-oriented recommendations consider such options as improvement of domestic development, maintenance of equitable multilateral dialogue, promotion of research on the BRICS digital economy and addressing non-traditional security issues in the development of the digital economy in the post-pandemic period.

Jingcheng Li, Sergey Pogodin, Ekaterina Vasilyeva
A Security Data Sharing Model for Cloud Network

With the continuous development and wide application of cloud computing technology, its security threats are also increasing, especially in data security sharing and user privacy security protection. Therefore, it is very necessary to establish a security and reliable data sharing model. Combined with blockchain technology, this paper proposes a security data sharing model for cloud network. Blockchain has the characteristics of non-forgery and traceability. By storing the user identity information into the blockchain, not only the authentication efficiency of the user identity can be improved, but also the security of the data sharing system can be improved. At the same time, bilinear mapping and attribute signature technology are used to realize mutual authentication among different entities in domains, secure data sharing and secure interoperability among domains are protected. In addition, the sharing model has the characteristics of low network delay, supporting massive data access and elastic infrastructure. After proof and analysis, the scheme has better security and performance than other references.

Kunyuan Zhao, Qikun Zhang, Yimeng Wu, Liang Zhu, Hongfei Zhu, Ruifang Wang
Chapter 2. Scientific and Technological Supervision of Artificial Intelligence

The deep integration of science and technology with finance carries both huge potential benefits and a new set of risks, which heighten the vulnerability of the financial industry. The wide application of science and technology brings novel challenges to financial supervision, while at the same time providing new technical ideas and solutions to enhance supervision efficiency and improve supervision level. In the context of the rapid development of financial technology, the continuous emergence of financial innovation formats, the alienation of traditional financial risks, and the appearance of new financial risks have presented more, and higher, requirements for China’s financial supervision. Meanwhile, China’s financial regulators have faced severe challenges due to a series of problems, such as the mismatch between regulatory responsibility and regulatory resources, insufficient regulatory technical means, regulatory lag behind financial innovation, and regulatory arbitrage. In order to improve the supervision means of financial regulators and enhance the level of financial supervision, we need to use “science and technology + regulation” to deal with the challenges brought by “science and technology + finance”.

Dawei Zhao, Wenting Zhang
Chapter 4. Smart Payment in China

The change of payment mode from barter to natural currency, to paper money and today’s e-payment, is a progressive process that continuously improves transaction efficiency on the premise of security and reliability. Today, with the rapid development of information science and technology, what will be the next innovation of payment mode? Already, artificial intelligence has penetrated deeply and extensively into all levels of payment, and is continuously evolving towards further intelligence and diversification. It plays a vital role in elevating payment efficiency, improving user experience, and implementing financial regulation.

Dawei Zhao, Wenting Zhang
Chapter 5. Opportunities, Risks, and Breakdowns Brought by AI to Commercial Banks

Since the coining of the term “Artificial Intelligence” (AI), its definition scope has evolved from an application program with pre-set rules of logic, to a technology that simulates human cognitive function. The goal of AI is to allow computers to imitate human intelligence, perception, thinking, and action, so as to achieve automation and gain analytical insights. To imitate human intelligence, AI applications adopt two methods: rule-based and non-rule-based algorithms. Rule-based AI uses pre-set rules to “learn”, while non-rule-based AI uses machine learning algorithms to “learn” and a trained AI model to “think”. The key driving force for the development of AI is the huge increase of available data and the great improvement of computing power in traditional computers and mobile devices, as well as the continuous development of machine learning algorithms. Commercial banks conduct large numbers of customer capital transactions, and hold large amounts of account management information. The application of AI in commercial banks will effectively improve the retail service level, enhance customer experience, and alleviate difficulties such as “financial disintermediation” and fierce market competition, or become the next profit growth point of commercial banks.

Dawei Zhao, Wenting Zhang
5. Are You Still Buying or Are You Already “Influencing”?: Trade 4.0

The degree of AI use is already particularly high in the retail sector. There, it is already endangering traditional economic structures and thus also causing far-reaching social implications. Critics are already talking about platform capitalism, which will shrink the world to a global shopping village with a reduced range of goods. Others remain confident that variant consumption will be preserved in the non-AI sector.

Günter Cisek
Chapter 6. The Supply-Chain Ecosystem of a Firm

This chapter, which is mainly based on (Forrest et al., 2019, Proceedings of the 2019 annual conference of decision sciences institute, New Orleans, LA), investigates holistically such a business system that consists of market invitations, the ecosystem of a focal firm’s supply chain, the firm’s innovative recognition of the market signals, and challenges consequently imposed on the ecosystem. By employing the thinking logic and methodology of systems science, we establish a series of general conclusions regarding innovative firms’ internal and environmental challenges. In particular, we show that a firm’s upstream component challenges and downstream complement challenges place respectively a cap on how much “value” the firm can create and capture. Thus, the more capable a focal firm is at identifying these challenges, the more adept this firm will be in creating and sustaining marketplace advantage as well as imposing greater challenges on its ecosystem. A firm’s strong capability to learn and act accordingly is, in itself, an advantage. Upon the conclusion of our analysis, practical managerial significance of this chapter and open questions for future research are given.

Jeffrey Yi-Lin Forrest, Yong Liu
Dual-Layer Barcodes

With the emergence of mobile networks and smartphones, Quick Response Code (QR Code) has been widely used in many scenes in life, e.g. mobile payments, advertisement, and product traceability. However, when the encoded information of QR Codes is leaked, the QR Codes can be easily copied, which increases the risk of mobile payment and the difficulty of product traceability. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a novel approach to expand the information channels of QR Code based on invisible data hiding. The proposed architecture consists of an information encoder to hide messages into QR Codes while maintaining the original appearances of the QR codes and an information decoder to extract the hidden messages. To make the hidden messages detectable by smartphones, we use a series of noise layers to process the encoder output between the end-to-end training of the encoder and the decoder. The noise layers simulate the general distortions caused by camera imaging, e.g. noise, blur, JPEG compression, and light reflection. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve a high decoding accuracy of the hidden messages without affecting the decoding rate of the QR Codes used as the containers.

Kang Fu, Jun Jia, Guangtao Zhai
Tiny-FASNet: A Tiny Face Anti-spoofing Method Based on Tiny Module

Face Anti-spoofing (FAS) has arisen as one of the essential issues in face recognition systems. The existing deep learning FAS methods have achieved outstanding performance, but most of them are too complex to be deployed in embedded devices. Therefore, a tiny single modality FAS method (Tiny-FASNet) is proposed. First, to reduce the complexity, the tiny module is presented to simulate fully convolution operations. Specifically, some intrinsic features extracted by convolution are used to generate more features through cheap linear transformations. Besides, a simplified streaming module is proposed to keep more spatial structure information for FAS task. All models are trained and tested on depth images. The proposed model achieves 0.0034(ACER), 0.9990(TPR@FPR = 10E–2), and 0.9860(TPR@FPR = 10E–3) on CASIA-SURF dataset only with 0.018M parameters and 12.25M FLOPS. Extensive evaluations in two publicly available datasets (CASIA-SURF and CASIA-SURF CeFA) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Ce Li, Enbing Chang, Fenghua Liu, Shuxing Xuan, Jie Zhang, Tian Wang
Impact of Internet of Things on Logistics Management: A Framework for Logistics Information System

A logistics is the movement of goods and services in supply chain to provide facilities and distribution options of movement of products, information of products, and distribution of products from suppliers to customers. The new Industry 5.0 has a positive impact on the performance of the logistics. Logistics information system is a root of supply chain to collect the information related to products and track the information and services related to the products in a supply chain manner. A sound logistics information system can lead to cost reduction and can also improve customer satisfaction. However, research on IoT adoption in logistics is acceptance of IoT into supply chain services in specific has been rhetoric. IoT creates far-reaching payoffs for all the operations of logistics among the suppliers and customers. This benefit extends across the entire logistics information system, including inventory, transportation, and delivery system with better efficiency, security, and safety. This chapter is drawn upon the organizational capability theory for developing effects of IoT on logistics management and in turn improves logistics information system as well as organizational performance.

Shivani Dubey, Vikas Singhal
Chapter 2. Cities in the XXI Century. Main Challenges Technology Tackles

We are going to study the fundamental cities challenges in the XXI century that can and must be faced with technology. We will begin by studying the urbanization process and the role of technology in urban transformation. We will investigate the role of the city as a catalyst for human creativity and talent. We will discover how talent is a constant associated with industrial revolutions and its contribution to the success and prosperity of the city. Each fundamental challenge will be studied on the basis of its importance and the impact that technologies may have in facing and solving them.

José A. Ondiviela
White-Box ECDSA: Challenges and Existing Solutions

White-box cryptography aims to protect secret keys when an algorithm is to be executed in an exposed environment, possibly fully controlled by an attacker. While this field enjoys a significant interest from researchers, a large majority of works focus on block ciphers, and asymmetric cryptography has been very little studied to date. This is in contrast with actual needs and usages by the industry. Indeed, most commercial white-box solutions offer asymmetric cryptography, and most notably the ECDSA signature. This paper provides a deeper comprehension on the challenges of such white-box ECDSA implementations. In particular, we highlight the existence of particularly devastating attacks, induced for instance by the lack of a reliable source of randomness in the white-box context. We also give an insight into the actual strategies for securing products in the field. To this end, we analyse the sole source of information – which is the patents filled by companies – and discuss how they respond to existing threats.

Emmanuelle Dottax, Christophe Giraud, Agathe Houzelot
Chapter 8. Harnessing Digital Financial Solutions

Digital financial solutions come in many forms such as electronic vouchers through mobile devices or cards, debit cards, prepaid bank cards and mobile phone-based wallets etc.…. They are increasingly being used in humanitarian settings to provide financial services to crisis-affected populations. Furthermore, they also help crisis-affected populations receive aid faster after a crisis occurs. This chapter will explore the opportunities of using digital financial solutions in humanitarian contexts.

Maram Ahmed
SECURITY AND PRIVACY ISSUES RELATED TO QUICK RESPONSE CODES

Quick response codes are widely used for tagging products, sharing information and making digital payments due to their robustness against distortion, error correction features and small size. As the adoption and popularity of quick response codes have grown, so have the associated security and privacy concerns. This chapter discusses advancements in quick response codes and the major security and privacy issues related to quick response codes.

Pulkit Garg, Saheb Chhabra, Gaurav Gupta, Garima Gupta, Monika Gupta
Chapter 6. Construction of the 5GtoB Success Factor System

As a next-generation mobile communications technology, 5G brings higher rates, shorter latency, and more connections than 4G. It not only significantly improves the capabilities of mobile Internet services, but also taps into the Internet of Things (IoT) field to enable people-to-people, people-to-things, and things-to-things communications, creating a new era of the connectivity of everything. Focusing on three application scenarios—enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC), and Massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC)—5G will provide a 20 Gbps access rate, millisecond-level latency, and hundreds of billions of connections, ultra-high traffic and connection density, and 100-fold improvement in network energy efficiency.

Pengfei Sun
Diffusion and Adoption of E-wallets in Oman for Sustainable Growth

The economic development of countries is relying on efficient payment systems and this is considered as the backbone of every financial system (Ligon et al., 2019). The current modern day’s innovation on payment system has led to mobile wallets and it can be viewed as the digital version of the physical transactions (Fenchi et al., 2018). The Central Bank of Oman is infusing technological innovations in the existing payment system by increasing demand for banking activities which is demonstrating healthy growth and subsequent regulatory changes (KPMG, 2019). Nevertheless, the studies have stated that the adoption of e-wallet in Oman is still in growing phase but there is disparity among the users. Hence, this study aims to understand the factors which will contribute to the users’ attitude toward e-wallet and intentions to use them. More specifically, this study explores the factors influencing the e-wallet adoption. The qualitative data for the exploratory study was collected through focus group interviews. The outcome of the study to know more about the present scenario of the e-wallet to the various stakeholders such as service providers, businesses, banks, customers and government support them to eliminate the resistance factors of its adoption in order to enhance this payment platform to a more appropriate level.

Gopalakrishnan Chinnasamy, Preeti Shrivastava, Nitha Siju
The Role of the Digital Economy in the Management System of Service Organizations

Purpose: The essence of personnel management in a modern organization is defined; the purpose is to study the essence of modern technologies for effective personnel management;—to analyze the development and the problem of recruitment process managing in the digital economy;—to consider methods and models of personnel management in the digital economy. Methods: The main methods of providing higher-performance incentives for employees of service enterprises are considered. The head of enterprises’ activity on staff motivation, development of activities for its improvement is studied. Results and Conclusions: The role of the digital economy in the management system of service organizations are highlighted. The survey results of restaurant business employees in Nizhny Novgorod are presented. The examples of information technologies in the field of restaurant business and types of main activities are given. The methods of employee motivation using information technologies by the head of enterprises in the organization of restaurant business are considered. The incentive means for employees are considered.

Zhanna V. Smirnova, Olga V. Golubeva, Zhanna V. Chaykina, Mariia V. Mukhina, Svetlana N. Kaznacheeva
Chapter 2. Market Overview for Livestreaming E-Commerce

This chapter gives a comprehensive introduction to the technical and social environment of livestreaming e-commerce as well as government policies and regulations concerning the industry. Based on the 5G infrastructure, advanced technologies such as UHD, 3D audio, VR and AR will provide an immersive experience for users watching livestreaming. Also, people's home isolation during the pandemic in 2020 promotes the prosperity of online entertainment and consumption industries. Livestreaming e-commerce develops rapidly. At the end of this chapter, the author gives an overview of China’s livestreaming e-commerce market. According to official data, not only the industry grows fast, but the profitability of livestreaming e-commerce has also been verified in practice.

Ruo Si
Financial Inclusion in Developing Countries: Applying Financial Technology as a Panacea

Traditional banking methods of addressing the problem of financial inclusion in developing countries are not working efficiently. As it is becoming obvious, opening operational and functional banking business offices in many developing countries is not a financially viable option. Banking offices need an enormous amount of resources, equipment, and personnel to run efficiently. In most developing countries where low income is the norm rather than the exceptions, it is not possible to sustain a policy objective that employs the use of banking offices to address the problem of financial inclusion. Such initiative could start out well; however, the possibility of sustainability is called into question. Thus, whatever meaningful gains have been garnered from such policy will be reversed or lost over time. To address the financial inclusion problem, financial technology offers the instrument, tools, and mechanism to drive financial inclusion in ways traditional methods of banking cannot. Financial technology offers cost-effective and cheaper means of driving financial development. This chapter suggests that financial technology should be used as a means of driving financial development in developing countries as it offers a more sustainable and cost-effective solution to the problem of financial inclusion. Developing countries should embrace, adopt, and adapt financial technologies to address their financial development issues.

Araniyar Isukul, Ben Tantua
Symbolic “Entrance” Effects of IoT: Portable Cosmetics Commerce behind the Deep-Link of web.3.0—A Case Study of Social Media Platform Store

With the growing preponderance of social media in marketing, the IT advancement of Web 3.0 tends to reinforce the function of digital platforms upon social media. In following with prosperity of a rapidly thriving E-commerce with massive-scale B2C and B2B electronic platforms in China, the Chinese entrepreneurs are now seeking greater opportunities to combine B2C and B2B to develop a new integrative business model ushering in a brand-new consuming ecology. Through the case study of the mini-program built-in the Chinese social media application, WeChat, this research presents a conceptual framework to examine how the IT infrastructure has specific capabilities in terms of its reinforcement on the deep-link function of social media platforms. The purpose of the research is to examine how technology brings forth an impact on a commercial model. Drawing on the results of qualitative data generated from the analysis of technical documentation, business reports, as well as observations and interviews, the research first presents the logic and innovative business operation that Chinese entrepreneurs use on the basis of social data and personalization to create a new commercial model in practice. It is found that the up-to-the-minute application, “applets,” invented to embed in WeChat, can be privileged in deriving the huge number of existing users from the most powerful Chinese social media. Finally, it analyzes the specific role of applets service in establishing start-up online and offline commerce. It is concluded by inquiring whether this emerging techno-commercial platform could be a successful new retail plus networking e-commerce model in the future.

Hsin-Pey Peng
Chapter 1. Rebalancing Asia: Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and Indo-Pacific Strategy (IPS)

“Belt and Road Initiative”, also known as “yi dai yi lu”, is a twenty-first century silk road that is made up of an overland and maritime corridor. According to Green Belt and Road Initiative Center, as of 2021, there are 140 countries part of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), spread across all continents which include 40 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, 34 in Europe and Central Asia, 25 from East Asia and Pacific and 41 countries from the Middle East, North Africa, Latin America, Caribbean and South East Asia. The Chinese President Xi Jinping in 2013 stated that such a network would expand the international use of Chinese currency, the Renminbi (RMB), and “break the bottleneck in Asian connectivity.

Pramod Jaiswal, Deepak Prakash Bhatt
Modeling and Verification of Contactless Mobile Banking System in E-Banking Using SPIN

During this prevailing generation of the digital world, mobile users are multiplying globally by leaps and bounds. A mobile banking system is an electronic channel for Electronic Banking (E-Banking) all over the world. The utility of mobile banking systems has become one of the innovations to transform financial institutions from the traditional to the digital world with all the banking services. However, financial institutions do not provide enhanced banking services and electronic cheques using the mobile banking system globally. This paper proposes a new contactless mobile banking system (C-MBS) that integrates enhanced banking services with novel functions like electronic cheques, registration of the user, and cancellation of the user account included in the model. This paper develops an extended finite state machine model with parameters, variables, and constraints for C-MBS. This paper also develops a verification model of C-MBS with system properties specified utilizing process meta language (PROMELA) and security properties applying linear temporal logic (LTL). A simple promela interpreter (SPIN) is employed to verify the verification model of C-MBS. SPIN verification results confirm that the proposed C-MBS model is free from deadlocks and errors. Hence, the financial institutions can implement this model as a secure enhanced mobile banking system in E-banking. Banking users can use the enhanced banking services remotely using C-MBS on mobile and will play a significant role towards a cashless society in the digital world.

Tej Narayan Thakur, Noriaki Yoshiura
The Use of Psychometrics and Artificial Intelligence in Alternative Finance

The fourth industrial revolution is changing all aspects of work and society through technological evolution that blurs the boundaries between physical, digital, and biological systems (Schwab 2017). Because of the far-reaching nature of these transformations, the regulated banking and financial service system is increasingly unable to fulfil their traditional roles of connecting corporate borrowers and private investors. Alternative finance (FinTech) start-ups draw the largest benefits from the ongoing changes since they are relatively more flexible than the incumbents and can act more freely outside the strict regulations imposed on the incumbents. They use disruptive innovation—novel business models, products, or organisational advantages to ensure their lead in a niche, which has the potential to take over the whole industry. Psychometrics and artificial intelligence lie at the core of this disruptive force. These developments result in intimate connections between humans and machine, and customers and companies. This article covers some of the ongoing changes in society, technology, and in the financial industry. The authors argue that it is not important to collect more data but better use the existing data. Algorithms of the future might do better to focus on what to forget than on what to predict.

Peter Romero, Stephen Fitz
Credit Card Fraud Detection Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Fraud: Fraud is any activity that causes financial loss to any other person. With the advancement of technology in the modern era, fraud related to credit card is continuously increasing. Credit card frauds are costing a huge amount of dollars to the customers. Nowadays, scammers are continuously finding new ways to do the scams. Also, to minimize the credit card fraud losses, different types of systems have been developed which detect frauds. We have to make a highly sensitive and powerful fraud detection system up to such an extent that it detects the fraud even before it takes place and in a sequential and exact manner. In this paper, we have mentioned three important algorithms, namely Isolation Forest, Support Vector Machine and Local Outlier Factor for credit card fraud detection. Also, we have discussed methodologies used in all three algorithms as mentioned above. We have also discussed the applications of the fraud detection system and how it will be implemented in the future.

Mudita Sharma, Harshita Sharma, Pawan Bhutani, Ira Sharma
Intelligent Service Robot for High-Speed Railway Passengers

With the rapid development of road traffic, the number of high-speed rail passengers is huge, and the flow of people is dense. In epidemic situation, it is prone to intensive infection in high-speed rail carriages, which is not conducive to national prevention and control work. Based on face recognition technology, the intelligent service robot for high-speed rail passengers walks in accordance with the set route and detects the face mask of high-speed rail passengers. The face database of high-speed rail passengers is compared in real time. The passengers who do not wear masks are reminded in time to reduce the risk of infection. Moreover, the robot can accurately remind the passengers of leaving the station in time, and has the functions of automatic selling and student ticket checking. The experimental result is shown to promote the further development of high-speed rail services.

Ruyu Sheng, Yanqing Wang, Longfei Huang
Study on the Influencing Factors and Countermeasures of Tourism Development in Sanya City Based on Grey Relational Analysis

The development of tourism is closely related to Sanya’s economic growth. In this paper, the correlation between tourism development and economic growth in Sanya city is studied. It was first measured with grey correlation analysis. Then, tourism factors in Sanya was indicated, including tourism foreign exchange income, total value of accommodation and catering, the number of A-level and above scenic spots, tourism turnover, overnight domestic tourists, total passenger flow of airport and railway station and other factors. It is found that these factors have a significant impact on the output value of tourism in Sanya City. The analytical results show that tourism factors and economic growth in Sanya city is highly correlated. Improvement measures are put forward accordingly.

Yuanhui Li, Dan Luo, Lei Chen, Dan Ren, Xia Liu
Using Wearable Fitness Trackers to Detect COVID-19?!

Wearable Fitness Trackers (WFTs) could both lead to healthier lifestyles and be suitable for tracking infectious diseases. However, though they have existed for many years they are still not prevalent. We developed a research model which was theoretically embedded in technology acceptance research, then analyzed the data collected through a survey of 207 WFT users and non-users. Our findings suggest that, in respect to both users and non-users, perceived value is the strongest driver of usage intention. Furthermore, we found significant differences between male and female participants. Unfortunately, we were not able to confirm a relation between Covid-19 awareness and WFT usage intention. Our study provides relevant findings to manufacturers and insights into the consumer WFT needs.

Christina Gross, Wladimir Wenner, Richard Lackes
Chapter 4. Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship

One of the challenges for Malaysia is to be an entrepreneurship development nation. This requires many knowledge entrepreneurs in various fields related to industries as well as innovation in the field of entrepreneurship. Based on a literature theory in economic development, it demonstrates the integration of evolutionary theory and the innovation system approach assigns a principal role to the entrepreneur in the process of economic development. The dissemination, use, and creation of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship are discussed. The modern-day economy is knowledge-intensive, and hence knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship can occur in all sectors and countries. This chapter explains knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship theory, sectors/services in the context of Malaysia including the Malaysia government approach in order to support small business enterprises.

Farahwahida bt Mohd @ Abu Bakar
Chapter 5. Fintechs

After the microfinance background, examined in Chapter 2 , the microfinance issues, illustrated in Chapter 3 , the impact of technology on microfinance (investigated in Chapter 4 ), this chapter analyzes FinTechs to show if and how their business models can be incorporated in traditional microfinance patterns to scale them up. The main FinTech features are described considering their adaptation to microfinance issues and targets.

Roberto Moro-Visconti
12. Auf dem Weg zum kassenlosen Geschäft
Innovationen in der Kassenzone im Lebensmitteleinzelhandel mit Beispielen aus China und Deutschland

Seit der tief greifenden Änderung hin zu Selbstbedienungsläden ab den 1960er-Jahren in Deutschland hat sich an der grundsätzlichen Einkaufsumgebung im Lebensmitteleinzelhandel wenig verändert. Doch in Anbetracht der nicht bestreitbaren Stärken des Online-Lebensmittelhandels muss sich der stationäre Handel seiner Stärken und Schwächen bewusst sein. Großes Potenzial liegt dabei in der Kassenzone, in welcher neben der Warenerfassung auch der Bezahlvorgang stattfindet – oftmals unter Einsatz von Wartezeiten für die Kunden und Personal seitens der Geschäfte. In China gibt es in der Transformation der stationären Lebensmittelgeschäfte bereits innovative Ansätze; die Händler treffen dabei allerdings auch auf Konsumentinnen und Konsumenten mit einer technologisch anderen Ausgangssituation. Der Beitrag betrachtet die stationäre Einkaufsumgebung für Lebensmittel in Deutschland und China. Dabei wird die Kassenzone analysiert und anhand von Beispielen beurteilt, welches Konzept dem der 1960er-Jahre folgen kann.

Franz-Josef Möller, Sebastian Hofreiter
11. Einsatz und Akzeptanz von Technologien im chinesischen Einzelhandel

Buchautomaten von Reclam oder Filialen mit mobilen Einkaufsassistenten – das hört sich für deutsche Kunden nach Zukunftsmusik an? Tatsächlich gab es diese und andere Handelsinnovationen in Deutschland bereits vor Jahrzehnten. Betrachtet man den aktuellen Einzelhandel in Deutschland, der Schweiz und Österreich scheint jedoch die Welt fast stehengeblieben zu sein. Anders sieht es in China aus, wo zahlreiche Handelsunternehmen in neueste Retail-Technologien investiert haben. Der Beitrag befasst sich mit dem Status quo und den Perspektiven von Handelstechnologien in China und leitet daraus abschließend Implikationen für Handelsunternehmen im deutschsprachigen Raum ab.

Doreén Pick, Daniel Müller
6. Corona-Pandemie – Krise oder Chance für Innovation und die deutsch-chinesische Zusammenarbeit? Ansichten deutscher und chinesischer Experten

Der Ausbruch der Coronavirus-Pandemie hat starke Auswirkungen auf die globale Wirtschaft, Unternehmen, Familien und Einzelpersonen in unterschiedlichen Ländern. Wirkt sich die Corona-Pandemie auch auf die deutsch-chinesische Beziehung und Zusammenarbeit aus? Was können beide Seiten tun, um diesen Herausforderungen zu begegnen? Hat uns die Krise kreativer und innovativer gemacht? Um diese Fragen zu beantworten, wurden in der vorliegenden Studie insgesamt sieben deutsche und chinesische Expertinnen und Experten aus Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft durch halbstrukturierte Interviews befragt. Die Experten aus beiden Ländern sehen die Corona-Pandemie überwiegend als Treiber der Innovation und bilateralen Zusammenarbeit. Darüber hinaus geben sie Vorschläge, was Deutschland und China tun sollten, um mit den durch die Corona-Krise entstandenen Herausforderungen umzugehen. Implikationen für die deutsch-chinesische Kompetenzentwicklung hinsichtlich Innovation werden abgeleitet und diskutiert

Min Tang, Chun Wen
What is the Right Home Delivery Option for Your Online Shopping?

Although retailers and logistics service providers offer various last mile delivery options, the level of individualisation regarding integrating consumer demands and expectations for home delivery is currently low. In order to offer such individualised delivery options, it is necessary to understand consumers' home delivery needs and wants. Accordingly, this paper examines consumer preferences regarding delivery options, focusing on online grocery retailing using a discrete choice experiment approach. Our results show that consumers can derive high benefits from the individualization of delivery options, especially in the areas of vehicle type and place of delivery. Also, packaging and delivery time are relevant delivery options for consumers but considered to be less useful than transport vehicles and place of delivery, while consumers do not prefer the selection of a time window on the day of delivery.

Sandra Luttermann, Caroline Buschmann, Michael Freitag, Herbert Kotzab, Jonas Tiggemann, Markus Trapp, Martin Weßling
Chapter 1. When, Why & How: The Growth of Airbnb Around the World

The rapid growth of the so-called sharing economy in recent years has challenged traditional economies in many countries around the globe

Christof Pforr, Michael Volgger, Sara Cavalcanti Marques, Aji Cahya Nusantara
Chapter 12. Operating Mechanism of Sharing Economy

The operating mechanism usually refers to the constraint relationships between the internal components of a system, or the mutual influences and interactions between elements of a system. To make a healthy development of a system not only requires a complete structure but also requires a set of rules to ensure its stable operation.

Prof. Yuming Zhang
Chapter 10. Characteristics of Sharing Economy

The sharing economy is the product of the development of Internet technology and human culture. This economic model aims at reducing costs and improving resource allocation. Because of its arrival, the traditional industries are facing the crisis that the economic model has been subverted, and people’s lifestyles are gradually being rewritten.

Prof. Yuming Zhang
1. History of China’s Internet Philanthropy

Throughout the development of the Internet in China, any progress made in Internet technology has always affected the development of Internet philanthropy in a variety of ways. This chapter looks at the three stages of Internet development as a means of analyzing the changes undergone by Internet philanthropy during its emergence, then proceeds to summarize ten milestones in its development.

Yidan Chen
8. Japan: From Government Supervision to Shared Governance

Most of the traditional philanthropic undertakings in Japan are initiated and dominated by the ruling class and religious belief. Given the influence of the Internet and encouragement from the government, Internet philanthropy projects led by Japanese enterprises have begun to take shape. There remain, however, some limitations to the Internet philanthropy of Japan, such as the low proportion of individual donations and a lack of depth in philanthropic projects.

Yidan Chen
4. The Activated Businesses and Public

With the development of the Internet, enterprises in traditional industries have found new ways of facilitating philanthropic behavior, and the new Internet enterprises that stem from the Internet are innately philanthropic in nature. Personal donation and daily micro-philanthropy, both of which have been greatly impacted by Internet philanthropy, are also promoting the development of a new era of philanthropy.

Yidan Chen
3. Philanthropic Civil Society Organizations’ “Labor Pains” and “Transformation”

As a vital part of philanthropic activities, civil society organizations have been influenced and changed due to the rapid development of the Internet. Under the impact of the Internet, traditional public funds have broken free from their organizational limits and regained their energetic image. In turn, we have also seen a proliferation of public funds that adhere to the new organizational mode.

Yidan Chen
2. The Rise of Online Fundraising Information Platforms

Driven by the major earthquake that struck Wenchuan in 2008 and the promulgation of the Charity Law of the People’s Republic of China, many major Chinese Internet companies have launched their own Internet fundraising information platforms. Using Sina, Tencent, Alibaba, JD.com , and Didi Chuxing as case studies, this chapter examines the unique Internet philanthropy projects that these Chinese companies have launched.

Yidan Chen
The Impact of Culture on Visual Design Perception

This paper questions the concept of universal users, taking a first step in looking at design perception differences between cultures, opening a discussion about culture in the context of HCI and more specifically interface interaction. This is done through a short study assessing participants from 3 cultures and their perception of interface by looking at 3 mobile payment applications with the help of remote eye-tracking technology (iMotions), and AI predictive analysis software (EyeQuant). Results show considerable differences between the two software solutions as well as between cultures, diverging in preference over text vs icons, with little consistent patterns as ground for speculation further than what the data shows.

Ioana D. Visescu
Cash is King, Isn’t It? Payment Preferences and Switching Intentions of German Customers

In China, the traditional wallet with cash and credit cards is a distant memory as everything is done through the same app: WeChat. In Germany going out cashless and the idea of paying for coffee with the smartphone seems – at least partly – like science fiction, although research shows that cash is considered “inconvenient”. Starting from a reflection on the two diametrically opposed examples, we attempt to firstly investigate the current payment preferences of German customers, before we secondly elaborate aspects regarding switching to alternative payment methods, i.e., mobile payments. We are wondering: Why do German customers prefer cash payments? and Which factors could affect the switch from cash to mobile payment methods for German customers? To answer these questions, we conducted a three-round Delphi study with eight experts and found, for example, that cash is still preferred because it is more practical as it is accepted by every merchant in Germany. Regarding the switching intentions, one major finding is that large retailers and other key players need to adopt mobile payments as their preferred system, so that customers can become more familiar with it.

Matthias Murawski, Serena Scomparin, Markus Bick
Artificial Intelligence Fostering Fintech: Emerging Trends and Use Cases

Artificial Intelligence has disrupted the Financial Services Industry. The emerging innovations such as, machine learning, artificial intelligence, cryptocurrency, and data mining leave no financial institutions across the globe untouched. These advances have profoundly predisposed several facets of financial markets like investments, transfers, billings, rewards, insurance, remittances, underwriting etc. Fintech companies were the early adopters of these AI powered innovations to promote greater budgetary awareness, human life development, improved decision-making, and more. This paper explores the growth of Fintech in India, its associated challenges, and the opportunities emerging from high penetration, demographic dividend and connectivity to modern and affordable technology, low smartphone rates, and public policies like Digital India, Make in India, etc. Through uses cases of Artificial Intelligence, the paper also elaborates how Artificial Intelligence fosters fintech companies. Lastly, this paper suggests strategies that may help practitioners and researchers to tap the untapped potentials of Fintech in India.

Ruchika Gupta, Gagan Kukreja, Anish Gupta, Lalit Tyagi
1. The Digital Economy

The digital economy has emerged as an integral part of the world economy. This chapter defines the concept of digital economy and provides examples illustrating the extent and versatility of this branch of economic theory. The existence of the digital economy depends entirely on the evolution of the information and communication technology (ICT) and has created some of the largest companies in the world. This technological evolution started in the 1950s and continues until today. Key evolutions include the user adoption of the Internet and mobile technologies. The academic field of digital economics has many sub-categories, such as the platform economy and the attention economy.

Harald Øverby, Jan Arild Audestad
Chapter 5. Accommodation & Food Services

Tourism industries, inclusive of the accommodation and food services [AFS] sector, are considered one of the main drivers of economic growth in Australia. Tourism industries collectively contributed over $100 billion to Australia’s GDP and employed nearly one million people in 2019. One of the emergent issues associated with tourism industries is the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) and the impacts of transformative digital technologies. Globally, it has been rightfully pointed out that digital technologies have advanced rapidly in recent years and are now considered as game-changers for tourism industries. However, although the business-centric view of digital opportunities associated with the 4IR has received significant attention, the policy-centric examination of the 4IR and tourism industries nexus remain under the radar in Australia. This chapter responds to this gap and draws on the three pillars of the Automation Readiness Index (EIU 2018a, b) – innovation, education and employment policies landscapes – in order to explore the challenges and the potential way forward for the AFS sector within tourism industries.

Subas P. Dhakal
Chapter 7. The Rule of Law in Human Rights: For the Purpose of Safeguarding Human Dignity
Jianwen Zhao, Qian Sun, Renwen Liu, Huawen Liu, Yiming Wang
Chapter 3. Essays

Digital voice assistants, also referred to as conversational agents, are revolutionizing our access to web content and our usage of technologies such as smart home devices. In the first three quarters of 2017, more than 17 million smart speakers were delivered worldwide, and another 16 million were delivered during the holiday season. This development indicates a substantial shift in web content usage and reception behavior.

Katja Wagner
Kapitel 3. Intelligent Retail

Im intelligenten Einzelhandel geht es insgesamt um fünf zentrale Themen, die den Handel der Zukunft prägen. Zuallererst sind die Basisvoraussetzungen zu schaffen, die ein datenbasiertes Arbeiten ermöglichen. Dieses wiederum erlaubt den Einsatz von Künstlicher Intelligenz (KI) und damit kundendatenbasiertes One-to-One-Marketing. Um damit überhaupt arbeiten zu können, bedarf es einer intelligenten Mitarbeiterqualifizierung und -rekrutierung. Qualifizierte Mitarbeiter werden auch für eine digitale Supply Chain sowie die zukunftsfähige Geschäftsmodellierung inklusive Entwicklung von Smart Stores benötigt. Digitalbasierte Läden ermöglichen auch digitalisierte Shoppingcenter. Im Endeffekt geht es um „Kanal egal“ als höchste Evolutionsstufe des stationären Einzelhandels.

Gerrit Heinemann
Vom Königreich der Fahrräder zur Share Economy und warum die Generation der Millennials ein entscheidender Faktor ist
Wie Technologie und Share Economy als Chance für Chinas Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft angenommen werden

Fahrräder spielten in China seit ihrer Erfindung eine große Rolle. Eines zu besitzen war der Inbegriff eines modernen Lebens in einer aufstrebenden Gesellschaft. Heute sind Fahrräder zu digitalen Geräten geworden, sie sind Teil einer Share Economy geworden. Besonders in China hat sich diese Form des Teilens von Gütern stark entwickelt. Der chinesische Präsident Xi Jinping, lobte die Expansion der Sharing Economy als „neue treibende Kraft für die Wirtschaft“. Durch Technologie wird die Share Economy die chinesische Gesellschaft weiter vorantreiben. Es werden neue Wege der Ressourcennutzung entstehen und Ressourcenschonung tritt in den Blickpunkt.

Tobias Loitsch
Towards a Smart Megacity: Hong Kong and Shenzhen

The Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province of China contains some of the fastest growing cities in the world. Enjoying locational advantage as a gateway to China, the cities in the region favor the biggest investments, trade and growth. Having long been a transshipment port in its colonial period, Hong Kong grew rapidly between the 1960s and 1990s with development of industry and manufacturing, and established itself as an international financial hub. Just across the border, Shenzhen experienced exponential growth since its designation as a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in 1980 as a result of China’s economic reform and “open door” policy starting in 1978, attracting Hong Kong and foreign investments that enabled the development of its manufacturing sector and more recently its tech sector. Instead of competing with each other, as neighboring cities Hong Kong and Shenzhen can be viewed together as a megacity within the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA). With their complementing population, skills and economy, the integration towards a megacity with smart thinking would bring greater synergies and benefits to the two cities. This section assesses the two cities with the Smart and Sustainable City Framework and examines how Hong Kong and Shenzhen viewed together as a smart megacity would benefit both cities and is better for the people as well and could also help drive the smart and sustainable development of the GBA. Following the assessment and analysis, suggestions as to how the two cities can collaborate further on various aspects including physical, socio-economic, environmental, community and administrative integration are also addressed briefly. As the “one country, two systems” of Hong Kong as a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China is set to expire in 2047, the integration will not only result in more collaboration between the two cities, but a much smoother transition after 2047.

Sujata S. Govada, Hei Lau, Suhasini Kotala
Exploring Influencing Factors for M-payment Apps Uses in the Indian Context

Purpose This paper aims to understand the effect of enjoyment (ENJ), facilitating condition (FC), mobility (MOB), collaboration and trust in developing a positive attitude for Indian customers to use m-payment apps. Methodology The study proposed a new paradigm on the grounds of extended technology acceptance model (TAM). By using structural equation modeling (SEM), the frameworks were empirically examined on responses from 328 respondents. Findings—The empirical results indicate that five factors—collaboration, enjoyment, facilitating condition, mobility and trust, positively affect the consumer’s attitude for using m-payment services. However, it has been found that the collaboration and trust construct have no direct impact on the attitude to use m-payment apps. Research limitations/implications—The study highlights the significance of these other variables that are critical when it comes to using m-payment apps to identify buyer behaviour. The study will, therefore, guide for all m-payment service providers to develop their services accordingly.

Ashish Kumar Singh, Madhvendra Pratap Singh
10. Holistic, Multifaceted, and Citizen-Centric Smart Taipei Strategies

TPMO, as the bridge between city government and industry to improve Smart Taipei.Taipei City has a vision of livability and takes promoting smart city as a driving force. Therefore, “Smart City” is not a noun but a verb and is seen as a method to solve city challenges, meet the needs of citizens, and improve the quality of municipal services, to make Taipei City develop toward a livable city.The promotion of the smart city in Taipei CityTaipei Citymission and position of is in accordance with the policies and objectives of the city’s governance strategy. Through the innovation of mechanism, with citizens as the main part and combining the power of citizens and communities, together with the opportunities opened up by the public sector, information technology and innovation will be brought into the public sector, so that departments of Taipei City, private enterprises, start-ups, academic institutions, communities, and citizens can participate together and keep communicating with stakeholders and choose appropriate technology service solutions. Taipei City therefore will be enabled to make continuous progress under rapid environmental changes (Fig. 1).

Chen-Yu Lee, Taipei Smart City Project Mangement Office (TPMO)
Preamble Selection and Allocation Algorithm Based on Q Learning

Machine-type Communication (MTC) is one of the three typical scenarios of 5G cellular communication network and is supposed to support connection density of 1 million devices per square kilometer. Random access initiated by such a large amount of devices may lead to congestion, conflicts and packet loss. This work designed a Q-learning-based dynamic preamble allocation scheme to solve the overload problem caused by large-scale MTC devices. The core enhancement considered in this work is Early Data Transmission (EDT) mechanism. MTC devices were divided into two groups of delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant according to the maximum delay tolerance of the services. Some of the preamble resources were pre-reserved for Delay-Sensitive Devices (DSD). Each DSD selected a preamble randomly from the pre-reserved set and performed EDT. Each Delay-Tolerant Device (DTD) selected a preamble randomly from the rest of the preambles and performed normal 4-step random access procedure. The number of elements in the pre-reserved set was dynamically adjusted using Q-learning algorithm according to the successful access proportion of the two types of devices. And then the base station would update and broadcast the service types which were permitted to use EDT. Simulation results show that the scheme proposed in this work improves the successful access proportion and meet the delay requirement of DSDs, and guarantees the throughput of the system at the same time.

Weibo Yuan, Yun Zang, Lei Zhang
Chapter 10. Societal Outcomes of Fintech

The previous chapters have discussed several issues of financial companies—incumbents and startups, as well as topics on financial consumers and customers. Whether the fintech can be considered an incremental or radical innovation, the implications are clear in that a complete industry has mutated after the financial crisis of 2008 that permeated many countries around the world. This crisis was the first symptom of the wider impact of fintech on the society at large. By broadening the perspective beyond the business realm, this chapter analyzes the impact of the fintech ecosystem on societal issues. Challenges and pending issues to address are also discussed to understand critical understanding of the financial problems that arise and managers can pose and provide contributions to society.

Pável Reyes-Mercado
A Transaction Model of Bill Service Based on Blockchain

In recent years, the bill business has developed rapidly, but it can not be ignored that there are also great risks in the bill business. In 2016, an Agricultural Bank of China (ABC) Bill case involving 3.9 billion yuan of paper swap with newspapers has aroused widespread social concern. At present, there are many problems in the traditional bill trading platform: Firstly, the transaction process is not transparent, and there are trust problems, which makes the bill circulation complicated and the cooperation efficiency low. Secondly, the paper-based bill is easy to be damaged and replaced in the process of delivery and storage, and there is a high operational risk. What’s more, paper bills are often unable to be handed over in time, providing loopholes for illegal activities such as empty-shell commercial bills and excessive sales of one bill. In order to deal with these problems, we need a new type of bill trading model without trust problems. As a new database technology, blockchain technology has the characteristics of distributed storage, consistent algorithm, intelligent contract, asymmetric encryption and so on, which can effectively solve the trust and security problems existing in the bill trading service platform. In view of the above research, firstly we briefly introduce the bill business process. After the demand analysis, the bill service transaction model based on blockchain is designed. Finally, by building the fabric blockchain platform and coding the smart contract, the model of the electronic bill transaction service based on the blockchain is realized. This model realizes bill issuance, endorsement transfer, discounting services on the blockchain platform.

Xinyan Wang, Jianxun Guo, Dong Li, Xin Chen, Kailin Wang
Optimizing Data Placement in Multi-cloud Environments Considering Data Temperature

Most data in the real world have spatial and temporal attributes, and some other essential data attributes also have temporal and spatial variability. In the research field of cloud and edge computing, these features always have great impact on data placement and task scheduling. However, these critical spatiotemporal features have been largely ignored by existing studies. To this end, this work firstly synthesizes data popularity, geographical location distribution and other spatiotemporal features to abstract the definition of data temperature, and a temperature calculation model is proposed to reflect the spatiotemporal correlation and variation trend. Then, we put forward a multi-cloud dynamic storage strategy considering data temperature to improve service quality and reflect the value of data temperature. Experiments are performed to evaluate the proposed strategy, which can effectively reduce the total cost and improve data availability.

Pengwei Wang, Yi Wei, Zhaohui Zhang
Chapter 11. Threat Modeling and IoT Attack Surfaces

According to NIST, “IoT involves the connection between humans, non-human physical objects, and cyber objects, enabling monitoring, automation, and decision making.” In today’s world, IoT and cloud are ruling the world of automation. Internet of Things is otherwise known by the name of the Internet of Everything. The IoT device refers to web-enabled computing devices and capability sensing, collecting, and sending data using sensors and communications hardware processors embedded in the machine. The IoT device types have been categorized as implanted on natural, Man-made or machine-made objects and can communicate over the network. Security of the IoT devices and data traveled between IoT devices are more vulnerable to attacks. This chapter covers the real-time security tools and techniques to attack the IoT devices to defend against them by building a holistic view of the aggregated analytics layer. The secure reference architecture presents various layers in it, which can be followed by best practices that how weakness must rectify in constraint devices. The next aspect is the vulnerability security management of IoT environment. Network fencing is a complex issue to ensure end-to-end communication, which should not deviate from the security standards. Exploitation can be performed to steal the data or make outage of the large enterprise comprehensive data protection and stringent access mechanism to protect the devices from malicious attacks.

S. Raja, S. S. Manikandasaran, Rajesh Doss
The Impact of Wechat Red Packet Feature at Achieving Users Satisfaction and Loyalty: Wechat Users in China

WeChat has become an essential social media platform in China. This research investigates the importance of the WeChat Red packet as a motivator at achieving user’s satisfaction and loyalty in China. To investigate its impact, and factors that attribute to its popularity and acceptability, we extended technology acceptance model (TAM), in addition to the main model factors, “perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use” our proposed model include, perceived trust, perceived security, and perceived entertainment. The questionnaire was designed, and SPSS was used for the analysis. The research results provide insight into how WeChat Red Packet can motivate users and build their satisfaction to improve their loyalty which in turn increases WeChat users’. These results have future implication and practice for research.

Kamal Abubker Abrahim Sleiman, Lan Juanli, Xiangyu Cai, Wang Yubo, Lei Hongzhen, Ru Liu
Kapitel 5. Clientseitige Architektur

Julia, unsere UI Entwicklerinclientseitige Architektur \b, führtArchitekturclientseitige das Team gerne in die Möglichkeiten der clientseitigen Architektur ein: „Die Interaktion zwischen Menschen und Computer ist komplex und benötigt einen gut abgestimmten Entwurf. Gerne gebe ich einen Überblick über die aktuellen Arten von Client Devices und deren Betriebssysteme. Dann vertiefen wir uns in die unterschiedlichen Technologien der Web Apps einerseits und der installierbaren Apps andererseits.

Hansruedi Tremp
Chapter 4. Proposition of Value and Fintech Organizations in Banking 5.0

This chapter deals with the products and services supplied or potentially offered by financial institutions within the framework of banking 5.0. The chapter analyzes new types of financial institutions: challengers, neo banks, open banking, and especially fintech organizations. The second part of this chapter examines financial institutions’ new services, such as instant payments, mobile wallets, request to pay, and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) banking. The chapter uses a method based on a distinction between new value-adding services based on the technologies used and new services based on better serving the customer. Banking 5.0 draws particular attention to sustainable banking. Sustainable banking integrates environmental, social, and governance (ESG) criteria into banking. It sets ESG as a critical goal also for banking. Banking decisions used to be based on a two-dimension risk and return analysis. In sustainable banking, decisions rely on three dimensions: risk, return, and ESG impacts.

Bernardo Nicoletti
Chapter 3. Business Model Philosophy in Banking 5.0

Any innovation needs to start with a vision of what the organization strategy should be. Banking 5.0 is no exception. This book calls this vision the philosophy of the banking 5.0 transformation. This chapter considers this philosophy and details the steps to define and implement it. The roadmap is essential for assuring the success of the initiative.This chapter also details the critical success factors of a banking 5.0 transition to be successful. Attention is given to the innovation acceptance model to consider all the factors that assure the chosen business model’s acceptance by the customers and the organization.

Bernardo Nicoletti
Research on Cross-channel Switch Behavior of Users from Smart Government APP to Government Service Platform Under PPM Framework

Based on the Resource Dependence Theory and Network Externality Theory, this paper discusses the influencing factors and mechanism of users’ switch from smart government apps on mobile to government service platform on computer. A conceptual model of switch behaviors was constructed by the PPM framework (Push-Pull-Mooring, push-pull-anchor). So as to provide inspiration for exploring the trend of smart government and assisting the integration and utilization of government digital resources.

Siyuan Wu, Yuwen Wang, Guochao Peng
13. Ran an den Kunden – So wird die Customer Journey zum Erfolgstrip

Die digitalen Technologien revolutionieren nicht nur die Art und Weise, wie Unternehmen arbeiten, sie beeinflussen auch grundlegend die Rolle des Marketings. Denn der Kunde hat sich fundamental verändert; sowohl in seiner Entscheidungsfindung als auch in seinen Erwartungen an die Hersteller, Produkte und Dienstleister. Diese Revolution gilt im Consumer-Bereich ebenso wie im B2B-Sektor. Was Mitarbeiter in ihrer Freizeit zu schätzen gelernt haben, möchten sie in der Businesswelt nicht mehr missen. Damit erlangt Marketing Automation eine zentrale Bedeutung. Produktinformationen allein genügen schon lange nicht mehr, um Kunden langfristig für sich zu gewinnen. Um die Customer Journey zum Erfolgstrip zu machen, ist mehr notwendig. Was das ist, erfahren Sie im nachfolgenden Beitrag.

Roger Voland
Research on Smart Shopping Cart Modeling Design Based on Kansei Engineering

With the continuous development of intelligent technologies such as the Internet of Things, traditional supermarkets are also constantly exploring new ways of retailing. The smart shopping cart is a corresponding innovation. Through market and literature research, it is found that the existing design research of smart shopping cart focuses too much on the integration and implementation of technology, without fully considering the aesthetic and emotional needs of users for modeling. In this paper, the modeling design of the smart shopping cart is mainly based on the design method of Kansei Engineering. Firstly, the design positioning of the smart shopping cart is determined, that is, consumers aged 18–35 in large supermarkets are taken as the target users. Secondly, related product databases and perceptual vocabulary databases were established. After screening 40 groups of perceptual vocabulary by KJ method, 6 groups of vocabulary were obtained. Then the SD method is used to conduct a questionnaire survey on users. Finally, by drawing the intention scale map and analyzing the data, the three design elements of “simple and simple”, “light and large capacity” and “friendly streamline” were summarized. Combined with the functional requirements and ergonomics, the shape design was carried out. Finally, the design practice was recognized by design experts and the public through the survey of satisfaction. This study is an effective practice and exploration of Kansei Engineering design methods, providing new design ideas for the development of the smart shopping cart industry, and further improving the competitiveness and user experience of supermarkets.

Junnan Ye, Menglan Wang, Siyao Zhu, Jingyang Wang, Xu Liu
Annoyed to Discontinue: Factors Influencing (Dis)Continuance of Using Activity Tracking Wearables

What influences the continued usage of activity tracking wearables? Several studies investigated the acceptance of activity tracking technologies, but the reasons for a continued usage or abandonment of this technology are rarely addressed. This study is focusing on current and former users of activity tracking wearables and their different perceptions of the technology. For this purpose, an online survey was conducted and a convenience sample of 235 valid cases was obtained. Factors potentially influencing the continued usage included age, gender, community feeling, motivation, design, or perceived data sensitivity.

Kaja J. Fietkiewicz, Aylin Ilhan
A Comparative Analysis of Attention to Facial Recognition Payment Between China and South Korea: A News Analysis Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

Facial Recognition Payment (FRP) is a new method of digital payment that recently gained popularity in China and South Korea. As of October 2019, although the number of users in China has exceeded 100 million, few studies have focused on this, and media coverage of FRP has not been adequately studied. Therefore, this study examines news articles using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling to compare FRP related news in China and South Korea. The data of China comes from WeChat Public Platform, and the data of South Korea comes from Naver. Chinese search keywords is “人脸识别支付” (facial recognition payment), South Korea’s search key word is “안면 인식 결제” (facial recognition payment).Through data cleaning and comparative analysis, each subject is given an description and category, and the differences in 5 aspects of safety concern, application, development, technology and representative products are obtained. The rapid adoption of FRP in China can be explained by a lower public concern of personal information protection and the direct offering of FRP services to independent vendors by market leader Alipay. In South Korea, however, the increased public concern around privacy plays a key role in slower adoption, together with the dominance of franchise stores in the consumer market. It puts forward the suggestion for China and South Korea to learn from each other and for those other countries and enterprises striving to develop and utilize FRP.

ShaoPeng Che, Dongyan Nan, Pim Kamphuis, Jang Hyun Kim
Chapter 10. Consumption: Mainstay of the Economy and Key Driver of Growth

Consumption is a significant source to meet the demand of people for better life. The main task is to adapt to the transformation of our society’s principal tension, expand consumption, and improve consumption quality. Consumption, investment, and net export are called the three engines driving the economic growth. Nevertheless, the functions of each engine are changing subtly. Consumption is surpassing investment in the contribution to economic growth. Therefore, it is becoming the most important force in driving the economic growth, and is playing the role of stabilizer and ballast of China’s economic growth.

Shaohua Yi, Guiyang Xu
Remote Evaluation in Universal Design Using Video Conferencing Systems During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Usability and accessibility evaluations with diverse users are an essential part of an iterative universal design process for digital solutions. The COVID-19 pandemic has made it difficult to run traditional local evaluations due to social distancing restrictions to reduce infections. Remote synchronous and asynchronous evaluation methods may be a solution if it can be used by various user groups, including people with impairments. Incorporating video conferencing systems into traditional remote evaluations can be a valuable supplement to—or, given the current situation, alternative to—traditional usability and accessibility evaluations. We present a protocol for remote formative usability evaluations designed with accessibility in mind. The protocol explains how to prepare for an evaluation and its technical setup, how to conduct synchronous evaluations using video conferencing systems, and how to debrief and analyze the collected data. We tested this protocol in a pilot study for an ongoing project where we ran both synchronous and asynchronous remote evaluations. In our pilot, the synchronous evaluation using video conferencing systems provided opportunities for richer qualitative data than the asynchronous evaluation as we ran it. The findings from the pilot study indicate that the protocol is feasible and can be used when having participants with diverse abilities or impairments. We also provide suggestions for others that wish to adapt the protocol.

Joschua Thomas Simon-Liedtke, Way Kiat Bong, Trenton Schulz, Kristin Skeide Fuglerud
Structure-Behavior Coalescence Method for Mobile Payment FinTech Service Systems Design

The core theme of systems engineering is a modeling language with model consistency of static systems structure and dynamic systems behavior. In this research, we developed Channel-Based Multi-Queue Structure-Behavior Coalescence Process Algebra (C-M-SBC-PA) as the formal language for the model singularity of the mobile payment FinTech service systems design. In C-M-SBC-PA, a sole diagram is adopted to describe the syntax and semantics of the design of the service system. Overall, the model consistency will be fully guaranteed in the mobile payment FinTech service systems design when the C-M-SBC-PA method is used.

Wei-Ming Ma, Yu-Chen Yang, William S. Chao
Mobile Wallet Adoption: Does Ubiquity Make a Difference?

Smartphones have become versatile in their functionality, including providing an alternate method of contactless payment. Mobile wallets have become popular, and this popularity is expected to continue to grow. Enticements such as convenience and efficiency have led some to adopt mobile wallets. However, challenges and apprehensions of adoption still exist. Our research investigates potential factors influencing adoption of mobile wallets in USA and Canada and explores the differences between the two countries. We utilize Diffusion of Innovation Theory and extend it to include ubiquity to understand important factors of mobile wallet adoption. Our survey findings suggest that relative advantage, results demonstrability, and ubiquity are influential factors for mobile wallet adoption, except for females in the USA. Complexity, however, was not significant. Trialability was only marginally significant for the USA and compatibility had mixed effects. Our results provide guidance to practitioners regarding factors to consider in their endeavors to understand and expand mobile wallet adoption, as well as suggesting avenues for future research.

Norman Shaw, Brenda Eschenbrenner
Transferring Customers Trust and Loyalty on Offline Banks Towards Online Payment Platforms in Integrated Ecosystem

Cashless society is becoming popular due to the advanced development of technology. The ubiquity of mobile payment is astounding. Consumers have shifting from physical to mobile payment, making payment process more convenient and seamlessness. This paper is exploring the possibility of transferring customers trust and loyalty on offline banks to online payment platforms. Customers can extend their positive evaluations of the online channel to the offline channel by the halo effect. Particularly, based on the synergistic combination, the offline bank and the online payment platforms may collaborate to enhance customer’s payment stickiness and create a more integrated ecosystem. To address these research questions, we analyze 353 users. A LISERSL for Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the research hypotheses, indicating a good fit of measurement model. Eight of the ten research hypotheses are supported. The results show significant transferring customers trust on offline banks to online payment platforms, but perceived quality has no significant effect on transferring customers trust on offline banks to online payment platforms. Offline bank loyalty has significantly positively affected online payment platforms loyalty, proving the halo effect. Theoretical and practical implications are provided.

Bo-chiuan Su, Li-Wei Wu, Ying-Chi Yen
5. Flower Bouquets and Ecosystems

Flower bouquets, based on the concept of modularity, are traded over complex platform ecosystems. A close look at flower bouquets provides insights into the complexity and challenges of flower business ecosystems and its transformation from supply to demand orientation. Experiences with platform ecosystem designs are shared and critical success factors are discussed.

Eric van Heck
Künstliche Intelligenz in der Finanz-dienstleistungsbranche – Welche Bedeutung hat das Kundenvertrauen?

Der Einsatz künstlicher Intelligenz in der Finanzdienstleistungsbranche ermöglicht u.a. die Digitalisierung der Vermögensverwaltung. Unabdingbar dafür ist jedoch die Bereitschaft und Intention der Kunden, die entsprechenden Technologien zu nutzen. In diesem Zusammenhang widmet sich der vorliegende Beitrag der Frage, welche ggfs. differenzierte Bedeutung das Kundenvertrauen für die Entstehung einer solcher Nutzungsintention hat. In einer theoretisch fundierten, empirischen Studie wird hierzu einerseits das Vertrauen in eine unspezifische, generelle digitale Vermögensverwaltung sowie andererseits das spezifische Vertrauen in eine von der jeweiligen Hausbank angebotene digitale Vermögensverwaltung untersucht.

Raffael Rathje, Fabio-Yannick Laschet, Peter Kenning
Design and Analysis of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Vending Machine Under Mobile Payment

With the development of the mobile Internet, vending machines have found some new development directions. To improve the usability and ease of use of vending machines, the existing vending machines are investigated and analyzed, and the problems of vending terminals and the unreasonable aspects of human-machine interface design are summarized. Combined with the ergonomic method of human factors engineering theory, the human-computer interaction interface is optimized, and the improved scheme is analyzed by using analytic hierarchy process. The results show that the improved scheme is more scientific and reasonable, solves some problems existing in vending machines, and improves the user experience.

Xiaodan Ge, Wencheng Tang
Digitalization in Africa: The Case of Public Programs in Ghana

The rapid spread of digital technologies is generating both opportunities and challenges for sustainable development. Corporate bodies and government agencies in Africa are pursuing the advantages that can be derived from digitalization. This chapter focuses on the government digitalization programs and related challenges in Africa using Ghana as an exemplar. Drawing on extensive literature and other secondary sources, we examine the introduction and operations of digitalization programs in ports and harbours, national health insurance services, utility bill payments, financial services and digital addressing systems. Our review confirms that digitalization increases innovation, efficiency, transparency, etc. in both public and private sectors. However, weak infrastructure, inadequate human capital, insufficient stakeholder engagement and user education and training are challenges that inhibit the realization of full benefits. We recommend requisite infrastructure development and continuous digital education and training for service providers and users. Cyber security expertise is also crucial. Governments in Africa need to develop a policy framework which will encourage the adoption of digital platforms by corporates and government agencies.

Anthony Ayakwah, Isaac S. Damoah, Ellis L. C. Osabutey
Innovation KI-basierter Dienstleistungen für die industrielle Wertschöpfung – Ein artefaktzentrierter Ansatz

Dieser Beitrag zeigt auf, wie insbesondere für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen die Gestaltung und Innovation von KI-basierten Dienstleistungen in der industriellen Wertschöpfung unterstützt werden kann. Dazu werden Herausforderungen bei der Entwicklung KI-basierter Dienstleistungen erhoben und anschließend Artefakte präsentiert, die zur Innovation von Dienstleistungen zum Einsatz kommen. Diese werden basierend auf den zuvor identifizierten Herausforderungen adaptiert, um die Innovation von KI-basierten Dienstleistungen zu ermöglichen.

Max Jalowski, Angela Roth, Sascha Julian Oks, Matthäus Wilga
Chapter 8. Synthetic Data Outside Computer Vision

While computer vision remains the main focus of synthetic data applications, other fields also begin to use synthetic datasets, with some directions entirely dependent on synthetic data. In this chapter, we survey some of these fields. Specifically, Section 8.1 discusses how structured synthetic data is used for fraud and intrusion detection and other applications in the form of network and/or system logs; in Section 8.2, we consider neural programming; Section 8.3 discusses synthetic data generation and use in bioinformatics, and Section 8.4 reviews the (admittedly limited) applications of synthetic data in natural language processing.

Sergey I. Nikolenko
2. Einführung in Online-Media

Das zweite Kapitel vermittelt die Grundlagen für das weitere Leseverständnis und führt in das Thema „Online-Mediaplanung“ ein. Nach einer verständlichen Erklärung der zentralen Online- und Media-Begriffe werden die gängigen Kosten- und Leistungskennzahlen beschrieben sowie der Begriff KPI und seine Festlegung erläutert.Der nächste Abschnitt nennt die Herausforderungen des Online-Marketings und verdeutlicht außerdem den Unterschied zwischen Branding- und Performance-Kampagnen. Es folgt ein kompakter Überblick über die digitalen Mediakanäle. Der Leser erfährt mehr über Display Advertising, E-Mail-Marketing, Affiliate Marketing und über weitere Online-Maßnahmen, über die Vorteile/Nachteile ihrer Belegung sowie Planungsbesonderheiten. Das Kapitel endet mit der Vorstellung der wichtigsten Online- und Markt-Media-Studien inkl. einer Erläuterung, wie Online-Marktforschung den Planungsansatz unterstützt.

Janna Ivanova, Anna Gawenda
Chapter 3. Creative–Strategic Problem Formulation

Problemistic search theory describes a behaviour process whereby firms learn or formulate strategies based on the gap between aspiration and performance. It guides the creative process within a firm to provide novel and appropriate ideas for strategising. Problem perception has not been considered as a creative task for unique, useful and uncertain problems. This impediment constrains strategic problem formulation and limits value creation for multiple stakeholders. Furthermore, ‘wicked problems’ without a root cause or an evaluative mechanism may be oversimplified within this approach and lead to errors of the third kind. Thus, by evaluating different streams of research, this chapter proposes definitions of problems and strategic problems within the perspective of creative-strategic problem formulation.

Chetan Walia
Chapter 20. QWIKCILVER™ and WOOHOO™: Developing a Complementary Platform

This case on Qwikcilver and Woohoo analyzes the development of the Qwikcilver gift card processing business, its various challenges in evolving the primary B2B business model and how the firm has introduced the Woohoo platform to help with direct customer connect. It begins with the efforts of the founders in identifying a green field opportunity, how they go about bringing in the initial customer base, and then the case delves into the different developments that have shaped the firm’s evolution. The case helps develop an understanding of the gifting market in India, the challenges of building a sustainable business in this sector, and how the firm compares with the rest of the competition worldwide. It highlights how a software as a service (SaaS) business model could increase resilience to competition by bringing in a new side in the form of direct connect with customers who buy or redeem gift cards, thus transforming from a pipeline business to a two-sided platform business model. The case highlights how combined (platforms plus SaaS) business models can bring in additional competitive differentiation as compared to independent business models by increasing switching and multi-homing costs for the customers.

R. Srinivasan
Breaking and Fixing Third-Party Payment Service for Mobile Apps

Riding on the widespread user adoption of mobile payment, a growing number of mobile apps have integrated the service from third-party payment service providers or so-called Cashiers. Despite its prevalence and critical nature, no existing standard can guide the secure deployment of mobile payment. Thus, the protocol designs and implementations from different Cashiers are diverse. Given the complicated multi-party interactions in mobile payment, either the Cashiers or the apps may not fully consider various threat models, which enlarges the attack surface and causes the exploits with severe consequences, ranging from financial loss to privacy violations. In this paper, we perform an in-depth security analysis of real-world third-party payment services for mobile apps. Specifically, we examine the mobile payment systems from five top-tier Cashiers that serve over one billion users globally. Leveraging insecure protocol designs and practical implementation flaws, e.g., vulnerable backend SDKs for mobile apps, we have discovered six types of exploits. These exploits enable the attacker to violate user privacy and shop for free in the victim apps, affecting millions of users. Finally, we propose the fixings to defend against these exploits. We have shared our findings with the affected Cashiers and got their positive responses.

Shangcheng Shi, Xianbo Wang, Wing Cheong Lau
The Role of Financial Intermediaries in Digital Economy Development (Chapter23)

In this chapter, the authors consider the role of financial intermediaries in the development of the digital economy as the basis for ensuring the dynamic and sustainable growth of the economy of Kazakhstan. The authors aim to identify the existing problems in the context of the participation of financial intermediaries in the implementation of real innovations. In the course of the study, descriptive methods, the method of expert assessments, comparative analysis methods, the method of economic and mathematical modelling and the graphical method were used. The study confirmed the hypothesis that the existing, including resource potential of domestic financial intermediaries is not used effectively both for the latter and for the development of the country’s innovation sector.

Alla Dvoretskaya, Aibota Rakhmetova, Gaukhar Kalkabayeva
Chapter 11. Enriching Financial Software Requirements Concerning Privacy and Security Aspects: A Semiotics Based Approach

Enriching software requirements with key security and privacy features requires professionals to have knowledge of requirements elicitation techniques, based on systematic processes and methods. We propose the Software Requirements Analysis Method for Improvement of Privacy and Security (SRAM-PS), which is based on concepts and techniques from Organizational Semiotics and on the analysis of information security and data privacy standards. SRAM-PS is a 7-steps systematic approach where an input set of software requirements is analyzed, processed, and then enriched with new security and privacy requirements. A case study with 4 experts was carried out, where SRAM-PS is used in a real world scenario: a bank sends a financial transaction receipt containing the customer’s personal data over the Internet. SRAM-PS is aimed at researchers and engineers who analyze and specify software requirements and need to systematize their methods and techniques.

Leonardo Manoel Mendes, Ferrucio de Franco Rosa, Rodrigo Bonacin

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